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Bilbao, Spain

The University of the Basque Country ; Spanish - Universidad del País Vasco ) is the only public university in the Basque Country , in Northern Spain. It has campuses over the three provinces of the autonomous community: Biscay Campus , Gipuzkoa Campus , and Álava Campus in Vitoria-Gasteiz. It is the main research institution in the Basque Country, carrying out 90% of the basic research made in that territory and taking advantage of the good industrial environment that the region constitutes. Wikipedia.

Ruiz-Mirazo K.,University of the Basque Country | Briones C.,CSIC - National Institute of Aerospace Technology | De La Escosura A.,Autonomous University of Madrid
Chemical Reviews | Year: 2014

In order to explain how the first organisms might have appeared on Earth, or elsewhere, it is necessary to develop chemistries that enable the synthesis of information-bearing polymers, protometabolic networks, and protocellular compartments under compatible prebiotic conditions. In this direction, the first step would be the synthesis of the monomeric units that constitute peptides, nucleic acids or their analogue polymers, and vesicle membranes. Some of these building blocks could have been delivered to Earth from extraterrestrial sources, while their endogenous synthesis on our planet is another feasible option. Catalysis, in particular organocatalysis and organometallic catalysis, could have enlarged and diversified the set of compounds potentially present in different prebiotic scenarios. Vesicles composed of mixtures of simple amphiphilic molecules and surfactants, on the other hand, have shown the required stability and permeability for encapsulation of nucleic acids and peptides. Source

Mateo-Alonso A.,University of the Basque Country | Mateo-Alonso A.,Ikerbasque
Chemical Society Reviews | Year: 2014

Linear and ribbon-like polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons such as acenes and graphene nanoribbons are at the forefront of current investigations, as these graphene "cut outs" possess discrete energy gaps that can be tailored with the number of rings and their arrangements. Pyrene-fused pyrazaacenes are a type of nitrogenated ribbon-like polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons with a very high stability. As a matter of fact, ribbon-like pyrene-fused pyrazaacenes with as many as 85 linearly fused aromatic rings have been synthesised with thermal stabilities over 500 °C in air. This review covers most of the synthetic and application aspects of pyrene-fused pyrazaacenes from 1937 to our days, illustrating that pyrene-fused pyrazaacenes are a widely tuneable and a highly stable platform for developing ribbon-like nitrogenated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons for a broad spectrum of applications. © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2014. Source

Senovilla J.M.M.,University of the Basque Country
Physical Review D - Particles, Fields, Gravitation and Cosmology | Year: 2013

I present the junction conditions for F(R) theories of gravity and their implications: the generalized Israel conditions and equations. These junction conditions are necessary to construct global models of stars, galaxies, etc., where a vacuum region surrounds a finite body in equilibrium, as well as to describe shells of matter and braneworlds, and they are stricter than in General Relativity in both cases. For the latter case, I obtain the field equations for the energy-momentum tensor on the shell/brane, and they turn out to be, remarkably, the same as in General Relativity. An exceptional case for quadratic F(R), previously overlooked in the literature, is shown to arise, allowing for a discontinuous R and leading to an energy-momentum content on the shell with unexpected properties, such as nonvanishing components normal to the shell and a new term resembling classical dipole distributions. For the former case, they require not only the agreement of the first and second fundamental forms on both sides of the matching hypersurface but also that the scalar curvature R and its first derivative R agree there too. I argue that, as a consequence, matched solutions in General Relativity are not solutions of F(R) models generically. Several relevant examples are analyzed. © 2013 American Physical Society. Source

de Miguel-Beriain I.,University of the Basque Country
Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews | Year: 2015

Stem cells constitute one of the most promising tools for regenerative medicine. Thus, it seems morally compelling to explore all the sources that might provide us with them. However, some of these sources, such as somatic cell nuclear transfer, embryo destruction, or even induced pluripotency obtained by reprogramming have raised deep ethical issues. The aim of this paper is to reflect on the stem cell ethical debate at the current moment through an analysis of the academic literature. It will also provide an analysis of the ethical implications of the most relevant scientific advances that have happened in recent months or those which seem about to merge. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. Source

Manes J.L.,University of the Basque Country
Physical Review B - Condensed Matter and Materials Physics | Year: 2012

We consider the existence of bulk chiral fermions around points of symmetry in the Brillouin zone of nonmagnetic three-dimensional (3D) crystals with negligible spin-orbit interactions. We use group theory to show that this is possible, but only for a reduced number of space groups and points of symmetry that we tabulate. Moreover, we show that for a handful of space groups the existence of bulk chiral fermions is not only possible but unavoidable, irrespective of the concrete crystal structure. Thus our tables can be used to look for bulk chiral fermions in a specific class of systems, namely, that of nonmagnetic 3D crystals with sufficiently weak spin-orbit coupling. We also discuss the effects of spin-orbit interactions and possible extensions of our approach to Weyl semimetals, crystals with magnetic order, and systems with Dirac points with pseudospin 1 and 3/2. A simple tight-binding model is used to illustrate some of the issues. © 2012 American Physical Society. Source

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