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Ponta Delgada, Portugal

The University of the Azores , or commonly abbreviated as UAç, is the only public university in the Autonomous Region of the Azores, It was founded on January 9, 1976, two years after the Carnation Revolution that ended several decades of dictatorship in Portugal, but before the Portuguese Third Republic was institutionalized, along with the Region's Autonomy. The University is a public institution dependent on the Ministério da Ciência, Tecnologia e Ensino Superior , and was established in order to advance sustainable development and higher education in the Azores. Wikipedia.

Fattorini S.,University of Milan Bicocca | Fattorini S.,University of The Azores
Biological Conservation

Previous studies deduced negative effects of urbanization on insect conservation from decline in species richness with increasing built-up areas. This is the first study that investigates insect extinction determined by urbanization using a long-time temporal data set from hidden literature data and museum collections. Analyses were conducted for four insect groups in urban Rome: butterflies, coprophagous scarabaeids, non-coprophagous scarabaeids and tenebrionids. A reconstruction of extinction trends from 1885 to 1999 indicates impressive declines in species richness, with differences according to the ecological characteristics of each insect group. Results obtained in this study suggest that insect conservation programs should involve a thorough assessment of which species of conservation concern benefit from green spaces in urban areas, and then the identification of important sites and appropriate measures for population management. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. Source

At global and regional scales, area prioritisation is frequently done by the identification of hotspots based on species extinction risk. The logic of the hotspot identification has never been used in urban contexts. In this paper, the tenebrionid beetles (Coleoptera Tenebrionidae) of urban Rome were studied as an exercise to show how the hotspot approach can be profitably used in an urban area to identify priority areas for biodiversity conservation. For this, tenebrionid species from 16 green spaces were scored according to their vulnerability on the basis of their geographical distribution, habitat specificity and abundance. Species vulnerability scores were then used to calculate two indices of area prioritisation (the Biodiversity Conservation Concern and the Biodiversity Conservation Weight) for each green space. Values of these indices were correlated with site characteristics and compared with those obtained from other, more natural contexts. Except for distance to other sites, no significant correlation was found between conservation values and site characteristics, which indicates that the conservation importance of green spaces cannot be predicted on the basis of their geographical characteristics, but must be established on the basis of the species that they actually host. The importance of urban green spaces for biodiversity conservation may be questioned because of the large presence of ubiquitous and alien species in urban areas. Conservation values obtained for tenebrionids of green spaces in Rome are similar to those of various animal groups in more natural contexts and hence highlight the actual importance of green areas for insect biodiversity conservation. © 2014, Springer Science+Business Media New York. Source

Jimenez-Valverde A.,University of Malaga | Jimenez-Valverde A.,University of The Azores
Global Ecology and Biogeography

Aim The area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve (AUC) is a widely used statistic for assessing the discriminatory capacity of species distribution models. Here, I used simulated data to examine the interdependence of the AUC and classical discrimination measures (sensitivity and specificity) derived for the application of a threshold. I shall further exemplify with simulated data the implications of using the AUC to evaluate potential versus realized distribution models. Innovation After applying the threshold that makes sensitivity and specificity equal, a strong relationship between the AUC and these two measures was found. This result is corroborated with real data. On the other hand, the AUC penalizes the models that estimate potential distributions (the regions where the species could survive and reproduce due to the existence of suitable environmental conditions), and favours those that estimate realized distributions (the regions where the species actually lives). Main conclusions Firstly, the independence of the AUC from the threshold selection may be irrelevant in practice. This result also emphasizes the fact that the AUC assumes nothing about the relative costs of errors of omission and commission. However, in most real situations this premise may not be optimal. Measures derived from a contingency table for different cost ratio scenarios, together with the ROC curve, may be more informative than reporting just a single AUC value. Secondly, the AUC is only truly informative when there are true instances of absence available and the objective is the estimation of the realized distribution. When the potential distribution is the goal of the research, the AUC is not an appropriate performance measure because the weight of commission errors is much lower than that of omission errors. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd. Source

The present study consisted of a theoretical approach to the problem posed by the economic costs associated with pressure ulcers (PUs). The initial aim was to assess the target problem from a conceptual perspective and then to report the results of prevalence studies that formed the basis for investigations of the disease's economic impact. The purpose of the present article is to discuss the economic costs associated with PUs from both the global point of view (appraising their financial repercussion) and the individual point of view (addressing the intangible costs). Regarding the economic impact of the costs associated with PUs, the total cost of treatment per healthcare setting was estimated relative to the Autonomous Community of Azores. The total cost of all the PU categories was EUR 7,086,415 in the homecare setting, EUR 1,723,509 in the hospital setting, and EUR 1,002,562 in older people's homes. Therefore, the estimated total treatment cost of all the PU categories was approximately EUR 9,812,486 in Azores. However, the emotional impact of this disease imposes high costs on patients and their relatives as a function of the resultant suffering. Indeed, PUs impose high costs not only related to the treatment but also related to the intangible costs of the suffering caused to patients and their caregivers. Source

Watson R.A.,University of Tasmania | Morato T.,University of The Azores
Fisheries Research

New estimates of the global mean depth of fishing, which consider both the between and within species changes over time, showed a stronger shift to deeper water than estimated previously based only on between-species changes. The new estimates show a linear increase in the mean depth of fishing of 62.5mdecade-1, corresponding to an increase of about 350m for the period since 1950. These values are about 5 times higher than those obtained by using between-species change in catch composition over time, suggesting that deep water species and habitats are under a more serious threat from fishing than hitherto assumed. © 2013. Source

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