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Flores R.E.U.,Psicofarmacologia del Desarrollo | Vera T.R.S.,Servicios de Atencion Psiquiatrica | Guitart R.A.,University of the Americas in Mexico
Salud Mental | Year: 2011

Schizophrenia is a severe and chronic disorder affecting children, adolescents and adults. The international recommendations for the treatment of pediatric patients with this disorder point to a comprehensive management which includes early detection programs, pharmacological and psychosocial treatment. A review of current information regarding the efficacy and safety of antipsychotics in children and adolescents, as well as the effect of psychosocial interventions on the academic and social functioning of patients with early onset schizophrenia is presented. The pharmacological treatment's goal is to achieve optimal outcome with the lowest effective dose and the fewest side effects. It should be started with an antipsychotic that has been evaluated on its efficacy and safety in this age group. Risperidone, olanzapine and aripiprazole have been approved for the treatment of schizophrenia in adolescents, clozapine has shown greater efficacy for the treatment resistant condition. The side effects of these drugs must be monitored during treatment. The psychosocial treatment objectives are to provide information, to promote the patient́s adaptation, to reduce comorbidity and to prevent relapses through psychoeducation, psychotherapy and rehabilitation programs. The psychoeducation programs include information about the characteristics and causes of the illness, the available treatment choices and the factors associated to recovery or relapse. Psychotherapy in schizophrenia has been examined in individual, group and family modalities, the cognitive behavioral therapy has demonstrated efficacy on cognition, social adjustment and quality of life. The rehabilitation programs include the training on social skills, cognitive remediation therapy and exercise programs, which would increase the wellbeing of patients and reduce metabolic alterations associated to the use of antipsychotics. In conclusion, the treatment of patients with early onset schizophrenia must be multimodal and directed to improve their long term outcome.


Cisneros-Limon R.,Japan National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology | Vazquez-Gonzalez J.L.,University of the Americas in Mexico | Mendoza-Vazquez J.R.,Technological Institute of Puebla ITP
IEEE International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems | Year: 2015

This paper gives an analytical description for the ideal and the real workspace of a 6-RSS parallel robot; that is, by considering its geometrical and its mechanical constraints. The ideal workspace is described as a set of inequalities representing a 3D volume that encloses valid attitudes, whose frontier can be plotted as a 3D surface by using Constructive Solid Geometry and an adaptive polygonization method. The real workspace represents a subset of the ideal one, determined by the presence of joint limits at the spherical joints. These ones arise from the fact that these spherical joints are not ideal, but implemented as spherical plain bearings. However, although it is not straight forward to express these joint limits in an analytical way, it was possible to find an analytical expression to describe the real workspace, represented by additional inequalities that must be met by a desired attitude of the platform. © 2015 IEEE.


Ramirez-Cortes J.M.,National Institute of Astrophysics, Optics and Electronics | Gomez-Gil P.,National Institute of Astrophysics, Optics and Electronics | Alarcon-Aquino V.,University of the Americas in Mexico | Martinez-Carballido J.,National Institute of Astrophysics, Optics and Electronics | Morales-Flores E.,National Institute of Astrophysics, Optics and Electronics
Computer Applications in Engineering Education | Year: 2013

In this paper, an implementation of an educational platform for real-time linear and morphological image filtering using a FPGA NexysII, Xilinx®, Spartan 3E, is described. The system is connected to a USB port of a personal computer, which in that way form a powerful and low-cost design station for educational purposes. The FPGA-based system is accessed through a MATLAB graphical user interface, which handles the communication setup and data transfer. The system allows the students to perform comparisons between results obtained from MATLAB simulations and FPGA-based real-time processing. Concluding remarks derived from course evaluations and lab reports are presented. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Comput Appl Eng Educ 21: 193-201, 2013 Copyright © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.


Huertas Talon J.L.,University of Zaragoza | Cisneros Ortega J.C.,University of the Americas in Mexico | Lopez Gomez C.,University of Zaragoza | Ros Sancho E.,University of Zaragoza | Faci Olmos E.,University of Zaragoza
CAD Computer Aided Design | Year: 2010

This paper proposes a method of manufacturing a spur tooth gear in Ti-6Al-4V alloy (grade 5) using a wire electrical discharge machine (Wire EDM). A geometrical model for the gear is drawn up and implemented using the program MATLAB. The electro-erosion parameters tested for this alloy are applied to an ONA PRIMA S-250. The parameters used (power, pause, voltage, ...) are based on the ONA EDM charts. The Taguchi orthogonal array method was chosen to obtain the optimum values for cutting Titanium. The work presented follows established lines for manufacturing mechanical parts using general purpose machines and tools. In this case, the WEDM process was used. The MATLAB program was employed to obtain the interpolation points. This program simplifies the task of solving the equations originated by the mathematical model which allows the wire path to be calculated. The WEDM method used here is a commendable alternative for machining electrically conductible materials which are difficult to work with using conventional machine tools (milling, turning or boring). Furthermore, the WEDM process reduces or even eliminates the need for subsequent polishing processes due to the high-quality finish achieved. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Torres-Mancera M.T.,Metropolitan Autonomous University | Baqueiro-Pena I.,University of the Americas in Mexico | Figueroa-Montero A.,Metropolitan Autonomous University | Rodriguez-Serrano G.,Metropolitan Autonomous University | And 3 more authors.
Biotechnology Progress | Year: 2013

The highest enzymatic extraction of covalent linked chlorogenic (36.1%) and caffeic (CA) (33%) acids from coffee pulp (CP) was achieved by solid-state fermentation with a mixture of three enzymatic extracts produced by Aspergillus tamarii, Rhizomucor pusillus, and Trametes sp. Enzyme extracts were produced in a practical inexpensive way. Synergistic effects on the extraction yield were observed when more than one enzyme extract was used. In addition, biotransformation of chlorogenic acid (ChA) by Aspergillus niger C23308 was studied. Equimolar transformation of ChA into CA and quinic acids (QA) was observed during the first 36 h in submerged culture. Subsequently, after 36 h, equimolar transformation of CA into protocatechuic acid was observed; this pathway is being reported for the first time for A. niger. QA was used as a carbon source by A. niger C23308. This study presents the potential of using CP to produce enzymes and compounds such as ChA with biological activities. © 2013 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

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