University of the Americas in Chile
Puerto Montt, Chile
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To eradicate malnutrition in South America is still a challenge. To overcome it, UNASUR has started to treat food as a Regional Public Goods (RPG) but its development is being too slow. Which are its boundaries? The experience of the EU and the USA shows that their success factors have been the clarity of objectives, the instruments selected, the political independency and the high budget applied.

Acosta-Vargas P.,University of the Americas in Chile | Lujan-Mora S.,University of Alicante | Salvador-Ullauri L.,National Polytechnic School of Ecuador
2017 4th International Conference on eDemocracy and eGovernment, ICEDEG 2017 | Year: 2017

This article describes a study on the quality evaluation of governmental websites of 20 countries with the highest level of competitiveness. The accessibility assessment was carried out to verify compliance with the Web Content Accessibility Guidelines 2.0 (WCAG 2.0) published by the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C). The main goal of this study is to determine whether people with disabilities are able to access and use government websites. In addition, we considered the Website Accessibility Conformance Evaluation Methodology (WCAG-EM) to determine how easily a website can be accessed according to WCAG 2.0. The WCAG-EM provides guidance on how to use the methodology and considerations for specific situations. From the results, we conclude that the majority of the websites do not achieve an acceptable level of compliance. The websites of governmental institutions with the highest level of competitiveness do not show a greater level of web accessibility. Several non-compliance errors were found on the websites; by performing this evaluation, we have identified that there are major barriers for a large number of users. Therefore, there is significant work pending to make the websites examples of best practice in e-government sites. © 2017 IEEE.

Calvopina M.,University of the Americas in Chile | Aguirre C.,Hospital Eugenio Espejo | Cevallos W.,Central University of Ecuador | Castillo A.,Hospital Eugenio Espejo | And 2 more authors.
American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene | Year: 2017

Reported herein is the first case of Leishmania-human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) coinfection in Ecuador. In Ecuador, HIV infections overlap endemic areas of leishmaniasis. Immunosuppression is a wellestablished risk factor for developing severe disease. This is a severe case of a 32-year-old man presenting with disseminated pleomorphic ulcers, papules, and cutaneous plaque-like lesions over his whole body. Numerous amastigotes were observed in both skin scrapings and biopsies. The sequence of the cytochrome b gene confirmed the presence of Leishmania guyanensis. The patient was treated but failed to respond to meglumine antimoniate and amphotericin B. Six months later, the patient died due to bacterial septic shock. Copyright © 2017 by The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

Calvopina M.,University of the Americas in Chile | Romero-Alvarez D.,University of the Americas in Chile | Macias R.,Hospital Carlos Andrade Marin | Sugiyama H.,Japan National Institute of Infectious Diseases
American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene | Year: 2017

A 30-year-old male, from a subtropical region of Ecuador, was hospitalized with a 5-year history of persistent cough with rusty brown sputum, chest pain, and progressive dyspnea. The patient underwent thoracic surgery 3 years ago for pleural effusion and subsequently received a 9-month regimen treatment of tuberculosis. However, there was no clinical resolution and symptoms became progressively worse. A chest radiograph and computerized tomography scan showed several small nodules in both lungs. Eggs of Paragonimus spp. were observed in sputum smears, but the smears were negative for acid-fast bacilli. Molecular characterization of eggs by the internal transcribed spacer-2 regions identified them as Paragonimus mexicanus. The patient was treated with praziquantel and tested negative parasitologically for 12 months. There was clinical resolution of the cough and expectoration, but dyspnea and chest pain persisted. © Copyright 2017 by The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

Cordova F.M.,Finis Terrae University | Cifuentes F.,University of the Americas in Chile
Procedia Computer Science | Year: 2016

The aim of this article is to present a method of assignment of defence lawyers to causes, using tools Petri nets, decision trees and Monte Carlo method. It presents a simulation model of assignment applied to law activities, specifically to defender lawyers contracted by tender, using Petri Nets, Montecarlo and decision trees. The main difficulty of this assignment task is how to distribute equally the workload along the year between two kinds of lawyers: defender lawyers' staff and external (tendered) defender lawyer. The system utilized for analyzing task assignment is stochastic, parallel, concurrent and dynamic. © 2016 The Author(s).

Kourilovitch M.,University of Cuenca | Galarza-Maldonado C.,University of Cuenca | Ortiz-Prado E.,University of the Americas in Chile
Journal of Autoimmunity | Year: 2014

Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a systemic chronic inflammatory disease of unclear etiology that is manifested in by a progressive and destructive polyarthritis in association with serological evidence of autoreactivity. It diagnosis is based on the classification criteria that involves four parameters: joint involvement, serology (rheumatoid factor and anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide -anti-CCP), levels of acute phase reactants and the duration of the symptoms Aletaha, et al. [1]. This classification simplify the categorization of the patients on with early RA, however, the diagnosis requires highly trained specialist who are able to differentiate early symptoms of RA from other pathology. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

PubMed | University of the Atlantic, International University of Mexico, Marche Polytechnic University, University of Granada and University of the Americas in Chile
Type: | Journal: Food and chemical toxicology : an international journal published for the British Industrial Biological Research Association | Year: 2017

A common denominator in the pathogenesis of most chronic inflammatory diseases is the involvement of oxidative stress, related to ROS production by all aerobic organisms. Dietary antioxidants from plant foods represent an efficient strategy to counteract this condition. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the protective effects of strawberry extracts on inflammatory status induced by E. Coli LPS on RAW 264.7 macrophages by measuring the main oxidative and inflammatory biomarkers and investigating the molecular pathways involved. Strawberry pre-treatment efficiently counteracted LPS-induced oxidative stress reducing the amount of ROS and nitrite production, stimulating endogenous antioxidant enzyme activities and enhancing protection against lipid, protein and DNA damage (P<0.05). Strawberry pre-treatment exerted these protective effects primarily through the activation of the Nrf2 pathway, which is markedly AMPK-dependent and also by the modulation of the NF-kB signalling pathway. Finally, an improvement in mitochondria functionality was also detected. The results obtained in this work highlight the health benefit of strawberries against inflammatory and oxidative stress in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages, investigating for the first time the possible involved molecular mechanisms.

PubMed | University of the Atlantic, Estacion Experimental Santo Domingo Instituto Nacional Of Investigaciones Agropecuarias Eesd Iniap, Marche Polytechnic University, San Francisco de Quito University and University of the Americas in Chile
Type: | Journal: Food and chemical toxicology : an international journal published for the British Industrial Biological Research Association | Year: 2017

Capuli cherry (Prunus serotina Ehr. subsp. capuli (Cav.) McVaugh) fruits from the inter-Andean region of Ecuador were analysed to determine their bioactive compounds content, total antioxidant capacity, radical scavenging activity and their anti-inflammatory and protective effects against the cytotoxic damage mediated by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in RAW 264.7 macrophages. Capuli fruits proved to be a natural source of bioactive compounds such as anthocyanins, vitamin C and -carotene as well as to present an important total antioxidant capacity and radical scavenging activities. RAW 264.7 macrophages were incubated with different concentration of Capuli crude extract and subsequently activated by LPS to determine the markers related to oxidative damage and the proinflammatory cytokine production. The markers of oxidative damage, nitrite levels, the interleukin 1 messenger RNA levels and the tumor necrosis factor mRNA levels and secretion were significantly decreased after the pre-incubated with Capuli extract and subsequently stimulated with LPS. In summary, Capuli extract attenuated the LPS-induced damage in RAW 264.7 macrophages due to its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, showing that Capuli fruits may represent a relevant source of bioactive compounds with promising benefits for human health.

Cabezas M.C.,San Francisco de Quito University | Cabezas M.C.,University of Liège | Fornasini M.,University of the Americas in Chile | Dardenne N.,University of Liège | And 2 more authors.
BMC Public Health | Year: 2013

Background: HIV/AIDS was first reported in Ecuador in 1984 and its prevalence has been increasing ever since. In 2009, the National AIDS Program reported 21,810 HIV/AIDS cases and confirmed that the worker population was amongst the most affected groups. The objective of this study was to assess knowledge about HIV transmission and prevention measures in company workers in Ecuador. Methods. A cross-sectional survey based on a random sample of 115 companies (1,732 workers), stratified by three large provinces and working sectors (commerce, manufacturing and real estate) was conducted. A validated instrument developed by Family Health International was used to evaluate HIV prevention knowledge and common local misconceptions about HIV transmission. Descriptive statistics, chi square test and logistic regression analysis were performed using SAS. Results: Incorrect knowledge about HIV/AIDS transmission were found in 49.1% (95% CI: 46.6-51.6) of subjects. Incorrect knowledge was higher among males (OR=1.73 [1.39-2.15]), older subjects (OR=1.35 [1.02-1.77]), subjects with lower education (OR=3.72 [2.44-5.65]), manual labor workers (OR=2.93 [1.82-4.73]) and subjects without previous exposure to HIV intervention programs (OR=2.26 [1.79-2.86]). Incorrect knowledge about preventive measures was found among 32.9% (95%CI: 30.6-35.2) of respondents. This proportion was higher among subjects with lower education (OR=2.28 [1.52-3.43]), married subjects (OR=1.34 [1.07-1.68]), manual labor workers (OR=1.80 [1.34-2.42]), and subjects not previously exposed to HIV intervention programs (OR=1.44 [1.14-1.83]). Conclusions: HIV intervention programs targeting company workers are urgently needed to improve knowledge and reduce HIV transmission in Ecuador. © 2013 Cabezas et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

Gutierrez Espinoza H.J.,University of the Americas in Chile | Lavado Bustamante I.P.,University of the Americas in Chile | Mendez Perez S.J.,University of the Americas in Chile
Revista de la Sociedad Espanola del Dolor | Year: 2010

Introduction: Cryotherapy is an alternative to Superficial Thermotherapy based on the application of cold as a therapeutic agent, although it is quite clear it is widely used for pain relief. However, only relies on indirect mechanisms of action and without a scientific basis to support its clinical application. Based on this an analysis will be made of the evidence regarding the effectiveness of Cryotherapy by means of a Systematic Review of Randomized Controlled Trials. Objective: To determine if there is scientific evidence to endorse the analgesic effect of Cryotherapy for the management of Musculoskeletal Pain. Strategy of Search: The words/phrases included in the search were, Randomized Controlled Trials (RCTs), Systematic Reviews (SR) and Metaanalysis (MT), the databases used were: MEDLINE/PubMed, PubMed Central, ScienceDirect, Biomed Central, Cochrane Library Plus and DARE. Results: We selected a total of eight studies, including Randomized Controlled Trials and Systematic Reviews. Conclusions: There is moderate evidence supporting that the use of Cryotherapy reduces pain and improves recovery times in ankle sprain and soft tissue injuries associated with sport, but there is limited evidence for its use in Knee Osteoarthritis, Rheumatoid Arthritis and Low Back Pain Syndrome. © 2010 Sociedad Española del Dolor. Published by Elsevier España, S. L. All rights reserved.

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