University of the Americas in Chile
Puerto Montt, Chile

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Cordova F.M.,Finis Terrae University | Cifuentes F.,University of the Americas in Chile
Procedia Computer Science | Year: 2016

The aim of this article is to present a method of assignment of defence lawyers to causes, using tools Petri nets, decision trees and Monte Carlo method. It presents a simulation model of assignment applied to law activities, specifically to defender lawyers contracted by tender, using Petri Nets, Montecarlo and decision trees. The main difficulty of this assignment task is how to distribute equally the workload along the year between two kinds of lawyers: defender lawyers' staff and external (tendered) defender lawyer. The system utilized for analyzing task assignment is stochastic, parallel, concurrent and dynamic. © 2016 The Author(s).

PubMed | Instituto Colombiano Agropecuario, Servicio Nacional de Sanidad Agropecuaria e Inocuidad Alimentaria, University of the Americas in Chile, National University San Antonio Abad del Cusco and 2 more.
Type: | Journal: ZooKeys | Year: 2016

The nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) was sequenced for Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann, 1830) originating from 85 collections from the northern and central Andean countries of South America including Argentina (Tucumn), Bolivia, Per, Ecuador, Colombia, and Venezuela. The ITS1 regions of additional specimens (17 collections) from Central America (Mxico, Guatemala, Costa Rica, and Panam), Brazil, Caribbean Colombia, and coastal Venezuela were sequenced and together with published sequences (Paraguay) provided context for interpretation. A total of six ITS1 sequence variants were recognized in the Andean region comprising four groups. Type I predominates in the southernmost range of Anastrepha fraterculus. Type II predominates in its northernmost range. In the central and northern Andes, the geographic distributions overlap and interdigitate with a strong elevational effect. A discussion of relationships between observed ITS1 types and morphometric types is included.

PubMed | University of Medellín and University of the Americas in Chile
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Acta odontologica latinoamericana : AOL | Year: 2016

Metrosalud is the largest public hospital network in the city of Medellin and one of the most important in Colombia providing health care to the most vulnerable population. The objective of the study was to determine the Oral HealthRelated Quality of Life (OHRQoL) and its related factors in the elderly population receiving health care at the public hospital network in Medellin (Colombia). A crosssectional design was used. Men and women 65 years old were considered for this research, selected from first consultation records by the institutions statistical unit for 2011, who accepted to participate after being contacted by telephone. Sampling was performed in two stages: simple random sampling for selecting Hospital Units HUand Health Centers HCthroughout the hospital network in the city, followed by random quota sampling in proportion to the number of elderly population assigned to each HU and HC. A total 342 patients (58.2% women) participated in the study. The project involved the use of a structured questionnaire and complete dental examination with information on sociodemographic data, selfperceived health variables (mental, general and oral), use of oral health services, Oral HealthRelated Quality of Life (OHRQoL as measured with GOHAI index), temporomandibular joint test, oral mucosa, soft tissue evaluation, periodontal, dental and prosthetic examination. Descriptive and bivariate analyses were conducted to determine statistically significant differences. Multivariate analysis was performed, using logistic regression, calculating crude and adjusted odds ratios (OR) with their 95% confidence intervals (95% CI). Impacts were found to be generated by education levels, differences in socioeconomic status and urban or rural housing conditions. The results of this research show low OHRQoL levels in the elderly population receiving health care services at the public hospital network in Medellin.

Kourilovitch M.,University of Cuenca | Galarza-Maldonado C.,University of Cuenca | Ortiz-Prado E.,University of the Americas in Chile
Journal of Autoimmunity | Year: 2014

Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a systemic chronic inflammatory disease of unclear etiology that is manifested in by a progressive and destructive polyarthritis in association with serological evidence of autoreactivity. It diagnosis is based on the classification criteria that involves four parameters: joint involvement, serology (rheumatoid factor and anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide -anti-CCP), levels of acute phase reactants and the duration of the symptoms Aletaha, et al. [1]. This classification simplify the categorization of the patients on with early RA, however, the diagnosis requires highly trained specialist who are able to differentiate early symptoms of RA from other pathology. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

PubMed | University of the Atlantic, Marche Polytechnic University, University of Granada, University of the Americas in Chile and 2 more.
Type: | Journal: Food and chemical toxicology : an international journal published for the British Industrial Biological Research Association | Year: 2016

Doxorubicin (Dox), one of the most used chemotherapeutic agents, is known to generate oxidative stress and block DNA synthesis, which result in severe dose-limiting toxicity. A strategy to protect against Dox toxic effects could be to use dietary antioxidants of which fruits and vegetable are a rich source. In this context, strawberry consumption is associated with the maintenance of good health and the prevention of several diseases, thanks to the antioxidant capacities of its bioactive compounds. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the protective effects of strawberry consumption against oxidative stress induced by Dox in rats. Animals were fed with strawberry enriched diet (15% of the total calories) for two months and Dox (10mg/kg; i.p.) was injected at the end of the experimental period. Strawberry consumption significantly inhibited ROS production and oxidative damage biomarkers accumulation in plasma and liver tissue and alleviated histopathological changes in rat livers treated with Dox. The reduction of antioxidant enzyme activities was significantly mitigated after strawberry consumption. In addition, strawberry enriched diet ameliorated liver mitochondrial antioxidant levels and functionality. In conclusion, strawberry intake protects against Dox-induced toxicity, at plasma, liver and mitochondrial levels thanks to its high contents of bioactive compounds.

PubMed | University of the Atlantic, International University of Mexico, Marche Polytechnic University, University of Granada and University of the Americas in Chile
Type: | Journal: Food and chemical toxicology : an international journal published for the British Industrial Biological Research Association | Year: 2017

A common denominator in the pathogenesis of most chronic inflammatory diseases is the involvement of oxidative stress, related to ROS production by all aerobic organisms. Dietary antioxidants from plant foods represent an efficient strategy to counteract this condition. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the protective effects of strawberry extracts on inflammatory status induced by E. Coli LPS on RAW 264.7 macrophages by measuring the main oxidative and inflammatory biomarkers and investigating the molecular pathways involved. Strawberry pre-treatment efficiently counteracted LPS-induced oxidative stress reducing the amount of ROS and nitrite production, stimulating endogenous antioxidant enzyme activities and enhancing protection against lipid, protein and DNA damage (P<0.05). Strawberry pre-treatment exerted these protective effects primarily through the activation of the Nrf2 pathway, which is markedly AMPK-dependent and also by the modulation of the NF-kB signalling pathway. Finally, an improvement in mitochondria functionality was also detected. The results obtained in this work highlight the health benefit of strawberries against inflammatory and oxidative stress in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages, investigating for the first time the possible involved molecular mechanisms.

PubMed | University of the Atlantic, Estacion Experimental Santo Domingo Instituto Nacional Of Investigaciones Agropecuarias Eesd Iniap, Marche Polytechnic University, San Francisco de Quito University and University of the Americas in Chile
Type: | Journal: Food and chemical toxicology : an international journal published for the British Industrial Biological Research Association | Year: 2017

Capuli cherry (Prunus serotina Ehr. subsp. capuli (Cav.) McVaugh) fruits from the inter-Andean region of Ecuador were analysed to determine their bioactive compounds content, total antioxidant capacity, radical scavenging activity and their anti-inflammatory and protective effects against the cytotoxic damage mediated by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in RAW 264.7 macrophages. Capuli fruits proved to be a natural source of bioactive compounds such as anthocyanins, vitamin C and -carotene as well as to present an important total antioxidant capacity and radical scavenging activities. RAW 264.7 macrophages were incubated with different concentration of Capuli crude extract and subsequently activated by LPS to determine the markers related to oxidative damage and the proinflammatory cytokine production. The markers of oxidative damage, nitrite levels, the interleukin 1 messenger RNA levels and the tumor necrosis factor mRNA levels and secretion were significantly decreased after the pre-incubated with Capuli extract and subsequently stimulated with LPS. In summary, Capuli extract attenuated the LPS-induced damage in RAW 264.7 macrophages due to its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, showing that Capuli fruits may represent a relevant source of bioactive compounds with promising benefits for human health.

PubMed | Japan National Institute of Infectious Diseases, University of the Americas in Chile and Hospital Carlos Andrade Marin
Type: Journal Article | Journal: The American journal of tropical medicine and hygiene | Year: 2016

A 30-year-old male, from a subtropical region of Ecuador, was hospitalized with a 5-year history of persistent cough with rusty brown sputum, chest pain, and progressive dyspnea. The patient underwent thoracic surgery 3 years ago for pleural effusion and subsequently received a 9-month regimen treatment of tuberculosis. However, there was no clinical resolution and symptoms became progressively worse. A chest radiograph and computerized tomography scan showed several small nodules in both lungs. Eggs of Paragonimus spp. were observed in sputum smears, but the smears were negative for acid-fast bacilli. Molecular characterization of eggs by the internal transcribed spacer-2 regions identified them as Paragonimus mexicanus The patient was treated with praziquantel and tested negative parasitologically for 12 months. There was clinical resolution of the cough and expectoration, but dyspnea and chest pain persisted.

Cabezas M.C.,San Francisco de Quito University | Cabezas M.C.,University of Liège | Fornasini M.,University of the Americas in Chile | Dardenne N.,University of Liège | And 2 more authors.
BMC Public Health | Year: 2013

Background: HIV/AIDS was first reported in Ecuador in 1984 and its prevalence has been increasing ever since. In 2009, the National AIDS Program reported 21,810 HIV/AIDS cases and confirmed that the worker population was amongst the most affected groups. The objective of this study was to assess knowledge about HIV transmission and prevention measures in company workers in Ecuador. Methods. A cross-sectional survey based on a random sample of 115 companies (1,732 workers), stratified by three large provinces and working sectors (commerce, manufacturing and real estate) was conducted. A validated instrument developed by Family Health International was used to evaluate HIV prevention knowledge and common local misconceptions about HIV transmission. Descriptive statistics, chi square test and logistic regression analysis were performed using SAS. Results: Incorrect knowledge about HIV/AIDS transmission were found in 49.1% (95% CI: 46.6-51.6) of subjects. Incorrect knowledge was higher among males (OR=1.73 [1.39-2.15]), older subjects (OR=1.35 [1.02-1.77]), subjects with lower education (OR=3.72 [2.44-5.65]), manual labor workers (OR=2.93 [1.82-4.73]) and subjects without previous exposure to HIV intervention programs (OR=2.26 [1.79-2.86]). Incorrect knowledge about preventive measures was found among 32.9% (95%CI: 30.6-35.2) of respondents. This proportion was higher among subjects with lower education (OR=2.28 [1.52-3.43]), married subjects (OR=1.34 [1.07-1.68]), manual labor workers (OR=1.80 [1.34-2.42]), and subjects not previously exposed to HIV intervention programs (OR=1.44 [1.14-1.83]). Conclusions: HIV intervention programs targeting company workers are urgently needed to improve knowledge and reduce HIV transmission in Ecuador. © 2013 Cabezas et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

Gutierrez Espinoza H.J.,University of the Americas in Chile | Lavado Bustamante I.P.,University of the Americas in Chile | Mendez Perez S.J.,University of the Americas in Chile
Revista de la Sociedad Espanola del Dolor | Year: 2010

Introduction: Cryotherapy is an alternative to Superficial Thermotherapy based on the application of cold as a therapeutic agent, although it is quite clear it is widely used for pain relief. However, only relies on indirect mechanisms of action and without a scientific basis to support its clinical application. Based on this an analysis will be made of the evidence regarding the effectiveness of Cryotherapy by means of a Systematic Review of Randomized Controlled Trials. Objective: To determine if there is scientific evidence to endorse the analgesic effect of Cryotherapy for the management of Musculoskeletal Pain. Strategy of Search: The words/phrases included in the search were, Randomized Controlled Trials (RCTs), Systematic Reviews (SR) and Metaanalysis (MT), the databases used were: MEDLINE/PubMed, PubMed Central, ScienceDirect, Biomed Central, Cochrane Library Plus and DARE. Results: We selected a total of eight studies, including Randomized Controlled Trials and Systematic Reviews. Conclusions: There is moderate evidence supporting that the use of Cryotherapy reduces pain and improves recovery times in ankle sprain and soft tissue injuries associated with sport, but there is limited evidence for its use in Knee Osteoarthritis, Rheumatoid Arthritis and Low Back Pain Syndrome. © 2010 Sociedad Española del Dolor. Published by Elsevier España, S. L. All rights reserved.

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