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Houston, TX, United States

The University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston is a comprehensive academic health center created in 1972 by The UT System Board of Regents. UTHealth is located in the Texas Medical Center, considered the largest medical center in the world. It is composed of six schools: UTHealth Medical School, The University of Texas Graduate School of Biomedical science, UTHealth School of Dentistry, UTHealth School of Nursing, UTHealth School of Biomedical Informatics, and UTHealth School of Public Health. UTHealth faculty have been instrumental in pioneering the use of Tissue plasminogen activator and the development of Life Flight. Wikipedia.

Okusaga O.O.,University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston
Aging and Disease | Year: 2014

Several lines of evidence suggest that schizophrenia, a severe mental illness characterized by delusions, hallucinations and thought disorder is associated with accelerated aging. The free radical (oxidative stress) theory of aging assumes that aging occurs as a result of damage to cell constituents and connective tissues by free radicals arising from oxygen-associated reactions. Schizophrenia has been associated with oxidative stress and chronic inflammation, both of which also appear to reciprocally induce each other in a positive feedback manner. The buildup of damaged macromolecules due to increased oxidative stress and failure of protein repair and maintenance systems is an indicator of aging both at the cellular and organismal level. When compared with age-matched healthy controls, schizophrenia patients have higher levels of markers of oxidative cellular damage such as protein carbonyls, products of lipid peroxidation and DNA hydroxylation. Potential confounders such as antipsychotic medication, smoking, socio-economic status and unhealthy lifestyle make it impossible to solely attribute the earlier onset of aging-related changes or oxidative stress to having a diagnosis of schizophrenia. Regardless of whether oxidative stress can be attributed solely to a diagnosis of schizophrenia or whether it is due to other factors associated with schizophrenia, the available evidence is in support of increased oxidative stress-induced cellular damage of macromolecules which may play a role in the phenomenon of accelerated aging presumed to be associated with schizophrenia. Source

Reveille J.D.,University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston
Nature Reviews Rheumatology | Year: 2012

Ankylosing spondylitis (AS), psoriasis and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) often coexist in the same patient and in their families. In AS, genes within the MHC region, in particular HLA-B27, account for nearly 25% of disease hereditability, with additional small contributions from genes outside of the MHC locus, including those involved in intracellular antigen processing (that is, ERAP1, which interacts with HLA-B27) and cytokine genes such as those involved in the IL-17-IL-23 pathway. Similar to AS, the strongest genetic signal of susceptibility to psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis also emanates from the MHC region (attributable mostly to HLA-C * 06:02 although other genes have been implicated), and gene-gene interaction of HLA-C with ERAP1. The remaining hereditary load is from genes involved in cytokine production, specifically genes in the IL-17-IL-23 pathway, the NFκB pathway and the type 2 T-helper pathway. In IBD, similar genetic influences are operative. Indeed, genes important in the regulation of the IL-17-IL-23 pathway and, in Crohn's disease, genes important for autophagy (that is, NOD2 and ATG16L1 and IRGM) have a role in conferring susceptibility of individuals to these diseases. Thus, AS, psoriasis and IBD seem to share similar pathogenic mechanisms of aberrant intracellular antigen processing or elimination of intracellular bacteria and cytokine production, especially in the IL-17-IL-23 pathway. © 2012 Macmillan Publishers Limited All rights reserved. Source

Rossignol D.A.,International Child Development Resource Center | Frye R.E.,University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston
Molecular Psychiatry | Year: 2012

A comprehensive literature search was performed to collate evidence of mitochondrial dysfunction in autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) with two primary objectives. First, features of mitochondrial dysfunction in the general population of children with ASD were identified. Second, characteristics of mitochondrial dysfunction in children with ASD and concomitant mitochondrial disease (MD) were compared with published literature of two general populations: ASD children without MD, and non-ASD children with MD. The prevalence of MD in the general population of ASD was 5.0% (95% confidence interval 3.2, 6.9%), much higher than found in the general population (∼0.01%). The prevalence of abnormal biomarker values of mitochondrial dysfunction was high in ASD, much higher than the prevalence of MD. Variances and mean values of many mitochondrial biomarkers (lactate, pyruvate, carnitine and ubiquinone) were significantly different between ASD and controls. Some markers correlated with ASD severity. Neuroimaging, in vitro and post-mortem brain studies were consistent with an elevated prevalence of mitochondrial dysfunction in ASD. Taken together, these findings suggest children with ASD have a spectrum of mitochondrial dysfunction of differing severity. Eighteen publications representing a total of 112 children with ASD and MD (ASD/MD) were identified. The prevalence of developmental regression (52%), seizures (41%), motor delay (51%), gastrointestinal abnormalities (74%), female gender (39%), and elevated lactate (78%) and pyruvate (45%) was significantly higher in ASD/MD compared with the general ASD population. The prevalence of many of these abnormalities was similar to the general population of children with MD, suggesting that ASD/MD represents a distinct subgroup of children with MD. Most ASD/MD cases (79%) were not associated with genetic abnormalities, raising the possibility of secondary mitochondrial dysfunction. Treatment studies for ASD/MD were limited, although improvements were noted in some studies with carnitine, co-enzyme Q10 and B-vitamins. Many studies suffered from limitations, including small sample sizes, referral or publication biases, and variability in protocols for selecting children for MD workup, collecting mitochondrial biomarkers and defining MD. Overall, this evidence supports the notion that mitochondrial dysfunction is associated with ASD. Additional studies are needed to further define the role of mitochondrial dysfunction in ASD. © 2012 Macmillan Publishers Limited All rights reserved. Source

Sevick-Muraca E.M.,University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston
Annual Review of Medicine | Year: 2012

Technical developments in near-infrared fluorescence (NIRF) imaging and tomography have enabled recent translation into investigational human studies. Noninvasive imaging of the lymphatic vasculature for diagnosis and assessment of function has been uniquely accomplished with NIR using indocyanine green (ICG), a nonspecific dye that has comparatively poor fluorescent properties compared to emerging dyes. Adjunct use of NIRF-ICG for (a) intraoperative sentinel lymph node mapping for cancer staging, (b) video-angiography during surgery, and (c) discrimination of malignant from benign breast lesions detected by mammography and ultrasongraphy also evidences the clinical utility of NIRF. Future NIRF imaging agents that consist of bright fluorescent dyes conjugated to disease-targeting moieties promise molecular imaging and image-guided surgery. In this review, emerging NIRF imaging is described within the context of nuclear imaging technologies that remain the "gold standard" of molecular imaging. © 2012 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved. Source

Marian A.J.,University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston
Translational Research | Year: 2012

The approach to molecular genetic studies of complex phenotypes evolved considerably during the recent years. The candidate gene approach, which is restricted to an analysis of a few single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in a modest number of cases and controls, has been supplanted by the unbiased approach of genome-wide association studies (GWAS), wherein a large number of tagger SNPs are typed in many individuals. GWAS, which are designed on the common disease-common variant hypothesis (CD-CV), identified several SNPs and loci for complex phenotypes. However, the alleles identified through GWAS are typically not causative but rather in linkage disequilibrium (LD) with the true causal variants. The common alleles, which may not capture the uncommon and rare variants, account only for a fraction of heritability of the complex traits. Hence, the focus is being shifted to rare variants-common disease (RV-CD) hypothesis, surmising that rare variants exert large effect sizes on the phenotype. In conjunctional with this conceptual shift, technologic advances in DNA sequencing techniques have dramatically enhanced whole genome or whole exome sequencing capacity. The sequencing approach affords identification of not only the rare but also the common variants. The approach - whether used in complementation with GWAS or as a stand-alone approach - could define the genetic architecture of the complex phenotypes. Robust phenotyping and large-scale sequencing studies are essential to extract the information content of the vast number of DNA sequence variants (DSVs) in the genome. To garner meaningful clinical information and link the genotype to a phenotype, the identification and characterization of a large number of causal fields beyond the information content of DNA sequence variants would be necessary. This review provides an update on the current progress and limitations in identifying DSVs that are associated with phenotypic effects. © 2012 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved. Source

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