Austin, TX, United States

University of Texas at Austin
Austin, TX, United States

The University of Texas at Austin is a state research university and the flagship institution of The University of Texas System. Founded in 1883 as "The University of Texas," its campus is located in Austin—approximately 1 mile from the Texas State Capitol. The institution has the fifth-largest single-campus enrollment in the nation, with over 50,000 undergraduate and graduate students and over 24,000 faculty and staff. The university has been labeled one of the "Public Ivies," a publicly funded university considered as providing a quality of education comparable to those of the Ivy League.UT Austin was inducted into the American Association of Universities in 1929, becoming only the third university in the American South to be elected. It is a major center for academic research, with research expenditures exceeding $640 million for the 2009–2010 school year. The university houses seven museums and seventeen libraries, including the Lyndon Baines Johnson Library and Museum and the Blanton Museum of Art, and operates various auxiliary research facilities, such as the J. J. Pickle Research Campus and the McDonald Observatory. Among university faculty are recipients of the Nobel Prize, Pulitzer Prize, the Wolf Prize, and the National Medal of Science, as well as many other awards.UT Austin student athletes compete as the Texas Longhorns and are members of the Big 12 Conference. Its Longhorn Network is unique in that it is the only sports network featuring the college sports of a single university. The Longhorns have won four NCAA Division I National Football Championships, six NCAA Division I National Baseball Championships and has claimed more titles in men's and women's sports than any other school in the Big 12 since the league was founded in 1996. Current and former UT Austin athletes have won 130 Olympic medals, including 14 in Beijing in 2008 and 13 in London in 2012. The university was recognized by Sports Illustrated as "America's Best Sports College" in 2002. Wikipedia.

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Chung S.-H.,University of Texas at Austin | Manthiram A.,University of Texas at Austin
Advanced Materials | Year: 2014

Grant: Acknowledgements This work was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy , Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Materials Sciences and Engineering under award number DE-SC0005397.

Document Keywords (matching the query): electric batteries, u s department of energy, lithium sulfur batteries, lithium batteries.

Manthiram A.,University of Texas at Austin | Fu Y.,University of Texas at Austin | Chung S.-H.,University of Texas at Austin | Zu C.,University of Texas at Austin | Su Y.-S.,University of Texas at Austin
Chemical Reviews | Year: 2014

The demand for energy increases steadily with time due to population and economic growth and advances in lifestyle. As energy usage increases, concerns about environmental pollution associated with the use of fossil fuel are becoming serious. Li ion batteries have become prominent over the past two decades, particularly for portable electronics, as they offer much higher energy density than other rechargeable systems. The current Li ion technology is based on insertion-compound anode and cathode materials, which limit their charge-storage capacity and energy density. A further increase in energy density needs to be achieved through an increase in the charge-storage capacity of the anode and cathode materials or an increase in the cell voltage or both. The lithium ions produced move to the positive electrode through the electrolyte internally while the electrons travel to the positive electrode through the external electrical circuit, and thereby an electrical current is generated.

Document Keywords (matching the query): charge storage capacity, lithium batteries, rechargeable lithium sulfur batteries, secondary batteries, electric batteries, higher energy density.

Goodenough J.B.,University of Texas at Austin
Energy and Environmental Science | Year: 2014

The storage of electrical energy in a rechargeable battery is subject to the limitations of reversible chemical reactions in an electrochemical cell. The limiting constraints on the design of a rechargeable battery also depend on the application of the battery. Of particular interest for a sustainable modern society are (1) powering electric vehicles that can compete with cars powered by the internal combustion engine and (2) stationary storage of electrical energy from renewable energy sources that can compete with energy stored in fossil fuels. Existing design strategies for the rechargeable battery have enabled the wireless revolution and the plug-in hybrid electric car, but they show little promise of providing safe, adequate capacity with an acceptable shelf and cycle life to compete in cost and convenience with the chemical energy stored in fossil fuels. Electric vehicles that are charged overnight (plug-in vehicles) offer a distributed energy storage, but larger battery packs are needed for stationary storage of electrical energy generated from wind or solar farms and for stand-by power. This paper outlines the limitations of existing commercial strategies and some developing strategies that may overcome these limitations. © 2014 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

Document Keywords (matching the query): distributed energy storages, electrical energy, electrochemical energy storage, charging batteries, energy, secondary batteries, renewable energy source, renewable energy resources, energy storage.

Goodenough J.B.,University of Texas at Austin | Manthiram A.,University of Texas at Austin
MRS Communications | Year: 2014

Electrochemical technologies promise to provide the means for electrical energy storage of electricity generated from wind, solar, or nuclear energies. The challenge is to provide this storage in rechargeable batteries or clean fuels at a cost that is competitive with fossil fuels for replacement: (1) of vehicles powered by the internal combustion engine by electric vehicles and (2) of centralized power plants using intermittent electricity generated by wind and solar energy or constant electricity from a nuclear power plant, all serving a variable demand. This perspective outlines existing and possible lines of materials research for the development of rechargeable batteries or the production of clean fuels within the constraints of electrochemical technology. © Materials Research Society 2014.

Document Keywords (matching the query): solar energy, fuel storage, nuclear energy, electrical energy storages, electric batteries, secondary batteries, electric energy storage.

Manthiram A.,University of Texas at Austin
Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters | Year: 2011

Lithium ion batteries have revolutionized the portable electronics market, and they are being intensively pursued now for transportation and stationary storage of renewable energies like solar and wind. The success of lithium ion technology for the latter applications will depend largely on the cost, safety, cycle life, energy, and power, which are in turn controlled by the component materials used. Accordingly, this Perspective focuses on the challenges and prospects associated with the electrode materials. Specifically, the issues associated with high-voltage and high-capacity cathodes as well as high-capacity anodes and the approaches to overcome them are presented. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

Document Keywords (matching the query): solar energy, renewable energies, lithium batteries, lithium ion battery.

Goodenough J.B.,University of Texas at Austin | Park K.-S.,University of Texas at Austin
Journal of the American Chemical Society | Year: 2013

Each cell of a battery stores electrical energy as chemical energy in two electrodes, a reductant (anode) and an oxidant (cathode), separated by an electrolyte that transfers the ionic component of the chemical reaction inside the cell and forces the electronic component outside the battery. The output on discharge is an external electronic current I at a voltage V for a time Δt. The chemical reaction of a rechargeable battery must be reversible on the application of a charging I and V. Critical parameters of a rechargeable battery are safety, density of energy that can be stored at a specific power input and retrieved at a specific power output, cycle and shelf life, storage efficiency, and cost of fabrication. Conventional ambient-temperature rechargeable batteries have solid electrodes and a liquid electrolyte. The positive electrode (cathode) consists of a host framework into which the mobile (working) cation is inserted reversibly over a finite solid-solution range. The solid-solution range, which is reduced at higher current by the rate of transfer of the working ion across electrode/electrolyte interfaces and within a host, limits the amount of charge per electrode formula unit that can be transferred over the time Δt = Δt(I). Moreover, the difference between energies of the LUMO and the HOMO of the electrolyte, i.e., electrolyte window, determines the maximum voltage for a long shelf and cycle life. The maximum stable voltage with an aqueous electrolyte is 1.5 V; the Li-ion rechargeable battery uses an organic electrolyte with a larger window, which increase the density of stored energy for a given Δt. Anode or cathode electrochemical potentials outside the electrolyte window can increase V, but they require formation of a passivating surface layer that must be permeable to Li + and capable of adapting rapidly to the changing electrode surface area as the electrode changes volume during cycling. A passivating surface layer adds to the impedance of the Li+ transfer across the electrode/electrolyte interface and lowers the cycle life of a battery cell. Moreover, formation of a passivation layer on the anode robs Li from the cathode irreversibly on an initial charge, further lowering the reversible Δt. These problems plus the cost of quality control of manufacturing plague development of Li-ion rechargeable batteries that can compete with the internal combustion engine for powering electric cars and that can provide the needed low-cost storage of electrical energy generated by renewable wind and/or solar energy. Chemists are contributing to incremental improvements of the conventional strategy by investigating and controlling electrode passivation layers, improving the rate of Li+ transfer across electrode/electrolyte interfaces, identifying electrolytes with larger windows while retaining a Li+ conductivity σLi > 10 -3 S cm-1, synthesizing electrode morphologies that reduce the size of the active particles while pinning them on current collectors of large surface area accessible by the electrolyte, lowering the cost of cell fabrication, designing displacement-reaction anodes of higher capacity that allow a safe, fast charge, and designing alternative cathode hosts. However, new strategies are needed for batteries that go beyond powering hand-held devices, such as using electrode hosts with two-electron redox centers; replacing the cathode hosts by materials that undergo displacement reactions (e.g. sulfur) by liquid cathodes that may contain flow-through redox molecules, or by catalysts for air cathodes; and developing a Li+ solid electrolyte separator membrane that allows an organic and aqueous liquid electrolyte on the anode and cathode sides, respectively. Opportunities exist for the chemist to bring together oxide and polymer or graphene chemistry in imaginative morphologies. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

Document Keywords (matching the query): solar energy, electrical energy, storage efficiency, battery cells, lithium batteries, energy, secondary batteries, energy resource, stored energy, chemical energy.

Manthiram A.,University of Texas at Austin | Fu Y.,University of Texas at Austin | Su Y.-S.,University of Texas at Austin
Accounts of Chemical Research | Year: 2013

Electrical energy storage is one of the most critical needs of 21st century society. Applications that depend on electrical energy storage include portable electronics, electric vehicles, and devices for renewable energy storage from solar and wind. Lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries have the highest energy density among the rechargeable battery chemistries. As a result, Li-ion batteries have proven successful in the portable electronics market and will play a significant role in large-scale energy storage. Over the past two decades, Li-ion batteries based on insertion cathodes have reached a cathode capacity of ∼250 mA h g-1 and an energy density of ∼800 W h kg-1, which do not meet the requirement of ∼500 km between charges for all-electric vehicles. With a goal of increasing energy density, researchers are pursuing alternative cathode materials such as sulfur and O2 that can offer capacities that exceed those of conventional insertion cathodes, such as LiCoO2 and LiMn2O4, by an order of magnitude (>1500 mA h g-1). Sulfur, one of the most abundant elements on earth, is an electrochemically active material that can accept up to two electrons per atom at ∼2.1 V vs Li/Li+. As a result, sulfur cathode materials have a high theoretical capacity of 1675 mA h g-1, and lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries have a theoretical energy density of ∼2600 W h kg-1. Unlike conventional insertion cathode materials, sulfur undergoes a series of compositional and structural changes during cycling, which involve soluble polysulfides and insoluble sulfides. As a result, researchers have struggled with the maintenance of a stable electrode structure, full utilization of the active material, and sufficient cycle life with good system efficiency. Although researchers have made significant progress on rechargeable Li-S batteries in the last decade, these cycle life and efficiency problems prevent their use in commercial cells.To overcome these persistent problems, researchers will need new sulfur composite cathodes with favorable properties and performance and new Li-S cell configurations. In this Account, we first focus on the development of novel composite cathode materials including sulfur-carbon and sulfur-polymer composites, describing the design principles, structure and properties, and electrochemical performances of these new materials. We then cover new cell configurations with carbon interlayers and Li/dissolved polysulfide cells, emphasizing the potential of these approaches to advance capacity retention and system efficiency. Finally, we provide a brief survey of efficient electrolytes. The Account summarizes improvements that could bring Li-S technology closer to mass commercialization. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

Agency: NSF | Branch: Standard Grant | Program: | Phase: NANOMANUFACTURING | Award Amount: 306.42K | Year: 2015

Developing electrochemical energy storage devices with high energy and power densities as well as long cycle life at an affordable cost still remains a major scientific and technological challenge involving the fundamental chemistry and properties of radically new electrode and electrolyte materials and their scalable manufacturing for cost effectiveness. This award explores the scalable manufacturing of a new class of high-energy battery electrodes that incorporate functional nanostructured polymers with ultrahigh-capacity inorganic particles for high performing next generation lithium-ion batteries. This award research will provide a better fundamental understanding of chemical and electrochemical properties of hybrid inorganic-organic materials, and significantly advance the next generation of energy storage systems that are crucial to the renewable energy future of our society. Moreover, fundamental knowledge and manufacturing strategy gained will be useful for designing other electrochemical devices and systems such as fuel cells, photoelectrochemical cells, and electrochemical sensors. The education and outreach objective is to tightly integrate the renewable energy-centered research efforts and results with graduate, undergraduate, and K-12 education and to globally disseminate both research and education outcomes. The integrated research and education in this project will promote students, active learning and their excitement for sustainable energy research and future engineering career, and increase critically-needed efforts in education and workforce development related to sustainable energy.

New approaches towards the development of novel electrode materials with high capacity, low-cost, long cycle life and the ability to be produced at large scale, are critically needed in order to significantly advance the progress towards high energy/power density next-generation energy storage systems. This project focuses on rational design and scalable solution-based synthesis and device fabrication of a novel hierarchical battery electrode system that synergistically integrate nanostructured conductive polymers with inorganic particles to address fundamental challenges faced by ultrahigh-capacity inorganic electrode materials. The approaches are focused on (i) design and scalable synthesis of hierarchical inorganic-polymer electrodes (HIPE) with tunable structures for greatly enhanced energy storage capabilities, (ii) understanding their electronic and electrochemical properties, as well as studying the critical design issues including scalability and manufacturability, and (iii) fundamental investigation of electrochemical dynamics at the nanoscale hybrid interface through microscopic characterizations and mechanistic simulations. This research aimed from both scientific and engineering perspective will establish a new class of hybrid battery electrode systems for next-generation lithium battery technologies. The expected results will improve the knowledge of structural design at the molecular level for optimized electrochemical properties of these novel materials, and provide a deeper understanding of electrochemical dynamics at the nanoscale hybrid inorganic-organic interface. The partnership of academic researchers with national laboratory and technology company will help focus this fundamental research on practical issues and accelerate the nanomanufacturing scale-up.

Agency: NSF | Branch: Continuing grant | Program: | Phase: PROCESS & REACTION ENGINEERING | Award Amount: 200.00K | Year: 2014

1438007 - Goodenough

The objective of this project is the development of a new strategy for a rechargeable battery that can store energy at a price that is competitive with fossil fuels. The strategy is to develop an inexpensive thin, flexible, mechanically strong electrolyte membrane scalable at low cost to large areas that is chemically stable to temperatures above 100°C on contact with a metallic alkali metal. The PI plans to explore the design of a rechargeable battery using an alkali-metal anode to enhance the energy density and lower the cost of battery manufacture and management. The broad impact of this development would be the enabling of alternative strategy for the development of Li-ion or Na-ion batteries that can power an all-electric highway vehicle or provide storage for the grid of electrical energy generated by solar or wind energy at an affordable cost.

Present strategies for Li-ion or Na-ion batteries use an organic liquid electrolyte having a lowest-unoccupied-molecular-orbital (LUMO) energy about 1 eV below the Fermi energy EF of a Li anode, 0.7 eV below the EF of a Na anode. Formation of a passivating solidelectrolyte-interphase (SEI) layer on an alkali-metal anode surface having EF > LUMO causes dendrites to form and grow across the electrolyte to the cathode on repeated charge/discharge cycles; with an organic liquid electrolyte, the resulting internal short-circuit has incendiary consequences. As a result, existing Li-ion rechargeable battery cells are fabricated in the discharged state with an anode free of an alkali metal. Nevertheless, on the initial charge, a passivating SEI layer permeable to Li+ or Na+ is formed if the anode has an EF > LUMO; the Li+ or Na+ of the SEI layer is supplied by the cathode, which is an insertion compound of limited solid-solution range for Li or Na. These features limit the energy density of existing cells, which makes it difficult to develop a safe battery at an affordable cost for either powering an all-electric highway vehicle or providing storage for the grid of electrical energy generated by solar or wind energy. The PI proposes to develop composite membranes in which a solid-state component is embedded in a polymer having a LUMO > EF of Li0 and/or Na0. These membranes may be designed to be either a membrane separator that blocks dendrites from an alkali-metal anode or a solid electrolyte of an all-solid-state battery. The membranes can be made at low cost with easy scale-up in size; they can be thin, flexible, and mechanically robust. The separator membranes contain a main-group oxide that blocks dendrites; the solid state component of the all-solid-state battery acts as a salt releasing the working alkali ion to the polymer component that conducts the ions in its dry state.

Goodenough J.B.,University of Texas at Austin
Accounts of Chemical Research | Year: 2013

This Account provides perspective on the evolution of the rechargeable battery and summarizes innovations in the development of these devices. Initially, I describe the components of a conventional rechargeable battery along with the engineering parameters that define the figures of merit for a single cell. In 1967, researchers discovered fast Na+ conduction at 300 K in Na β,β′′-alumina. Since then battery technology has evolved from a strongly acidic or alkaline aqueous electrolyte with protons as the working ion to an organic liquid-carbonate electrolyte with Li + as the working ion in a Li-ion battery. The invention of the sodium-sulfur and Zebra batteries stimulated consideration of framework structures as crystalline hosts for mobile guest alkali ions, and the jump in oil prices in the early 1970s prompted researchers to consider alternative room-temperature batteries with aprotic liquid electrolytes. With the existence of Li primary cells and ongoing research on the chemistry of reversible Li intercalation into layered chalcogenides, industry invested in the production of a Li/TiS2 rechargeable cell. However, on repeated recharge, dendrites grew across the electrolyte from the anode to the cathode, leading to dangerous short-circuits in the cell in the presence of the flammable organic liquid electrolyte. Because lowering the voltage of the anode would prevent cells with layered-chalcogenide cathodes from competing with cells that had an aqueous electrolyte, researchers quickly abandoned this effort. However, once it was realized that an oxide cathode could offer a larger voltage versus lithium, researchers considered the extraction of Li from the layered LiMO2 oxides with M = Co or Ni.These oxide cathodes were fabricated in a discharged state, and battery manufacturers could not conceive of assembling a cell with a discharged cathode. Meanwhile, exploration of Li intercalation into graphite showed that reversible Li insertion into carbon occurred without dendrite formation. The SONY corporation used the LiCoO2/carbon battery to power their initial cellular telephone and launched the wireless revolution. As researchers developed 3D transition-metal hosts, manufacturers introduced spinel and olivine hosts in the Lix[Mn2]O4 and LiFe(PO4) cathodes. However, current Li-ion batteries fall short of the desired specifications for electric-powered automobiles and the storage of electrical energy generated by wind and solar power. These demands are stimulating new strategies for electrochemical cells that can safely and affordably meet those challenges. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

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