The University of Texas at Austin is a state research university and the flagship institution of The University of Texas System. Founded in 1883 as "The University of Texas," its campus is located in Austin—approximately 1 mile from the Texas State Capitol. The institution has the fifth-largest single-campus enrollment in the nation, with over 50,000 undergraduate and graduate students and over 24,000 faculty and staff. The university has been labeled one of the "Public Ivies," a publicly funded university considered as providing a quality of education comparable to those of the Ivy League.UT Austin was inducted into the American Association of Universities in 1929, becoming only the third university in the American South to be elected. It is a major center for academic research, with research expenditures exceeding $640 million for the 2009–2010 school year. The university houses seven museums and seventeen libraries, including the Lyndon Baines Johnson Library and Museum and the Blanton Museum of Art, and operates various auxiliary research facilities, such as the J. J. Pickle Research Campus and the McDonald Observatory. Among university faculty are recipients of the Nobel Prize, Pulitzer Prize, the Wolf Prize, and the National Medal of Science, as well as many other awards.UT Austin student athletes compete as the Texas Longhorns and are members of the Big 12 Conference. Its Longhorn Network is unique in that it is the only sports network featuring the college sports of a single university. The Longhorns have won four NCAA Division I National Football Championships, six NCAA Division I National Baseball Championships and has claimed more titles in men's and women's sports than any other school in the Big 12 since the league was founded in 1996. Current and former UT Austin athletes have won 130 Olympic medals, including 14 in Beijing in 2008 and 13 in London in 2012. The university was recognized by Sports Illustrated as "America's Best Sports College" in 2002. Wikipedia.
Brodbelt J.S.,University of Texas at Austin
Chemical Society Reviews | Year: 2014
Photodissociation mass spectrometry combines the ability to activate and fragment ions using photons with the sensitive detection of the resulting product ions by mass spectrometry. This combination affords a versatile tool for characterization of biological molecules. The scope and breadth of photodissociation mass spectrometry have increased substantially over the past decade as new research groups have entered the field and developed a number of innovative applications that illustrate the ability of photodissociation to produce rich fragmentation patterns, to cleave bonds selectively, and to target specific molecules based on incorporation of chromophores. This review focuses on many of the key developments in photodissociation mass spectrometry over the past decade with a particular emphasis on its applications to biological molecules. This journal is © the Partner Organisations 2014.
Andrews J.G.,University of Texas at Austin
IEEE Communications Magazine | Year: 2013
Imagine a world with more base stations than cell phones: this is where cellular technology is headed in 10-20 years. This mega-trend requires many fundamental differences in visualizing, modeling, analyzing, simulating, and designing cellular networks vs. the current textbook approach. In this article, the most important shifts are distilled down to seven key factors, with the implications described and new models and techniques proposed for some, while others are ripe areas for future exploration. © 1979-2012 IEEE.
Matz M.V.,University of Texas at Austin
Physiological Reviews | Year: 2010
Green fluorescent protein (GFP) from the jellyfish Aequorea victoria and its homologs from diverse marine animals are widely used as universal genetically encoded fluorescent labels. Many laboratories have focused their efforts on identification and development of fluorescent proteins with novel characteristics and enhanced properties, resulting in a powerful toolkit for visualization of structural organization and dynamic processes in living cells and organisms. The diversity of currently available fluorescent proteins covers nearly the entire visible spectrum, providing numerous alternative possibilities for multicolor labeling and studies of protein interactions. Photoactivatable fluorescent proteins enable tracking of photolabeled molecules and cells in space and time and can also be used for super-resolution imaging. Genetically encoded sensors make it possible to monitor the activity of enzymes and the concentrations of various analytes. Fast-maturing fluorescent proteins, cell clocks, and timers further expand the options for real time studies in living tissues. Here we focus on the structure, evolution, and function of GFP-like proteins and their numerous applications for in vivo imaging, with particular attention to recent techniques. Copyright © 2010 the American Physiological Society.
Goodenough J.B.,University of Texas at Austin
Energy and Environmental Science | Year: 2014
The storage of electrical energy in a rechargeable battery is subject to the limitations of reversible chemical reactions in an electrochemical cell. The limiting constraints on the design of a rechargeable battery also depend on the application of the battery. Of particular interest for a sustainable modern society are (1) powering electric vehicles that can compete with cars powered by the internal combustion engine and (2) stationary storage of electrical energy from renewable energy sources that can compete with energy stored in fossil fuels. Existing design strategies for the rechargeable battery have enabled the wireless revolution and the plug-in hybrid electric car, but they show little promise of providing safe, adequate capacity with an acceptable shelf and cycle life to compete in cost and convenience with the chemical energy stored in fossil fuels. Electric vehicles that are charged overnight (plug-in vehicles) offer a distributed energy storage, but larger battery packs are needed for stationary storage of electrical energy generated from wind or solar farms and for stand-by power. This paper outlines the limitations of existing commercial strategies and some developing strategies that may overcome these limitations. © 2014 The Royal Society of Chemistry.
Willets K.A.,University of Texas at Austin
Chemical Society Reviews | Year: 2014
Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) hot spots occur when molecules are positioned near regions of strongly enhanced electromagnetic fields on the surface of nano-featured plasmonic substrates. The emission from the molecule is coupled out into the far field by the plasmon modes of the substrate, but due to the diffraction-limit of light, the properties of this coupled molecule-plasmon emitter cannot be resolved using typical far-field optical microscopy techniques. However, by fitting the emission to a model function such as 2-dimensional Gaussian, the relative position of the emitter can be determined with precision better than 5 nm in a process known as super-resolution imaging. This tutorial review describes the basic principles of super-resolution imaging of SERS hot spots using single molecules to probe local electromagnetic field enhancements. New advances using dipole-based fitting functions and spectrally- and spatially-resolved measurements are described, providing new insight into SERS hot spots and the important roles of both the molecule and the substrate in defining their properties. © 2014 the Partner Organisations.
Hatlestad G.J.,University of Texas at Austin
Nature genetics | Year: 2015
Nearly all flowering plants produce red/violet anthocyanin pigments. Caryophyllales is the only order containing families that replace anthocyanins with unrelated red and yellow betalain pigments. Close biological correlation of pigmentation patterns suggested that betalains might be regulated by a conserved anthocyanin-regulating transcription factor complex consisting of a MYB, a bHLH and a WD repeat-containing protein (the MBW complex). Here we show that a previously uncharacterized anthocyanin MYB-like protein, Beta vulgaris MYB1 (BvMYB1), regulates the betalain pathway in beets. Silencing BvMYB1 downregulates betalain biosynthetic genes and pigmentation, and overexpressing BvMYB1 upregulates them. However, unlike anthocyanin MYBs, BvMYB1 will not interact with bHLH members of heterologous anthocyanin MBW complexes because of identified nonconserved residues. BvMYB1 resides at the historic beet pigment-patterning locus, Y, required for red-fleshed beets. We show that Y and y express different levels of BvMYB1 transcripts. The co-option of a transcription factor regulating anthocyanin biosynthesis would be an important evolutionary event allowing betalains to largely functionally replace anthocyanins.
Bersuker I.B.,University of Texas at Austin
Chemical Reviews | Year: 2013
The theoretical background formulation is to include the terms of nuclear displacements in the Hamiltonian and to solve such a nonadiabatic problem exactly. This approach is impractical. Fortunately, important solutions can be obtained by solving first the problem of electronic structure with fixed nuclei in the adiabatic approximation and then including the interaction of the electronic states with the nuclear displacements taken as a perturbation, thus reaching out beyond the adiabatic approximation. The similarity between the JTE and PJTE ends with the statement that both effects may distort the system, producing several equivalent minima of the APES at which the system has lower symmetry. For a better understanding the chemical implications of the PJTE, it is important to follow up on how this effect is related to intramolecular interactions.
Vogel C.,New York University |
Marcotte E.M.,University of Texas at Austin
Nature Reviews Genetics | Year: 2012
Recent advances in next-generation DNA sequencing and proteomics provide an unprecedented ability to survey mRNA and protein abundances. Such proteome-wide surveys are illuminating the extent to which different aspects of gene expression help to regulate cellular protein abundances. Current data demonstrate a substantial role for regulatory processes occurring after mRNA is made-that is, post-transcriptional, translational and protein degradation regulation-in controlling steady-state protein abundances. Intriguing observations are also emerging in relation to cells following perturbation, single-cell studies and the apparent evolutionary conservation of protein and mRNA abundances. Here, we summarize current understanding of the major factors regulating protein expression. © 2012 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.
Kormendy J.,University of Texas at Austin |
Ho L.C.,Carnegie Institution for Science
Annual Review of Astronomy and Astrophysics | Year: 2013
Supermassive black holes (BHs) have been found in 85 galaxies by dynamical modeling of spatially resolved kinematics. The Hubble Space Telescope revolutionized BH research by advancing the subject from its proof-of-concept phase into quantitative studies of BH demographics. Most influential was the discovery of a tight correlation between BH mass and the velocity dispersion σ of the bulge component of the host galaxy. Together with similar correlations with bulge luminosity and mass, this led to the widespread belief that BHs and bulges coevolve by regulating each other's growth. Conclusions based on one set of correlations from in brightest cluster ellipticals to in the smallest galaxies dominated BH work for more than a decade. New results are now replacing this simple story with a richer and more plausible picture in which BHs correlate differently with different galaxy components. A reasonable aim is to use this progress to refine our understanding of BH-galaxy coevolution. BHs with masses of 105-106Mȯ are found in many bulgeless galaxies. Therefore, classical (elliptical-galaxy-like) bulges are not necessary for BH formation. On the other hand, although they live in galaxy disks, BHs do not correlate with galaxy disks. Also, any correlations with the properties of disk-grown pseudobulges and dark matter halos are weak enough to imply no close coevolution. The above and other correlations of host-galaxy parameters with each other and with suggest that there are four regimes of BH feedback. (1) Local, secular, episodic, and stochastic feeding of small BHs in largely bulgeless galaxies involves too little energy to result in coevolution. (2) Global feeding in major, wet galaxy mergers rapidly grows giant BHs in short-duration, quasar-like events whose energy feedback does affect galaxy evolution. The resulting hosts are classical bulges and coreless-rotating-disky ellipticals. (3) After these AGN phases and at the highest galaxy masses, maintenance-mode BH feedback into X-ray-emitting gas has the primarily negative effect of helping to keep baryons locked up in hot gas and thereby keeping galaxy formation from going to completion. This happens in giant, core-nonrotating-boxy ellipticals. Their properties, including their tight correlations between and core parameters, support the conclusion that core ellipticals form by dissipationless major mergers. They inherit coevolution effects from smaller progenitor galaxies. Also, (4) independent of any feedback physics, in BH growth modes 2 and 3, the averaging that results from successive mergers plays a major role in decreasing the scatter in correlations from the large values observed in bulgeless and pseudobulge galaxies to the small values observed in giant elliptical galaxies.Copyright ©2013 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved.
Goodenough J.B.,University of Texas at Austin
Accounts of Chemical Research | Year: 2013
This Account provides perspective on the evolution of the rechargeable battery and summarizes innovations in the development of these devices. Initially, I describe the components of a conventional rechargeable battery along with the engineering parameters that define the figures of merit for a single cell. In 1967, researchers discovered fast Na+ conduction at 300 K in Na β,β′′-alumina. Since then battery technology has evolved from a strongly acidic or alkaline aqueous electrolyte with protons as the working ion to an organic liquid-carbonate electrolyte with Li + as the working ion in a Li-ion battery. The invention of the sodium-sulfur and Zebra batteries stimulated consideration of framework structures as crystalline hosts for mobile guest alkali ions, and the jump in oil prices in the early 1970s prompted researchers to consider alternative room-temperature batteries with aprotic liquid electrolytes. With the existence of Li primary cells and ongoing research on the chemistry of reversible Li intercalation into layered chalcogenides, industry invested in the production of a Li/TiS2 rechargeable cell. However, on repeated recharge, dendrites grew across the electrolyte from the anode to the cathode, leading to dangerous short-circuits in the cell in the presence of the flammable organic liquid electrolyte. Because lowering the voltage of the anode would prevent cells with layered-chalcogenide cathodes from competing with cells that had an aqueous electrolyte, researchers quickly abandoned this effort. However, once it was realized that an oxide cathode could offer a larger voltage versus lithium, researchers considered the extraction of Li from the layered LiMO2 oxides with M = Co or Ni.These oxide cathodes were fabricated in a discharged state, and battery manufacturers could not conceive of assembling a cell with a discharged cathode. Meanwhile, exploration of Li intercalation into graphite showed that reversible Li insertion into carbon occurred without dendrite formation. The SONY corporation used the LiCoO2/carbon battery to power their initial cellular telephone and launched the wireless revolution. As researchers developed 3D transition-metal hosts, manufacturers introduced spinel and olivine hosts in the Lix[Mn2]O4 and LiFe(PO4) cathodes. However, current Li-ion batteries fall short of the desired specifications for electric-powered automobiles and the storage of electrical energy generated by wind and solar power. These demands are stimulating new strategies for electrochemical cells that can safely and affordably meet those challenges. © 2012 American Chemical Society.