The University of Texas at Austin is a state research university and the flagship institution of The University of Texas System. Founded in 1883 as "The University of Texas," its campus is located in Austin—approximately 1 mile from the Texas State Capitol. The institution has the fifth-largest single-campus enrollment in the nation, with over 50,000 undergraduate and graduate students and over 24,000 faculty and staff. The university has been labeled one of the "Public Ivies," a publicly funded university considered as providing a quality of education comparable to those of the Ivy League.UT Austin was inducted into the American Association of Universities in 1929, becoming only the third university in the American South to be elected. It is a major center for academic research, with research expenditures exceeding $640 million for the 2009–2010 school year. The university houses seven museums and seventeen libraries, including the Lyndon Baines Johnson Library and Museum and the Blanton Museum of Art, and operates various auxiliary research facilities, such as the J. J. Pickle Research Campus and the McDonald Observatory. Among university faculty are recipients of the Nobel Prize, Pulitzer Prize, the Wolf Prize, and the National Medal of Science, as well as many other awards.UT Austin student athletes compete as the Texas Longhorns and are members of the Big 12 Conference. Its Longhorn Network is unique in that it is the only sports network featuring the college sports of a single university. The Longhorns have won four NCAA Division I National Football Championships, six NCAA Division I National Baseball Championships and has claimed more titles in men's and women's sports than any other school in the Big 12 since the league was founded in 1996. Current and former UT Austin athletes have won 130 Olympic medals, including 14 in Beijing in 2008 and 13 in London in 2012. The university was recognized by Sports Illustrated as "America's Best Sports College" in 2002. Wikipedia.
Peppas N.A.,University of Texas at Austin
Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews | Year: 2013
We review the early developments in drug delivery from 1960 to 1990 with emphasis on the fundamental aspects of the field and how they shaped the collaboration of pharmaceutical scientists, chemists, biologists, engineers and medical scientists towards the development of advanced drug delivery systems. Emphasis is given on the advances of biomaterials as drug delivery agents and on the use of design equations and mathematical modeling to achieve a wide range of successful systems. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.
Colgin L.L.,University of Texas at Austin
Nature Reviews Neuroscience | Year: 2016
The hippocampal local field potential (LFP) shows three major types of rhythms: theta, sharp wave-ripples and gamma. These rhythms are defined by their frequencies, they have behavioural correlates in several species including rats and humans, and they have been proposed to carry out distinct functions in hippocampal memory processing. However, recent findings have challenged traditional views on these behavioural functions. In this Review, I discuss our current understanding of the origins and the mnemonic functions of hippocampal theta, sharp wave-ripples and gamma rhythms on the basis of findings from rodent studies. In addition, I present an updated synthesis of their roles and interactions within the hippocampal network. © 2016 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.
Colgin L.L.,University of Texas at Austin
Annual Review of Neuroscience | Year: 2013
The theta rhythm is one of the largest and most sinusoidal activity patterns in the brain. Here I survey progress in the field of theta rhythms research. I present arguments supporting the hypothesis that theta rhythms emerge owing to intrinsic cellular properties yet can be entrained by several theta oscillators throughout the brain. I review behavioral correlates of theta rhythms and consider how these correlates inform our understanding of theta rhythms' functions. I discuss recent work suggesting that one function of theta is to package related information within individual theta cycles for more efficient spatial memory processing. Studies examining the role of theta phase precession in spatial memory, particularly sequence retrieval, are also summarized. Additionally, I discuss how interregional coupling of theta rhythms facilitates communication across brain regions. Finally, I conclude by summarizing how theta rhythms may support cognitive operations in the brain, including learning. Copyright ©2013 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved.
Poldrack R.,University of Texas at Austin
Neuron | Year: 2011
A common goal of neuroimaging research is to use imaging data to identify the mental processes that are engaged when a subject performs a mental task. The use of reasoning from activation to mental functions, known as " reverse inference," has been previously criticized on the basis that it does not take into account how selectively the area is activated by the mental process in question. In this Perspective, I outline the critique of informal reverse inference and describe a number of new developments that provide the ability to more formally test the predictive power of neuroimaging data. © 2011 Elsevier Inc.
Colgin L.L.,University of Texas at Austin
Current Opinion in Neurobiology | Year: 2011
The hippocampus, a structure required for many types of memory, connects to the medial prefrontal cortex, an area that helps direct neuronal information streams during intentional behaviors. Increasing evidence suggests that oscillations regulate communication between these two regions. Theta rhythms may facilitate hippocampal inputs to the medial prefrontal cortex during mnemonic tasks and may also integrate series of functionally relevant gamma-mediated cell assemblies in the medial prefrontal cortex. During slow-wave sleep, temporal coordination of hippocampal sharp wave-ripples and medial prefrontal cortex spindles may be an important component of the process by which memories become hippocampus-independent. Studies using rodent models indicate that oscillatory phase-locking is disturbed in schizophrenia, emphasizing the need for more studies of oscillatory synchrony in the hippocampal-prefrontal network. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.
Jones T.A.,University of Texas at Austin
Nature Reviews Neuroscience | Year: 2017
Stroke instigates a dynamic process of repair and remodelling of remaining neural circuits, and this process is shaped by behavioural experiences. The onset of motor disability simultaneously creates a powerful incentive to develop new, compensatory ways of performing daily activities. Compensatory movement strategies that are developed in response to motor impairments can be a dominant force in shaping post-stroke neural remodelling responses and can have mixed effects on functional outcome. The possibility of selectively harnessing the effects of compensatory behaviour on neural reorganization is still an insufficiently explored route for optimizing functional outcome after stroke. © 2017 Macmillan Publishers Limited, part of Springer Nature.
Matz M.V.,University of Texas at Austin
Physiological Reviews | Year: 2010
Green fluorescent protein (GFP) from the jellyfish Aequorea victoria and its homologs from diverse marine animals are widely used as universal genetically encoded fluorescent labels. Many laboratories have focused their efforts on identification and development of fluorescent proteins with novel characteristics and enhanced properties, resulting in a powerful toolkit for visualization of structural organization and dynamic processes in living cells and organisms. The diversity of currently available fluorescent proteins covers nearly the entire visible spectrum, providing numerous alternative possibilities for multicolor labeling and studies of protein interactions. Photoactivatable fluorescent proteins enable tracking of photolabeled molecules and cells in space and time and can also be used for super-resolution imaging. Genetically encoded sensors make it possible to monitor the activity of enzymes and the concentrations of various analytes. Fast-maturing fluorescent proteins, cell clocks, and timers further expand the options for real time studies in living tissues. Here we focus on the structure, evolution, and function of GFP-like proteins and their numerous applications for in vivo imaging, with particular attention to recent techniques. Copyright © 2010 the American Physiological Society.
Hatlestad G.J.,University of Texas at Austin
Nature genetics | Year: 2015
Nearly all flowering plants produce red/violet anthocyanin pigments. Caryophyllales is the only order containing families that replace anthocyanins with unrelated red and yellow betalain pigments. Close biological correlation of pigmentation patterns suggested that betalains might be regulated by a conserved anthocyanin-regulating transcription factor complex consisting of a MYB, a bHLH and a WD repeat-containing protein (the MBW complex). Here we show that a previously uncharacterized anthocyanin MYB-like protein, Beta vulgaris MYB1 (BvMYB1), regulates the betalain pathway in beets. Silencing BvMYB1 downregulates betalain biosynthetic genes and pigmentation, and overexpressing BvMYB1 upregulates them. However, unlike anthocyanin MYBs, BvMYB1 will not interact with bHLH members of heterologous anthocyanin MBW complexes because of identified nonconserved residues. BvMYB1 resides at the historic beet pigment-patterning locus, Y, required for red-fleshed beets. We show that Y and y express different levels of BvMYB1 transcripts. The co-option of a transcription factor regulating anthocyanin biosynthesis would be an important evolutionary event allowing betalains to largely functionally replace anthocyanins.
Bersuker I.B.,University of Texas at Austin
Chemical Reviews | Year: 2013
The theoretical background formulation is to include the terms of nuclear displacements in the Hamiltonian and to solve such a nonadiabatic problem exactly. This approach is impractical. Fortunately, important solutions can be obtained by solving first the problem of electronic structure with fixed nuclei in the adiabatic approximation and then including the interaction of the electronic states with the nuclear displacements taken as a perturbation, thus reaching out beyond the adiabatic approximation. The similarity between the JTE and PJTE ends with the statement that both effects may distort the system, producing several equivalent minima of the APES at which the system has lower symmetry. For a better understanding the chemical implications of the PJTE, it is important to follow up on how this effect is related to intramolecular interactions.
Goodenough J.B.,University of Texas at Austin
Accounts of Chemical Research | Year: 2013
This Account provides perspective on the evolution of the rechargeable battery and summarizes innovations in the development of these devices. Initially, I describe the components of a conventional rechargeable battery along with the engineering parameters that define the figures of merit for a single cell. In 1967, researchers discovered fast Na+ conduction at 300 K in Na β,β′′-alumina. Since then battery technology has evolved from a strongly acidic or alkaline aqueous electrolyte with protons as the working ion to an organic liquid-carbonate electrolyte with Li + as the working ion in a Li-ion battery. The invention of the sodium-sulfur and Zebra batteries stimulated consideration of framework structures as crystalline hosts for mobile guest alkali ions, and the jump in oil prices in the early 1970s prompted researchers to consider alternative room-temperature batteries with aprotic liquid electrolytes. With the existence of Li primary cells and ongoing research on the chemistry of reversible Li intercalation into layered chalcogenides, industry invested in the production of a Li/TiS2 rechargeable cell. However, on repeated recharge, dendrites grew across the electrolyte from the anode to the cathode, leading to dangerous short-circuits in the cell in the presence of the flammable organic liquid electrolyte. Because lowering the voltage of the anode would prevent cells with layered-chalcogenide cathodes from competing with cells that had an aqueous electrolyte, researchers quickly abandoned this effort. However, once it was realized that an oxide cathode could offer a larger voltage versus lithium, researchers considered the extraction of Li from the layered LiMO2 oxides with M = Co or Ni.These oxide cathodes were fabricated in a discharged state, and battery manufacturers could not conceive of assembling a cell with a discharged cathode. Meanwhile, exploration of Li intercalation into graphite showed that reversible Li insertion into carbon occurred without dendrite formation. The SONY corporation used the LiCoO2/carbon battery to power their initial cellular telephone and launched the wireless revolution. As researchers developed 3D transition-metal hosts, manufacturers introduced spinel and olivine hosts in the Lix[Mn2]O4 and LiFe(PO4) cathodes. However, current Li-ion batteries fall short of the desired specifications for electric-powered automobiles and the storage of electrical energy generated by wind and solar power. These demands are stimulating new strategies for electrochemical cells that can safely and affordably meet those challenges. © 2012 American Chemical Society.