University of Tennessee Extension

Maynardville, TN, United States

University of Tennessee Extension

Maynardville, TN, United States
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News Article | November 21, 2016

KNOXVILLE, Tenn. -- The state of Tennessee has always been rich in agricultural diversity, and recent statistics are proving that once again as the grape and wine industry in Tennessee is bearing fruit. A University of Tennessee Extension analysis of the most recent data released by the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics indicates that the Tennessee wine and grape industry continues to show strong growth. Direct "covered" or hired jobs in the Tennessee winery industry have grown to 435 workers in the first quarter of 2016, which is an increase of more than 20 percent from the same time last year. The number of establishments with hired workers has seen a similar increase. Discussions with industry officials and an analysis of bonded winery data provided by the U.S. Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives indicates that the state now has 72 bonded wineries. Accounting for self-employment, which is not included in the employment numbers, Tennessee wineries currently provide well over 500 jobs. This growth is particularly important because the industry provides economic growth and employment opportunities in many rural areas where job options may be limited. The data are based on analysis performed by David Hughes, Professor and Greever Endowed Chair for Agribusiness Development, and a team of researchers in the Department of Agricultural and Resource Economics in the UT Institute of Agriculture. Their analysis shows that employment in Tennessee wineries began experiencing strong growth in 2013 and has continued to gain momentum. Primary reasons for this growth include a continued and growing interest in local foods and local agriculture, the new availability of wines in Tennessee grocery stores and the easing of other legal restrictions. "It has been great to see some barriers to entry and restrictions on the wine industry alleviated through legislation in recent years," said Don Collier, president of the Tennessee Farm Winegrowers Alliance. "With the addition of hard cider sales, the ability to charge for wine tastings, and the opportunity to open satellite winery stores in high traffic areas, it is easy to see how this growth could occur. I think I speak for the whole industry in saying 'thank you' to those who support our Tennessee grape farmers and the wineries who buy their fruit." Through its mission of research, teaching and extension, the University of Tennessee Institute of Agriculture touches lives and provides Real. Life. Solutions.

News Article | November 7, 2016

KNOXVILLE, Tenn. -- Faith Critzer, a food safety specialist with University of Tennessee Extension, will lead a new multistate research and outreach project to help fruit and vegetable growers mitigate the risks their water sources might pose to the safety of their produce. This effort is made possible through USDA National Institute of Food and Agriculture's Food Safety Outreach Program. The $522,000 grant was announced in October. Critzer and her colleagues at the University of Tennessee, Annette Wszelaki, a vegetable production specialist, and John Buchanan, a biosystems engineer, have joined with Extension specialists from New Mexico State University, North Carolina State University, the University of Florida and Virginia Tech. This team's work will help growers understand and become compliant with the Food Safety Modernization Act (FSMA) produce safety rule. "In our roles as Extension specialists, members of our team have received numerous questions and have had many discussions with growers who currently use surface water for irrigation or application of preventive sprays," said Critzer. "The growers understand that surface water can become contaminated with microorganisms that can make people ill if consumed, also known as foodborne pathogens, and they do not want to rely upon monitoring via water testing, which only gives a snapshot of one period in time and may not detect intermittent problems that commonly arise with these water sources." So to help the growers protect their produce, Critzer and the other team members are working to develop training that will equip them with the knowledge to successfully implement water treatment systems on their farms. Specifically, the team plans to develop a curriculum to educate growers of all sizes and backgrounds about agricultural water treatment systems. Once developed, the Extension specialists will share their curriculum with other specialists who will then train growers. The team also plans to evaluate the short-term and medium-term outcomes that adoption of the curriculum and knowledge of the technology achieves in terms of improved compliance with FSMA regulations. "Fruit and vegetable growers are concerned about the standards for water applied in the field during irrigation and in protective sprays," said Critzer. "This curriculum, which will include hands-on demonstrations, should help growers understand the water quality standards and help them make educated decisions about how to use water treatment systems for this purpose and what systems may work best for their farms." Critzer and her team are very pleased to be tackling this project. "This funding addresses a need that has come directly from our clientele," she said. "The growers are well educated. They know that foodborne pathogens can potentially come from the environment such as in run-off from rain and from wild and domesticated animals. They want to be proactive in protecting the crops they are growing, and most importantly, to protect the consumers who will be eating the produce with their families," said Critzer. The project team expects to develop the curriculum and begin initial "train-the-trainer" sessions over the next two years. Through its mission of research, teaching and extension, the University of Tennessee Institute of Agriculture touches lives and provides Real. Life. Solutions.

Hadley T.L.,University of Tennessee at Knoxville | Hadley T.L.,Atlanta Hospital for Birds and Exotics | Grizzle J.,University of Tennessee at Knoxville | Rotstein D.S.,University of Tennessee at Knoxville | And 9 more authors.
Journal of Avian Medicine and Surgery | Year: 2010

Aflatoxin B1 is a common hepatotoxin in birds. The goal of this study was to establish an acute model for hepatotoxicosis and decreased hepatic function in the white Carneaux pigeon (Columba livia) via oral administration of this mycotoxin. Aflatoxin B1 was orally administered at a dose of 3 mg/kg dissolved in dimethyl sulfoxide to 3 groups of pigeons every 24 hours for 2, 4, and 6 consecutive days, respectively. Diagnostic modalities used to evaluate hepatic damage and impaired hepatic function pre- and postaflatoxin administration included liver enzyme activity, bile acid levels, scintigraphy, and histopathologic evaluation of liver biopsy specimens. Deaths occurred in all groups, increasing with the number of consecutive days the aflatoxin B1 was dosed. Significant histopathologic lesions were seen on evaluation of hepatic tissue from each group after accumulated aflatoxin exposure (P < .05); therefore, an oral aflatoxin B1 dose of 3 mg/kg given for 2 consecutive days was selected for the purpose of inducing acute hepatic damage while minimizing mortality. However, although increased liver enzyme activity indicated hepatocellular damage at this dosage, bile acids testing and hepatobiliary scintigraphy did not show significantly decreased hepatic function. © 2010 by the Association of Avian Veterinarians.

Cutulle M.A.,University of Tennessee at Knoxville | Armel G.R.,University of Tennessee at Knoxville | Brosnan J.T.,University of Tennessee at Knoxville | Kopsell D.A.,University of Tennessee at Knoxville | And 6 more authors.
HortTechnology | Year: 2013

Selective weed control in ornamental plant production can be difficult as many herbicides can cause unacceptable injury. Research was conducted to evaluate the tolerance of several ornamental species to applications of p-hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase (HPPD)-inhibiting herbicides for the control of problematic weeds in ornamental production. Mestotrione (0.09, 0.18, and 0.36 lb/acre), tembo- trione (0.08, 0.16, and 0.32 lb/acre), and topramezone (0.016, 0.032, and 0.064 lb/acre) were applied alone postemergence (POST) in comparison with the photosystem II-inhibiting herbicide, bentazon (0.5 lb/acre). All herbicide treatments, with the exception of the two highest rates of tembotrione, caused less than 8% injury to 'Noble Upright' japanese holly (Ilex crenata) and 'Compactus' burning bush (Euonymus alatus). Similarly, no herbicide treatment caused greater than 12% injury to 'Girard's Rose' azalea (Azalea). Conversely, all herbicides injured flowering dogwood (Cornusflorida) 10% to 23%. Mesotrione- and tembotrione- injured 'Radrazz' rose (Rosa) 18% to 55%, compared with only 5% to 18% with topramezone. 'Siloam June Bug' daylily (Hemerocallis) injury with topramezone and tembotrione was less than 10%. Topramezone was the only herbicide evaluated that provided at least 93% control of redroot pigweed (Amaranthus retroflexus) with all application rates by 4 weeks after treatment (WAT). Redroot pigweed was controlled 67% to 100% with mesotrione and tembotrione by 4 WAT, but this activity was variable among application rates. Spotted spurge (Chamaesyce maculata) was only adequately controlled by mesotrione applications at 0.18 and 0.36 lb/acre, whereas chamberbitter (Phyllanthus urinaria) was not controlled sufficiently with any herbicide evaluated in these studies. Yellow nutsedge (Cyperus esculentus) was suppressed 72% to 87% with mesotrione applications at 0.18 lb/acre or higher and with bentazon at 0.5 lb/acre by 4 WAT. All other herbicide treatments provided less than 58% control of yellow nutsedge. In the second study, 'Patriot' hosta (Hosta), 'Green Sheen' pachysandra (Pachysandra terminalis), autumn fern (Dryopteris erythrosora), 'Little Princess' spirea (Spiraea japonica), 'Green Giant' arborvitae (Thujaplicata), and 'Rosea' weigela (Weigelaflorida) displayed no response to topramezone when applied at 0.024 and 0.095 lb/acre. Since 10 ornamental species in our studies exhibited less than 10% herbicidal response with all rates of at least one HPPD-inhibiting herbicide then it is possible that these herbicides may provide selective POST weed control in ornamental production systems.

Koepke-Hill R.M.,University of Tennessee at Knoxville | Armel G.R.,University of Tennessee at Knoxville | Klingeman W.E.,University of Tennessee at Knoxville | Halcomb M.A.,University of Tennessee Extension | And 2 more authors.
HortTechnology | Year: 2011

Field and greenhouse studies were conducted to determine if two indole- 3-acetic acid herbicide mimics, aminopyralid and aminocyclopyrachlor-methyl, applied at 70, 140, and 280 g.ha -1 postemergence (POST) would control mugwort (Artemisia vulgaris) in an abandoned nursery. These were compared with the commercial standards picloram at 280 g.ha -1 a.i. and clopyralid at 280 g.ha -1. In the field study, picloram and clopyralid controlled mugwort 75% and 31% by 365 days after treatment (DAT), respectively. In contrast, aminopyralid and aminocyclopyrachlor- methyl applied at 140 g.ha -1 controlled mugwort over 90% by 365 DAT. In the greenhouse study, aminopyralid and aminocyclopyrachlor-methyl applied at 140 g.ha -1 controlled mugwort 92% and 96% respectively, although aminopyralid at 70 g.ha -1 provided better visual control (94%) in comparison with aminocyclopyrachlor- methyl (79%) at 70 g.ha -1. Regardless, following shoot growth removal at 30 DAT, mugwort failed to regrow by 60 DAT following exposures to all rates of both herbicides. On the basis of these studies, aminopyralid and aminocyclopyrachlormethyl have potential to provide excellent control of mugwort compared with the current standards clopyralid and picloram. © 2011 by the American Society for Horticultural Science.

Cheng Q.,University of Tennessee at Knoxville | Windham A.S.,University of Tennessee Extension | Klingeman W.E.,University of Tennessee at Knoxville | Sakhanokho H.F.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | And 3 more authors.
Canadian Journal of Plant Pathology | Year: 2011

The infection process of Discula destructiva Redlin on Cornus florida L. leaves was studied using histological and microscopic techniques. Penetration of fungal hyphae through natural openings and wounds was not observed, while direct penetration without appressorium formation was demonstrated 3 days after inoculation (DAI). Leaves inoculated with D. destructiva developed symptoms of dogwood anthracnose after 7 to 8 days. At 8 DAI, hyphae were observed in aggregations located between the cuticle and epidermis and also growing intracellularly towards epidermal, palisade, parenchymal and spongy mesophyll cells. At 16 DAI, typical chlorotic and necrotic halos, with a red to purple external border, were formed on the inoculated leaves. Within leaf tissues, at 16 DAI, chloroplasts were intact but decompartmentalized and infection sites were clearly defined. Sporulation and ruptured acervuli (cuticle ruptured and spores released) were first detected at 20 DAI, and had fully developed to rupture the plant cuticle on both adaxial and abaxial leaf surfaces by 24 DAI. © 2011 The Canadian Phytopathological Society.

News Article | February 15, 2017

Giroud Tree and Lawn has just released an article entitled "Should You Cable Your Tree?" on the importance of homeowners and commercial property managers utilizing a professional tree service to keep trees safe. According to the company, tree cabling is used to help reinforce weaker or structurally unsound limbs or trunks. According to Lou Giroud, ISA Certified Arborist and President of Giroud Tree and Lawn, "trees that have codominant leaders or have weakly attached limbs are the best candidates to tree cabling." Of the many occasions cabling may be required, Giroud recommends this service primarily under two conditions: 1. Codominant Leaders - When trees grow without any helpful intervention, they may form two or multiple main leaders, creating a natural split. The weight of the leaders increase over time, which can lead to the possibility of at least one of the leaders splitting apart from the tree. 2. Trees with weakly attached or overextended limbs - "These limbs are unusually long for the tree species or grow horizontally or downward, with most of the foliage concentrated toward the end of the branch," according to the University of Tennessee Extension. Highest risk for breakage is where the branch joins the stem. Failure also occurs when the branch under heavy stress from wind, snow or ice. For more information on tree cabling or Giroud Tree and Lawn's tree cabling service contact Giroud at 215-682-7704 or visit Giroud Tree and Lawn specializes in tree service, tree removal and lawn care programs that make customers love doing business with the company since 1974. Serving Bucks, Montgomery and Philadelphia Counties, the company offers professional tree and lawn evaluation, tree pruning, tree removal, insect and disease control, fertilizing, stump removal and traditional and 100% organic lawn programs to keep lawns healthy and green. Giroud Arborists are certified by the International Society of Arboriculture (ISA) and have the knowledge and experience required to properly diagnose, treat and maintain trees and lawn health. The company is Accredited by the Better Business Bureau and has been awarded the Angie's List Super Service Award® every year since 2005. The “Giroud Treework for Charity” program donates free tree care services to parks, historical sites and other non-profit organizations located in the Company’s service area. For more information, visit the company website at or call 215-682-7704.

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