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Hobart, Australia

The University of Tasmania is a public Australian university in Tasmania, Australia. Officially founded on 1 January 1890, it was the fourth university to be established in Australia. The University of Tasmania is a sandstone university and is a member of the international Association of Commonwealth Universities. It is currently the only university located in Tasmania.The University offers various undergraduate and graduate programs in a range of disciplines, and has links with 20 specialist research institutes, cooperative research centres and faculty based research centres; many of which are regarded as nationally and internationally competitive leaders. The University has a student population of nearly 26,800, including over 6,000 international students and 1000 PhD students. Wikipedia.

Prediction of the impact of global climate change on marine HABs is fraught with difficulties. However, we can learn important lessons from the fossil record of dinoflagellate cysts; long-term monitoring programs, such as the Continuous Plankton Recorder surveys; and short-term phytoplankton community responses to El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) episodes. Increasing temperature, enhanced surface stratification, alteration of ocean currents, intensification or weakening of local nutrient upwelling, stimulation of photosynthesis by elevated CO2, reduced calcification through ocean acidification (" the other CO2 problem" ), and heavy precipitation and storm events causing changes in land runoff and micronutrient availability may all produce contradictory species- or even strain-specific responses. Complex factor interactions exist, and simulated ecophysiological laboratory experiments rarely allow for sufficient acclimation and rarely take into account physiological plasticity and genetic strain diversity. We can expect: (i) range expansion of warm-water species at the expense of cold-water species, which are driven poleward; (ii) species-specific changes in the abundance and seasonal window of growth of HAB taxa; (iii) earlier timing of peak production of some phytoplankton; and (iv) secondary effects for marine food webs, notably when individual zooplankton and fish grazers are differentially impacted (" match-mismatch" ) by climate change. Some species of harmful algae (e.g., toxic dinoflagellates benefitting from land runoff and/or water column stratification, tropical benthic dinoflagellates responding to increased water temperatures and coral reef disturbance) may become more successful, while others may diminish in areas currently impacted. Our limited understanding of marine ecosystem responses to multifactorial physicochemical climate drivers as well as our poor knowledge of the potential of marine microalgae to adapt genetically and phenotypically to the unprecedented pace of current climate change are emphasized. The greatest problems for human society will be caused by being unprepared for significant range expansions or the increase of algal biotoxin problems in currently poorly monitored areas, thus calling for increased vigilance in seafood-biotoxin and HAB monitoring programs. Changes in phytoplankton communities provide a sensitive early warning for climate-driven perturbations to marine ecosystems. © 2010 Phycological Society of America.

McGuinness D.S.,University of Tasmania
Chemical Reviews | Year: 2011

Recent advances in the area of Olefin Oligomerization via metallacycles that include dimerization, trimerization, tetramerization, and beyond, are reviewed. Studies have found that metallacyclopentane decomposition to 1-butene many not be particularly facile due to the absence of metallacycle expansion. Follow-up studies concentrated on the N-H functionality and the Cr oxidation state and role of MAO show that activities and selectivities to 1-hexene are similar to the original Cr(III) complexes. Nenu and Weckhuysen prepared silica-supported triazacyclohexane complexes, by treating the reduced Phillips polymerization catalyst with triazacyclohexane ligands in dichloromethane. The influence of N-aryl functionality investigated by Killian et al. shows that the selectivity was mainly dependent upon the steric bulk attached to nitrogen, and less so on the group's basicity.

Ambrose M.,University of Tasmania
Blood | Year: 2013

In 1988, the gene responsible for the autosomal recessive disease ataxia- telangiectasia (A-T) was localized to 11q22.3-23.1. It was eventually cloned in 1995. Many independent laboratories have since demonstrated that in replicating cells, ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) is predominantly a nuclear protein that is involved in the early recognition and response to double-stranded DNA breaks. ATM is a high-molecular-weight PI3K-family kinase. ATM also plays many important cytoplasmic roles where it phosphorylates hundreds of protein substrates that activate and coordinate cell-signaling pathways involved in cell-cycle checkpoints, nuclear localization, gene transcription and expression, the response to oxidative stress, apoptosis, nonsense-mediated decay, and others. Appreciating these roles helps to provide new insights into the diverse clinical phenotypes exhibited by A-T patients-children and adults alike-which include neurodegeneration, high cancer risk, adverse reactions to radiation and chemotherapy, pulmonary failure, immunodeficiency, glucose transporter aberrations, insulin-resistant diabetogenic responses, and distinct chromosomal and chromatin changes. An exciting recent development is the ATM-dependent pathology encountered in mitochondria, leading to inefficient respiration and energy metabolism and the excessive generation of free radicals that themselves create life-threatening DNA lesions that must be repaired within minutes to minimize individual cell losses.

Breadmore M.C.,University of Tasmania
Journal of Chromatography A | Year: 2012

Capillary electrophoresis (CE) has long been regarded as a powerful analytical separation technique that is an alternative to more traditional methods such as gel electrophoresis (GE) and liquid chromatography (LC). It is often touted as having a number of advantages over both of these, such as speed, flexibility, portability, sample and reagent requirements and cost, but also a number of disadvantages such as reproducibility and sensitivity. Microchip electrophoresis (ME), the next evolutionary step, miniaturised CE further providing improvements in speed and sample requirements as well as the possibility to perform more complex and highly integrated analyses. CE and ME are seen as a viable alternative to GE, but are often considered to be inferior to LC. This review will consider the strengths and weaknesses of both CE and ME and will challenge the common conceptions held about these. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

Cheung W.W.L.,University of British Columbia | Watson R.,University of Tasmania | Pauly D.,University of British Columbia
Nature | Year: 2013

Marine fishes and invertebrates respond to ocean warming through distribution shifts, generally to higher latitudes and deeper waters. Consequently, fisheries should be affected by 'tropicalization' of catch (increasing dominance of warm-water species). However, a signature of such climate-change effects on global fisheries catch has so far not been detected. Here we report such an index, the mean temperature of the catch (MTC), that is calculated from the average inferred temperature preference of exploited species weighted by their annual catch. Our results show that, after accounting for the effects of fishing and large-scale oceanographic variability, global MTC increased at a rate of 0.19 degrees Celsius per decade between 1970 and 2006, and non-tropical MTC increased at a rate of 0.23 degrees Celsius per decade. In tropical areas, MTC increased initially because of the reduction in the proportion of subtropical species catches, but subsequently stabilized as scope for further tropicalization of communities became limited. Changes in MTC in 52 large marine ecosystems, covering the majority of the world's coastal and shelf areas, are significantly and positively related to regional changes in sea surface temperature. This study shows that ocean warming has already affected global fisheries in the past four decades, highlighting the immediate need to develop adaptation plans to minimize the effect of such warming on the economy and food security of coastal communities, particularly in tropical regions. © 2013 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

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