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Tampere, Finland

The University of Tampere is a university in Tampere, Finland. It has 15,400 degree students and 2,100 employees. It was originally founded in 1925 in Helsinki as a "Civic College" , and from 1930 onwards it was known as a "School of Social science" . In 1960, the institution relocated to Tampere, and in 1966 it was officially named University of Tampere. Wikipedia.

Rosti-Otajarvi E.M.,University of Tampere
The Cochrane database of systematic reviews | Year: 2014

This is an update of the Cochrane review 'Neuropsychological rehabilitation for multiple sclerosis' (first published in The Cochrane Library 2011, Issue 11).Cognitive deficits are a common manifestation of multiple sclerosis (MS) and have a significant effect on the patient's quality of life. Alleviation of the harmful effects caused by these deficits should be a major goal of MS research and practice.  To assess the effects of neuropsychological/cognitive rehabilitation on health-related factors, such as cognitive performance and emotional well-being in patients with MS. The Cochrane Multiple Sclerosis and Rare Diseases of the Central Nervous System Group Trials Search Co-ordinator searched their Specialised Register which, among other sources, contains trials from CENTRAL (The Cochrane Library 2013, Issue 2), MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, LILACS, PEDro and clinical trials registries (28 May 2013). We contacted authors of the studies for additional information. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and quasi-randomised trials evaluating the effects of neuropsychological rehabilitation in MS compared to other interventions or no intervention. Two review authors individually judged the eligibility of the included studies, assessed risk of bias and extracted data. We combined results quantitatively in meta-analyses according to the intervention type: 1) cognitive training and 2) cognitive training combined with other neuropsychological rehabilitation methods. Twenty studies (986 participants; 966 MS participants and 20 healthy controls) fulfilled the inclusion criteria. The mean age of the participants was 44.6 years, mean length of education was 12.3 years and 70% of the participants were women. Most of the participants had a relapsing-remitting course of disease. The mean Expanded Disability Status Scale score was 3.2 and the mean duration of disease was 14.0 years.On the basis of these studies, we found low-level evidence that neuropsychological rehabilitation reduces cognitive symptoms in MS. Cognitive training was found to improve memory span (standardised mean difference (SMD) 0.54, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.20 to 0.88, P = 0.002) and working memory (SMD 0.33, 95% CI 0.09 to 0.57, P = 0.006). Cognitive training combined with other neuropsychological rehabilitation methods was found to improve attention (SMD 0.15, 95% CI 0.01 to 0.28, P = 0.03), immediate verbal memory (SMD 0.31, 95% CI 0.08 to 0.54, P = 0.008) and delayed memory (SMD 0.22, 95% CI 0.02 to 0.42, P = 0.03). There was no evidence of an effect of neuropsychological rehabilitation on emotional functions.The overall quality, as well as the comparability of the included studies, was relatively low due to methodological limitations and heterogeneity of interventions and outcome measures. Although most of the pooled results in the meta-analyses yielded no significant findings, 18 of the 20 studies showed some evidence of positive effects when the studies were individually analysed. This review found low-level evidence for positive effects of neuropsychological rehabilitation in MS. The interventions and outcome measures included in the review were heterogeneous, which limited the comparability of the studies. New trials may therefore change the strength and direction of the evidence.

Udd B.,University of Tampere | Krahe R.,University of Houston
The Lancet Neurology | Year: 2012

Myotonic dystrophy is the most common type of muscular dystrophy in adults and is characterised by progressive myopathy, myotonia, and multiorgan involvement. Two genetically distinct entities have been identified. Myotonic dystrophy type 1 (also known as Steinert's disease) was first described more than 100 years ago, whereas myotonic dystrophy type 2 was identified only 18 years ago, after genetic testing for type 1 disease could be applied. Both diseases are caused by autosomal dominant nucleotide repeat expansions. In patients with myotonic dystrophy type 1, a (CTG)n expansion is present in DMPK, whereas in patients with type 2 disease, there is a (CCTG)n expansion in CNBP. When transcribed into CUG-containing RNA, mutant transcripts aggregate as nuclear foci that sequester RNA-binding proteins, resulting in a spliceopathy of downstream effector genes. The prevailing paradigm therefore is that both disorders are toxic RNA diseases. However, research indicates several additional pathogenic effects take place with respect to protein translation and turnover. Despite clinical and genetic similarities, myotonic dystrophy type 1 and type 2 are distinct disorders requiring different diagnostic and management strategies. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

Background-Oxidized low-density lipoprotein may be a key factor in the development of atherosclerosis. We performed a genome-wide association study on oxidized low-density lipoprotein and tested the impact of associated single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) on the risk factors of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular events. Methods and Results-A discovery genome-wide association study was performed on a population of young healthy white individuals (N=2080), and the SNPs associated with a P<5×10 -8 were replicated in 2 independent samples (A: N=2912; B: N=1326). Associations with cardiovascular endpoints were also assessed with 2 additional clinical cohorts (C: N=1118; and D: N=808). We found 328 SNPs associated with oxidized low-density lipoprotein. The genetic variant rs676210 (Pro2739Leu) in apolipoprotein B was the proxy SNP behind all associations (P=4.3×10 -136, effect size=13.2 U/L per allele). This association was replicated in the 2 independent samples (A and B, P=2.5×10-47 and 1.1×10-11, effect sizes=10.3 U/L and 7.8 U/L, respectively). In the meta-analyses of cohorts A, C, and D (excluding cohort B without angiographic data), the top SNP did not associate significantly with the age of onset of angiographically verified coronary artery disease (hazard ratio=1.00 [0.94-1.06] per allele), 3-vessel coronary artery disease (hazard ratio=1.03 [0.94-1.13]), or myocardial infarction (hazard ratio=1.04 [0.96-1.12]). Conclusions-This novel genetic marker is an important factor regulating oxidized low-density lipoprotein levels but not a major genetic factor for the studied cardiovascular endpoints. © 2012 American Heart Association, Inc.

Vesikari T.,University of Tampere
Clinical Microbiology and Infection | Year: 2012

Live attenuated oral rotavirus vaccines were tested for proof-of-concept in the early 1980s, the first vaccine (RotaShield®, Wyeth) was introduced in 1998 but was subsequently withdrawn because of association with intussusception, and the two currently licensed vaccine (Rotarix®, GlaxoSmithKline, and RotaTeq®, Merck) were introduced in 2006. Before licensure both vaccines were extensively tested for safety (for intussusception) and efficacy in trials comprising in over 60000 infants each. Rotarix is a single-strain human rotavirus vaccine (RV1) and RotaTeq is a combination of five bovine-human reassortant rotaviruses (RV5). Although the composition of the two vaccines is different, their field effectiveness and, largely, mechanism of action are similar. Both prevent effectively severe rotavirus gastroenteritis (RVGE) but are less efficacious against mild RVGE or rotavirus infection. Field effectiveness of these vaccines in Europe and the USA against severe RVGE has been above 90% and in Latin America around 80%. Trials in Africa have yielded efficacy rates between 50 and 80%. Rotavirus vaccination has been introduced into the national immunization programmes of about 20 countries in Latin America, with Brazil and Mexico as leading countries, as well as in the USA, Australia and South Africa. Introduction into other African countries will start in 2012. In Europe, Belgium, Luxembourg, Austria and Finland and five federal states of Germany have introduced universal rotavirus vaccination. The reasons for the slow progress in Europe include low mortality from RVGE, unfavourable cost-benefit calculations in some countries, and concerns that still exist over intussusception. © 2012 The Author. Clinical Microbiology and Infection © 2012 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases.

Rantala S.,University of Tampere
European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases | Year: 2014

The importance of group C and G Streptococcus dysgalactiae subspecies equisimilis (S. dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis) as a significant pathogen has recently been better recognized. S. dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis disease can range in severity from milder skin and soft-tissue conditions such as wound infection, erysipelas, and cellulitis, to life-threatening necrotizing fasciitis and streptococcal toxic shock syndrome, thus sharing the clinical picture with S. pyogenes. The most common clinical manifestation of bacteremia is cellulitis. An increase in the incidence of S. dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis bacteremia has been recognized. Invasive forms of this infection are most commonly found in elderly patients with underlying comorbidities and skin breakdown. The case fatality in bacteremia has been reported to be 15-18 %. In this review, the epidemiology, clinical characteristics, and emm types of S. dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis bacteremia are summarized. © 2014 Springer-Verlag.

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