Szeged, Hungary

University of Szeged

www.u-szeged.hu
Szeged, Hungary

The University of Szeged is a large research university in Hungary. It is located in Hungary's fourth-largest city, Szeged, in Csongrád County in the Southern Great Plain. The University is one of Hungary's most important universities and is among the most prominent higher education institutions in Central Europe. According to the Academic Ranking of World Universities by Shanghai Jiao Tong University , it was ranked 203rd–300th in the complete list , 80th–123rd in the scientific ranking of European universities, and first in the Hungarian national ranking. In 2013 it was ranked 401-500 in the world, 124th–168th in the scientific ranking of European universities, and second in the national ranking. In 2014, the QS World University Rankings put the University of Szeged as 501-550 among universities globally. Its highest ranked area was Modern Languages with 101-150 globally. The University's operating budget for 2014 was US$220 million. Wikipedia.

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Horvath S.,Vanderbilt University | Horvath S.,University of Szeged | Mirnics K.,Vanderbilt University | Mirnics K.,University of Szeged
Biological Psychiatry | Year: 2015

Over the last decade, transcriptome studies of postmortem tissue from subjects with schizophrenia revealed that synaptic, mitochondrial, immune system, gamma-aminobutyric acidergic, and oligodendrocytic changes are all integral parts of the disease process. The combined genetic and transcriptomic studies argue that the molecular underpinnings of the disease are even more varied than the symptomatic diversity of schizophrenia. Ultimately, to decipher the pathophysiology of human disorders in general, we will need to understand the function of hundreds of genes and regulatory elements in our genome and the consequences of their overexpression and reduced expression in a developmental context. Furthermore, integration of knowledge from various data sources remains a monumental challenge that has to be systematically addressed in the upcoming decades. In the end, our success in interpreting the molecular changes in schizophrenia will depend on our ability to understand the biology using innovative ideas and cannot depend on the hope of developing novel, more powerful technologies. © 2015 Society of Biological Psychiatry.


Horvath S.,Vanderbilt University | Horvath S.,University of Szeged | Mirnics K.,Vanderbilt University | Mirnics K.,University of Szeged
Biological Psychiatry | Year: 2014

Epidemiological, genetic, transcriptome, postmortem, peripheral biomarker, and therapeutic studies of schizophrenia all point to a dysregulation of both innate and adaptive immune systems in the disease, and it is likely that these immune changes actively contribute to disease symptoms. Gene expression disturbances in the brain of subjects with schizophrenia show complex, region-specific changes with consistently replicated and potentially interdependent induction of serpin peptidase inhibitor, clade A member 3 (SERPINA3) and interferon inducible transmembrane protein (IFITM) family transcripts in the prefrontal cortex. Recent data suggest that IFITM3 expression is a critical mediator of maternal immune activation. Because the IFITM gene family is primarily expressed in the endothelial cells and meninges, and because the meninges play a critical role in interneuron development, we suggest that these two non-neuronal cell populations might play an important role in the disease pathophysiology. Finally, we propose that IFITM3 in particular might be a novel, appealing, knowledge-based drug target for treatment of schizophrenia. © 2014 Society of Biological Psychiatry.


Szabo M.,University of Szeged | Gulya K.,University of Szeged
Neuroscience | Year: 2013

Selected morphological, molecular and functional aspects of various microglial cell populations were characterized in cell cultures established from the forebrains of E18 rat embryos. The mixed primary cortical cultures were maintained for up to 28. days using routine culturing techniques when the microglial cells in the culture were not stimulated or immunologically challenged. During culturing, expansion of the microglial cell populations was observed, as evidenced by quantitative assessment of selected monocyte/macrophage/microglial cell-specific markers (human leukocyte antigen (HLA) DP, DQ, DR, CD11b/c and Iba1) via immunocyto- and histochemistry and Western blot analysis. The Iba1 immunoreactivity in Western blots steadily increased about 750-fold, and the number of Iba1-immunoreactive cells rose at least 67-fold between one day in vitro (DIV1) and DIV28. Morphometric analysis on binary (digital) silhouettes of the microglia revealed their evolving morphology during culturing. Microglial cells were mainly ameboid in the early stages of in vitro differentiation, while mixed populations of ameboid and ramified cell morphologies were characteristic of older cultures as the average transformation index (TI) increased from 1.96 (DIV1) to 15.17 (DIV28). Multiple immunofluorescence labeling of selected biomarkers revealed different microglial phenotypes during culturing. For example, while HLA DP, DQ, DR immunoreactivity was present exclusively in ameboid microglia (TI < 3) between DIV1 and DIV10, CD11b/c- and Iba1-positive microglial cells were moderately (TI < 13) and progressively (TI < 81) more ramified, respectively, and always present throughout culturing. Regardless of the age of the cultures, proliferating microglia were Ki67-positive and characterized by low TI values (TI < 3). The microglial function was assessed by an in vitro phagocytosis assay. Unstimulated microglia with low TI values were significantly more active in phagocytosing fluorescent microspheres than the ramified forms. In vitro studies on microglial population dynamics combined with phenotypic characterization can be of importance when different in vivo pathophysiological situations are modeled in vitro. © 2013 IBRO.


Kiss L.,University of Szeged | Fulop F.,University of Szeged | Fulop F.,Hungarian Academy of Sciences
Chemical Reviews | Year: 2014

Alicyclic and heterocyclic β-amino acids become an expanding area in organic and medicinal chemistry. The biological characteristics of the cyclic β-amino acids as independent molecular entities, together with their usage as precursors of different heterocycles, as chiral auxiliaries in asymmetric syntheses, and as precursors of β-lactams and in foldamer chemistry. Reductive amination of β-keto esters is a suitable method also for the synthesis of functionalized racemic carbocyclic β-amino acids. Carbocyclic β-amino acids can be prepared from acyclic β-amino acid derivatives by ring-closing metathesis. An important advantage of this methodology is that it gives cyclic β-amino acids whose olefinic bond may be functionalized to yield novel substituted derivatives. Stereoselective conjugate addition of an amine nucleophile derivative to an α,β-unsaturated carboxylate is an efficient strategy for access to five- or six-membered cyclic β-amino acids.


Dombi J.,University of Szeged
Information Sciences | Year: 2013

Here our starting point is a study of connection with Dombi aggregative operators, uninorms, strict t-norms and t-conorms. We present a new representation theorem of strong negations that explicitly contains the neutral value. Then the relationships for aggregative operators and strong negations are verified as well as those for the t-norm and t-conorm using the Pan operator concept. We introduce the multiplicative pliant concept and give the necessary and sufficient conditions for it. We study a certain class of weighted aggregative operators (representable uninorms) which build a self-DeMorgan class with infinitely many negations. We provide the necessary and sufficient conditions for these operators. © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.


Anaerobic bacteria predominate in the normal flora of humans and are important, often life-threatening pathogens in mixed infections originating from the indigenous microbiota. The isolation and identification of anaerobes by phenotypic and DNA-based molecular methods at a species level is time-consuming and laborious. Following the successful adaptation of the matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry for the routine laboratory identification of bacteria, the extensive development of a database has been initiated to use this method for the identification of anaerobic bacteria. Not only frequently isolated anaerobic species, but also newly recognized and taxonomically rearranged genera and species can be identified using direct smear samples or whole-cell protein extraction, and even phylogenetically closely related species can be identified correctly by means of matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Typing of anaerobic bacteria on a subspecies level, determination of antibiotic resistance and direct identification of blood culture isolates will revolutionize anaerobe bacteriology in the near future. © 2014 Future Medicine Ltd.


In this paper, we construct canonical action-angle variables for both the hyperbolic BCn Sutherland and the rational BCn Ruijsenaars-Schneider-van Diejen models with three independent coupling constants. As a byproduct of our symplectic reduction approach, we establish the action-angle duality between these many-particle systems. The presented dual reduction picture builds upon the construction of a Lax matrix for the BCn-type rational Ruijsenaars-Schneider-van Diejen model. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.


Martinek T.A.,University of Szeged | Fulop F.,University of Szeged
Chemical Society Reviews | Year: 2012

Non-natural folded polymers (foldamers) display considerable versatility, and the design of such molecules is of great current interest. In this respect, peptidic foldamers are perhaps the best-characterized systems, as they populate a number of residue-controlled secondary structures, which have found various biological applications and have also led to the creation of nanostructured materials. This critical review covers recent developments related to diverse building blocks and modern foldamer design principles, such as the stereochemical patterning methods. The recent achievements concerning tertiary/quaternary structures and the self-assembling foldameric nanostructures are also addressed (176 references). © 2012 The Royal Society of Chemistry.


Molnar A.,University of Szeged
Chemical Reviews | Year: 2011

Literature information of palladium-catalyzed coupling reactions performed with efficient and recyclable catalyst systems with focus on the three major transformations and relevant data for related coupling reactions studied less frequently is compiled. Choudary and co-workers exchanged Cl ions of a layered double hydroxide (LDH) for PdCl4 2- ions and reduced the resulting material with hydrazine hydrate to get catalyst 10.1% Pd-LDH. Gladysz and Rocaboy have studied thermomorphic fluorous N-donor and S-donor palladacycles in Heck coupling. A heavily fluorinated 1,3,5-triazine-based aromatic sulfur compound bearing functional groups with high affinity for metals was synthesized and used as stabilizer of Pd nanoparticles. Cho described a method to carry out the coupling of aroyl chlorides with NaBPh4 in the presence of Pd nanoparticles generated by reacting Pd(OAc)2 and PEG-2000 as described earlier to furnish diaryl ketones.


A highly conserved histidine-rich region with unknown function was recognized in the large subunit of [NiFe] hydrogenases. The HxHxxHxxHxH sequence occurs in most membrane-bound hydrogenases, but only two of these histidines are present in the cytoplasmic ones. Site-directed mutagenesis of the His-rich region of the T. roseopersicina membrane-attached Hyn hydrogenase disclosed that the enzyme activity was significantly affected only by the replacement of the His104 residue. Computational analysis of the hydrogen bond network in the large subunits indicated that the second histidine of this motif might be a component of a proton transfer pathway including Arg487, Asp103, His104 and Glu436. Substitutions of the conserved amino acids of the presumed transfer route impaired the activity of the Hyn hydrogenase. Western hybridization was applied to demonstrate that the cellular level of the mutant hydrogenases was similar to that of the wild type. Mostly based on theoretical modeling, few proton transfer pathways have already been suggested for [NiFe] hydrogenases. Our results propose an alternative route for proton transfer between the [NiFe] active center and the surface of the protein. A novel feature of this model is that this proton pathway is located on the opposite side of the large subunit relative to the position of the small subunit. This is the first study presenting a systematic analysis of an in silico predicted proton translocation pathway in [NiFe] hydrogenases by site-directed mutagenesis.

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