The University of Sydney is a public university located in Sydney, New South Wales. The main campus spreads across the suburbs of Camperdown and Darlington on the southwestern outskirts of the Sydney CBD. Founded in 1850, it is the oldest university in Australia and Oceania. It has 32,393 undergraduate and 16,627 graduate students . The University of Sydney is organised into sixteen faculties and schools, through which it offers bachelor's degrees, master's degrees, and doctoral degrees. Wikipedia.
Salk Institute for Biological Studies and University of Sydney | Date: 2016-09-12
Novel compounds having a formula embodiments of a method of making the same, and of a composition comprising them are disclosed herein. Also disclosed are embodiments of a method of treating or preventing a metabolic disorder in a subject, comprising administering to a subject (e.g., via the gastrointestinal tract) a therapeutically effective amount of one or more of the disclosed compounds, thereby activating FXR receptors in the intestines, and treating or preventing a metabolic disorder in the subject. Additionally disclosed are embodiments of a method of treating or preventing inflammation in an intestinal region of a subject, comprising administering to the subject (e.g., via the gastrointestinal tract) a therapeutically effective amount of one or more of the disclosed compounds, thereby activating FXR receptors in the intestines, and thereby treating or preventing inflammation in the intestinal region of the subject.
University of Sydney | Date: 2015-03-12
Elliot S.,University of Sydney
MIS Quarterly: Management Information Systems | Year: 2011
The quality and future of human existence are directly related to the condition of our natural environment, but we are damaging the environment. Scientific evidence has mounted a compelling case that human behavior is responsible for deterioration in the Earth's natural environment, with the rate of deterioration predicted to increase in the future. Acknowledging this evidence, the governments of 192 countries have formally agreed to take action to resolve problems with the climate system, one of the most highly stressed parts of the natural environment. While the intention is clear, the question of how best to proceed is not. The research reported here undertook a three-phase approach of selecting, analyzing, and synthesizing relevant literature to develop a holistic, transdisciplinary, integrative framework for IT-enabled business transformation. The focus on business transformation is because business is recognized as being a critical contributor in realizing the challenges of environmental sustainability due to its potential capacity for innovation and change-locally, nationally, and globally. This article also serves as a resource base for researchers to begin to undertake significant information systems and multidisciplinary work toward the goal of environmental sustainability. Through selection and analysis of illustrative examples of current work from 12 academic disciplines across 6 core categories, the framework addresses the key issues of uncertainty: (1) What is meant by environmental sustainability? (2) What are its major challenges? (3) What is being done about these challenges? (4) What needs to be done?.
Menicucci N.C.,University of Sydney
Physical Review Letters | Year: 2014
A long-standing open question about Gaussian continuous-variable cluster states is whether they enable fault-tolerant measurement-based quantum computation. The answer is yes. Initial squeezing in the cluster above a threshold value of 20.5 dB ensures that errors from finite squeezing acting on encoded qubits are below the fault-tolerance threshold of known qubit-based error-correcting codes. By concatenating with one of these codes and using ancilla-based error correction, fault-tolerant measurement-based quantum computation of theoretically indefinite length is possible with finitely squeezed cluster states. © 2014 American Physical Society.
Baxter R.C.,University of Sydney
Nature Reviews Cancer | Year: 2014
The six members of the family of insulin-like growth factor (IGF) binding proteins (IGFBPs) were originally characterized as passive reservoirs of circulating IGFs, but they are now understood to have many actions beyond their endocrine role in IGF transport. IGFBPs also function in the pericellular and intracellular compartments to regulate cell growth and survival-they interact with many proteins, in addition to their canonical ligands IGF-I and IGF-II. Intranuclear roles of IGFBPs in transcriptional regulation, induction of apoptosis and DNA damage repair point to their intimate involvement in tumour development, progression and resistance to treatment. Tissue or circulating IGFBPs might also be useful as prognostic biomarkers. © 2014 Macmillan Publishers Limited.
Chen M.,University of Sydney
Annual Review of Biochemistry | Year: 2014
Chlorophylls are magnesium-tetrapyrrole molecules that play essential roles in photosynthesis. All chlorophylls have similar five-membered ring structures, with variations in the side chains and/or reduction states. Formyl group substitutions on the side chains of chlorophyll a result in the different absorption properties of chlorophyll b, chlorophyll d, and chlorophyll f. These formyl substitution derivatives exhibit different spectral shifts according to the formyl substitution position. Not only does the presence of various types of chlorophylls allow the photosynthetic organism to harvest sunlight at different wavelengths to enhance light energy input, but the pigment composition of oxygenic photosynthetic organisms also reflects the spectral properties on the surface of the Earth. Two major environmental luencing factors are light and oxygen levels, which may play central roles in the regulatory pathways leading to the different chlorophylls. I review the biochemical processes of chlorophyll biosynthesis and their regulatory mechanisms. Copyright © 2014 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved.
Jackson S.D.,University of Sydney
Nature Photonics | Year: 2012
The diverse output pulsewidths, linewidths and polarization states of fibre lasers provide both high efficiency and high output power in a small, low-maintenance format that is ideal for applications throughout research, defence and industry. New directions are constantly being pursued to exploit the capabilities of this technology. One such direction involves extending the emission wavelength further into the infrared, which will benefit numerous existing and future applications. Many exciting advances have been demonstrated and many challenges remain, the most significant of which are summarized in this Review. © 2012 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.
Partridge S.R.,University of Sydney
FEMS Microbiology Reviews | Year: 2011
Antibiotic resistance in Gram-negative bacteria is often due to the acquisition of resistance genes from a shared pool. In multiresistant isolates these genes, together with associated mobile elements, may be found in complex conglomerations on plasmids or on the chromosome. Analysis of available sequences reveals that these multiresistance regions (MRR) are modular, mosaic structures composed of different combinations of components from a limited set arranged in a limited number of ways. Components common to different MRR provide targets for homologous recombination, allowing these regions to evolve by combinatorial evolution, but our understanding of this process is far from complete. Advances in technology are leading to increasing amounts of sequence data, but currently available automated annotation methods usually focus on identifying ORFs and predicting protein function by homology. In MRR, where the genes are often well characterized, the challenge is to identify precisely which genes are present and to define the boundaries of complete and fragmented mobile elements. This review aims to summarize the types of mobile elements involved in multiresistance in Gram-negative bacteria and their associations with particular resistance genes, to describe common components of MRR and to illustrate methods for detailed analysis of these regions. © 2011 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Ho S.Y.W.,University of Sydney
Trends in Ecology and Evolution | Year: 2014
The molecular clock has played an important role in biological research, both as a description of the evolutionary process and as a tool for inferring evolutionary timescales. Genomic data have provided valuable insights into the molecular clock, allowing the patterns and causes of evolutionary rate variation to be characterized in increasing detail. I explain how genome sequences offer exciting opportunities for estimating the timescale of the Tree of Life. I describe the different approaches that have been used to deal with the computational and statistical challenges encountered in molecular clock analyses of genomic data. Finally, I offer a perspective on the future of molecular clocks, highlighting some of the key limitations and the most promising research directions. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.
Graeber M.B.,University of Sydney
Science | Year: 2010
Microglia are resident brain cells that sense pathological tissue alterations. They can develop into brain macrophages and perform immunological functions. However, expression of immune proteins by microglia is not synonymous with inflammation, because these molecules can have central nervous system (CNS)-specific roles. Through their involvement in pain mechanisms, microglia also respond to external threats. Experimental studies support the idea that microglia have a role in the maintenance of synaptic integrity. Analogous to electricians, they are capable of removing defunct axon terminals, thereby helping neuronal connections to stay intact. Microglia in healthy CNS tissue do not qualify as macrophages, and their specific functions are beginning to be explored.