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Sydney, Australia

The University of Sydney is a public university located in Sydney, New South Wales. The main campus spreads across the suburbs of Camperdown and Darlington on the southwestern outskirts of the Sydney CBD. Founded in 1850, it is the oldest university in Australia and Oceania. It has 32,393 undergraduate and 16,627 graduate students . The University of Sydney is organised into sixteen faculties and schools, through which it offers bachelor's degrees, master's degrees, and doctoral degrees. Wikipedia.

Baxter R.C.,University of Sydney
Nature Reviews Cancer | Year: 2014

The six members of the family of insulin-like growth factor (IGF) binding proteins (IGFBPs) were originally characterized as passive reservoirs of circulating IGFs, but they are now understood to have many actions beyond their endocrine role in IGF transport. IGFBPs also function in the pericellular and intracellular compartments to regulate cell growth and survival-they interact with many proteins, in addition to their canonical ligands IGF-I and IGF-II. Intranuclear roles of IGFBPs in transcriptional regulation, induction of apoptosis and DNA damage repair point to their intimate involvement in tumour development, progression and resistance to treatment. Tissue or circulating IGFBPs might also be useful as prognostic biomarkers. © 2014 Macmillan Publishers Limited. Source

Chen M.,University of Sydney
Annual Review of Biochemistry | Year: 2014

Chlorophylls are magnesium-tetrapyrrole molecules that play essential roles in photosynthesis. All chlorophylls have similar five-membered ring structures, with variations in the side chains and/or reduction states. Formyl group substitutions on the side chains of chlorophyll a result in the different absorption properties of chlorophyll b, chlorophyll d, and chlorophyll f. These formyl substitution derivatives exhibit different spectral shifts according to the formyl substitution position. Not only does the presence of various types of chlorophylls allow the photosynthetic organism to harvest sunlight at different wavelengths to enhance light energy input, but the pigment composition of oxygenic photosynthetic organisms also reflects the spectral properties on the surface of the Earth. Two major environmental luencing factors are light and oxygen levels, which may play central roles in the regulatory pathways leading to the different chlorophylls. I review the biochemical processes of chlorophyll biosynthesis and their regulatory mechanisms. Copyright © 2014 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved. Source

Jackson S.D.,University of Sydney
Nature Photonics | Year: 2012

The diverse output pulsewidths, linewidths and polarization states of fibre lasers provide both high efficiency and high output power in a small, low-maintenance format that is ideal for applications throughout research, defence and industry. New directions are constantly being pursued to exploit the capabilities of this technology. One such direction involves extending the emission wavelength further into the infrared, which will benefit numerous existing and future applications. Many exciting advances have been demonstrated and many challenges remain, the most significant of which are summarized in this Review. © 2012 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved. Source

Ho S.Y.W.,University of Sydney
Trends in Ecology and Evolution | Year: 2014

The molecular clock has played an important role in biological research, both as a description of the evolutionary process and as a tool for inferring evolutionary timescales. Genomic data have provided valuable insights into the molecular clock, allowing the patterns and causes of evolutionary rate variation to be characterized in increasing detail. I explain how genome sequences offer exciting opportunities for estimating the timescale of the Tree of Life. I describe the different approaches that have been used to deal with the computational and statistical challenges encountered in molecular clock analyses of genomic data. Finally, I offer a perspective on the future of molecular clocks, highlighting some of the key limitations and the most promising research directions. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Graeber M.B.,University of Sydney
Science | Year: 2010

Microglia are resident brain cells that sense pathological tissue alterations. They can develop into brain macrophages and perform immunological functions. However, expression of immune proteins by microglia is not synonymous with inflammation, because these molecules can have central nervous system (CNS)-specific roles. Through their involvement in pain mechanisms, microglia also respond to external threats. Experimental studies support the idea that microglia have a role in the maintenance of synaptic integrity. Analogous to electricians, they are capable of removing defunct axon terminals, thereby helping neuronal connections to stay intact. Microglia in healthy CNS tissue do not qualify as macrophages, and their specific functions are beginning to be explored. Source

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