Kwaluseni, Swaziland

University of Swaziland
Kwaluseni, Swaziland

The University of Swaziland is the national university of Swaziland. It was established by act of parliament in 1982. The university developed from the University of Botswana, Lesotho and Swaziland , formerly known as the University of Basutoland, Bechuanaland and Swaziland , which was established in 1964. It became the University of Botswana and Swaziland in 1976 and then became an independent national university in 1982.The university is divided into seven faculties, which are located in the three campuses of the university. Luyengo campus houses the faculty of Agriculture, Mbabane campus is home to the faculty of Health science, and Kwaluseni campus is the main campus. The university of Swaziland is mainly an undergraduate institution, offering bachelors degrees. There are a few postgraduate programs including onePh.D. program.The head of the university is the Chancellor who is His Majesty King Mswati III. Its daily management is the responsibility of the Vice Chancellor, who currently is Professor Cisco Magagula. UNISWA is home to various research centers and institutes. The university also publishes some research periodicals such as the UNISWA Research Journal of Agriculture, Science and Technology and the UNISWA Research Journal. Wikipedia.

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Sudano I.,University of Swaziland | Roas S.,University of Swaziland | Noll G.,University of Swaziland
Current Pharmaceutical Design | Year: 2011

Arterial hypertension is a very common disease and an important risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Patients with arterial hypertension are characterized by functional and structural vascular abnormalities. Vascular endothelium plays a fundamental role in modulating vascular tone and structure. The physiological production of the relaxing factors including nitric oxide, prostacyclin and hyperpolarizing relaxing factors protects the vessel wall by antagonizing the first pathogenetic steps of atherosclerosis and thrombosis. Endothelial cells may also produce endothelium-derived contracting factors. The principal component of these contracting factors is endothelin-1, which promotes the growth of the smooth muscle cells and has a vasoconstrictive and blood pressure raising effect. Defective nitric oxide production is already detectable in normotensive offspring of hypertensive patients and young essential hypertensives. A dysfunctional endothelium due to reduced nitric oxide availability associated with an increased production of oxidative stress and vasoconstricting factors is considered as an early indicator of atherothrombotic damage and of cardiovascular events also in patients with arterial hypertension. Moreover, patients with arterial hypertension are also characterized by increased arterial stiffness. This parameter, known as a sign of cardiovascular risk since the 19th century, has been shown to be a predictor of adverse cardiovascular outcome and its measurement in hypertensive patients is suggested by the European guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of hypertension. © 2011 Bentham Science Publishers.

Mkhonta S.K.,Wayne State University | Mkhonta S.K.,University of Swaziland | Elder K.R.,Oakland University | Huang Z.-F.,Wayne State University
Physical Review Letters | Year: 2013

The world of two-dimensional crystals is of great significance for the design and study of structural and functional materials with novel properties. Here we examine the mechanisms governing the formation and dynamics of these crystalline or polycrystalline states and their elastic and plastic properties by constructing a generic multimode phase field crystal model. Our results demonstrate that a system with three competing length scales can order into all five Bravais lattices, and other more complex structures including honeycomb, kagome, and other hybrid phases. In addition, nonequilibrium phase transitions are examined to illustrate the complex phase behavior described by the model. This model provides a systematic path to predict the influence of lattice symmetry on both the structure and dynamics of crystalline and defected systems. © 2013 American Physical Society.

Remy C.,University of Swaziland
Interactions | Year: 2013

Sustainability in (Inter)Action provides a forum for innovative thought, design, and research in the area of interaction design and environmental sustainability. The column explores how HCI can contribute to the complex and interdisciplinary efforts to address sustainability challenges. © 2013 ACM 1072-5520/13/05 $15.00.

Sirami C.,South African National Biodiversity Institute | Sirami C.,University of Cape Town | Monadjem A.,University of Swaziland
Diversity and Distributions | Year: 2012

Aim: This study investigates changes in bird communities between 1998 and 2008 in four savanna sites in Swaziland and the extent to which shrub encroachment is responsible for these changes. Location: Swaziland, southern Africa. Methods: Generalized estimated equations were used to estimate changes in bird species occurrence between 1998 and 2008. Remote sensing of aerial photographs/satellite images was used to assess vegetation changes during the same period. We assessed the role of shrub encroachment for bird communities by testing the relationship between change in species occurrence and species habitat using a general linear model. We also estimated species richness, colonization and extinction and used general linear models to test the effects of vegetation changes on these parameters. Results: More than half of the bird species showed a significant change in occurrence between 1998 and 2008: 32 species increased and 29 decreased. Change in species occurrence was significantly explained by species habitat. Species significantly increasing were mainly associated with wooded savanna, whereas species significantly decreasing were mainly associated with open savanna. Species richness decreased significantly, and this decrease was significantly explained by shrub cover increase at the plot scale (from 24% to 44% on average). Extinction at the plot scale was significantly influenced by the loss of grass cover, while colonization at the plot scale was influenced by tree cover increase. Main conclusions: This study represents the first evidence of temporal changes in bird communities owing to shrub encroachment in southern Africa. Despite its short time frame (10years), this study shows dramatic changes in both vegetation structure and bird community composition. This confirms the general concern for southern African bird species associated with open savanna if current trends continue. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

Motsa S.S.,University of Swaziland
International Journal of Modeling, Simulation, and Scientific Computing | Year: 2011

In this paper, a very efficient and easy-to-use successive linearization approach for solving nonlinear differential equations is proposed. The implementation of the method is demonstrated by solving three nonlinear differential equations of different complexities arising in heat transfer. New closed form explicit analytic solutions of some of the governing nonlinear equations are obtained and compared with the results of the proposed method and with numerical solutions from the MATLAB in-built routine bvp4c. © 2011 World Scientific Publishing Company.

Erdmann L.,TU Berlin | Hilty L.M.,University of Swaziland
Journal of Industrial Ecology | Year: 2010

Summary: During the past decade, several macroeconomic studies on the potentials of information and communication technology (ICT) to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions have been published. The mitigation potentials identified in them vary to a high degree, mainly because they are not consistently defined and diverse methodologies are applied. The characteristics of ICT-exceptional dynamics of innovation and diffusion, social embedment and cross-sector application, diverse and complex impact patterns-are a challenge for macroeconomic studies that quantify ICT impacts on GHG emissions. This article first reviews principal macroeconomic studies on ICT and GHG emissions. In the second part, we reconsider our own study on this topic and present an in-depth scenario analysis of the future impacts of ICT applications on GHG emissions. We conclude that forthcoming macroeconomic studies could strengthen the state of the art in environmental ICT impact modeling (1) by accounting for the dynamics of new ICT applications and their first-, second-, and third-order effects on a global scale, (2) by reflecting the error margins resulting from data uncertainty in the final results, and (3) by using scenario techniques to explore future uncertainty and its impacts on the results. © 2010 by Yale University.

Vilane B.R.T.,University of Swaziland
Biosystems Engineering | Year: 2010

Stabilised adobe blocks are sun-dried earth blocks moulded from a plastic mixture of soil and stabiliser that improves their strength characteristics through bonding and limiting water absorption. Despite their use, the stabilising effect of some stabilisers used globally has not been established. The effect of molasses, cow-dung, sawdust and ordinary Portland cement (OPC) stabilisers on the compressive strength of adobe blocks was investigated. The dry and wet confined compressive strengths experiments used ran parallel for each treatment. The experiments were factorial with four treatments, two sub treatments (6 and 9-inch blocks) and three replications. Each treatment had five soils with stabiliser proportions 0%, 5%, 10%, 15%, and 20%. The subsoil used contained 10% clay, 85% sand and 5% silt, which is equivalent to the classification Ustoxic quartzipsamments in the Soil Taxonomy. The results demonstrated that with suitable soil, molasses, cow-dung and sawdust could be used as effective stabilisers. Molasses produced an optimum strength of 8.1 N mm-2 with a proportion of 5% stabiliser. Cow-dung produced an optimum strength of 2.8 N mm-2 with a proportion of 10%. Sawdust and OPC reached optimum strengths of 3.3 N mm-2 and 11.1 N mm-2 at 15% and 20% stabiliser proportions respectively. OPC stabilised blocks attained higher confined compressive strengths than all stabilisers. © 2010 IAgrE.

Mathunjwa-Dlamini T.R.,University of Swaziland
Journal of National Black Nurses' Association : JNBNA | Year: 2011

Menopause affects all women regardless of race, socio-economic backgrounds, and geographic locale. Annually, about 1.7 million women reach menopause in the United States. African-American women experience more health disparities, higher poverty levels, have more disabilities, more severe physiological symptoms of menopause, limited health insurance, more hypertensive and diabetic related conditions, and shorter life spans when compared with their White counterparts. African-American menopausal women have not been adequately included in scientific research and health-policy related studies that have addressed their health status and wellbeing. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between personal characteristics and health status among rural southern African-American menopausal women. This descriptive correlational study used secondary data obtained from 206 southern rural African-American women between 40 and 60 years of age. The study findings revealed that knowledge on menopause, social support, being employed full-time, and decision-making were significantly associated with favorable self-perceived physical health status.

Motsa S.S.,University of Swaziland | Sibanda P.,University of KwaZulu - Natal
International Journal for Numerical Methods in Fluids | Year: 2012

The problem of magneto-hydrodynamic fluid flow past a nonlinear stretching sheet in the presence of a transverse magnetic field is analyzed. The governing equations are transformed into a nonlinear ordinary differential equation that is solved using a novel spectral homotopy analysis method and the Matlab in-built numerical solverttbvp4c. The new technique removes some known limitations of the homotopy analysis method and offers a more systematic way of selecting initial approximations and the optimal auxiliary parameter ℏ. A comparison with the numerical solution confirms the robustness, the computational efficiency, and the accuracy of the technique. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Ossom E.M.,University of Swaziland
International Journal of Agriculture and Biology | Year: 2010

Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is a tuber crop newly introduced in Swaziland. Filter cake is a byproduct of sugarcane processing. In this research, cassava (varieties Nyasa & Line 65) was grown in the field, using filter cake as a fertilizer with the objective to determine the effects of filter cake on weed infestation, disease incidence, insect pest infestation, and storage root yield. Results showed that filter cake improved cassava tuber yields (no filter cake, 400-1,090 kg ha-1; with filter cake, 975-3,510 kg ha-1). Weed infestation was negatively correlated to tuber yield at 12 weeks after planting (WAP) (r = - 0.714; R2 = 0.5098; p < 0.01) and 32 WAP (r = - 0.390; R2 = 0.1521; significant, p > 0.05). Nyasa variety was more infected by cassava leaf mosaic (disease score, 4.5 out of 6.0), than Line 65 (disease score, 2.4 out of 6.0). Insect pest scores were significantly (p < 0.01) higher for Nyasa (insect pest score, 3.8 out of 6.0) than for Line 65 (insect score, 2.0 out of 6.0). The storage root yield (2,893 kg ha-1) of Line 65 was significantly (p < 0.01) higher than Nyasa (1,443 kg ha-1). To conclude, Line 65 is recommended under filter cake application at 60 t ha-1. © 2010 Friends Science Publishers.

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