Saidu Sharif, Pakistan
Saidu Sharif, Pakistan

The University of Swat is a public sector University The Main Campus of University of Swat is situated at Odigram, 4 km distance from main city Mingora district Swat Khyber Pukhtunkhwa Pakistan. Wikipedia.

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Sher H.,University of Swat | Bussmann R.W.,Missouri Botanical Garden | Hart R.,Missouri Botanical Garden | De Boer H.J.,Uppsala University | De Boer H.J.,University of Oslo
Journal of Ethnopharmacology | Year: 2016

Ethnopharmacological relevance The traditional use of medicinal plants for the treatment of human and livestock ailments is important to indigenous communities in the northern parts of Pakistan, and considered to be a valuable local biological and sociocultural heritage. The aim of this study was to obtain a detailed inventory of medicinal plant use and preparation among Kalasha, Ismaeli and Sunni groups. Materials and methods Semi-structured group and individual interviews were carried out with men and women of different age groups that identified themselves as being Kalasha, Ismaeli or Sunni. Interviews were followed up by field visits to collect herbarium vouchers and record in greater detail the exact methods of harvesting, preparation and use on medicinal plants. Results A total of 76 species were recorded for treatment of various diseases. The Kalasha, Ismaili and Sunni ethnic groups have similar medicinal floras, but show striking differences in plant use. Our comparative survey shows that out of all species reported in this study, only 13 species have been reported previously from Chitral District. Conclusions Indigenous knowledge of folk medicine is intricately linked to local culture, religion and history. Any short study can only scratch the surface of this intricate system, but provide an insight into the critical importance of medicinal plants for local livelihoods and the important role these play in health care systems. There is a great need to assess and properly manage the production potential of medicinal plants to ensure sustainable supply of these species for local use and subsistence trade. © 2016 Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

Sher H.,University of Swat | Aldosari A.,King Saud University | Ali A.,University of Swat | De Boer H.J.,Uppsala University | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Ethnopharmacology | Year: 2015

Ethnopharmacological relevance Mapping ethnomedicinal plants and associated indigenous knowledge of folk medicines can provide a comprehensive overview of individual herbs employed in health care. Reliance on medicinal plants in remote parts of northern Pakistan is high, especially among women, but no research has investigated specifically which plants are used. This study investigated indigenous knowledge of folk medicines among tribal minorities in selected sites in upper Swat, Buner and Chitral Districts in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Province. Materials and methods Interviews were conducted with gender-specific focus groups using questionnaires and standardized data sheets, followed by forest walks in each of the visited areas. General medicinal herb use, preparations, storage, marketing and collection habits for each gender group were ascertained from the questionnaires. Results In total 168 women and 390 men were interviewed and provided information on 127 different shared medicinal species. Species use consensus among the informants ranged from 2.3% to 83.3%, with Cynodon dactylon, Avena sativa, Celtis australis, Datura stramonium, Solanum nigrum, Skimmia laureola, Spiraea nervosa, Ziziphus jujuba, Rumex hastatus, Plantago lanceolata, Lathyrus aphaca and Ficus palmata having the highest reported consensus. The survey also revealed that a number of medicinal species were exploited by the community for both marketing and personal use, and many of these species were reported as being rare, vulnerable or even endangered. Conclusions The results revealed that women in all the three districts were important custodians of medicinal plant knowledge, but elder women in general and the women from Buner district in particular had a superior understanding of folk medicine. The forest walks revealed that womens traditional medicinal knowledge was based on a more limited diversity of plant species. People in tribal communities have an expressed interest in learning efficient techniques for medicinal plant collection, preparation, storage and cultivation advice, and to learn more about the potential of marketing medicinal herbs and ways to reach local market centers. Education and awareness were considered to be essential for improved health care and successful marketing. © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

The role of farmers is indispensable for the accomplishment of various human needs. Among these, food is the most significant and crucial one for the survival of human society. But instead of this great importance, farming community always faces financial problems to fulfil their agricultural requirements, both for crop and non-crop activities. The Pakistani farmers face harsh economic realities. Avoiding interest at all costs, as advised in Islam, they do not want to secure any such financing facility whether formal or informal. Being a complete'code of life, Islam suggests alternate ways through the application of various modes of Islamic finance. Among these Ijārah (leasing) is one. The present work discusses the theoretical background of this mode, made available in the scholarly contribution of classical and contemporary Muslim jurists, followed by a viable model proposed for the provision of financing to the lower and middle class farmers. The empirical results make obvious that Ijārah can be effectively used for the development of agricultural sector, particularly its sub-sector of local farming that exists in rural areas of the Country. However, the basic principles, rules and regulations of the transaction, envisaged by Islamic finance, need to be adhered to in order to achieve the intended and anticipated objectives.

Ahmad H.,International Islamic University, Islamabad | Shah I.A.,International Islamic University, Islamabad | Ahmad K.,University of Swat
European Journal of Scientific Research | Year: 2010

This paper investigates the green buying behaviors of Pakistani customers and finds the imperative factors which marketers should take into consideration while devising green advertising strategies. On the basis of previous literature a model was developed and tested having a sample size of 400 students studying in different educational institutions of Pakistan. Mean score of different items were found followed by two step regression analysis. Research findings divulge that Pakistani customers have adequate exposure to print and broadcast media but television advertising is preferred. Pakistanis have concern about their environment and are intend to buy green products. Pakistani customers are pragmatic and advertisers should include maximum information about the product while devising green advertising strategies. The current study has been conducted with small sample size. Besides that the use of students sample may not be an adequate representative of the general population. The skipping of internet and outdoor advertising further limits the scope of the paper. This paper will provide marketers a new insight to comprehend the market of Pakistan. It also endows the researchers with understanding of Pakistani customers attitudes towards green products. © EuroJournals Publishing, Inc. 2010.

Sher H.,University of Swat | Ali H.,University of Swat | Rehman S.,KUST
Pakistan Journal of Botany | Year: 2012

Study on the identification of Important Plant Areas (IPAs) was conducted in seven valleys of Hindukush-Himalayas mountainous ranges of Pakistan during 2005 and 2006. The principal aim of the study is to search new avenues for the conservation and sustainable utilization of threatened medicinal and economic plants and their habitats in IPAs. IPAs are sites of tremendous ecological and economic values that still exist in the world and are being managed on specific sites to study wild plant diversity. Several of such plants are used in the traditional medicines that are being used since the dawn of history to provide basic healthcare to people the world over. According to WHO, 80% of the human population of Africa still use medicinal plants in their primary healthcare. The popularity of herbal drugs is on the constant rise in many developed countries of the world, while in developing countries like Pakistan; medicinal plants contribute significantly to the income sources of people living in remote areas. Keeping such importance in view, the World Health Organization (WHO) launched a global vision in the form of " Global Strategy for Plant Conservation" having various targets and mile stones. Target 5 of the strategy required for the global integration of the herbal medicine in health care system with proper identification of medicinal plants and the conservation of sites where such plants are found naturally, as its basic elements. In order to contribute to the specified target, WHO advised the relevant institutions to develop research plans and conservation programmes that are focused on the Global strategy in general and target 5 in specific. While complementing the appeal and contributing to its vision, a study was conducted in various eco-systems of the Pakistan's Hindukush- Himalayas region, identifying Important Plant Areas (IPAs) for their subsequent conservation and uses for scientific purposes. Site selection for the study was based on: 1). Exceptional vegetation richness for the representative bio-geographic zone; 2). Presence of naturally occurring medicinal herbs with species of global or regional concern, and (3). Threatened habitats that are supporting plant species of medicinal and economic values. Apart from various values of the selected sites such as their scientific and economic importance, the selected sites had a treasure of indigenous knowledge related to the wise uses and conservation of medicinal plants. The study also focused on exploring the complex natural interactions between plants and other organisms; their dependence under various environmental parameters; traditional knowledge of the local inhabitants; and the significance of the landscape to Conserve such plants on long-term basis.

Rehman K.,Quaid-i-Azam University | Mashwani Z.-U.-R.,Pmas Arid Agriculture University | Khan M.A.,Quaid-i-Azam University | Ullah Z.,University of Swat | Chaudhary H.J.,Quaid-i-Azam University
Journal of Ethnopharmacology | Year: 2015

Ethno pharmacological relevance The present study was carried out with an aim to gather, evaluate and analyze the ethno botanical information of medicinal uses of the plant species possessed by the native Khattak tribe of the Chonthra, district Karak Pakistan. The region with poor documentation of traditional knowledge, preserving the local traditional knowledge, reporting new as well as rarely reported medicinal properties of medicinal plants, to be tested experimentally for validation. Material and method The medicinal uses of existing plant species were documented by oral communication with 103 people, all over above 60 years of age, born and residing in Chonthra. Information was gathered by semi-structured interviews with further analysis by indices like Relative frequency citation RFC and Medicinal use value MUV. Results The study resulted with medicinal information on 66 plants species belonging to 34 families (using against 58 health related problems with 83 different preparations mainly administered orally and topical). The dominant families include Brasicaceae and Limiaceae. Withania coagulans and Pegnum harmala were the plant species quoted 100% by the informants with RFC values 1 each. The MUV were scattered between 1.24 and 0.03. The highest MUV were W. coagulans 1.24, Pegnum harmala 1.18, Fagonia cretica 1.14. This study for the first time include Nepeta lagopsis to the ethnobotanical wealth. Conclusions This study was an extension to the ethnobotanical research conducted in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KPK) Pakistan. The target area being small and less number of plants with limited traditional knowledge can serve basis for further work focusing on rarely or non- reported plant species of pharmacological and phytochemical importance with active metabolite capable of broadening the sources of new drugs. © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

Sher H.,University of Swat | Alyemeni M.N.,King Saud University
Journal of Medicinal Plants Research | Year: 2011

The powder and decoction of Lycium shawii Roem and Schult (Solonaceae) aerial part are used as a folklore remedy in the treatment of diabetes by the local community in various parts of Saudi Arabia. In the present study, attempts were made to scientifically justify the alleged anti-diabetic efficacy of this plant and to evaluate its toxic potential. The 80% ethanol extract of L. shawii aerial parts was prepared. After evaporation of ethanol, it was freeze dried. A statistically significant blood glucose lowering effect was noticed in Long-Evans rats treated orally with 250 mg/kg (P<0.05) and 500 mg/kg body weight (P<0.001) of L. shawii extract. In addition, there was a significant decrease in blood glucose levels of animals treated with the extract with a simultaneous load of glucose (2.5 mg/kg). A significant (P<0.001) anti-diabetic effect was also observed in streptozotocin (STZ) diabetic rats. The data obtained clearly justified the claimed hypoglycemic activity of L. shawii. To demonstrate any toxic potential of L. shawii treatment, acute (24 h) and chronic (90 days) toxicity studies were conducted using mice as experimental model. Acute dosages were 0.5, 1.0 and 3 g/kg body weight (gavage) while chronic dosage was 100 mg/kg per day of the extract in drinking water. All morphological, biochemical, haematological and spermatogenic changes, in addition to mortality, body weight changes and any change in vital organs were recorded and compared with the respective control groups. Histopathological investigations were done on vital organs and compared with the control mice without treatment. L. shawii chronic treatment induced changes in body weight, biochemical and hematological parameters and was found to possess significant spermatatoxic potential. © 2011 Academic Journals.

Ali H.,University of Swat | Qaiser M.,Federal Urdu University of Arts, Sciences and Technology Islamabad | Marwat K.B.,University of Peshawar
Pakistan Journal of Botany | Year: 2012

Delphinium nordhagenii Wendelbo (Ranunculaceae) is endemic to District Chitral, Pakistan. This taxon was previously known from 2 localities of Barum Gol and Sher Ghora. After three years of continuous field studies during 2005-2007, five new localities were discovered. According to its population size and number of localities reported, 624 mature individuals were found in 5 localities in 2005, 275 mature individuals were found in 2006 and 184 mature individuals were found in 2007. The main threat posed to the existence of the taxon is its habitat destruction. In 3 localities i.e., Torikhoo-Chato Doke Ghari, Mastooj-Shandoor Top and Torikhoo-Khoot Ghari, 28.57%, 10.12% and 36.12% decrease has been observed in its population size, respectively, caused by grazing, soil erosion resulted from deforestation and agricultural land extensions. In view of its extent of occurrence of 293.77km 2, area of occupancy of 20 km 2 and population size of 184 mature individuals, the taxon is placed under the category of critically endangered (CR).

Shah N.S.,University of Swat | Shah N.S.,University of Peshawar | Khan J.A.,University of Peshawar | Nawaz S.,University of Peshawar | Khan H.M.,University of Peshawar
Journal of Hazardous Materials | Year: 2014

The removal of endosulfan, an emerging water pollutant, from water was investigated using gamma irradiation based advanced oxidation and reduction processes (AORPs). A significant removal, 97% of initially 1.0μM endosulfan was achieved at an absorbed dose of 1020Gy. The removal of endosulfan by gamma-rays irradiation was influenced by an absorbed dose and significantly increased in the presence of aqueous electron (eaq -). However, efficiency of the process was inhibited in the presence of eaq - scavengers, such as N2O, NO3 -, acid, and Fe3+. The observed dose constant decreased while radiation yield (G-value) increased with increasing initial concentrations of the target contaminant and decreasing dose-rate. The removal efficiency of endosulfan II was lower than endosulfan I. The degradation mechanism of endosulfan by the AORPs was proposed showing that reductive pathways involving eaq - started at the chlorine attached to the ring while oxidative pathway was initiated due to attack of hydroxyl radical at the SO bond. The mass balance showed 95% loss of chloride from endosulfan at an absorbed dose of 1020Gy. The formation of chloride and acetate suggest that gamma irradiation based AORPs are potential methods for the removal of endosulfan and its by-products from contaminated water. © 2014.

Sher H.,University of Swat
Scientific Research and Essays | Year: 2011

A study of medicinal and aromatic plants (MAPs) was conducted during summer 2009 in the mountainous areas of Kot. The area has the largest pure stand of Chirr pine forest, hosting many economically important MAPs in the region. In this context the present study was conducted with the aims to identify important MAPs species and investigate linkages in the market channel starting from collectors to consumers. Ethnobotanical knowledge of local people was collected through questionnaire and interviews. This was followed by field survey, guided by community members. During the field local habitat and availability of MAPs was recorded. The survey revealed 54 species of plants with high medicinal and ethnobotanical importance. These plant species were used for the curing of different diseases in traditional system of medicines. Generally men had a greater knowledge than women regarding the MAPs of the area. However, the study showed that neither men nor women were aware of the vast array of herbs with medicinal properties that exist in their locality. During the survey it was noted that the trade of MAPs is highly uncoordinated and complex, involving many players. Out of 30 MAPs, only ten species viz: Viola serpens, Berberis lycium, Calotropus procerra, Morchella Spp, Grewia optiva, Caraluma edulis, Acorus calamus, Zanthxyllum armatum, Mentha longifolia, and M. viridis are collected mainly for sale purposes. These species were mostly collected by children and women for supplementary income. It was also observed that the rare and threatened species of MAPs were collected in a highly unsustainable manner, therefore, causing biodiversity loss and depletion of MAPs population. About 10% reduction was claimed on both parameters. At the end of study, the recommendations made included: training in plant identification, sustainable collection, processing, value addition, equitable sharing of benefits of MAPs, trade monitoring and cooperative system of marketing. © 2011 Academic Journals.

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