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Saidu Sharif, Pakistan

The University of Swat is a public sector University The Main Campus of University of Swat is situated at Odigram, 4 km distance from main city Mingora district Swat Khyber Pukhtunkhwa Pakistan. Wikipedia.

Rehman K.,Quaid-i-Azam University | Mashwani Z.-U.-R.,Pmas Arid Agriculture University | Khan M.A.,Quaid-i-Azam University | Ullah Z.,University of Swat | Chaudhary H.J.,Quaid-i-Azam University
Journal of Ethnopharmacology | Year: 2015

Ethno pharmacological relevance The present study was carried out with an aim to gather, evaluate and analyze the ethno botanical information of medicinal uses of the plant species possessed by the native Khattak tribe of the Chonthra, district Karak Pakistan. The region with poor documentation of traditional knowledge, preserving the local traditional knowledge, reporting new as well as rarely reported medicinal properties of medicinal plants, to be tested experimentally for validation. Material and method The medicinal uses of existing plant species were documented by oral communication with 103 people, all over above 60 years of age, born and residing in Chonthra. Information was gathered by semi-structured interviews with further analysis by indices like Relative frequency citation RFC and Medicinal use value MUV. Results The study resulted with medicinal information on 66 plants species belonging to 34 families (using against 58 health related problems with 83 different preparations mainly administered orally and topical). The dominant families include Brasicaceae and Limiaceae. Withania coagulans and Pegnum harmala were the plant species quoted 100% by the informants with RFC values 1 each. The MUV were scattered between 1.24 and 0.03. The highest MUV were W. coagulans 1.24, Pegnum harmala 1.18, Fagonia cretica 1.14. This study for the first time include Nepeta lagopsis to the ethnobotanical wealth. Conclusions This study was an extension to the ethnobotanical research conducted in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KPK) Pakistan. The target area being small and less number of plants with limited traditional knowledge can serve basis for further work focusing on rarely or non- reported plant species of pharmacological and phytochemical importance with active metabolite capable of broadening the sources of new drugs. © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

Khalil S.A.,Nuclear Institute for Food and Agriculture NIFA | Ahmad N.,University of Swat | Zamir R.,Nuclear Institute for Food and Agriculture NIFA
New Negatives in Plant Science | Year: 2015

Background Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni is an important anti-diabetic medicinal herb containing non-caloric sweet compounds. In this study, the effect of gamma irradiation on growth kinetics and accumulation of various bioactive compounds were investigated during callogenesis. Results Callus was developed from leaf pieces inoculated on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium containing combination of 6-benzyladenine (BA; 1.0 mg l-1), α-naphthalene acetic acid (NAA), indole butyric acid (IBA) and gibberellic acid (GA3; 0.3 mg l-1). After 30-days, vigorous calli were transferred to fresh medium and exposed to various gamma irradiations (5.0, 10, 15 and 20 Gy). It has been observed that the increasing doses of gamma rays inhibited callus proliferation (88.61-79.16%) as compared to control (95.83%). Similarly, 10, 15 and 20 Gy doses induced friable, granular and spongy callus as compared to control (compact). Furthermore, 5.0, 10 and 20 Gy doses significantly reduced the fresh callus biomass (FCB), however, 15 Gy dose enhanced FCB (1660 mg) and dry callus biomass (DCB; 159.36 mg) than control (1520; 145.92 mg). The chromatographic data revealed that 15 Gy dose slightly enhanced stevioside content (0.251 mg/g-DCB) than control (0.232 mg/g-DW), while other doses showed a negative effect on stevioside content. Higher antioxidant activity (88.73%) was observed in 20 Gy treated callus cultures. However, higher total phenolic content (TPC; 43.90 mg/g DCB) and total flavonoids content (TFC; 6.87 mg/g DCB) were observed in 15 Gy treated callus cultures. Conclusions The application of gamma irradiation did not show major variation in biomass and bioactive compounds production in callus cultures of S. rebaudiana. © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V.

Sher H.,University of Swat | Alyemeni M.N.,King Saud University
Journal of Medicinal Plants Research | Year: 2011

The powder and decoction of Lycium shawii Roem and Schult (Solonaceae) aerial part are used as a folklore remedy in the treatment of diabetes by the local community in various parts of Saudi Arabia. In the present study, attempts were made to scientifically justify the alleged anti-diabetic efficacy of this plant and to evaluate its toxic potential. The 80% ethanol extract of L. shawii aerial parts was prepared. After evaporation of ethanol, it was freeze dried. A statistically significant blood glucose lowering effect was noticed in Long-Evans rats treated orally with 250 mg/kg (P<0.05) and 500 mg/kg body weight (P<0.001) of L. shawii extract. In addition, there was a significant decrease in blood glucose levels of animals treated with the extract with a simultaneous load of glucose (2.5 mg/kg). A significant (P<0.001) anti-diabetic effect was also observed in streptozotocin (STZ) diabetic rats. The data obtained clearly justified the claimed hypoglycemic activity of L. shawii. To demonstrate any toxic potential of L. shawii treatment, acute (24 h) and chronic (90 days) toxicity studies were conducted using mice as experimental model. Acute dosages were 0.5, 1.0 and 3 g/kg body weight (gavage) while chronic dosage was 100 mg/kg per day of the extract in drinking water. All morphological, biochemical, haematological and spermatogenic changes, in addition to mortality, body weight changes and any change in vital organs were recorded and compared with the respective control groups. Histopathological investigations were done on vital organs and compared with the control mice without treatment. L. shawii chronic treatment induced changes in body weight, biochemical and hematological parameters and was found to possess significant spermatatoxic potential. © 2011 Academic Journals.

Ahmad H.,International Islamic University, Islamabad | Shah I.A.,International Islamic University, Islamabad | Ahmad K.,University of Swat
European Journal of Scientific Research | Year: 2010

This paper investigates the green buying behaviors of Pakistani customers and finds the imperative factors which marketers should take into consideration while devising green advertising strategies. On the basis of previous literature a model was developed and tested having a sample size of 400 students studying in different educational institutions of Pakistan. Mean score of different items were found followed by two step regression analysis. Research findings divulge that Pakistani customers have adequate exposure to print and broadcast media but television advertising is preferred. Pakistanis have concern about their environment and are intend to buy green products. Pakistani customers are pragmatic and advertisers should include maximum information about the product while devising green advertising strategies. The current study has been conducted with small sample size. Besides that the use of students sample may not be an adequate representative of the general population. The skipping of internet and outdoor advertising further limits the scope of the paper. This paper will provide marketers a new insight to comprehend the market of Pakistan. It also endows the researchers with understanding of Pakistani customers attitudes towards green products. © EuroJournals Publishing, Inc. 2010.

Sher H.,University of Swat
Scientific Research and Essays | Year: 2011

A study of medicinal and aromatic plants (MAPs) was conducted during summer 2009 in the mountainous areas of Kot. The area has the largest pure stand of Chirr pine forest, hosting many economically important MAPs in the region. In this context the present study was conducted with the aims to identify important MAPs species and investigate linkages in the market channel starting from collectors to consumers. Ethnobotanical knowledge of local people was collected through questionnaire and interviews. This was followed by field survey, guided by community members. During the field local habitat and availability of MAPs was recorded. The survey revealed 54 species of plants with high medicinal and ethnobotanical importance. These plant species were used for the curing of different diseases in traditional system of medicines. Generally men had a greater knowledge than women regarding the MAPs of the area. However, the study showed that neither men nor women were aware of the vast array of herbs with medicinal properties that exist in their locality. During the survey it was noted that the trade of MAPs is highly uncoordinated and complex, involving many players. Out of 30 MAPs, only ten species viz: Viola serpens, Berberis lycium, Calotropus procerra, Morchella Spp, Grewia optiva, Caraluma edulis, Acorus calamus, Zanthxyllum armatum, Mentha longifolia, and M. viridis are collected mainly for sale purposes. These species were mostly collected by children and women for supplementary income. It was also observed that the rare and threatened species of MAPs were collected in a highly unsustainable manner, therefore, causing biodiversity loss and depletion of MAPs population. About 10% reduction was claimed on both parameters. At the end of study, the recommendations made included: training in plant identification, sustainable collection, processing, value addition, equitable sharing of benefits of MAPs, trade monitoring and cooperative system of marketing. © 2011 Academic Journals.

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