Ahmad H.,International Islamic University, Islamabad |
Shah I.A.,International Islamic University, Islamabad |
Ahmad K.,University of Swat
European Journal of Scientific Research | Year: 2010
This paper investigates the green buying behaviors of Pakistani customers and finds the imperative factors which marketers should take into consideration while devising green advertising strategies. On the basis of previous literature a model was developed and tested having a sample size of 400 students studying in different educational institutions of Pakistan. Mean score of different items were found followed by two step regression analysis. Research findings divulge that Pakistani customers have adequate exposure to print and broadcast media but television advertising is preferred. Pakistanis have concern about their environment and are intend to buy green products. Pakistani customers are pragmatic and advertisers should include maximum information about the product while devising green advertising strategies. The current study has been conducted with small sample size. Besides that the use of students sample may not be an adequate representative of the general population. The skipping of internet and outdoor advertising further limits the scope of the paper. This paper will provide marketers a new insight to comprehend the market of Pakistan. It also endows the researchers with understanding of Pakistani customers attitudes towards green products. © EuroJournals Publishing, Inc. 2010.
Khalil S.A.,Nuclear Institute for Food and Agriculture NIFA |
Ahmad N.,University of Swat |
Zamir R.,Nuclear Institute for Food and Agriculture NIFA
New Negatives in Plant Science | Year: 2015
Background Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni is an important anti-diabetic medicinal herb containing non-caloric sweet compounds. In this study, the effect of gamma irradiation on growth kinetics and accumulation of various bioactive compounds were investigated during callogenesis. Results Callus was developed from leaf pieces inoculated on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium containing combination of 6-benzyladenine (BA; 1.0 mg l-1), α-naphthalene acetic acid (NAA), indole butyric acid (IBA) and gibberellic acid (GA3; 0.3 mg l-1). After 30-days, vigorous calli were transferred to fresh medium and exposed to various gamma irradiations (5.0, 10, 15 and 20 Gy). It has been observed that the increasing doses of gamma rays inhibited callus proliferation (88.61-79.16%) as compared to control (95.83%). Similarly, 10, 15 and 20 Gy doses induced friable, granular and spongy callus as compared to control (compact). Furthermore, 5.0, 10 and 20 Gy doses significantly reduced the fresh callus biomass (FCB), however, 15 Gy dose enhanced FCB (1660 mg) and dry callus biomass (DCB; 159.36 mg) than control (1520; 145.92 mg). The chromatographic data revealed that 15 Gy dose slightly enhanced stevioside content (0.251 mg/g-DCB) than control (0.232 mg/g-DW), while other doses showed a negative effect on stevioside content. Higher antioxidant activity (88.73%) was observed in 20 Gy treated callus cultures. However, higher total phenolic content (TPC; 43.90 mg/g DCB) and total flavonoids content (TFC; 6.87 mg/g DCB) were observed in 15 Gy treated callus cultures. Conclusions The application of gamma irradiation did not show major variation in biomass and bioactive compounds production in callus cultures of S. rebaudiana. © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Sher H.,University of Swat |
Ali H.,University of Swat |
Pakistan Journal of Botany | Year: 2012
Study on the identification of Important Plant Areas (IPAs) was conducted in seven valleys of Hindukush-Himalayas mountainous ranges of Pakistan during 2005 and 2006. The principal aim of the study is to search new avenues for the conservation and sustainable utilization of threatened medicinal and economic plants and their habitats in IPAs. IPAs are sites of tremendous ecological and economic values that still exist in the world and are being managed on specific sites to study wild plant diversity. Several of such plants are used in the traditional medicines that are being used since the dawn of history to provide basic healthcare to people the world over. According to WHO, 80% of the human population of Africa still use medicinal plants in their primary healthcare. The popularity of herbal drugs is on the constant rise in many developed countries of the world, while in developing countries like Pakistan; medicinal plants contribute significantly to the income sources of people living in remote areas. Keeping such importance in view, the World Health Organization (WHO) launched a global vision in the form of " Global Strategy for Plant Conservation" having various targets and mile stones. Target 5 of the strategy required for the global integration of the herbal medicine in health care system with proper identification of medicinal plants and the conservation of sites where such plants are found naturally, as its basic elements. In order to contribute to the specified target, WHO advised the relevant institutions to develop research plans and conservation programmes that are focused on the Global strategy in general and target 5 in specific. While complementing the appeal and contributing to its vision, a study was conducted in various eco-systems of the Pakistan's Hindukush- Himalayas region, identifying Important Plant Areas (IPAs) for their subsequent conservation and uses for scientific purposes. Site selection for the study was based on: 1). Exceptional vegetation richness for the representative bio-geographic zone; 2). Presence of naturally occurring medicinal herbs with species of global or regional concern, and (3). Threatened habitats that are supporting plant species of medicinal and economic values. Apart from various values of the selected sites such as their scientific and economic importance, the selected sites had a treasure of indigenous knowledge related to the wise uses and conservation of medicinal plants. The study also focused on exploring the complex natural interactions between plants and other organisms; their dependence under various environmental parameters; traditional knowledge of the local inhabitants; and the significance of the landscape to Conserve such plants on long-term basis.
Rehman K.,Quaid-i-Azam University |
Mashwani Z.-U.-R.,Pmas Arid Agriculture University |
Khan M.A.,Quaid-i-Azam University |
Ullah Z.,University of Swat |
Chaudhary H.J.,Quaid-i-Azam University
Journal of Ethnopharmacology | Year: 2015
Ethno pharmacological relevance The present study was carried out with an aim to gather, evaluate and analyze the ethno botanical information of medicinal uses of the plant species possessed by the native Khattak tribe of the Chonthra, district Karak Pakistan. The region with poor documentation of traditional knowledge, preserving the local traditional knowledge, reporting new as well as rarely reported medicinal properties of medicinal plants, to be tested experimentally for validation. Material and method The medicinal uses of existing plant species were documented by oral communication with 103 people, all over above 60 years of age, born and residing in Chonthra. Information was gathered by semi-structured interviews with further analysis by indices like Relative frequency citation RFC and Medicinal use value MUV. Results The study resulted with medicinal information on 66 plants species belonging to 34 families (using against 58 health related problems with 83 different preparations mainly administered orally and topical). The dominant families include Brasicaceae and Limiaceae. Withania coagulans and Pegnum harmala were the plant species quoted 100% by the informants with RFC values 1 each. The MUV were scattered between 1.24 and 0.03. The highest MUV were W. coagulans 1.24, Pegnum harmala 1.18, Fagonia cretica 1.14. This study for the first time include Nepeta lagopsis to the ethnobotanical wealth. Conclusions This study was an extension to the ethnobotanical research conducted in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KPK) Pakistan. The target area being small and less number of plants with limited traditional knowledge can serve basis for further work focusing on rarely or non- reported plant species of pharmacological and phytochemical importance with active metabolite capable of broadening the sources of new drugs. © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Sher H.,University of Swat |
Alyemeni M.N.,King Saud University
Journal of Medicinal Plants Research | Year: 2011
The powder and decoction of Lycium shawii Roem and Schult (Solonaceae) aerial part are used as a folklore remedy in the treatment of diabetes by the local community in various parts of Saudi Arabia. In the present study, attempts were made to scientifically justify the alleged anti-diabetic efficacy of this plant and to evaluate its toxic potential. The 80% ethanol extract of L. shawii aerial parts was prepared. After evaporation of ethanol, it was freeze dried. A statistically significant blood glucose lowering effect was noticed in Long-Evans rats treated orally with 250 mg/kg (P<0.05) and 500 mg/kg body weight (P<0.001) of L. shawii extract. In addition, there was a significant decrease in blood glucose levels of animals treated with the extract with a simultaneous load of glucose (2.5 mg/kg). A significant (P<0.001) anti-diabetic effect was also observed in streptozotocin (STZ) diabetic rats. The data obtained clearly justified the claimed hypoglycemic activity of L. shawii. To demonstrate any toxic potential of L. shawii treatment, acute (24 h) and chronic (90 days) toxicity studies were conducted using mice as experimental model. Acute dosages were 0.5, 1.0 and 3 g/kg body weight (gavage) while chronic dosage was 100 mg/kg per day of the extract in drinking water. All morphological, biochemical, haematological and spermatogenic changes, in addition to mortality, body weight changes and any change in vital organs were recorded and compared with the respective control groups. Histopathological investigations were done on vital organs and compared with the control mice without treatment. L. shawii chronic treatment induced changes in body weight, biochemical and hematological parameters and was found to possess significant spermatatoxic potential. © 2011 Academic Journals.
Ali H.,University of Swat |
Qaiser M.,Federal Urdu University of Arts, Sciences and Technology Islamabad |
Marwat K.B.,University of Peshawar
Pakistan Journal of Botany | Year: 2012
Delphinium nordhagenii Wendelbo (Ranunculaceae) is endemic to District Chitral, Pakistan. This taxon was previously known from 2 localities of Barum Gol and Sher Ghora. After three years of continuous field studies during 2005-2007, five new localities were discovered. According to its population size and number of localities reported, 624 mature individuals were found in 5 localities in 2005, 275 mature individuals were found in 2006 and 184 mature individuals were found in 2007. The main threat posed to the existence of the taxon is its habitat destruction. In 3 localities i.e., Torikhoo-Chato Doke Ghari, Mastooj-Shandoor Top and Torikhoo-Khoot Ghari, 28.57%, 10.12% and 36.12% decrease has been observed in its population size, respectively, caused by grazing, soil erosion resulted from deforestation and agricultural land extensions. In view of its extent of occurrence of 293.77km 2, area of occupancy of 20 km 2 and population size of 184 mature individuals, the taxon is placed under the category of critically endangered (CR).
Shah N.S.,University of Swat |
Shah N.S.,University of Peshawar |
Khan J.A.,University of Peshawar |
Nawaz S.,University of Peshawar |
Khan H.M.,University of Peshawar
Journal of Hazardous Materials | Year: 2014
The removal of endosulfan, an emerging water pollutant, from water was investigated using gamma irradiation based advanced oxidation and reduction processes (AORPs). A significant removal, 97% of initially 1.0μM endosulfan was achieved at an absorbed dose of 1020Gy. The removal of endosulfan by gamma-rays irradiation was influenced by an absorbed dose and significantly increased in the presence of aqueous electron (eaq -). However, efficiency of the process was inhibited in the presence of eaq - scavengers, such as N2O, NO3 -, acid, and Fe3+. The observed dose constant decreased while radiation yield (G-value) increased with increasing initial concentrations of the target contaminant and decreasing dose-rate. The removal efficiency of endosulfan II was lower than endosulfan I. The degradation mechanism of endosulfan by the AORPs was proposed showing that reductive pathways involving eaq - started at the chlorine attached to the ring while oxidative pathway was initiated due to attack of hydroxyl radical at the SO bond. The mass balance showed 95% loss of chloride from endosulfan at an absorbed dose of 1020Gy. The formation of chloride and acetate suggest that gamma irradiation based AORPs are potential methods for the removal of endosulfan and its by-products from contaminated water. © 2014.
Sher H.,University of Swat |
Barkworth M.E.,Utah State University
Journal of Mountain Science | Year: 2015
Poverty is pervasive in the Swat Valley in northwestern Pakistan, and most people survive by farming small landholdings. However, many supplement their meager subsistence earnings by collecting and selling plant material for use in herbal medicine. This material is wild-harvested, but collectors seem not to fully appreciate the potential value of the plant material they collect nor the longterm impact their collection has on local plant populations. A model project supported by the International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI) persuaded small-scale farmers in four different villages to use some of their land for cultivating traditionally wild-harvested species of medicinal and aromatic plants (MAPs) with high market value. The farmers were provided seeds or rhizomes of five MAPs and asked to monitor their germination and growth on 25 m2 plots during a 12 month period. At the end of the study, growth and yield data from the four localities were compared and economic analyses conducted to determine the profitability of the species based on yields, prevailing market prices, and costs of production. Five of the cultivated species were subsequently marketed and their value evaluated: Sesamum indicum, Linum usitatissimum, Ocimum basilicum, Nigella sativa and Viola pilosa. The MAPs V. pilosa and O. basilicum were the most profitable, whereas Nigella sativa was the least profitable because of its low germination rate. The net income from all but Nigella was higher than that would have been earned by planting the same area with the predominant cereals or tomatoes. In addition to demonstrating the feasibility and financial benefits of cultivating MAPs as a cash crop, this model study identified a number of additional steps that would increase the benefits of MAPs cultivation in this area. A combination of specialized education, market infrastructure development and a small loans program would enable farmers to increase their agricultural income without damaging the area’s plant diversity. © 2015, Science Press, Institute of Mountain Hazards and Environment, CAS and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.
Sher H.,University of Swat
Scientific Research and Essays | Year: 2011
A study of medicinal and aromatic plants (MAPs) was conducted during summer 2009 in the mountainous areas of Kot. The area has the largest pure stand of Chirr pine forest, hosting many economically important MAPs in the region. In this context the present study was conducted with the aims to identify important MAPs species and investigate linkages in the market channel starting from collectors to consumers. Ethnobotanical knowledge of local people was collected through questionnaire and interviews. This was followed by field survey, guided by community members. During the field local habitat and availability of MAPs was recorded. The survey revealed 54 species of plants with high medicinal and ethnobotanical importance. These plant species were used for the curing of different diseases in traditional system of medicines. Generally men had a greater knowledge than women regarding the MAPs of the area. However, the study showed that neither men nor women were aware of the vast array of herbs with medicinal properties that exist in their locality. During the survey it was noted that the trade of MAPs is highly uncoordinated and complex, involving many players. Out of 30 MAPs, only ten species viz: Viola serpens, Berberis lycium, Calotropus procerra, Morchella Spp, Grewia optiva, Caraluma edulis, Acorus calamus, Zanthxyllum armatum, Mentha longifolia, and M. viridis are collected mainly for sale purposes. These species were mostly collected by children and women for supplementary income. It was also observed that the rare and threatened species of MAPs were collected in a highly unsustainable manner, therefore, causing biodiversity loss and depletion of MAPs population. About 10% reduction was claimed on both parameters. At the end of study, the recommendations made included: training in plant identification, sustainable collection, processing, value addition, equitable sharing of benefits of MAPs, trade monitoring and cooperative system of marketing. © 2011 Academic Journals.
Rashid A.,University of Peshawar |
Swati M.F.,University of Swat |
Sher H.,University of Swat |
Al-Yemeni M.N.,King Saud University
Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine | Year: 2011
Objective: To determine the present status of plant communities and their possible association with the habitat in Malam Jabba, Swat, Pakistan. Methods: A study on the phytoecology was conducted in various ecologically important sites of Malam Jabba, Swat, Pakistan from 2002 to 2004. The altitude of these sites ranged from 1 200 m to 3 200 m. Quadrat method was used for evaluation of plants communities and the data on these attributes was converted to relative values. The plant communities were named after 3 leading species with highest importance values. Biological spectrum of the flora based on the life form was prepared by following Raunkiar's life form classes. Results: The floristic composition and structure of the study area were found to be 200 species belonging to 75 families. Asteraceae, Lamiaceae and Poaceae were important families in the study area. The biological spectrum showed that therophytic and hemicrytophytic life form and micro-nonophyllous leaf sizes were dominant in the area. The air and soil temperatures were decreasing with increasing elevation. Both the air and soil temperatures were relatively higher in south slopes than on the northeast slopes. The vegetation analysis of the area indicated eleven plant communities around the area. The present vegetation is the relics of moist temperate coniferous forest in the area. The communities reflect highly deteriorated conditions. Both the structure and composition of the surrounding vegetation were associated with the types of habitats. Conclusions: The conservation of the remaining populations of the reported communities will be best achieved by proper time of sustainable harvesting. It is only possible with the participation of local communities. © 2011 Asian Pacific Tropical Biomedical Magazine.