Swansea University is a public research university located in Swansea, Wales, United Kingdom. It was chartered as University College of Swansea in 1920, as the fourth college of the University of Wales. In 1996, it changed its name to the University of Wales Swansea following structural changes within the University of Wales. The title of Swansea University was formally adopted on 1 September 2007 when the University of Wales became a non-membership confederal institution and the former members became universities in their own right.It is the third largest university in Wales in terms of number of students. The university campus is located next to the coast at the north of Swansea Bay, east of the Gower Peninsula, in the grounds of Singleton Park, just outside Swansea city centre. Swansea was granted its own degree-awarding powers in 2005 in preparation for possible changes within the University of Wales.Swansea and Cardiff University compete in an annual varsity match, known as the Welsh version of the Oxbridge event, which includes the Welsh Varsity rugby and The Welsh Boat Race. Wikipedia.
Lactobacilli and bifidobacteria in the prevention of antibiotic-associated diarrhoea and Clostridium difficile diarrhoea in older inpatients (PLACIDE): a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicentre trial.
Allen S.J.,University of Swansea
Lancet | Year: 2013
Antibiotic-associated diarrhoea (AAD) occurs most frequently in older (≥65 years) inpatients exposed to broad-spectrum antibiotics. When caused by Clostridium difficile, AAD can result in life-threatening illness. Although underlying disease mechanisms are not well understood, microbial preparations have been assessed in the prevention of AAD. However, studies have been mostly small single-centre trials with varying quality, providing insufficient data to reliably assess effectiveness. We aimed to do a pragmatic efficacy trial in older inpatients who would be representative of those admitted to National Health Service (NHS) and similar secondary care institutions and to recruit a sufficient number of patients to generate a definitive result. We did a multicentre, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, pragmatic, efficacy trial of inpatients aged 65 years and older and exposed to one or more oral or parenteral antibiotics. A computer-generated randomisation scheme was used to allocate participants (in a 1:1 ratio) to receive either a multistrain preparation of lactobacilli and bifidobacteria, with a total of 6 × 10(10) organisms, one per day for 21 days, or an identical placebo. Patients, study staff, and specimen and data analysts were masked to assignment. The primary outcomes were occurrence of AAD within 8 weeks and C difficile diarrhoea (CDD) within 12 weeks of recruitment. Analysis was by modified intention-to-treat. This trial is registered, number ISRCTN70017204. Of 17,420 patients screened, 1493 were randomly assigned to the microbial preparation group and 1488 to the placebo group. 1470 and 1471, respectively, were included in the analyses of the primary endpoints. AAD (including CDD) occurred in 159 (10·8%) participants in the microbial preparation group and 153 (10·4%) participants in the placebo group (relative risk [RR] 1·04; 95% CI 0·84-1·28; p=0·71). CDD was an uncommon cause of AAD and occurred in 12 (0·8%) participants in the microbial preparation group and 17 (1·2%) participants in the placebo group (RR 0·71; 95% CI 0·34-1·47; p=0·35). 578 (19·7%) participants had one or more serious adverse event; the frequency of serious adverse events was much the same in the two study groups and none was attributed to participation in the trial. We identified no evidence that a multistrain preparation of lactobacilli and bifidobacteria was effective in prevention of AAD or CDD. An improved understanding of the pathophysiology of AAD is needed to guide future studies. Health Technology Assessment programme; National Institute for Health Research, UK. Copyright © 2013 Allen et al. Open Access article distributed under the terms of CC BY. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source
University of Swansea | Date: 2014-02-26
A reagent selected from cholestenoic acid or an inhibitor of an enzyme in the cholestenoic acid biosynthetic or metabolic pathway for use in the treatment of neurodegenerative conditions. In particular, the reagent is a cholestenoic acid of a particular form, such as 3,7-dihydroxycholest-5-en-26-oic (3,7-diHCA), not previously associated with neural tissue or CSF. Pharmaceutical compositions, methods of treatment or prevention of neurodegenerative conditions as well as diagnostic methods and novel biomarkers form further aspects of the invention.
University of Swansea | Date: 2013-04-09
A counter electrode generally shown as 1 is formed of a conductive substrate e.g. a glass substrate 10 on which is deposited doped oxide, e.g. a fluorine doped tin oxide 20. Overlaying the fluorine layer is a layer of a metal halide, e.g. platinum chloride 30 (5 Mm H
University of Swansea | Date: 2014-04-28
A method of removing contaminants from liquid passing over a surface by applying a photocatalyst to said surface 2, such that when a liquid passes over said surface in the presence of solar power, contaminants are degraded to less harmful compounds in said liquid. The photocatalyst is typically titanium dioxide applied as a coating on a surface such as glass or metal and can be used to degrade contaminants in effluents from industrial processes such as the textile or paper industries when liquid from those processes flows over the coating.
University of Swansea | Date: 2014-02-05
The present invention provides a heating element (L) formed as a laminate including a thermally conductive substrate (