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Sulaimaniyah, Iraq

Jalal S.D.,University of Sulaimaniyah | Al-Allawi N.A.S.,University of Dohuk | Bayat N.,KariminejadNajmabadi Genetics and Pathology Center | Imanian H.,KariminejadNajmabadi Genetics and Pathology Center | And 3 more authors.
Hemoglobin | Year: 2010

A random 123 carriers of β-thalassemia (β-thal), identified by the Sulaimaniyah Provincial Premarital Screening Program in northeastern Iraq, were screened for β-thal mutations using multiplex polymerase chain reaction followed by reverse hybridization StripAssay and direct sequencing. A total of 11 different β-thal mutations was identified in the studied samples, of which eight represented 96 of the mutated β-globin genes. These were IVS-II-1 (G>A), IVS-I-110 (G>A), codon 8 (AA), codons 89 (G), IVS-I-5 (G>C), codon 5 (CT), IVS-I-6 (T>C) and IVS-I-1 (G>A). Other mutations were less common or sporadic. There were some notable differences in frequencies of various mutations in comparison to other eastern Mediterranean populations, as well as with previous studies of Iraqi Kurds. The latter illustrate the relative heterogeneity of the mutations distributed in Iraq, and the need to screen other areas of the country, to ensure the establishment of an effective prenatal diagnosis program. © 2010 Informa UK Ltd. Source


Al-Dabbas M.A.,University of Baghdad | Jassim J.A.,University of Baghdad | Qaradaghi A.I.,University of Sulaimaniyah
Arabian Journal of Geosciences | Year: 2010

Nineteen subsurface sections and a large number of thin sections of the Mauddud limestone (age Albian–Early Cenomanian) were studied to unravel the depositional facies and environments. The allochems in the Mauddud Formation are dominated by bioclasts (reach 23%) and peloids (reach 60%), whereas intraclasts are less abundant (reach 2.3%). The sedimentary microfacies of the Mauddud Formation includes lime mudstone, wackestone, wackestone–packstone, packstone, packstone–grainstone, in addition to dolostone lithofacies and green shale lithofacies. These microfacies have been deposited in shallow warm marine environment of varying salinities and energy levels. Cementation, neomorphism, dolomitization, compaction, and dissolution are observed affecting variably both ground mass and particles. The formation displays various extents of dolomitization and is cemented by calcite and dolomite. Dolomitization increases toward the north of the study area and exhibits different textures. Similarly cementation shows a variety of textures. In addition, authigenic minerals, such as glauconite and pyrite, are scattered within the groundmass and along solution surfaces. The formation has gradational contact with the underlying Nahr Umr Formation but is unconformably overlain by the Ahmadi Formation, despite local conformity. Thus, the vertical bioclast analysis indicates that the Mauddud Formation is characterized by four major depositional cycles, which control the distribution of reservoir quality as well as the patterns of calcite and dolomite, cement distribution. Petrographical study shows that the fossil represents the main Allchem, Peloids, whereas intraclasts come second in abundance. Calcite (more than 50%) and dolomite (as diagenetic products, range between 20% and 50%) are the predominant mineral components of Mauddud Formation. Fossils were studied as an environmental, age, and facial boundary indicators. Five major depositional microfacies are recognized. These depositional microfacies have been subdivided according to their primary and diagenetic constituents into ten submicrofacies. The determined four major depositional cycles were representing normal sequential regression from base upward. The lateral analysis shows the same regressive cycle and by using the lithofacies association concepts to build the depositional model of the Mauddud Formation environment. © Saudi Society for Geosciences 2010. Source


Al-Allawi N.A.S.,Duhok University | Jalal S.D.,University of Sulaimaniyah | Mohammad A.M.,Duhok University | Omer S.Q.,Shar Hospital | Markous R.S.D.,Thalassemia Care Center
BioMed Research International | Year: 2014

To investigate the molecular basis of β-thalassemia intermedia in Northern Iraq and evaluate its management practices, a total of 74 patients from 51 families were enrolled. The patients were clinically and hematologically reevaluated, and had their β-thalassemia mutations characterized, as well as the number of α-globin genes and Xmn I Gγ -158 (C>T) polymorphism studied. Out of 14 β-thalassemia mutations identified, the four most common were IVS-I-6 (T>C) [33.3%], IVS-II-I (G>A) [21.1%], codon 82/83(-G) [10.1%], and codon 8 (-AA) [8.1%]. The most common contributing factors to the less severe phenotype of thalassemia intermedia were found to be the inheritance of mild β-thalassemia alleles and the Xmn I polymorphism, while concomitant α-thalassemia had a limited role. Several complications were documented including: pulmonary hypertension in 20.4%, diabetes mellitus in 1.4%, hypothyroidism in 2.9%, and heart failure in 2.7%, while no documented cases of venous thrombosis were found. Compared to their counterparts in several Mediterranean countries, it appears that our patients were much less frequently transfused and had a lower proportion of patients who were splenectomized, on iron chelation, or hydroxycarbamide therapy. Such practices require further scrutiny to ensure that a better level of care is provided and that growth retardation, skeletal changes, and other complications are prevented or reduced. © 2014 Nasir A. S. Al-Allawi et al. Source


Al-Allawi N.A.S.,University of Dohuk | Jalal S.D.,University of Sulaimaniyah | Nerwey F.F.,University of Dohuk | Al-Sayan G.O.O.,University of Salahaldeen | And 5 more authors.
Hemoglobin | Year: 2012

Epidemiological studies have revealed that sickle cell disease patients are clustered in two geographical areas in Iraq, one among the Arabs in the extreme south, another among the Kurdish population in the extreme north, where they constitute major health problems. However, no studies have focused on the genotypes responsible for sickle cell disease or the β-globin gene haplotypes associated with it. For the latter purpose, a total of 103 unrelated Kurdish sickle cell disease patients were evaluated by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) for the sickle cell mutation, followed by multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and reverse hybridization for β- and α-thalassemia (β- and α-thal) mutations, whenever indicated. Results showed that the most common genotype was sickle cell anemia (68.0) followed by Hb S/β0-thal and Hb S/β-thal at frequencies of 24.2 and 7.8, respectively. Eight β-thal mutations were associated with the latter two genotypes including: IVS-II-1 (G>A), IVS-I-110 (G>A), codon 8 (AA), codon 44 (C), codon 22 (7 bp), IVS-I-1 (G>A), codon 30 (G>C) and IVS-I-6 (T>C). In Hb SS patients, the -α3.7 deletion was documented in 10.0 and was the only α-thal mutation detected. Furthermore, 5′ β-globin gene cluster haplotyping of 128 βS chromosomes revealed that the most common haplotype seen in 69.5 was the Benin haplotype, followed by the Arab-Indian haplotype in 12.5. These latter findings closely resemble reports from neighboring Turkey, Syria, Jordan, Lebanon and Mediterranean countries, suggesting a possible common origin, but are in contrast to findings from the Eastern Arabian Peninsula and Iran. © 2012 Informa Healthcare USA, Inc. Source


Abdultrahman N.M.,University of Sulaimaniyah | Al Shawi S.A.,University of Baghdad
Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances | Year: 2014

Two types of fish probiotics produced and extracted, single contained the genus of the bacteria Lactobacillus and the genus Bifidobacterium and mixed probiotics from the earlier bacterial genus mixed with the prepared yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae that extracted from the first part of the intestine (foregut) which represents the gut in these omnivore's fish (represented by the common carp Cyprinus carpio) and the herbivores (represented by the grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella). The probiotics added to the fish diet in two levels of protein 32 and 10% by conducting two experiments and for that purpose 300 fish fry weighted 0.2 g reared for 5 months included with acclimation period about 27 days whereas each experiment include seven treatments. The first treatment represented the control without using any addition to the probiotics, the second one was the single probiotics with the Lactobacillus bacteria. The third one was also the single probiotics but with Bifidobacterium whilst the fourth and fifth treatments were the mixed probiotics which of Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium bacteria with the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae in ratio 1:1:1 one from common carp and the other from grass carp, respectively. The commercial probiotics was in the sixth treatments and the Iraqi probiotic was the seventh one. © Medwell Journals, 2014. Source

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