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As Sulaymaniyah, Iraq

The University of Sulaimani is a public university located in the city of Sulaymaniyah in Kurdistan Region - Iraq. It is one of the important scientific and cultural centers in Kurdistan region. It was founded in 1968. The University comprises 27 colleges, the main campus is in Sulaimani city and satellite campuses are in the towns of Khanaqin, Kalar, Halabja and Chamchamal. The university has a total yearly enrollment of more than 4000 undergraduate and postgraduate students. The university offers a variety of major programmes including medical, engineering, humanities, law, fine arts, physical education, political science, pure and applied science, leading to bachelor degree and in some specialties to postgraduate degrees such as High Diploma, MSc, MA and PhD. The university has a variety of other extracurricular activities, too. Wikipedia.

Aziz S.B.,University of Sulaimani | Abidin Z.H.Z.,University of Malaya
Materials Chemistry and Physics

Solution cast technique is employed to prepare solid polymer electrolyte films based on chitosan (host polymer) and silver triflate (AgCF 3SO3, doping salt) using (1%) acetic acid as a common solvent. The effect of salt concentration on both EP and bulk materials dielectric properties has been analyzed. Physically the original relationship between the bulk dielectric constant and DC conductivity has been interpreted. It is demonstrated that the dielectric constant and dielectric loss values decrease at higher temperatures due to the reduction of silver ions. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive analysis of X-ray (EDAX) indicate the presence of metallic silver particles. The ac conductivity spectra shows three distinct regions and obeys the Jonscher's power law at high frequency regions. The temperature dependence of frequency exponent (s) shows the crossover from CBH model to SP model. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Source

Petrorhagia sarbaghiae is described and illustrated, its distribution is mapped, and its distinguishing characters from the other species of Petrorhagia in SW Asia are discussed. A key to the perennial SW Asian species of the genus is provided. © 2014 BGBM Berlin-Dahlem. Source

Amin K.,Uppsala University | Amin K.,University of Sulaimani
Respiratory Medicine

The histochemical characteristics of human basophils and tissue mast cells were described over a century ago by Paul Ehrlich. When mast cells are activated by an allergen that binds to serum IgE attached to their FcεRI receptors, they release cytokines, eicosanoids and their secretory granules. Mast cells are now thought to exert critical proinflammatory functions, as well as potential immunoregulatory roles, in various immune disorders through the release of mediators such as histamine, leukotrienes, cytokines chemokines, and neutral proteases (chymase and tryptase). The aim of this review is to describe the role of mast cells in allergic inflammation. Mast cells interact directly with bacteria and appear to play a vital role in host defense against pathogens. Drugs, such as glucocorticoids, cyclosporine and cromolyn have been shown to have inhibitory effects on mast cell degranulation and mediator release. This review shows that mast cells play an active role in such diverse diseases as asthma, rhinitis, middle ear infection, and pulmonary fibrosis. In conclusion, mast cells may not only contribute to the chronic airway inflammatory response, remodeling and symptomatology, but they may also have a central role in the initiation of the allergic immune response, that is providing signals inducing IgE synthesis by B-lymphocytes and inducing Th2 lymphocyte differentiation. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source

Abdullah O.G.,University of Sulaimani
Journal of Materials Science: Materials in Electronics

Polymer nanocomposite films based on polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and synthesis spinel zinc chromite (ZnCr2O4) nanoparticle films were obtained using the in situ chemical reduction method and solution casting technique, for different concentration of ZnCr2O4 nanoparticles. The characterization of the polymer nanocomposite films was carried out using XRD, SEM, and UV–visible Spectroscopy. The XRD analyses confirmed the cubic nanocrystalline ZnCr2O4 phase formation and an average crystallite size of approximately (23.35–25.36) nm. The UV–visible measurement of nanocomposite film shows two broad absorption peaks with a maximum at 410 and 570 nm, which correspond to the characteristics of the ZnCr2O4 nanoparticles. The effect of various concentration of ZnCr2O4 nanoparticle on the optical energy gap of nanocomposite films has been studied to comprehend the optimum conditions for the synthesis process. The significant decreasing of the direct allowed energy band gap of the PVA was observed upon increasing the ZnCr2O4 concentration, from (6.13 eV) for pure PVA to (4.76 eV) for 0.04 M ZnCr2O4 concentration. The decrease in the optical energy gap can be correlated to the formation of charge-transfer complexes within the base polymer network on embedding ZnCr2O4 nanoparticles. © 2016 Springer Science+Business Media New York Source

Othman N.,University of Sulaimani
Archives of Suicide Research

This study aims to provide evidence for the problem of suicide by self-burning in Iraqi Kurdistan. Data were collected prospectively from all patients admitted to the burn center in the province of Sulaymaniyah and cases of self-burning were compared with cases of accidental burns. There were 197 cases with an annual incidence rate of 8.4 per 100,000 per year and female to male risk ratio of 13.1. Independent risk factors for self-burning were female sex (odds ratio 13.75, 95% CI 6.91-27.36, P<0.001); young age of 11 to 18 years (OR 3.92, 95% CI 2.20-7.0, P<0.001); poor education (OR 2.50, 95% CI 1.15-5.45, P=0.02); spring season (OR 2.39, 95% CI 1.3-4.41, P=0.005); and small family size (OR 2.72, 95% CI 1.44-5.15, P=0.002). Suicide by self-burning is common in Iraqi Kurdistan especially among women. Urgent action is required to provide a better understanding of the situation, and identify partners, capacities, and opportunities for action. © International Academy for Suicide Research. Source

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