Strasbourg, France
Strasbourg, France

The University of Strasbourg in Strasbourg, Alsace, France, is the second largest university in France , with about 43,000 students and over 4,000 researchers. The present-day French university traces its history to the earlier German language Universität Straßburg, which was founded in 1538, and was divided in the 1970s into three separate institutions: Louis Pasteur University, Marc Bloch University, and Robert Schuman University. On 1 January 2009, the fusion of these three universities reconstituted a united University of Strasbourg, which is now amongst Europe's best in the League of European Research Universities. Wikipedia.


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Patent
University of Strasbourg and French National Center for Scientific Research | Date: 2015-05-18

The subject matter of the present invention concerns the preparation of a coated solid surface wherein the coating contains at least one in-plane oriented layer of anisotropic shaped objects through a specific spraying method, and the device enabling this method.


Patent
University of Strasbourg, French National Center for Scientific Research and French Atomic Energy Commission | Date: 2015-05-15

The present invention relates to a process for the preparation of a first compound of interest C1 functionalized with a sydnone compound and to the corresponding functionalized C1 compound of interest. The present invention also relates to a process for the preparation of a conjugate of two compounds of interest C1 and C2 implying a sydnone compound and to the obtained conjugate. The present invention also relates to a process for preparing a compound of interest C2 comprising a strained alkyne moiety functionalized with a sydnone and to the corresponding functionalized compound of interest C2. It also relates to novel sydnone compounds substituted in position 4, which may be used in the above processes.


Klymchenko A.S.,University of Strasbourg
Accounts of Chemical Research | Year: 2017

Conspectus Fluorescent environment-sensitive probes are specially designed dyes that change their fluorescence intensity (fluorogenic dyes) or color (e.g., solvatochromic dyes) in response to change in their microenvironment polarity, viscosity, and molecular order. The studies of the past decade, including those of our group, have shown that these molecules become universal tools in fluorescence sensing and imaging. In fact, any biomolecular interaction or change in biomolecular organization results in modification of the local microenvironment, which can be directly monitored by these types of probes. In this Account, the main examples of environment-sensitive probes are summarized according to their design concepts. Solvatochromic dyes constitute a large class of environment-sensitive probes which change their color in response to polarity. Generally, they are push-pull dyes undergoing intramolecular charge transfer. Emission of their highly polarized excited state shifts to the red in more polar solvents. Excited-state intramolecular proton transfer is the second key concept to design efficient solvatochromic dyes, which respond to the microenvironment by changing relative intensity of the two emissive tautomeric forms. Due to their sensitivity to polarity and hydration, solvatochromic dyes have been successfully applied to biological membranes for studying lipid domains (rafts), apoptosis and endocytosis. As fluorescent labels, solvatochromic dyes can detect practically any type of biomolecular interactions, involving proteins, nucleic acids and biomembranes, because the binding event excludes local water molecules from the interaction site. On the other hand, fluorogenic probes usually exploit intramolecular rotation (conformation change) as a design concept, with molecular rotors being main representatives. These probes were particularly efficient for imaging viscosity and lipid order in biomembranes as well as to light up biomolecular targets, such as antibodies, aptamers and receptors. The emerging concepts to achieve fluorogenic response to the microenvironment include ground-state isomerization, aggregation-caused quenching, and aggregation-induced emission. The ground-state isomerization exploits, for instance, polarity-dependent spiro-lactone formation in silica-rhodamines. The aggregation-caused quenching uses disruption of the self-quenched dimers and nanoassemblies of dyes in less polar environments of lipid membranes and biomolecules. The aggregation-induced emission couples target recognition with formation of highly fluorescent dye aggregates. Overall, solvatochromic and fluorogenic probes enable background-free bioimaging in wash-free conditions as well as quantitative analysis when combined with advanced microscopy, such as fluorescence lifetime (FLIM) and ratiometric imaging. Further development of fluorescent environment-sensitive probes should address some remaining problems: (i) improving their optical properties, especially brightness, photostability, and far-red to near-infrared operating range; (ii) minimizing nonspecific interactions of the probes in biological systems; (iii) their adaptation for advanced microscopies, notably for superresolution and in vivo imaging. © 2017 American Chemical Society.


Patent
University of Strasbourg, French National Center for Scientific Research and French Atomic Energy Commission | Date: 2015-06-18

The present invention relates to the use of iminosydnone compounds in processes for the preparation of conjugates of two compounds of interest. The invention further relates to the use of said iminosydnone compounds in a process for releasing a compound of interest. The invention finally relates to novel iminosydnone compounds.


The present invention relates to disintegratable core/shell silica particles encapsulating a bioactive macromolecule or bioactive macromolecule cluster in an active conformation, a method for producing the same, and uses thereof.


Patent
University of Strasbourg and French National Center for Scientific Research | Date: 2016-08-29

The present invention includes novel derivatives, analogs, and intermediates of the natural products radicicol, pochonins, pochoximes, and their syntheses. The present invention also provides a pharmaceutical composition comprising the present compound and the use of the compound as inhibitors of kinases and of the enzyme family known as heat shock protein 90 (HSP90).


Patent
French National Center for Scientific Research and University of Strasbourg | Date: 2017-06-14

The invention pertains to a method for estimating a spatial distribution of the hazardousness of radiation doses for individuals evolving in a medical operating room defining a three-dimensional environment surrounding at least one source of radiation. First a three-dimensional model of the environment is obtained. Then a simulation of radiation doses attributable to ionizing radiation emitted from the source and scattered by the environment is computed in the model. Then, an image indicating the spatial distribution of the hazardousness for an individual of the radiation doses is generated and displayed. The three-dimensional model comprises models of individuals when the individuals are present in the environment and the image is a three-dimensional image generated for at least a portion of the model including said models of individuals.


Ciesielski A.,University of Strasbourg | Samori P.,University of Strasbourg
Chemical Society Reviews | Year: 2014

Graphene, the 2D form of carbon based material existing as a single layer of atoms arranged in a honeycomb lattice, has set the science and technology sectors alight with interest in the last decade in view of its astounding electrical and thermal properties, combined with its mechanical stiffness, strength and elasticity. Two distinct strategies have been undertaken for graphene production, i.e. the bottom-up and the top-down. The former relies on the generation of graphene from suitably designed molecular building blocks undergoing chemical reaction to form covalently linked 2D networks. The latter occurs via exfoliation of graphite into graphene. Bottom-up techniques, based on the organic syntheses starting from small molecular modules, when performed in liquid media, are both size limited, because macromolecules become more and more insoluble with increasing size, and suffer from the occurrence of side reactions with increasing molecular weight. Because of these reasons such a synthesis has been performed more and more on a solid (ideally catalytically active) surface. Substrate-based growth of single layers can be done also by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) or via reduction of silicon carbide, which unfortunately relies on the ability to follow a narrow thermodynamic path. Top-down approaches can be accomplished under different environmental conditions. Alongside the mechanical cleavage based on the scotch tape approach, liquid-phase exfoliation (LPE) methods are becoming more and more interesting because they are extremely versatile, potentially up-scalable, and can be used to deposit graphene in a variety of environments and on different substrates not available using mechanical cleavage or growth methods. Interestingly, LPE can be applied to produce different layered systems exhibiting different compositions such as BN, MoS2, WS2, NbSe2, and TaS2, thereby enabling the tuning of numerous physico-chemical properties of the material. Furthermore, LPE can be employed to produce graphene-based composites or films, which are key components for many applications, such as thin-film transistors, conductive transparent electrodes for indium tin oxide replacement, e.g. in light-emitting diodes, or photovoltaics. In this review, we highlight the recent progress that has led to successful production of high quality graphene by means of LPE of graphite. In particular, we discuss the mechanisms of exfoliation and methods that are employed for graphene characterization. We then describe a variety of successful liquid-phase exfoliation methods by categorizing them into two major classes, i.e. surfactant-free and surfactant-assisted LPE. Furthermore, exfoliation in aqueous and organic solutions is presented and discussed separately. © 2014 The Royal Society of Chemistry.


Significant advances have been made in our understanding of the host defense against microbial infections taking place at frontier epithelia of Drosophila flies. Immune deficiency (IMD), the major NF-κB immune response pathway induced in these epithelia, displays remarkable adaptations in its activation and regulation in the respiratory and digestive tract. The host defense against ingested pathogens is not limited to resistance, that is, the immune response. It also involves resilience, the capacity of the host to endure and repair damages inflicted by pathogens or the host's own immune response. For instance, enterocytes damaged by pathogens, the microbiota of aging flies, or host-derived reactive oxygen species (ROS), are replaced under the control of multiple pathways by the compensatory proliferation of intestinal stem cells (ISCs). © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.


Pourquie O.,University of Strasbourg
Cell | Year: 2011

One of the most striking features of the human vertebral column is its periodic organization along the anterior-posterior axis. This pattern is established when segments of vertebrates, called somites, bud off at a defined pace from the anterior tip of the embryo's presomitic mesoderm (PSM). To trigger this rhythmic production of somites, three major signaling pathways - Notch, Wnt/β-catenin, and fibroblast growth factor (FGF) - integrate into a molecular network that generates a traveling wave of gene expression along the embryonic axis, called the "segmentation clock." Recent systems approaches have begun identifying specific signaling circuits within the network that set the pace of the oscillations, synchronize gene expression cycles in neighboring cells, and contribute to the robustness and bilateral symmetry of somite formation. These findings establish a new model for vertebrate segmentation and provide a conceptual framework to explain human diseases of the spine, such as congenital scoliosis. © 2011 Elsevier Inc.

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