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Strasbourg, France

The University of Strasbourg in Strasbourg, Alsace, France, is the second largest university in France , with about 43,000 students and over 4,000 researchers. The present-day French university traces its history to the earlier German language Universität Straßburg, which was founded in 1538, and was divided in the 1970s into three separate institutions: Louis Pasteur University, Marc Bloch University, and Robert Schuman University. On 1 January 2009, the fusion of these three universities reconstituted a united University of Strasbourg, which is now amongst Europe's best in the League of European Research Universities. Wikipedia.

Morel O.,University of Strasbourg
Seminars in immunopathology | Year: 2011

Plasma membrane remodeling characterized by phosphatidylserine exposure and consecutive microparticle (MP) shedding is an ubiquitous process enabling the clearance of senescent cells and the maintenance of tissue homeostasis. MPs are released as fragments from the budding plasma membrane of virtually all eukaryotic cell types undergoing stimulation or apoptosis and may be considered a broad primitive response to stress. MP release is dependent on cytoskeleton degradation pathways involving caspases, requires a sustained increase in intracellular calcium triggering K+ and Cl- efflux and is possibly tuned by mitochondria permeability changes. Because they convey a broad spectrum of bioactive molecules, circulating MPs may serve as shuttles promoting cellular cross talk in various pathological settings such as inflammation or immunity-induced thrombotic disorders. If the drastic shedding of procoagulant MPs appears clearly noxious in thrombotic disorders or in some models of inflammation-induced coagulopathy, this does not necessarily endorse their invariably harmful nature. In the vessel, endothelial cytoprotection reported in the early regulation of inflammation-induced coagulopathy is emblematic of the beneficial effects provided by MPs. In addition, MPs would prove beneficial in the prevention of blood leakage. Because of their multiple properties that are characteristic of a private response of the parental cell, MPs could act as cytoprotective and anti-inflammatory agents through the delivery of activated protein C or annexin 1 and could contribute to the limitation of vascular hyporeactivity. Owing to their ability to cargo bioactive signals, MPs could be viewed as an integrated communication network enabling the coordination of complex cellular responses in biological fluids and the maintenance of the homeostasis equation. A better understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved in MP shedding would pave the way of a new pharmacological approach aiming at the control of MP-driven cellular responses.

Significant advances have been made in our understanding of the host defense against microbial infections taking place at frontier epithelia of Drosophila flies. Immune deficiency (IMD), the major NF-κB immune response pathway induced in these epithelia, displays remarkable adaptations in its activation and regulation in the respiratory and digestive tract. The host defense against ingested pathogens is not limited to resistance, that is, the immune response. It also involves resilience, the capacity of the host to endure and repair damages inflicted by pathogens or the host's own immune response. For instance, enterocytes damaged by pathogens, the microbiota of aging flies, or host-derived reactive oxygen species (ROS), are replaced under the control of multiple pathways by the compensatory proliferation of intestinal stem cells (ISCs). © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

Pourquie O.,University of Strasbourg
Cell | Year: 2011

One of the most striking features of the human vertebral column is its periodic organization along the anterior-posterior axis. This pattern is established when segments of vertebrates, called somites, bud off at a defined pace from the anterior tip of the embryo's presomitic mesoderm (PSM). To trigger this rhythmic production of somites, three major signaling pathways - Notch, Wnt/β-catenin, and fibroblast growth factor (FGF) - integrate into a molecular network that generates a traveling wave of gene expression along the embryonic axis, called the "segmentation clock." Recent systems approaches have begun identifying specific signaling circuits within the network that set the pace of the oscillations, synchronize gene expression cycles in neighboring cells, and contribute to the robustness and bilateral symmetry of somite formation. These findings establish a new model for vertebrate segmentation and provide a conceptual framework to explain human diseases of the spine, such as congenital scoliosis. © 2011 Elsevier Inc.

Wencel-Delord J.,University of Strasbourg | Glorius F.,University of Munster
Nature Chemistry | Year: 2013

The beginning of the twenty-first century has witnessed significant advances in the field of C-H bond activation, and this transformation is now an established piece in the synthetic chemists' toolbox. This methodology has the potential to be used in many different areas of chemistry, for example it provides a perfect opportunity for the late-stage diversification of various kinds of organic scaffolds, ranging from relatively small molecules like drug candidates, to complex polydisperse organic compounds such as polymers. In this way, C-H activation approaches enable relatively straightforward access to a plethora of analogues or can help to streamline the lead-optimization phase. Furthermore, synthetic pathways for the construction of complex organic materials can now be designed that are more atom- and step-economical than previous methods and, in some cases, can be based on synthetic disconnections that are just not possible without C-H activation. This Perspective highlights the potential of metal-catalysed C-H bond activation reactions, which now extend beyond the field of traditional synthetic organic chemistry. © 2013 Macmillan Publishers Limited.

Pfrieger F.W.,University of Strasbourg
Brain Research Reviews | Year: 2010

Synaptogenesis is a decisive process for the development of the brain, its plasticity during adulthood and its regeneration after injury and disease. Despite tremendous progress during the last decades, it remains unclear, whether neurons can form synapses autonomously. In this review, I will summarize recent evidence that this is probably not the case and that distinct phases of synapse development depend on help from glial cells. The results supporting this view come from studies on the central and peripheral nervous system and on different experimental models including cultured cells as well as living flies, worms and mice. Our understanding of synapse-glia interactions in the developing, adult and diseased brain is likely to advance more rapidly as new experimental approaches to identify, visualize and manipulate glial cells in vivo become available. © 2009 Elsevier B.V.

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