The University of Strasbourg in Strasbourg, Alsace, France, is the second largest university in France , with about 43,000 students and over 4,000 researchers. The present-day French university traces its history to the earlier German language Universität Straßburg, which was founded in 1538, and was divided in the 1970s into three separate institutions: Louis Pasteur University, Marc Bloch University, and Robert Schuman University. On 1 January 2009, the fusion of these three universities reconstituted a united University of Strasbourg, which is now amongst Europe's best in the League of European Research Universities. Wikipedia.
University of Strasbourg and French National Center for Scientific Research | Date: 2015-05-18
The subject matter of the present invention concerns the preparation of a coated solid surface wherein the coating contains at least one in-plane oriented layer of anisotropic shaped objects through a specific spraying method, and the device enabling this method.
University of Strasbourg, French National Center for Scientific Research and French Atomic Energy Commission | Date: 2015-05-15
The present invention relates to a process for the preparation of a first compound of interest C1 functionalized with a sydnone compound and to the corresponding functionalized C1 compound of interest. The present invention also relates to a process for the preparation of a conjugate of two compounds of interest C1 and C2 implying a sydnone compound and to the obtained conjugate. The present invention also relates to a process for preparing a compound of interest C2 comprising a strained alkyne moiety functionalized with a sydnone and to the corresponding functionalized compound of interest C2. It also relates to novel sydnone compounds substituted in position 4, which may be used in the above processes.
Klymchenko A.S.,University of Strasbourg
Accounts of Chemical Research | Year: 2017
Conspectus Fluorescent environment-sensitive probes are specially designed dyes that change their fluorescence intensity (fluorogenic dyes) or color (e.g., solvatochromic dyes) in response to change in their microenvironment polarity, viscosity, and molecular order. The studies of the past decade, including those of our group, have shown that these molecules become universal tools in fluorescence sensing and imaging. In fact, any biomolecular interaction or change in biomolecular organization results in modification of the local microenvironment, which can be directly monitored by these types of probes. In this Account, the main examples of environment-sensitive probes are summarized according to their design concepts. Solvatochromic dyes constitute a large class of environment-sensitive probes which change their color in response to polarity. Generally, they are push-pull dyes undergoing intramolecular charge transfer. Emission of their highly polarized excited state shifts to the red in more polar solvents. Excited-state intramolecular proton transfer is the second key concept to design efficient solvatochromic dyes, which respond to the microenvironment by changing relative intensity of the two emissive tautomeric forms. Due to their sensitivity to polarity and hydration, solvatochromic dyes have been successfully applied to biological membranes for studying lipid domains (rafts), apoptosis and endocytosis. As fluorescent labels, solvatochromic dyes can detect practically any type of biomolecular interactions, involving proteins, nucleic acids and biomembranes, because the binding event excludes local water molecules from the interaction site. On the other hand, fluorogenic probes usually exploit intramolecular rotation (conformation change) as a design concept, with molecular rotors being main representatives. These probes were particularly efficient for imaging viscosity and lipid order in biomembranes as well as to light up biomolecular targets, such as antibodies, aptamers and receptors. The emerging concepts to achieve fluorogenic response to the microenvironment include ground-state isomerization, aggregation-caused quenching, and aggregation-induced emission. The ground-state isomerization exploits, for instance, polarity-dependent spiro-lactone formation in silica-rhodamines. The aggregation-caused quenching uses disruption of the self-quenched dimers and nanoassemblies of dyes in less polar environments of lipid membranes and biomolecules. The aggregation-induced emission couples target recognition with formation of highly fluorescent dye aggregates. Overall, solvatochromic and fluorogenic probes enable background-free bioimaging in wash-free conditions as well as quantitative analysis when combined with advanced microscopy, such as fluorescence lifetime (FLIM) and ratiometric imaging. Further development of fluorescent environment-sensitive probes should address some remaining problems: (i) improving their optical properties, especially brightness, photostability, and far-red to near-infrared operating range; (ii) minimizing nonspecific interactions of the probes in biological systems; (iii) their adaptation for advanced microscopies, notably for superresolution and in vivo imaging. © 2017 American Chemical Society.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: IA | Phase: LCE-03-2015 | Award Amount: 25.07M | Year: 2016
DESTRESS is aimed at creating EGS (Enhanced geothermal systems) reservoirs with sufficient permeability, fracture orientation and spacing for economic use of underground heat. The concepts are based on experience in previous projects, on scientific progress and developments in other fields, mainly the oil & gas sector. Recently developed stimulation methods will be adapted to geothermal needs, applied to new geothermal sites and prepared for the market uptake. Understanding of risks in each area (whether technological, in business processes, for particular business cases, or otherwise), risk ownership, and possible risk mitigation will be the scope of specific work packages. The DESTRESS concept takes into account the common and specific issues of different sites, representative for large parts of Europe, and will provide a generally applicable workflow for productivity enhancement measures. The main focus will be on stimulation treatments with minimized environmental hazard (soft stimulation), to enhance the reservoir in several geological settings covering granites, sandstones, and other rock types. The business cases will be shown with cost and benefit estimations based on the proven changes of the system performance, and the environmental footprint of treatments and operation of the site will be controlled. In particular, the public debate related to fracking will be addressed by applying specific concepts for the mitigation of damaging seismic effects while constructing a productive reservoir and operating a long-term sustainable system. Industrial participation is particularly pronounced in DESTRESS, including large energy suppliers as well as SMEs in the process of developing their sites. The composition of the consortium involving major knowledge institutes as well as key industry will guarantee the increase in technology performance of EGS as well as an accelerated time to market.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: SGA-RIA | Phase: FETFLAGSHIP | Award Amount: 89.00M | Year: 2016
This project is the second in the series of EC-financed parts of the Graphene Flagship. The Graphene Flagship is a 10 year research and innovation endeavour with a total project cost of 1,000,000,000 euros, funded jointly by the European Commission and member states and associated countries. The first part of the Flagship was a 30-month Collaborative Project, Coordination and Support Action (CP-CSA) under the 7th framework program (2013-2016), while this and the following parts are implemented as Core Projects under the Horizon 2020 framework. The mission of the Graphene Flagship is to take graphene and related layered materials from a state of raw potential to a point where they can revolutionise multiple industries. This will bring a new dimension to future technology a faster, thinner, stronger, flexible, and broadband revolution. Our program will put Europe firmly at the heart of the process, with a manifold return on the EU investment, both in terms of technological innovation and economic growth. To realise this vision, we have brought together a larger European consortium with about 150 partners in 23 countries. The partners represent academia, research institutes and industries, which work closely together in 15 technical work packages and five supporting work packages covering the entire value chain from materials to components and systems. As time progresses, the centre of gravity of the Flagship moves towards applications, which is reflected in the increasing importance of the higher - system - levels of the value chain. In this first core project the main focus is on components and initial system level tasks. The first core project is divided into 4 divisions, which in turn comprise 3 to 5 work packages on related topics. A fifth, external division acts as a link to the parts of the Flagship that are funded by the member states and associated countries, or by other funding sources. This creates a collaborative framework for the entire Flagship.
Ciesielski A.,University of Strasbourg |
Samori P.,University of Strasbourg
Chemical Society Reviews | Year: 2014
Graphene, the 2D form of carbon based material existing as a single layer of atoms arranged in a honeycomb lattice, has set the science and technology sectors alight with interest in the last decade in view of its astounding electrical and thermal properties, combined with its mechanical stiffness, strength and elasticity. Two distinct strategies have been undertaken for graphene production, i.e. the bottom-up and the top-down. The former relies on the generation of graphene from suitably designed molecular building blocks undergoing chemical reaction to form covalently linked 2D networks. The latter occurs via exfoliation of graphite into graphene. Bottom-up techniques, based on the organic syntheses starting from small molecular modules, when performed in liquid media, are both size limited, because macromolecules become more and more insoluble with increasing size, and suffer from the occurrence of side reactions with increasing molecular weight. Because of these reasons such a synthesis has been performed more and more on a solid (ideally catalytically active) surface. Substrate-based growth of single layers can be done also by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) or via reduction of silicon carbide, which unfortunately relies on the ability to follow a narrow thermodynamic path. Top-down approaches can be accomplished under different environmental conditions. Alongside the mechanical cleavage based on the scotch tape approach, liquid-phase exfoliation (LPE) methods are becoming more and more interesting because they are extremely versatile, potentially up-scalable, and can be used to deposit graphene in a variety of environments and on different substrates not available using mechanical cleavage or growth methods. Interestingly, LPE can be applied to produce different layered systems exhibiting different compositions such as BN, MoS2, WS2, NbSe2, and TaS2, thereby enabling the tuning of numerous physico-chemical properties of the material. Furthermore, LPE can be employed to produce graphene-based composites or films, which are key components for many applications, such as thin-film transistors, conductive transparent electrodes for indium tin oxide replacement, e.g. in light-emitting diodes, or photovoltaics. In this review, we highlight the recent progress that has led to successful production of high quality graphene by means of LPE of graphite. In particular, we discuss the mechanisms of exfoliation and methods that are employed for graphene characterization. We then describe a variety of successful liquid-phase exfoliation methods by categorizing them into two major classes, i.e. surfactant-free and surfactant-assisted LPE. Furthermore, exfoliation in aqueous and organic solutions is presented and discussed separately. © 2014 The Royal Society of Chemistry.
Ferrandon D.,University of Strasbourg
Current Opinion in Immunology | Year: 2013
Significant advances have been made in our understanding of the host defense against microbial infections taking place at frontier epithelia of Drosophila flies. Immune deficiency (IMD), the major NF-κB immune response pathway induced in these epithelia, displays remarkable adaptations in its activation and regulation in the respiratory and digestive tract. The host defense against ingested pathogens is not limited to resistance, that is, the immune response. It also involves resilience, the capacity of the host to endure and repair damages inflicted by pathogens or the host's own immune response. For instance, enterocytes damaged by pathogens, the microbiota of aging flies, or host-derived reactive oxygen species (ROS), are replaced under the control of multiple pathways by the compensatory proliferation of intestinal stem cells (ISCs). © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.
Pourquie O.,University of Strasbourg
Cell | Year: 2011
One of the most striking features of the human vertebral column is its periodic organization along the anterior-posterior axis. This pattern is established when segments of vertebrates, called somites, bud off at a defined pace from the anterior tip of the embryo's presomitic mesoderm (PSM). To trigger this rhythmic production of somites, three major signaling pathways - Notch, Wnt/β-catenin, and fibroblast growth factor (FGF) - integrate into a molecular network that generates a traveling wave of gene expression along the embryonic axis, called the "segmentation clock." Recent systems approaches have begun identifying specific signaling circuits within the network that set the pace of the oscillations, synchronize gene expression cycles in neighboring cells, and contribute to the robustness and bilateral symmetry of somite formation. These findings establish a new model for vertebrate segmentation and provide a conceptual framework to explain human diseases of the spine, such as congenital scoliosis. © 2011 Elsevier Inc.
Wencel-Delord J.,University of Strasbourg |
Glorius F.,University of Munster
Nature Chemistry | Year: 2013
The beginning of the twenty-first century has witnessed significant advances in the field of C-H bond activation, and this transformation is now an established piece in the synthetic chemists' toolbox. This methodology has the potential to be used in many different areas of chemistry, for example it provides a perfect opportunity for the late-stage diversification of various kinds of organic scaffolds, ranging from relatively small molecules like drug candidates, to complex polydisperse organic compounds such as polymers. In this way, C-H activation approaches enable relatively straightforward access to a plethora of analogues or can help to streamline the lead-optimization phase. Furthermore, synthetic pathways for the construction of complex organic materials can now be designed that are more atom- and step-economical than previous methods and, in some cases, can be based on synthetic disconnections that are just not possible without C-H activation. This Perspective highlights the potential of metal-catalysed C-H bond activation reactions, which now extend beyond the field of traditional synthetic organic chemistry. © 2013 Macmillan Publishers Limited.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: MSCA-ITN-EJD | Phase: MSCA-ITN-2016 | Award Amount: 3.87M | Year: 2017
EIPIN IS is a comprehensive project at the forefront of multidisciplinary research, examining the role of intellectual property (IP) as a complex adaptive system in innovation. The focus will be on the European regulatory framework for fostering innovation with the aim of enhancing Europes capacity for innovation-based sustainable economic growth. The longstanding European Intellectual Property Institutes Network (EIPIN), a consortium of leading research and training centres in the area of intellectual property, is the driving force behind the project. The primary research objective of the programme is to provide political leaders and stakeholders reliable conclusions and recommendations in the form of doctoral IP research on how to deal with the adaptive complexities of innovation cycles that secure economic benefits and uphold justice in the innovation society. The training objectives of the programme focus on the development of ESRs capacity to guide inventors and entrepreneurs in the life-cycle of IP-intensive assets and the process of translating intangible inventions into commercially viable products. The programme provides for an unprecedented environment for ESRs, based on the award of a joint or double doctoral degree. The project results will be disseminated in a way that it has an impact on the norm-setting at the national, European and international level. The involvement of industry associations representing numerous undertakings multiplies the engagement of non-academic actors. Furthermore, the realisation of this ambitious interdisciplinary programme open to ESRs from all domains of sciences will provide a solid foundation for further cross-cutting research in the area of innovation policies, overcoming traditional divisions between faculties and disciplines. This partnership has a high potential for the broadest possible dissemination of its results as well as becoming a role model in Europe.