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Stockholm, Sweden

Stockholm University is the state university of Stockholm, Sweden. Stockholm University has two scientific fields: the natural science and the humanities/social science. With over 70,000 students at four different faculties, law, humanities, the mathematical and natural science, it is one of the largest universities in Scandinavia. The institution is regarded as one of the top 100 universities in the world by both the Academic Ranking of World Universities and the Times Higher Education World University Rankings - whereas, in the QS World University Rankings, the SU is among the 200 universities in the world. Stockholm University was granted university status in 1960, making it the fourth oldest Swedish university. Stockholm University's primary mission is to provide education and high quality research for the betterment of the Swedish community. Wikipedia.

Siegbahn P.E.M.,University of Stockholm
Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics | Year: 2012

The new high-resolution X-ray structure of photosystem II has allowed more detailed studies than before of water oxidation at the oxygen evolving complex (OEC). In the present study the two final S-transitions of water oxidation are studied. The electron coupled proton transfers are followed from the center of the OEC to Asp61, which is considered as the start of the transfer chain through the protein to the lumenal side. It is found that the proton transfers occur in multiple steps. Structures of intermediates and energy diagrams are derived and compared to experimental observations. Since the new experimental structure of the OEC is very similar to the one suggested earlier by density functional calculations, the O-O bond formation step remains essentially the same as the one suggested five years ago. An interesting new result is that the barrier for proton transfer within the OEC actually competes with the O-O bond formation step of being rate-limiting. © 2012 the Owner Societies.

Szabo K.J.,University of Stockholm
Topics in Organometallic Chemistry | Year: 2013

Application of pincer complexes in catalytic applications is a rapidly expanding field in organic synthesis. This chapter is mainly focused on selective formation of carbon-carbon, carbon-nitrogen, and carbon-metal (C-B, C-Si, and S-Sn) bonds, as well as transfer hydrogenation reactions. The described pincer-complex catalyzed processes are more efficient and more selective than the corresponding transformations catalyzed by metal salts and added ligands. Some of the described pincer-complex catalyzed reactions are not amenable by traditional metal catalysts at all. It has been demonstrated that the superiority of pincer-complex catalysts over the traditional ones is based on the high stability and well-defined structure and stoichiometry of these species. These properties of pincer complexes allow a rational design of active and highly selective catalysts. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

Carlsson C.,University of Stockholm
Criminology | Year: 2013

In life-course criminology, when gender has been the focus of study, it has predominantly been treated as a variable. Studies that explore the gendered nature of criminal careers through the lived experiences of offenders are rare, even though these studies can make important contributions to our understanding of crime and the life course. Analyzing qualitative data, this article uses life-history narratives of a small sample of male juvenile delinquents (N = 25), born in 1969-1974, to explore the possible link among masculinities, persistence, and desistance from crime. The findings of the study suggest that processes of persistence and desistance are imbued with age-specific norms of what it means to "be a man" and successfully do masculinity in different stages of life. Analyzing these gender-specific practices gives a deepened understanding of processes that underlie the offenders' lives as they go through stages of continuity and change in crime. The findings of the study further suggest a complex intersection between gendered biographies and gendered structures, with fruitful contributions to life-course criminology. The implications of these findings are discussed. © 2013 American Society of Criminology.

Barker V.,University of Stockholm
Theoretical Criminology | Year: 2013

Nordic penal regimes are Janus-faced: one side relatively mild and benign; the other intrusive, disciplining and oppressive. This paradox has not been fully grasped or explained by the Nordic Exceptionalism thesis which overstates the degree to which Nordic penal order is based on humaneness and social solidarity, an antidote to mass incarceration. This essay examines the split in the foundation of the Swedish welfare state: it simultaneously promotes individual well-being in the social sphere but enables intrusive deprivations of liberty and in some cases, violates the principles of human rights. The backbone of the welfare state, Folkhemmet, the People's Home, is at once demos, democratic and egalitarian and ethnos, a people by blood, exclusionary and essentialist. The lack of individual rights and an ethno-cultural conception of citizenship make certain categories of people such as criminal offenders, criminal aliens, drug offenders and perceived 'others', particularly foreign nationals, vulnerable to deprivation and exclusion. © The Author(s) 2012.

The Tibetan Plateau holds an ample record of past glaciations, and there is an extensive set of glacial deposits dated by exposure dating. Here a compilation is presented of 10Be exposure ages from 485 glacial deposits with 1855 individual samples on the Tibetan Plateau, and ELA depression estimates for the glacial deposits based on a simple toe to headwall ratio approach. To recalculate the Tibetan Plateau exposure ages, 10Be production rates from 24 calibration sites across the world are compiled and recalibrated yielding an updated global reference 10Be production rate. The recalculated exposure ages from the Tibetan Plateau glacial deposits are then divided into three groups based on exposure age clustering, to discriminate good (well-clustered) from poor (scattered) deglaciation ages. A major part of the glacial deposits have exposure ages affected by prior or incomplete exposure, complicating exposure age interpretations. The well-clustered deglaciation ages are primarily from mountain ranges along the margins of the Tibetan Plateau with a main peak between 10 and 30ka, indicating glacial advances during the global LGM. A large number of deglaciation ages older than 30ka indicates maximum glaciation predating the LGM, but the exposure age scatter generally prohibits accurate definition of the glacial chronology. The ELA depression estimates scatter significantly, but the main part is remarkably low. Average ELA depressions of 337±197m for the LGM and 494±280m for the pre-LGM indicate restricted glacier expansion. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

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