Stockholm, Sweden
Stockholm, Sweden

Stockholm University is the state university of Stockholm, Sweden. Stockholm University has two scientific fields: the natural science and the humanities/social science. With over 70,000 students at four different faculties, law, humanities, the mathematical and natural science, it is one of the largest universities in Scandinavia. The institution is regarded as one of the top 100 universities in the world by both the Academic Ranking of World Universities and the Times Higher Education World University Rankings - whereas, in the QS World University Rankings, the SU is among the 200 universities in the world. Stockholm University was granted university status in 1960, making it the fourth oldest Swedish university. Stockholm University's primary mission is to provide education and high quality research for the betterment of the Swedish community. Wikipedia.

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Boonstra W.J.,University of Oslo | Hentati-Sundberg J.,University of Stockholm
Fish and Fisheries | Year: 2014

The study and classification of fishers' behaviour remains a much debated topic. There is a tension between detailed empirical studies, which highlight the variety and diversity of fisheries, and the parsimony and generalization required to satisfy science and policy demands. This study contributes to this debate. The first section reviews quantitative methods currently used for classifying fishing practices. The review uncovers significant weaknesses in quantitative classification methods, which, we argue, can be improved through the complementary use of qualitative methods. To this purpose, we introduce the concept of 'fishing style', which integrates quantitative classification methods with qualitative analysis. We explain the scientific premises of the fishing-style concept, outline a general methodological framework and present a fishing-style analysis of Swedish Baltic Sea fisheries. Based on these results, we conclude that it is possible to classify fishing practices in a relatively uniform and limited number of styles that can highlight the rich, empirical diversity of fishers' behaviour. We therefore propose that fishing-style analysis, based on an integration of quantitative and qualitative methods, can be an important step towards more effective and sustainable fisheries management. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

Schwander T.,University of Groningen | Leimar O.,University of Stockholm
Trends in Ecology and Evolution | Year: 2011

A major question for the study of phenotypic evolution is whether intra- and interspecific diversity originates directly from genetic variation, or instead, as plastic responses to environmental influences initially, followed later by genetic change. In species with discrete alternative phenotypes, evolutionary sequences can be inferred from transitions between environmental and genetic phenotype control, and from losses of phenotypic alternatives. From the available evidence, sequences appear equally probable to start with genetic polymorphism as with polyphenism, with a possible dominance of one or the other for specific trait types. We argue in this review that to evaluate the prevalence of each route, an investigation of both genetic and environmental cues for phenotype determination in several related rather than in isolated species is required. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

Loader N.J.,University of Swansea | Young G.H.F.,University of Swansea | Grudd H.,University of Stockholm | McCarroll D.,University of Swansea
Quaternary Science Reviews | Year: 2013

This paper presents results from the first 1100 years of a long stable carbon isotope chronology currently in development from Scots Pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) trees growing in the Torneträsk region of northern Sweden. The isotope record currently comprises a total of 74 trees with a mean annual replication of >12, thereby enabling it to be compared directly with other tree-ring based palæoclimate reconstructions from this region. In developing the reconstruction, several key topics in isotope dendroclimatology (chronology construction, replication, CO2 adjustment and age trends) were addressed. The resulting carbon isotope series is calibrated against instrumental data from the closest meteorological station at Abisko (AD1913-2008) to provide a record of June-August sunshine for northern Fennoscandia. This parameter is closely linked to the direct control of assimilation rate; Photosynthetically Active Radiation (PAR) and the indirect measures; mean July-August temperature and percent cloud cover. The coupled response of summer sunshine and temperature in this region permits a multi-parameter comparison with a local reconstruction of past temperature variability based upon tree growth proxies to explore the stability of this coupling through time. Several periods are identified where the temperature (X-ray density) and sunshine (stable carbon isotope ratio) records diverge. The most significant and sustained of these occur between c AD1200-1380 and c AD1550-1780, providing evidence for a cool, sunny, two-phase "Little Ice Age". Whilst summer sunshine reconstructed for the 20th century is significantly different from the mean of the last 1100 years (P < 0.01), conditions during the early mediæval period are similar to those experienced in northern Fennoscandia during the 20th century (P > 0.01), so it is the 17th-18th, and to a lesser extent, the 13th centuries rather than the early mediæval period that appear anomalous when viewed within the context of the last 1100 years. The observed departures between temperature and sunshine are interpreted as indicating a change in large-scale circulation associated with a southward migration of the Polar Front. Such a change, affecting the Northern Annular Mode (Arctic Oscillation) would result in more stable anticyclonic conditions (cool, bright, summers) over northern Fennoscandia, thus providing a testable mechanism for the development of a multi-phase, time-transgressive "Little Ice Age" across Europe. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

Andersson C.,University of Stockholm | Andersson C.,Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute | Engardt M.,Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute
Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres | Year: 2010

[1] Projections of future surface ozone over Europe conducted utilizing chemistry transport models (CTMs) coupled to climate models differ greatly, even in sign. CTM sensitivity studies were conducted in order to investigate the importance of changes in natural isoprene emissions and dry deposition to vegetation, both coupled to meteorology. This knowledge can be used to improve surface ozone projections. Our simulations suggest climate change over Europe would cause changes in surface ozone between -4.0 to +13 ppb(v) on average (April-September) and -3.5 to +25 ppb(v) on average (April-September) daily maximum from 1961-1990 to 2071-2100. The change is positive in the southwest and negative in the north. The isoprene emissions increased by a factor of about 1.8 from 1961-1990 to 2071-2100. A rescaling of isoprene emissions shows that the large increase in isoprene emission is of importance (0-30% of the change in surface ozone) in central, southern, and western Europe. The use of a formulation for ozone dry deposition to vegetation, dependent on meteorology, and changes in snow cover, affecting the dry deposition, are more important processes. The changes in dry deposition to vegetation (not including changes in aerodynamic resistance) explain up to 80% of the surface ozone change in Spain. Therefore it is vital to include meteorological dependence for dry deposition of ozone to vegetation in surface ozone projections. Isoprene emissions are of less importance, but they are nonnegligible and should definitely be emitted online in climate ozone projection studies. Copyright © 2010 by the American Geophysical Union.

Ronquist F.,Swedish Museum of Natural History | Teslenko M.,Swedish Museum of Natural History | Van Der Mark P.,Florida State University | Ayres D.L.,University of Maryland University College | And 6 more authors.
Systematic Biology | Year: 2012

Since its introduction in 2001, MrBayes has grown in popularity as a software package for Bayesian phylogenetic inference using Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) methods. With this note, we announce the release of version 3.2, a major upgrade to the latest official release presented in 2003. The new version provides convergence diagnostics and allows multiple analyses to be run in parallel with convergence progress monitored on the fly. The introduction of new proposals and automatic optimization of tuning parameters has improved convergence for many problems. The new version also sports significantly faster likelihood calculations through streaming single-instruction-multiple-data extensions (SSE) and support of the BEAGLE library, allowing likelihood calculations to be delegated to graphics processing units (GPUs) on compatible hardware. Speedup factors range from around 2 with SSE code to more than 50 with BEAGLE for codon problems. Checkpointing across all models allows long runs to be completed even when an analysis is prematurely terminated. New models include relaxed clocks, dating, model averaging across time-reversible substitution models, and support for hard, negative, and partial (backbone) tree constraints. Inference of species trees from gene trees is supported by full incorporation of the Bayesian estimation of species trees (BEST) algorithms. Marginal model likelihoods for Bayes factor tests can be estimated accurately across the entire model space using the stepping stone method. The new version provides more output options than previously, including samples of ancestral states, site rates, site dN/dS rations, branch rates, and node dates. A wide range of statistics on tree parameters can also be output for visualization in FigTree and compatible software. © 2012 The Author(s).

Petermann E.,University of Oxford | Orta M.L.,University of Oxford | Orta M.L.,University of Seville | Issaeva N.,University of Stockholm | And 3 more authors.
Molecular Cell | Year: 2010

Faithful DNA replication is essential to all life. Hydroxyurea (HU) depletes the cells of dNTPs, which initially results in stalled replication forks that, after prolonged treatment, collapse into DSBs. Here, we report that stalled replication forks are efficiently restarted in a RAD51-dependent process that does not trigger homologous recombination (HR). The XRCC3 protein, which is required for RAD51 foci formation, is also required for replication restart of HU-stalled forks, suggesting that RAD51-mediated strand invasion supports fork restart. In contrast, replication forks collapsed by prolonged replication blocks do not restart, and global replication is rescued by new origin firing. We find that RAD51-dependent HR is triggered for repair of collapsed replication forks, without apparent restart. In conclusion, our data suggest that restart of stalled replication forks and HR repair of collapsed replication forks require two distinct RAD51-mediated pathways. © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Linder M.,Uppsala University | Sennblad B.,Albanova University Center | Sennblad B.,University of Stockholm
Systematic Biology | Year: 2011

We have evaluated the performance of two classes of probabilistic models for substitution rate variation over phylogenetic trees. In the first class, branch rates are considered to be independent and identically distributed (i.i.d.) stochastic variables. Three versions with respect to the underlying distribution (Gamma, Inverse Gaussian, and LogNormal) are considered. The i.i.d. models are compared with the autocorrelated (AC) model, where rates of adjacent nodes in the tree are AC, so that a node rate is LogNormal distributed around the rate of the parent node. The performance of different models is evaluated using three empirical data sets. For all data sets, it was clear that all tested models extracted substantial knowledge from data when posterior divergence time distributions were compared with the prior distributions and, furthermore, that they clearly outperformed a molecular clock. Moreover, the descriptive power of the i.i.d. models, as evaluated by Bayes factors, was either equal to or clearly better than that of the AC model. The latter effect increased with extended taxon sampling. Likewise, under none of the models could we find compelling evidence, in any of the data sets, for rate correlation between adjacent branches/nodes. These findings challenge previous suggestions of universality of autocorrelation in sequence evolution. We also performed an additional comparison with a divergence time prior including calibration information from fossil evidence. Adding fossil information to the prior had negligible effect on Bayes factors and mainly affected the width of the posterior distribution of the divergence times, whereas the relative position of the mean divergence times were largely unaffected. © 2011 The Author(s).

Pasanen-Mortensen M.,University of Stockholm | Pyykonen M.,University of Gävle | Elmhagen B.,University of Stockholm
Global Ecology and Biogeography | Year: 2013

Aim: Climate change and loss of apex predators can affect ecosystem structure and function through modified limitation processes. We investigated, on a continental scale, whether mesopredator abundance is limited from the top down by large predators, as predicted by the mesopredator release hypothesis, or by bottom-up factors. The mesopredator in focus is the red fox Vulpes vulpes, a key predator in many ecosystems due to its strong effects on prey abundance. Location: Europe and northern Asia. Methods: Data on red fox density were compiled from published papers and reports. For each site, we collated presence-absence data on large carnivores (Lynx lynx, Canis lupus, Canisaureus) and remote sensing data for factors potentially related to bottom-up limitation (winter severity, summer temperature, human density, primary productivity, tree cover). The data were analysed through structural equation modelling. Results: The presence of lynx had a direct negative effect on red foxes, suppressing fox abundance. Also winter severity had a negative effect on red fox abundance, and in Eurasia as a whole this effect was partially mediated through lynx. Within the lynx distribution range, winter severity was the only bottom-up factor significantly affecting red fox abundance. Outside the lynx distribution range, primary productivity, summer temperature and human density had a positive effect on red fox abundance. Main conclusions: Our results show that apex predators can limit mesopredator abundance on a continental scale, thus supporting the mesopredator release hypothesis. Winter severity also affected red fox abundance, partially due to an interaction between lynx and winter conditions. On the continental scale a complex network of processes operates with varying effects depending on mediation processes. Our results imply that apex predators can have an important effect on ecosystem structure by limiting mesopredator abundance, and we suggest that apex predators may dampen increases in mesopredator abundance driven by global warming. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

Cabello A.,University of Seville | Cabello A.,University of Stockholm | Sciarrino F.,University of Rome La Sapienza
Physical Review X | Year: 2012

A loophole-free violation of Bell inequalities is of fundamental importance for demonstrating quantum nonlocality and long-distance device-independent secure communication. However, transmission losses represent a fundamental limitation for photonic loophole-free Bell tests. A local precertification of the presence of the photons immediately before the local measurements may solve this problem.We show that local precertification is feasible by integrating three current technologies: (i) enhanced single-photon down-conversion to locally create a flag photon, (ii) nanowire-based superconducting single-photon detectors for a fast flag detection, and (iii) superconducting transition-edge sensors to close the detection loophole. We carry out a precise space-time analysis of the proposed scheme, showing its viability and feasibility.

Koenigk T.,Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute | Brodeau L.,University of Stockholm
Climate Dynamics | Year: 2014

The ocean heat transport into the Arctic and the heat budget of the Barents Sea are analyzed in an ensemble of historical and future climate simulations performed with the global coupled climate model EC-Earth. The zonally integrated northward heat flux in the ocean at 70°N is strongly enhanced and compensates for a reduction of its atmospheric counterpart in the twenty first century. Although an increase in the northward heat transport occurs through all of Fram Strait, Canadian Archipelago, Bering Strait and Barents Sea Opening, it is the latter which dominates the increase in ocean heat transport into the Arctic. Increased temperature of the northward transported Atlantic water masses are the main reason for the enhancement of the ocean heat transport. The natural variability in the heat transport into the Barents Sea is caused to the same extent by variations in temperature and volume transport. Large ocean heat transports lead to reduced ice and higher atmospheric temperature in the Barents Sea area and are related to the positive phase of the North Atlantic Oscillation. The net ocean heat transport into the Barents Sea grows until about year 2050. Thereafter, both heat and volume fluxes out of the Barents Sea through the section between Franz Josef Land and Novaya Zemlya are strongly enhanced and compensate for all further increase in the inflow through the Barents Sea Opening. Most of the heat transported by the ocean into the Barents Sea is passed to the atmosphere and contributes to warming of the atmosphere and Arctic temperature amplification. Latent and sensible heat fluxes are enhanced. Net surface long-wave and solar radiation are enhanced upward and downward, respectively and are almost compensating each other. We find that the changes in the surface heat fluxes are mainly caused by the vanishing sea ice in the twenty first century. The increasing ocean heat transport leads to enhanced bottom ice melt and to an extension of the area with bottom ice melt further northward. However, no indication for a substantial impact of the increased heat transport on ice melt in the Central Arctic is found. Most of the heat that is not passed to the atmosphere in the Barents Sea is stored in the Arctic intermediate layer of Atlantic water, which is increasingly pronounced in the twenty first century. © 2013 The Author(s).

Schultz L.,University of Stockholm | Folke C.,University of Stockholm | Folke C.,Royal Swedish Academy Of Sciences | Folke C.,Stellenbosch University | And 2 more authors.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America | Year: 2015

To gain insights into the effects of adaptive governance on natural capital, we compare three well-studied initiatives; a landscape in Southern Sweden, the Great Barrier Reef in Australia, and fisheries in the Southern Ocean. We assess changes in natural capital and ecosystem services related to these social-ecological governance approaches to ecosystem management and investigate their capacity to respond to change and new challenges. The adaptive governance initiatives are compared with other efforts aimed at conservation and sustainable use of natural capital: Natura 2000 in Europe, lobster fisheries in the Gulf of Maine, North America, and fisheries in Europe. In contrast to these efforts, we found that the adaptive governance cases developed capacity to perform ecosystem management, manage multiple ecosystem services, and monitor, communicate, and respond to ecosystem-wide changes at landscape and seascape levels with visible effects on natural capital. They enabled actors to collaborate across diverse interests, sectors, and institutional arrangements and detect opportunities and problems as they developed while nurturing adaptive capacity to deal with them. They all spanned local to international levels of decision making, thus representing multilevel governance systems for managing natural capital. As with any governance system, internal changes and external drivers of global impacts and demands will continue to challenge the long-term success of such initiatives. © 2015, National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.

Wicklein B.,University of Stockholm | Kocjan A.,Jozef Stefan Institute | Salazar-Alvarez G.,University of Stockholm | Salazar-Alvarez G.,KTH Royal Institute of Technology | And 4 more authors.
Nature Nanotechnology | Year: 2015

High-performance thermally insulating materials from renewable resources are needed to improve the energy efficiency of buildings. Traditional fossil-fuel-derived insulation materials such as expanded polystyrene and polyurethane have thermal conductivities that are too high for retrofitting or for building new, surface-efficient passive houses. Tailored materials such as aerogels and vacuum insulating panels are fragile and susceptible to perforation. Here, we show that freeze-casting suspensions of cellulose nanofibres, graphene oxide and sepiolite nanorods produces super-insulating, fire-retardant and strong anisotropic foams that perform better than traditional polymer-based insulating materials. The foams are ultralight, show excellent combustion resistance and exhibit a thermal conductivity of 15 mW m-1 K-1, which is about half that of expanded polystyrene. At 30°C and 85% relative humidity, the foams retained more than half of their initial strength. Our results show that nanoscale engineering is a promising strategy for producing foams with excellent properties using cellulose and other renewable nanosized fibrous materials. © 2015 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

Ter Beek J.,University of Groningen | Ter Beek J.,University of Stockholm | Guskov A.,University of Groningen | Slotboom D.J.,University of Groningen
Journal of General Physiology | Year: 2014

ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters form a large superfamily of ATP-dependent protein complexes that mediate transport of a vast array of substrates across membranes. The 14 currently available structures of ABC transporters have greatly advanced insight into the transport mechanism and revealed a tremendous structural diversity. Whereas the domains that hydrolyze ATP are structurally related in all ABC transporters, the membrane-embedded domains, where the substrates are translocated, adopt four different unrelated folds. Here, we review the structural characteristics of ABC transporters and discuss the implications of this structural diversity for mechanistic diversity. © 2014 ter Beek et al.

Davies S.M.,University of Swansea | Abbott P.M.,University of Swansea | Pearce N.J.G.,Aberystwyth University | Wastegard S.,University of Stockholm | Blockley S.P.E.,Royal Holloway, University of London
Quaternary Science Reviews | Year: 2012

Little has challenged our understanding of climate change more so than the abruptness with which large-scale shifts in temperature occurred during the Late Quaternary. The causal mechanisms driving these rapid changes are poorly understood, largely due to the inherent difficulties of integrating palaeoclimate records which represents the key focus of the INTIMATE. 11INTIMATE: INTegration of Ice, MArine and TErrestrial record is a core project of the INQUA Palaeoclimate Commission. Australasian and North Atlantic projects are currently active. This paper refers specifically to the objectives of the North Atlantic group. project. Tephrochronology has become central to the synchronisation goals of INTIMATE, the overall aim of which is to test the degree of climatic synchroneity in relation to these rapid climatic events. Here we present a European framework of 12 volcanic events that hold considerable promise for achieving the INTIMATE goals and effecting precise correlation of widespread palaeoarchives. These tephras are widespread and fall stratigraphically in close association to rapid climatic changes. We believe that these represent the most valuable tephras for the European INTIMATE project, but also highlight those that require urgent investigation to refine their geochemical signatures, eruptive context and chronological and stratigraphical uncertainties. For instance, new data are presented for the Saksunarvatn Ash that question the sole reliance on major-element analysis for tephra characterisation and highlights some of the challenges that remain for tephra studies. Accordingly, we outline a number of key recommendations relating to geochemical characterisation, data comparison, assessing the depositional integrity of tephra horizons as well as methods for improving age estimates - all of which will optimise the application of tephrochronology to meet the INTIMATE goals. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

Devasthale A.,Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute | Sedlar J.,Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute | Tjernstrom M.,University of Stockholm
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics | Year: 2011

An accurate characterization of the vertical structure of the Arctic atmosphere is useful in climate change and attribution studies as well as for the climate modelling community to improve projections of future climate over this highly sensitive region. Here, we investigate one of the dominant features of the vertical structure of the Arctic atmosphere, i.e. water-vapour inversions, using eight years of Atmospheric Infrared Sounder data (2002-2010) and radiosounding profiles released from the two Arctic locations (North Slope of Alaska at Barrow and during SHEBA). We quantify the characteristics of clear-sky water vapour inversions in terms of their frequency of occurrence, strength and height covering the entire Arctic for the first time.

We found that the frequency of occurrence of water-vapour inversions is highest during winter and lowest during summer. The inversion strength is, however, higher during summer. The observed peaks in the median inversion-layer heights are higher during the winter half of the year, at around 850 hPa over most of the Arctic Ocean, Siberia and the Canadian Archipelago, while being around 925 hPa during most of the summer half of the year over the Arctic Ocean. The radiosounding profiles agree with the frequency, location and strength of water-vapour inversions in the Pacific sector of the Arctic. In addition, the radiosoundings indicate that multiple inversions are the norm with relatively few cases without inversions. The amount of precipitable water within the water-vapour inversion structures is estimated and we find a distinct, two-mode contribution to the total column precipitable water. These results suggest that water-vapour inversions are a significant source to the column thermodynamics, especially during the colder winter and spring seasons. We argue that these inversions are a robust metric to test the reproducibility of thermodynamics within climate models. An accurate statistical representation of water-vapour inversions in models would mean that the large-scale coupling of moisture transport, precipitation, temperature and water-vapour vertical structure and radiation are essentially captured well in such models. © 2011 Author(s).

Meinhardt S.,Institute For Physik | Smiatek J.,University of Munster | Eichhorn R.,University of Stockholm | Schmid F.,Institute For Physik
Physical Review Letters | Year: 2012

We propose a method to separate enantiomers in microfluidic or nanofluidic channels. It requires flow profiles that break chiral symmetry and have regions with high local shear. Such profiles can be generated in channels confined by walls with different hydrodynamic boundary conditions (e.g., slip lengths). Because of a nonlinear hydrodynamic effect, particles with different chirality migrate at different speeds and can be separated. The mechanism is demonstrated by computer simulations. We investigate the influence of thermal fluctuations (i.e., the Péclet number) and show that the effect disappears in the linear response regime. The details of the microscopic flow are important and determine which volume forces are necessary to achieve separation. © 2012 American Physical Society.

Clark C.D.,University of Sheffield | Hughes A.L.C.,University of Swansea | Greenwood S.L.,University of Stockholm | Jordan C.,British Geological Survey | Sejrup H.P.,University of Bergen
Quaternary Science Reviews | Year: 2012

During the last glacial the ice sheet that subsumed most of Britain, Ireland and the North Sea attained its maximum extent by 27 ka BP and with an ice volume sufficient to raise global sea level by ca 2.5 m when it melted. We reconstruct the demise of this British-Irish Ice Sheet (BIIS) and present palaeo-glaciological maps of retreat stages between 27 and 15 ka BP. The whole land area was investigated using remote sensing data and we present maps of moraines, meltwater channels, eskers, and drumlins and a methodology of how to interpret and bring them together. For the continental shelf, numerous large moraines were discovered recording an extensive pattern of retreat stretching from SW Ireland to the Shetland Isles. From an integration of this new mapping of glacial geomorphology (>26,000 landforms) with previously published evidence, compiled in the BRITICE database, we derive a pattern of retreat for the whole BIIS. We review and compile relevant dates (881 examples) that constrain the timing of retreat. All data are held within a Geographic Information System (GIS), and are deciphered to produce a best-estimate of the combined pattern and timing of retreat.Pattern information reveals an ice sheet mainly comprised of a shelf-parallel configuration from SW Ireland to NE Scotland but it spread far enough to the south to incorporate outlying ice domes over Wales, the Lake District and Kerry. Final disintegration was into a number of separate ice caps, rather than reduction as a single mass, and paradoxically, retreat was not always back to high ground. By 23 ka BP ice withdrew along its northern boundaries at the same time as the southern margins were expanding, including transient ice streaming down the Irish Sea and advances of lobes in the Cheshire Basin, Vale of York and east coast of England. Ice divides migrated south. By 19 ka the ice sheet was in crisis with widespread marine-based ice losses, particularly in the northern North Sea and the Irish Sea. Considerable dynamic-thinning occurred during this phase. Final collapse of all marine sectors occurred by 17 ka BP and with most margins beginning to back-step onshore. Disintegration of the North Sea 'ice bridge' between Britain and Norway remains loosely constrained in time but the possibility of catastrophic collapse of this sector is highlighted. The North Channel and Irish Sea ice streams had finally cleaved the ice sheet into separate Irish and Scottish ice sheets by 16 ka BP. Rates of ice loss were found to vary widely over space and time (e.g., 65-260 km 3 per year). The role of ice streams and calving losses of marine-based sectors are examined. Retreat rates of up to ca 150 ma -1 were found for some ice stream margins.That large parts (2/3) of the BIIS were marine-based, drained by ice streams, and possibly with fringing ice shelves in places, makes it a useful analogue for the West Antarctic Ice Sheet (WAIS). This is especially so because the BIIS deglaciated in response to rising temperatures and a rising sea level (driven by melting of other ice masses) which are the current forcings that might cause collapse of the WAIS. Our reconstruction, when viewed from the opposite perspective, documents when fresh land became exposed for exploitation by plants, animals and Man, and records for how long such land has been available for soil and geochemical development and ecological succession. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

Ahrens J.,University of Stockholm | Badziag P.,University of Stockholm | Cabello A.,University of Stockholm | Cabello A.,University of Seville | Bourennane M.,University of Stockholm
Nature Physics | Year: 2012

A fundamental resource in any communication and computation task is the amount of information that can be transmitted and processed. The classical information encoded in a set of states is limited by the number of distinguishable states or classical dimension d c of the set. The sets used in quantum communication and information processing contain states that are neither identical nor distinguishable, and the quantum dimension d q of the set is the dimension of the Hilbert space spanned by these states. An important challenge is to assess the (classical or quantum) dimension of a set of states in a device-independent way, that is, without referring to the internal working of the device generating the states. Here we experimentally test dimension witnesses designed to efficiently determine the minimum dimension of sets of (three or four) photonic states from the correlations originated from measurements on them, and distinguish between classical and quantum sets of states. © 2012 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-CSA-Infra-PP | Phase: INFRA-2010-2.2.10 | Award Amount: 8.01M | Year: 2010

The Cherenkov Telescope Array CTA will be the first open facility for gamma-ray astronomy in the very-high-energy domain, with a performance which is dramatically improved over existing instruments in terms of sensitivity, energy coverage, survey capability and flexibility. CTA will probe non-thermal phenomena in the Universe known to have comparable energy content to other forms of energy such as thermal radiation both in our own Galaxy and at cosmological distances, addressing questions in astrophysics, astroparticle physics, particle physics, plasma physics, cosmology, and fundamental physics. The CTA preparatory phase CTA-PP will address a number of crucial prerequisites for the approval, construction and operation of CTA: > the set-up of a Project Office offering means for electronic communication as well as data storage and handling for documents of the whole consortium > the legal framework, governance schemes, and financial regulations for the following phases of CTA (pre-construction, construction and operation) > assuring funding for the pre-construction phase after termination of CTA-PP > the preparation of funding agreements between potential funding agencies > the preparation of negotiations with potential host countries for the CTA instrument > the detailed technical design and costing of the CTA observatory > the selection of sites for deployment negotiations, and detailing and cost-estimation of the required site infrastructure > the schemes for procurement and industry involvement in the technical design and construction of CTA > the required linking with relevant science communities regarding the detailed definition of the science program, the corresponding final optimisation of the observatory layout, and the definition of user services and data access. For CTA-PP, support is sought primarily for work on the legal, governance and financial issues, for the installation of a project office coordinating and supporting management of CTA-PP as well as the design of CTA and the planning of the implementation, and for studies regarding the optimisation and production of CTA components by industry. The ultimate delivery of CTA-PP will be a detailed implementation plan for the CTA infrastructure.

Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP | Phase: HEALTH-2007-3.3-3 | Award Amount: 4.01M | Year: 2009

AMPHORA is a Europe wide project involving researches and research institutions from 14 European countries, and counterparts and organizations from all 27 Member States, that will provide new scientific evidence for the best public health measures to reduce the harm done by alcohol through addressing social and cultural determinants, marketing and advertising, taxes and pricing, availability and access, early diagnosis and treatment of disease, interventions in drinking environments, and safer untaxed alcohol products. Cost effectiveness analyses will be undertaken in multiple settings, geographical regions, and for different gender and age groups to guide integrated policy making to reduce the harm done by alcohol. Using time series analysis, longitudinal intervention research, policy mapping, cost effectiveness analyses, and other policy relevant research methodologies, recent and current alcohol policy changes will be evaluated throughout European Member States. Current alcohol policy related infrastructures will be documented and their impact on effective policy development and implementation analyzed. The interaction between social and cultural determinants of alcohol policy and policy and preventive measures will be studied to determine the extent to which the implementation and impact of effective alcohol policies is culturally determined. Methodologies will be developed to allow tools for benchmarking and comparative analysis at the European level, advancing the state of the art in alcohol policy research and enhancing cooperation between researchers in Europe and other geographic regions to promote integration and excellence of European research in alcohol policy. AMPHORA will provide the evidence base to inform policy and decision makers at European, national and local levels to implement effective interventions to reduce the harm done by alcohol throughout a wide range of policies implemented in different sectors and settings.

Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP | Phase: ICT-2013.1.3 | Award Amount: 3.64M | Year: 2013

An enterprisess capabilities is one factor that often determines competitive advantage and provides business value. Capabilities refer to essential functions of the enterprise that link business goals to business processes, resources and actors. These capabilities are mapped onto IT solutions, such as software services, that are delivered to customers. Aligning an enterprises capabilities to its service provision is far from a straightforward task especially nowadays that the dominance and volatility of the Internet shifts the problem solving focus, from upfront predictable designs to identifying and capitalising on emerging and instantaneous business opportunities. Operating in the modern digital business world increases the importance of business agility, for example, in terms of customisation, availability and scalability. The requirement for modern information systems is to have the capability of delivering business value considering contextual variations such as, business models of the suppliers, user preferences and past activities, location, resource pricing and demand forecast, as well as local legislation and practices.\n\nThe main goal of the CaaS project is to bring about a shift from the service-oriented paradigm to a capability delivery paradigm. This puts particular focus on the context in which digital enterprises make their business, requiring customisation of the business offerings as the context of delivery changes. The CaaS project aims to facilitate configuration of business services and development of executable software to monitor the fitness of purpose of these services to evolving business contexts and where necessary to adjust these services according to the context. To this end, the CaaS project will deliver the Capability Driven Development (CDD) approach that will allow digital enterprises to exploit the notion of capability as a means of both designing for services and with services.\n\nThe CDD will be in the form of (1) modelling languages for representing enterprise designs, context models, and patterns, (2) a methodology for detailing how capabilities may be specified and how these may be used for designing new services, (3) reusable best practices and capability delivery patterns, (4) algorithms for dealing with business context awareness and service re-configuration, (5) a tool environment for modelling, design and delivery, and (6) a set of case studies demonstrating the applicability of the CDD.\n\nThe project is driven by three use cases from different business domains namely, energy, compliance, and e-government. These use cases act as the means of guiding the development of CDD, validating CDD and revising CDD in a project lifecycle involving three major iterations.\n\nIt is expected that on completion, the CaaS project will deliver results that will be theoretically sound and practically relevant with the potential for making a big impact on the delivery of software for the digital enterprise of tomorrow.

Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP | Phase: KBBE-2009-2-7-01 | Award Amount: 1.94M | Year: 2010

A number of epidemiological studies have consistently demonstrated the protective effects of fruits and vegetables with respect to several age related diseases. The aim of this project is to investigate the protective action of agents with potential use as functional food constituents with respect to cancer, diabetes and cardiovascular disease. In collaboration between EU and Indian research centers the proposal features a multipronged approach, where the protective action of various non-toxic agents are studied in vitro as well as in rodent models with respect to induction of DNA lesions, tumours and biomarkers for the development of diabetes, diabetic retinopathy and atherosclerosis. In addition, reduced availability of carcinogens and inhibition of their metabolic activation are investigated. Testing of the protective efficacy of functional food components in intervention cross-over studies in humans exposed to carcinogens, that are normally present at significant levels in the environment, represents an approach that has rarely been resorted to, and will be implemented under this project in Europe as well as in India using sophisticated molecular, cytogenetic and other analytical methods. Although there has been remarkable progress in our understanding of the processes that lead to neoplasia and diabetes, the mechanisms underlying chemoprevention are, in general, little understood. The results from this project are expected to provide an improved insight with respect to this topic.

Agency: Cordis | Branch: H2020 | Program: MSCA-ITN-ETN | Phase: MSCA-ITN-2015-ETN | Award Amount: 3.67M | Year: 2016

DIAPHORA serves as a European research and training platform for collaborative research on the nature of philosophical problems, their resilience and the sources of persistent divergence of expert opinion about them, and their relation to conflicts in the practical sphere. More specifically, DIAPHORAs 3 principal research objectives are (A) to diagnose what makes philosophical problems so resilient and to clarify to what extent the sustained lack of convergence in philosophy can successfully be explained by the hardness of its problems; (B) to explain why the tendency has not been towards a general agnosticism about candidate solutions, but rather towards divergence, and to identify features of philosophical method that allow for such persistent peer disagreement; and (C) to explore whether the dynamics of philosophical debate, despite the subjects highly theoretical nature, bears important and instructive resemblances to the dynamics of debates about more practical matters and their political and socio-economical antecedents and hence whether philosophical problems and their attempted resolution can illuminate, and be illuminated by, the procedural and methodological difficulties besetting strategies for the adjudication of public affairs, thereby determining what philosophical thought might contribute to society at large. DIAPHORA joins 7 leading European research centres in philosophy, and 5 partner organisations, 3 of which from the non-academic sector, in the fields of international conflict management, mediation and policy-making, as well as the analysis of social conflict and cultural diversity. It undertakes to provide 14 Early Stage Researchers with the knowledge and skills necessary to meet the demands of top-level research within its remit, as well as professional complementary skills training in both the academic and non-academic sectors, with the goal of widening their potential societal contributions and improving their individual career prospects.

Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CSA-CA | Phase: HEALTH-2007-2.3.2-13 | Award Amount: 1.70M | Year: 2009

A broad-range of candidate malaria vaccines derived from diverse novel technologies have resulted from the multiple approaches being taken by different groups in developing malaria vaccines. The majority of the candidates are recombinant proteins based on complex native antigens found on the surface of the parasite. Vaccine potential of these parasite surface antigens is often supported by epidemiological data, and by the ability to induce specific antibodies or potential protective responses in animals and later, in humans. Individual groups have developed assays within the context of the vaccine discovery efforts, with identification of measurable processes for parasite growth and virulence to test specific antigens. In-house assays are strain, stage and even process specific and the ability to compare results between different candidates is further limited by diverse methodologies and assay components such as parasites, cells and reagents. The absence of some level of harmonization of practices also makes interpreting the meaning and relevance of vaccine research outcomes complex. Lack of an enabling environment for comparability of research results generated in different labs could unfortunately lead to scepticism of the results that in turn generate uncertainty about the efficacy of the vaccines and rationale of the development pathway. To compare the relative merits of different candidate vaccines and approaches in a credible and informed manner, efforts must be made to create this enabling environment by supporting the development of a baseline level of standardization around key assays that can be utilized a) in the evaluation of malaria vaccines, and b) throughout the Development process. Consistent, reproducible and comparable intra- and inter-lab performance and increased accuracy and precision of assay data, will strengthen the quality of the data on vaccine performance and generate greater confidence in the vaccine potential of the candidate.

Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP | Phase: ICT-2011.6.7 | Award Amount: 4.88M | Year: 2012

The main goal of MobiS is to create a new concept and solution of a federated, customized and intelligent mobility platform by applying novel Future Internet technologies and Artificial Intelligence methods that will monitor, model and manage the urban mobility complex network of people, objects, natural, social and business environment in real-time. MobiS federation and intelligence is based on the symbiotic relation between these stakeholders, innovative prediction and reasoning methods that are using learned multi-criteria function to provide more efficient, energy-aware and environmental friendly citizen mobility.\nMobiS will be able to federate novel artificial intelligence services and traditional information platform services coming from the following sources: a) existing transport private or public service providers, b) ambient data, based on sensor infrastructures and c) social networking data.\nTo achieve these challenging objectives, the project will develop MobiS federated platform, prediction/planning/reasoning services, multi-criteria decision function and, federated mobility-based services that correspond to the above mentioned information sources. Solutions will be tested in three pilots: 1) An inter-city mobility scenario in Sweden (Stockholm-Hudiksvall-Sundsvall), where an existing crowdsourcing application will be used, 2) an intra-city scenario in Greece (Thessaloniki) combining a traffic information system and the crowdsourcing application and, 3) a country-wide (inter-city) mobility scenario in Slovenia with a social media application, and selected traffic information system already operated in various parts of the country and in the main cities.\nThe project has 32 months duration, is led by Insiel (IT), technically coordinated by ATOS (Spain) and will be implemented by a consortium of 9 partners from 6 different EU countries.

Agency: Cordis | Branch: H2020 | Program: MSCA-ITN-EJD | Phase: MSCA-ITN-2015-EJD | Award Amount: 4.07M | Year: 2016

ArchSci2020 will provide structured state-of-the-art doctoral training to the next generation of archaeologists and biomolecular scientists forging a new generation of biomolecular archaeologists. Few other academic disciplines have been so transformed in the last decade as Archaeology. ArchSci2020 meet the need of a new generation of researchers. International, intersectoral and interdisciplinary training will equip its early-stage researchers (ESRs) with specific research-related and transferable skills, in order to provide enhanced career prospects across academia, industry and the third sector. The proposed ArchSci2020 network will bring together four leading research clusters each with complementary expertise to deliver an integrated, flexible training package that will provide a sound basis for academic independence and preparation for vocations in the archaeology, heritage and beyond. ArchSci2020 will combine (i) a common purpose, (ii) an unconditional commitment to the student experience, (iii) a pro-active stance towards international, inter-institutional research support and interdisciplinary study, (iv) a simple but effective management structure provided by a Management Team, Supervisory Committee and the Work Package leaders, (v) and an established academic infrastructure and reputation. Key features of ArchSci2020: 1. ArchSci2020 will create a multidisciplinary training environment that brings together archaeologists, biologists, mathematicians, analytical chemists, and policy experts around an archaeological hub. 2. ArchSci2020 priorities and cross-cutting training themes align closely with Grand Challenges across its themes of Health, Diet, and Environment and incorporates the important current skills and future training needs in archaeological science. 3. Each participating institution will make a unique and distinct contribution to the experience of Early Stage Researchers (ESRs) in a partnership formed from existing strong environments.

Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: MC-ITN | Phase: PEOPLE-2007-1-1-ITN | Award Amount: 2.00M | Year: 2008

Membrane proteins are macromolecules of huge academic and biotechnological importance. They account for ~30% of genes in prokaryotic and eukaryotic genomes, and perform a spectrum of essential cellular functions. Despite their importance, these proteins are poorly understood with respect to membrane insertion, folding and complex formation. Even less is known of the interactions between membrane protein complexes, or with other compartments in the cell. This application aims to establish a multidisciplinary initial training network for early-stage researchers in which leading European groups in membrane protein chemistry, bacterial systems biology and biotechnological applications join forces to achieve top-level training in an ambitious academic and industrial setting. Training and research will be fully integrated in a systems approach for the hierarchical analysis of membrane proteins. Key objectives are to understand how individual membrane proteins insert and adopt a unique structure (Research Topic 1), how they assemble into multimeric complexes (Research Topic 2), and how they communicate (network) with each other and the rest of the cell (Research Topic 3). Novel quantitative approaches combined with mathematical modelling will be used to accurately predict membrane protein behaviour at a systems level (Research Topic 4). Throughout the program, special emphasis will be focused on biotechnologically relevant protein secretion systems. Major scientific deliverables will be knowledge models of complex assembly and inter-complex interaction hubs. The proposed training program will be individually-tailored to provide a coherent grounding in multidisciplinary approaches, both theoretical and experimental. It will deliver network-wide systems biology training, and a comprehensive suite of local complementary skills training. In this way, we will provide our trainees with formidable starting points for careers in European science and industry.

Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: MC-IRSES | Phase: FP7-PEOPLE-2013-IRSES | Award Amount: 285.60K | Year: 2014

As software becomes ever more ubiquitous in our lives, the need to ensure it runs without error becomes ever more important. Restarting a phone is a simple, if inconvenient task; restarting an aeroplane in mid-flight is not an option! Correct by construction programming offers a revolutionary approach to program verification where programs can contain not just computations as is normal, but also logical proofs of the correctness of these computations. The simple fact that such programs compile provides formal, i.e. mathematical, guarantees of the correctness of the program. In particular, there is no need for post-hoc testing of software etc. Fundamental to the implicit marriage of computation and logic inherent within correct by construction programming is the choice of the right logical systems and concepts upon which programming languages ought to be built. This reflects the symbiotic relationship between logic, programming, and the design of programming languagesany attempt to sever this connection will diminish each component. This proposal brings together internationally leading researchers from both inside Europe and outside Europe to work on exactly what logical structures are needed for correct by construction programming and how those logical structures can then by turned into concrete programming artefacts. In order to produce fundamental work which stands the test of time, we work not with specific programming languages but with mathematical abstractions of them. The recent development of dependently typed programming languages capable of supporting correct by construction programming makes this a very timely proposal, while the billions spent on software every year makes the potential impact of this proposal very significant.

Agency: Cordis | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: SC5-06-2014 | Award Amount: 6.91M | Year: 2015

AQUACROSS aims to support EU efforts to enhance the resilience and stop the loss of biodiversity of aquatic ecosystems as well as to ensure the ongoing and future provision of aquatic ecosystem services. It focuses on advancing the knowledge base and application of the ecosystem-based management concept for aquatic ecosystems by developing cost effective measures and integrated management practices. AQUACROSS considers the EU policy framework (i.e. goals, concepts, time frames) for aquatic ecosystems and builds on knowledge stemming from different sources (i.e. WISE, BISE, Member State reporting, modelling) to develop innovative management tools, concepts, and business models (i.e. indicators, maps, ecosystem assessments, participatory approaches, mechanisms for promoting the delivery of ecosystem services) for aquatic ecosystems at various scales. It thereby provides an unprecedented effort to unify policy concepts, knowledge, and management concepts of freshwater, coastal, and marine ecosystems to support the cost-effective achievement of the targets set out by the EU 2020 Biodiversity Strategy.

Agency: Cordis | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: SC5-01-2014 | Award Amount: 14.97M | Year: 2015

The goal of PRIMAVERA is to deliver novel, advanced and well-evaluated high-resolution global climate models (GCMs), capable of simulating and predicting regional climate with unprecedented fidelity, out to 2050. This capability will deliver innovative climate science and a new generation of advanced Earth System Models. Sector-specific end-users in policy and business will be identified and engaged individually, with iterative feedback, to ensure that new climate information is tailored, actionable and strengthening societal risk management decisions. These goals will be achieved through the development of coupled GCMs from seven groups across Europe, with sufficient resolution to reproduce realistic weather and climate features (~25km mesh size), in addition to enhanced process parameterisation. Thorough assessment will use innovative process-based metrics and the latest observational and reanalysis datasets. Targeted experimental design will reduce inter-model spread and produce robust projections, forming the European contribution to the CMIP6 High-Resolution Model Intercomparison Project, led by PRIMAVERA. It is the first time that high-resolution coupled GCMs will be used under a single experimental protocol. Coordination, and the underlying process-understanding, will significantly increase the robustness of our findings. Our new capabilities will be used to improve understanding of the drivers of variability and change in European climate, including extremes, since such regional changes continue to be characterised by high uncertainty. We will also explore the frontiers of climate modelling and of high performance computing to produce simulations with a reduced reliance on physical parameterisations. These will explicitly resolve key processes such as ocean eddies, and will include new stochastic parameterisations to represent sub-grid scale processes. These frontiers simulations will further our understanding of the robustness of climate projections.

Agency: Cordis | Branch: H2020 | Program: ERA-NET-Cofund | Phase: SC5-15-2015 | Award Amount: 52.36M | Year: 2016

In the last decade a significant number of projects and programmes in different domains of environmental monitoring and Earth observation have generated a substantial amount of data and knowledge on different aspects related to environmental quality and sustainability. Big data generated by in-situ or satellite platforms are being collected and archived with a plethora of systems and instruments making difficult the sharing of data and knowledge to stakeholders and policy makers for supporting key economic and societal sectors. The overarching goal of ERA-PLANET is to strengthen the European Research Area in the domain of Earth Observation in coherence with the European participation to Group on Earth Observation (GEO) and the Copernicus. The expected impact is to strengthen the European leadership within the forthcoming GEO 2015-2025 Work Plan. ERA-PLANET will reinforce the interface with user communities, whose needs the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS) intends to address. It will provide more accurate, comprehensive and authoritative information to policy and decision-makers in key societal benefit areas, such as Smart cities and Resilient societies; Resource efficiency and Environmental management; Global changes and Environmental treaties; Polar areas and Natural resources. ERA-PLANET will provide advanced decision support tools and technologies aimed to better monitor our global environment and share the information and knowledge in different domain of Earth Observation.

Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP | Phase: ENV.2013.6.2-5 | Award Amount: 7.21M | Year: 2013

GREEN SURGE will identify, develop and test ways of connecting green spaces, biodiversity, people and the green economy, in order to meet the major urban challenges related to land use conflicts, climate change adaptation, demographic changes, and human health and wellbeing. It will provide a sound evidence base for green infrastructure planning and implementation, exploring the innovation potential, and linking environmental, social and economic services with local communities. Working from the local to the city-regional level, the project aims to: 1) Develop urban green infrastructure as a planning concept for both integration and promotion of biodiversity and ecosystem services, and adapt it to local contexts; 2) apply an innovative biocultural diversity perspective to develop successful governance arrangements facilitating socio-ecological integration and local engagement in planning of urban green spaces; and 3) explore how valuation and real market integration of biodiversity and ecosystem services can facilitate choices in favour of the development of multifunctional green spaces in urban areas. Approaches and tools under these three interlinked objectives will be developed and implemented through an integrative, iterative and transdisciplinary process. GREEN SURGE will embrace a three-tiered approach of comparative European cases, synthesis of good practices, and establishment of five Urban Learning Labs strategically selected to represent different urban situations in Europe. GREEN SURGE will work within cooperative Learning Alliances, a specific type of multi-stakeholder involvement designed to enhance a process of shared learning and understanding in situations with a high degree of complexity and un-predictability. Two-loop learning applied combines a project-wide science-driven approach based on a common framework methodology with a bottom-up knowledge or experience-based approach at the local level.

Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-IP | Phase: HEALTH-2007-2.1.1-5 | Award Amount: 15.72M | Year: 2008

The European Drug Initiative on Channels and Transporters, EDICT, allies for the first time, partners with world-class expertise in both the structural and functional characterisation of membrane channels and transporters. State-of-the-art facilities and personnel for X-ray crystallography, Electron Microscopy and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance and the latest throughput technology, will provide infrastructure for scientists characterising channel and transport functions in man and pathogenic microorganisms. Our experts in the analyses of all the databases of these membrane proteins and molecular modelling will work with our industrial partners on specific targets chosen for their potential to improve the health of European citizens, increase the competitiveness of European health-related industries and businesses and address global health issues. EDICT will increase knowledge of biological processes and mechanisms involved in normal health and in specific disease situations, and transpose this knowledge into clinical applications. By combining computational and experimental analyses, existing detailed molecular models of channel and transporter proteins, and novel structures derived by our partners, will be analysed to identify the critical regions constituting drug targets. These basic discoveries will be translated via in silico and experimental strategies with our industrial partners into the design of novel drugs that modify activities of the membrane proteins for the benefit of the patients. The range of human proteins covered includes potassium channels, anion and cation transporters, neurotransmitter transporters, cation-transporting ATPases and mitochondrial transporters. Structures of bacterial homologues to the human proteins are exploited to inform the studies of their human counterparts

Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: MC-ITN | Phase: FP7-PEOPLE-2013-ITN | Award Amount: 3.59M | Year: 2013

ImResFun shall provide state-of-the-art training in infectious disease research and medical immunology targeting the most common human fungal pathogens, the opportunistic Candida species. The key objectives of ImResFun are: (i) to understand how immune cells and infected organs respond to invasion by Candida spp, (ii) to decipher host-defense mechanisms mediating pathogen elimination, and (iii) to identify genetic networks driving the dynamics of host-pathogen interplay. ImResFun will exploit cutting-edge technologies to unravel the basic mechanisms of fungal pathogenesis and host immunity, and to improve diagnosis and identify novel biomarkers of infection. Importantly, ImResFun will translate research into clinical practice and identify potential targets for antifungal drug discovery. ImResFun has seven WPs. In addition to coordination (WP7), research will cover molecular mechanisms of host-pathogen interactions using dual-system infection biology in vitro and in vivo (WP1), clinical patient setting and age-related infections (WP2), chemical biology and antifungal drug development (WP3), and bioinformatics and genome-wide data analysis (WP4). A compulsory and tailor-made practical course (WP5) and complementary skills (WP6) program will boost hypothesis-driven projects. Meaningful exposure to the private sector is ensured by extensive secondments of all ESRs/ERs. The resulting reciprocal technology transfer will be beneficial for both SMEs and ESR/ER hosts and sustain collaborations among partners. ImResFun will use personalized career development plans for each ESR/ER to train entrepreneurial scientists capable of translating frontier research into clinical practice, biotechnology and drug discovery. Taken together, ImResFun offers a best-practice example for interdisciplinary, intersectorial and supradisciplinary training in understanding the immunology of microbial infectious diseases, since most approaches are amenable to other microbial pathogens.

Agency: GTR | Branch: NERC | Program: | Phase: Research Grant | Award Amount: 1.21M | Year: 2013

This project aims to better understand the links between ecosystem services (ES) and wellbeing in order to design and implement more effective interventions for poverty alleviation. We do this in the context of coastal, social-ecological systems in two poor African countries; Kenya and Mozambique. Despite recent policy and scientific interest in ES, there remain important knowledge gaps regarding how ecosystems actually contribute to wellbeing, and thus poverty alleviation. Following the ESPA framework, distinguishing ecological processes, final ES, capital inputs, goods and values, this project is concerned with how these elements are interrelated to produce ES benefits, and focuses specifically on how these benefits are distributed to (potentially) benefit the poor, enhancing their wellbeing. We thus address the ESPA goal of understanding and promoting ways in which benefits to the poorest can be increased and more people can meet their basic needs, but we also identify conflicted tradeoffs, i.e. those which result in serious harm to either the ecosystem or poor people and which need urgent attention. Several fundamental questions are currently debated in international scientific and policy fora, relating to four major global trends which are likely to affect abilities of poor people to access ES benefits: (1) devolution of governance power and its impacts on local governance of ecosystems and production of ES, (2) unprecedented rates and scales of environmental change, particularly climate change, which are creating new vulnerabilities, opportunities and constraints, shifting baselines, and demanding radical changes in behaviour to cope, (3) market integration now reaches the most remote corners of the developing world, changing relationships between people and resources and motivations for natural resource management, (4) societal changes, including demographic, population, urbanisation and globalisation of culture, forge new relationships with ES and further decouple people from direct dependency on particular resources. Study sites have been chosen so as to gather empirical evidence to help answer key questions about how these four drivers of change affect abilities of poor people to benefit from ES. We aim for direct impact on the wellbeing of poor inhabitants of the rapidly transforming coastal areas in Mozambique and Kenya, where research will take place, while also providing indirect impact to coastal poor in other developing countries through our international impact strategy. Benefits from research findings will also accrue to multiple stakeholders at various levels. Local government, NGOs and civil society groups - through engagement with project activities, e.g. participation in workshops and exposure to new types of analysis and systems thinking. Donor organizations and development agencies - through research providing evidence to inform strategies to support sector development (e.g. fisheries, coastal planning and tourism development) and methods to understand and evaluate impacts of different development interventions - e.g. through tradeoff analysis and evaluation of the elasticities between ecosystem services and wellbeing. International scientific community - through dissemination of findings via conferences, scientific publications (open access), and from conceptual and theoretical development and new understandings of the multiple linkages between ecosystem services and wellbeing. Regional African scientists will benefit specifically through open courses offered within the scope of the project, and through dissemination of results at regional venues. Our strategies to deliver impact and benefits include (1) identifying windows of opportunity within the context of ongoing coastal development processes to improve flows of benefits from ecosystems services to poor people, and (2) identifying and seeking to actively mitigate conflicted tradeoffs in Kenya and Mozambique.

Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: MC-ITN | Phase: FP7-PEOPLE-2010-ITN | Award Amount: 3.99M | Year: 2010

The initial training network CSI: ENVIRONMENT aims at training 16 young scientists in the discipline of compound-specific isotope analysis (CSIA) for environmental and forensic investigations. Linking sources and sinks of organic contaminants is a major challenge in contemporary environmental science. Chemicals can be released to the environment when leaving their field of application, intended or accidentally. It is a challenge to relate the origin of spills, transport and subsequent distribution in the environment and to analyse potential sinks and elimination pathways at a local, regional and global scale. This network brings together international experts in the field of isotope chemistry and related fields for training the next generation of young scientists in the field of environmental forensics using stable isotope techniques. Isotope analysis offers a unique opportunity to obtain information of sources, transport, degradation pathways and sinks of contaminants in the environment which will be urgently needed in the future. Multi-element isotope fingerprinting of chemically complex substances can be used to elucidate transformation pathways making use of isotope fractionation processes altering the reactive position and to analyse the isotope composition of an organic molecule to track sources. Concepts and applications are available for the more simple organic contaminants such as BTEX, chlorinated ethenes and MTBE but not for more complex organic contaminants such as pesticides or brominated flame retardants. Thus, the aim of this ITN is to train young scientist in development of concepts for the application of isotope tools to assess the fate of organic chemicals in the environment. Young scientists will be educated in the field of isotope forensics, pushing forward the frontiers of current isotope techniques to develop new areas of isotope applications in both fundamental and applied environmental sciences.

Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CSA-CA | Phase: ENV.2008. | Award Amount: 1.14M | Year: 2009

This proposal puts forward plans to establish a research network of experts on noise and health in Europe. This network will establish future research directions and policy needs in Europe. The network will review the existing literature on environmental noise exposure and health focussing on the consolidation of existing state of the art knowledge and the identification of gaps in the evidence and future research needs and hypotheses to be tested. In the network we will train junior researchers in noise and health through setting up an exchange network across Europe. The network will focus on noise exposure assessment in health studies in order to build more complex analytical models of noise and health effects that take into account moderating factors including the joint effects of air pollution and noise. A specific function of the network will be to establish communication between researchers on noise and researchers on air pollution. We will improve the measurement of health outcomes relevant to noise research and strengthen the available methodologies for future research, by extending analyses on existing research taking advantage of the large EU-funded RANCH and HYENA studies and relevant national studies. We will develop novel designs for research on noise and health to provide to the EU a new strategy for the development of noise and health research in the future. We will disseminate the results to the EU, to national governments, to fellow researchers, and other stakeholders.

Agency: Cordis | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: PHC-08-2014 | Award Amount: 8.00M | Year: 2015

Tuberculosis (TB) is a global health problem, killing 1.5 million of people every year. The only currently available vaccine, Mycobacterium bovis BCG, is effective against severe childhood forms, but it demonstrates a variable efficacy against the pulmonary form of TB in adults. Many of these adult TB cases result from the reactivation of an initially controlled, latent Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) infection. Effective prophylactic vaccination remains the key long-term strategy for combating TB. Continued belief in reaching this goal requires unrelenting innovation in the formulation and delivery of candidate vaccines. It is also based on the assumption, that the failure of recent human vaccine trials could have been due to a sub-optimal vaccine design and delivery, and therefore should not erode the key principle that a TB vaccine is an attainable target. This proposal focuses on mucosal vaccination, which has been considered in the past, but not implemented efficiently. The innovation of the proposal is focused on several important aspects of vaccine development and testing, including the use of novel technologies for vaccine delivery, novel ways of specific targeting of mucosal immune cells and tissues, the use of polypeptides incorporating early and latent MTB antigens and putative CD8\ T cell epitopes, and application of novel tools for identifying early predictors and correlates of vaccine-induced protection. The overall objective is to design a vaccine that will induce a broad-ranging immune response to MTB both systemically and in the mucosa of the lungs, and provide the currently missing links in protective immunity to this pathogen.

Agency: Cordis | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: NMP-29-2015 | Award Amount: 8.00M | Year: 2016

A definitive conclusion about the dangers associated with human or animal exposure to a particular nanomaterial can currently be made upon complex and costly procedures including complete NM characterisation with consequent careful and well-controlled in vivo experiments. A significant progress in the ability of the robust nanotoxicity prediction can be achieved using modern approaches based on one hand on systems biology, on another hand on statistical and other computational methods of analysis. In this project, using a comprehensive self-consistent study, which includes in-vivo, in-vitro and in-silico research, we address main respiratory toxicity pathways for representative set of nanomaterials, identify the mechanistic key events of the pathways, and relate them to interactions at bionano interface via careful post-uptake nanoparticle characterisation and molecular modelling. This approach will allow us to formulate novel set of toxicological mechanism-aware end-points that can be assessed in by means of economic and straightforward tests. Using the exhaustive list of end-points and pathways for the selected nanomaterials and exposure routs, we will enable clear discrimination between different pathways and relate the toxicity pathway to the properties of the material via intelligent QSARs. If successful, this approach will allow grouping of materials based on their ability to produce the pathway-relevant key events, identification of properties of concern for new materials, and will help to reduce the need for blanket toxicity testing and animal testing in the future.

Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP | Phase: ICT-2013.5.4 | Award Amount: 3.33M | Year: 2013

Making and implementing policy at any level of government is fraught with difficulty. The impact of decisions made are not always obvious at the time the policy is formulated or enacted, and any short-comings of the policy become known too late to change it. This is not due to a lack of information, it is due to the difficulty of finding and aggregating the right data out of the sea of information which characterises our modern world. Having once formulated a policy it is then impossible to make useful predictions around its likely impact and effectiveness. Policy specialists lack the resources and the methodology to be able to access most current data and are unable to take into account the views of citizens on policy issues expressed in real time through social network discussions. SENSE4US is creating an integrated package of utilities based on cutting-edge research that meets this need for tools and techniques to support information gathering, analysing and policy modelling in real time. Through close interaction with policy makers around Europe the project will validate results in complex policy-making settings and direct the research towards the support of more timely, more effective and better understood policy creation. The SENSE4US project will tackle these challenges of policy making and implementation, integrating the benefits of both quantitative open data sources and qualitative social media data. We will provide tools enabling policy makers to find and select relevant information; link and homogenise the data; model policy in terms of constraints and intent; validate the policy; discover and incorporate views from NGOs and public; predict social impact of policy; provide decision support; provide understandable visualisation. The ultimate objective of the SENSE4US project is to advance policy modelling and simulation, data analytics and social network discussion dynamics, providing economic and social benefits at all governmental levels across Europe.

Agency: Cordis | Branch: H2020 | Program: MSCA-ITN-ETN | Phase: MSCA-ITN-2014-ETN | Award Amount: 3.09M | Year: 2015

Hyporheic zones (HZs) are key compartments for the functioning of aquatic ecosystems. As dynamic and complex transition regions between rivers and aquifers, they are characterized by the simultaneous occurrence of multiple physical, biological and chemical processes. Turnover and degradation of nutrients and pollutants figure among the prominent ecological services the HZ provides. We are facing a significant knowledge gap in the understanding of how hyporheic processes are linked and how they impact on each other. This can be attributed to a lack of truly supra-disciplinary research and harmonized and innovative investigation methods. The concept of HypoTRAIN has been tailored to fill this gap. Collaborative research with state-of-the art technologies from multiple disciplines (hydrology, ecology, microbiology, engineering, environmental physics, contaminant science, modelling) will generate new mechanistic insights into the functioning of HZs. A group of ESRs will be educated using the multi-faceted nature of HZs as the central theme of the training programme. The supra-disciplinary expertise within the network and the high-level training program will generate scientific knowledge that will set the ground for a more holistic design of river management plans and restoration measures. Research excellence as well as scientific and technological innovation is ensured as all partners have world-leading reputations and work at the forefront of their respective discipline areas. Participating in HypoTRAIN will make ESRs highly attractive for employers and open up doors for their successful careers in research, regulation, consulting, and industry. They will be experts for the better assessment of the ecological and chemical status of surface waters and for providing successful river restoration and management strategies. The strong involvement of the non-academic sector will provide the ESRs with a holistic perspective on career opportunities.

Agency: Cordis | Branch: H2020 | Program: MSCA-ITN-ETN | Phase: MSCA-ITN-2014-ETN | Award Amount: 3.69M | Year: 2015

The market for recombinant proteins, including biopharmaceuticals, industrial enzymes and membrane proteins, is estimated to be about 78 billion Euro and rising. A high proportion of the target proteins are produced in bacteria, where secretion out of the cytoplasm is a favoured strategy. However, current production platforms have severe limitations and cannot handle many secreted enzymes and membrane proteins. There is an overwhelming need for new production systems that can deliver these products in greater yields, with higher quality and at lower costs. The ProteinFactory ETN will meet these challenges through the provision of a suite of super-secreting strains with unique capabilities. These strains will be engineered to bypass major production bottlenecks such as secretion stress, and will be capable of secreting an unprecedented range of target molecules. Equally important will be the training of a new generation of researchers, versed in Systems and Synthetic Biology approaches. The ProteinFactory project will involve extensive collaboration between 6 academic Institutes, who provide world-leading expertise in synthetic biology and protein secretion, and 5 non-academic partners who include some of the worlds premier biotechnology companies. Training will be inter-sectoral from the outset, with every ESR undertaking extensive secondments within the non-academic partners in order to encourage an entrepreneurial mind-set. The project is furthermore explicitly multi-disciplinary in scope, with two of the five research work packages dominated by theoretical approaches. Based on a responsible innovation approach and with a clear focus on inter-sectoral collaboration, ProteinFactory will deliver a cohort of superbly-trained scientists, put the industrial and SME partners at the forefront of global competition and reinforce European innovation potentials with growth and job creation.

Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-CSA-Infra | Phase: INFRA-2012-1.1.1. | Award Amount: 6.45M | Year: 2013

Referring to the increasingly challenging EU2020-ambition of Inclusive Growth, the objectives of the InGRID project are to integrate and to innovate existing, but distributed European social sciences research infrastructures on poverty and living conditions and working conditions and vulnerability by improving the transnational data access, organising mutual knowledge exchange and improving methods and tools for comparative research. This integration will provide the related European scientific community with new and better opportunities to fulfil its key role in the development of evidence-based European policies for Inclusive Growth. In this regard specific attention is paid to a better measurement of related state policies, to high-performance statistical quality management, and to dissemination/outreach activities with the broader stakeholder community-of-interest, including European politics, civil society and statistical system. For this purpose key actors of the related European Research Area are coupled in the InGRID consortium, representing specific data infrastructures and cumulated know-how. Pan-European optimisation of the infrastructure is created by organising an open, harmonised high-performance on-site access with an extensive visiting grant system. Joint research activities are conducted for the innovation and optimisation of the infrastructure. Key issues tackled in this respect include: the multidimensionality as a standard for poverty research; the problem of hard-to-identify and hard-to-reach vulnerable groups in data collection; the improvement of longitudinal and regional poverty mapping; the survey technology for linking vulnerability in working conditions with economic change and employers behaviour; the harmonisation of classifying jobs and skills; improving tools to generate comparative policy indicators; optimising the micro-simulation of policy impacts; and statistical quality management.

Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP | Phase: ENV.2007. | Award Amount: 2.78M | Year: 2009

Conventional remediation-monitoring programmes, i.e. analysis of contaminant and metabolite concentrations over time and space, often provide inconclusive assessments due to inability to resolve among mixing of several contaminant sources, degradation, dispersion and other redistribution processes. The isoSoil objective is to firmly establish concentration-independent contaminant-specific isotope analysis (CSIA) as a novel, user-friendly and powerful tool for both degradation monitoring and source apportionment of organic contaminants in soil. The balanced isoSoil consortium with world-leading CSIA research groups, progressive remediation-focused and analytical services companies and experienced software enterprises will enable a) applications of multiple CSIA systems (13C/12C, 2H/1H, 15N/14N and 37Cl/35Cl) for improved site-specific characterization and monitoring of microbial and abiotic degradation, b) applications of CSIA isotopic fingerprinting (14C/12C, 2H/1H, 37Cl/35Cl, and 81Br/79Br) for source apportionment of both regional diffuse and locally mixed contamination scenarios (i.e., environmental forensics) and, c) emphasis on development and demonstration of web-based commercial software to aid soil managers in sampling and interpretation of CSIA results. The CSIA concept provides a well-defined and improved tool to for assessment and monitoring of the 3.5 mill contaminated soil sites in EU. Application of multi-element CSIA enables enhanced power to resolve between the many co-occurring processes. CSIA-based DEGRADATION MONITORING answers to Call Topic improved tools for site characterization and monitoring of contaminated soils including chemical analysis. CSIA-based SOURCE APPORTIONMENT answers to Call Topic development of tools for detection of local, primary, or secondary sources.

Agency: Cordis | Branch: H2020 | Program: MSCA-ITN-ETN | Phase: MSCA-ITN-2016 | Award Amount: 3.92M | Year: 2016

Mitochondria are essential organelles found in every eukaryotic cell, required to convert food into usable energy. The mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) system, which produces the majority of cellular energy in the form of ATP, is controlled by two distinct genomes: the nuclear and the mitochondrial genome (mtDNA). Mutations in mitochondrial genes encoded by either genome could cause diseases affecting OXPHOS system, called mitochondrial diseases, whose prevalence has been estimated to be 1:8500. Moreover, dysfunction of mitochondrial OXPHOS system has emerged as a key factor in a myriad of common diseases, including neurodegenerative and metabolic disorders like Parkinsons and Alzheimers Disease, Type 2 Diabetes, and was linked to aging process. Despite all this, it is surprising that our understanding of the mechanisms governing the mitochondrial gene expression and its associated pathologies remain superficial and therapeutic interventions unexplored. The basic machineries for mtDNA replication, mtDNA transcription and mitochondrial translation are known, but the regulation of these processes in response to metabolic demands is poorly understood. The complex nature of mitochondrial gene expression that relies on two different genomes calls for a multidisciplinary approach where different teams of researchers join forces. Studies in this area are not only of basic scientific interest but may also provide new avenues towards treatment of mitochondrial dysfunction in a variety of human diseases. The key aim of the REMIX Network is combine the skills of European research groups to provide strategic training of the next generation of scientists through a programme that will progress in the elucidation of the molecular mechanisms and pathways that regulate mitochondrial gene expression.

Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP | Phase: HEALTH-2007-2.3.2-4 | Award Amount: 3.94M | Year: 2008

The Partners propose to conduct a cohort study in pregnant women and their newborns to quantify the effects of Pregnancy-Associated Malaria (PAM) and to identify a PAM vaccine candidate. Effects of PAM on the pregnant woman (placental infection and anaemia), the offspring (birth weight reduction), and the infant (increased morbidity and mortality) are well known. Studies underlined the role of P. falciparum variable surface antigens expressed on infected erythrocytes in binding to placenta. A specific immune response against this antigen reduces the effect of PAM during latter pregnancies, making possible to develop a new preventive strategy based on the enhancement of this specific response. This goal will be achieved through cohort studies in 2 endemic areas (West and East Africa), as the mechanisms and the resulting effects may vary with transmission. Biological samples will be collected during pregnancy and infancy to dissect the pathological and immune mechanisms involved, as well as to characterize phenotypically and genetically the infecting parasites, providing a structural basis for anti-PAM vaccine design. The immunopathological effects will be measured in the mothers, their newborns, and the infant, in relation with timing of infection. The ultimate goal is to identify the most immunogenic epitopes of VAR2CSA (the major variable surface antigens of P. falciparum parasites infecting the pregnant women) to be included in such a vaccine. It is anticipated that the product of this project will be directly usable to enter in the pipeline of vaccine development. The 7 Partners of the consortium (5 from 4 EU countries, and 2 from Benin and Tanzania) have a combined history of high class, internationally-recognized research in malaria. All EU teams have huge experience of collaboration with malaria endemic countries institutions and with studies related to malaria in pregnant women, that are also routinely conducted by the 2 African Partners.

Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP | Phase: SEC-2009-4.3-02 | Award Amount: 4.58M | Year: 2010

In the event of a large scale radiological emergency biological dosimetry is an essential tool that can provide timely assessment of radiation exposure to the general population and enable the identification of those exposed people, who should receive medical treatment. A number of biodosimetric tools are potentially available, but they must be adapted and tested for a large-scale emergency scenario. These methods differ in their specificity and sensitivity to radiation, the stability of signal and speed of performance. A large scale radiological emergency can take different forms. Based on the emergency scenario different biodosimetric tools should be applied so that the dosimetric information can be made available with optimal speed and precision. The aim of this multi-disciplinary collaborative project is to analyse a variety of biodosimetric tools and adapt them to different mass casualty scenarios. The following biodosimetric tools will be validated and established: the dicentric assay, the micronucleus assay, the gamma-H2AX assay, the skin speckle assay, the blood serum protein expression assay and EPR/OSL dosimetry in components of pocket electronic devises. The assays were chosen because they complement each other with respect to sensitivity, specificity to radiation and the exposure scenario as well as speed of performance. The project will involve the key European players with extensive experience in biological dosimetry. Training will be carried out and automation and commercialisation pursued. An operational guide will be developed and disseminated among emergency preparedness and radiation protection organisations. The final deliverable of this project will be establishment of a biodosimetric network that is fully functional and ready to respond in case of a mass casualty. Thus, the project will strengthen the European security capabilities by achieving tangible results.

Agency: Cordis | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: MG-3.6a-2015 | Award Amount: 9.61M | Year: 2016

ADAS&ME (Adaptive ADAS to support incapacitated drivers &Mitigate Effectively risks through tailor made HMI under automation) will develop adapted Advanced Driver Assistance Systems, that incorporate driver/rider state, situational/environmental context, and adaptive interaction to automatically transfer control between vehicle and driver/rider and thus ensure safer and more efficient road usage. To achieve this, a holistic approach will be taken which considers automated driving along with information on driver/rider state. The work is based around 7 provisionally identified Use Cases for cars, trucks, buses and motorcycles, aiming to cover a large proportion of driving on European roads. Experimental research will be carried out on algorithms for driver state monitoring as well as on HMI and automation transitions. It will develop robust detection/prediction algorithms for driver/rider state monitoring towards different driver states, such as fatigue, sleepiness, stress, inattention and impairing emotions, employing existing and novel sensing technologies, taking into account traffic and weather conditions via V2X and personalizing them to individual drivers physiology and driving behaviour. In addition, the core development includes multimodal and adaptive warning and intervention strategies based on current driver state and severity of scenarios. The final outcome is the successful fusion of the developed elements into an integrated driver/rider state monitoring system, able to both be utilized in and be supported by vehicle automation of Levels 1 to 4. The system will be validated with a wide pool of drivers/riders under simulated and real road conditions and under different driver/rider states; with the use of 2 cars (1 conventional, 1 electric), 1 truck, 2 PTWs and 1 bus demonstrators. This challenging task has been undertaken by a multidisciplinary Consortium of 30 Partners, including an OEM per vehicle type and 7 Tier 1 suppliers.

Agency: Cordis | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: BG-09-2016 | Award Amount: 15.49M | Year: 2016

The overall objective of INTAROS is to develop an integrated Arctic Observation System (iAOS) by extending, improving and unifying existing systems in the different regions of the Arctic. INTAROS will have a strong multidisciplinary focus, with tools for integration of data from atmosphere, ocean, cryosphere and terrestrial sciences, provided by institutions in Europe, North America and Asia. Satellite earth observation data plays an increasingly important role in such observing systems, because the amount of EO data for observing the global climate and environment grows year by year. In situ observing systems are much more limited due to logistical constraints and cost limitations. The sparseness of in situ data is therefore the largest gap in the overall observing system. INTAROS will assess strengths and weaknesses of existing observing systems and contribute with innovative solutions to fill some of the critical gaps in the in situ observing network. INTAROS will develop a platform, iAOS, to search for and access data from distributed databases. The evolution into a sustainable Arctic observing system requires coordination, mobilization and cooperation between the existing European and international infrastructures (in-situ and remote including space-based), the modeling communities and relevant stakeholder groups. INTAROS will include development of community-based observing systems, where local knowledge is merged with scientific data. An integrated Arctic Observation System will enable better-informed decisions and better-documented processes within key sectors (e.g. local communities, shipping, tourism, fisheries), in order to strengthen the societal and economic role of the Arctic region and support the EU strategy for the Arctic and related maritime and environmental policies.

Agency: Cordis | Branch: H2020 | Program: IA | Phase: REFLECTIVE-6-2015 | Award Amount: 3.35M | Year: 2016

I-Media-Cities is the initiative of 9 European Film Libraries, 5 research institutions, 2 technological providers and a specialist of digital business models to share access to and valorise audiovisual (AV) content from their collections for research purposes in a wide range of social sciences (sociology, anthropology, urban planning, etc). The project revolves around cities in European history and identity. A huge quantity of fictional and non-fictional AV works (from the end of the 19th century onwards) in their collections describe cities in all aspects, including physical transformation and social dynamics. Such material could prove of enormous value to scholars in different fields of study. I-Media-Cities plans integration and technical development work to push interoperability among 9 archives and generate two types of e-environments to be used by researchers and innovators for research and other creative purposes. This will allow new approaches to research in social sciences and unleash creativity, in new forms of delivery and consumption of that content which the creative industry would be able to propose for instance in tourism or in the cultural economy. To make that possible, the project relies on collaboration among three main components: a) FHI (Film Holding Institutions); b) research institutions in different areas of social sciences; c) expertise in exploitation processes of digital content. At the end of the project, we will deliver a digital content access platform (interoperable and multilingual), made available to a growing community of researchers and creatives Europe-wide to push the boundaries of what we can learn, through AV material on cities, on European history and identity. The legacy of I-Media-Cities will be a new model for research on digital sources (applicable also to other subject areas), plus appropriate exploitation plans to consolidate and expand the platform into the European reference initiative on AV digital content.

Agency: Cordis | Branch: H2020 | Program: MSCA-RISE | Phase: MSCA-RISE-2016 | Award Amount: 1.46M | Year: 2017

The joint research in this programme will study important aspectsboth theoretical as well as appliedof computing with infinite objects. A central aim is laying the grounds for the generation of efficient and verified software in engineering applications. A prime example for infinite data is provided by the real numbers, most commonly conceived as infinite sequences of digits. While most applications in science and engineering substitute the reals with floating point numbers of fixed finite precision and thus have to deal with truncation and rounding errors, the approach in this project is different: exact real numbers are taken as first-class citizens and while any computation can only exploit a finite portion of its input in finite time, increased precision is always available by continuing the computation process. This project aims to bring together the expertise of specialists in mathematics, logic, and computer science to push the frontiers of our theoretical and practical understanding of computing with infinite objects. Three overarching motivations drive the proposed collaboration: Representability. Cardinality considerations tell us that it is not possible to represent arbitrary mathematical objects in a way that is accessible to computation. We will enlist expertise in topology, logic, and set theory, to address the question of which objects are representable and how they can be represented most efficiently. Constructivity. Working in a constructive mathematical universe can greatly enhance our understanding of the link between computation and mathematical structure. Not only informs us which are the objects of relevance, it also allows us to devise always correct algorithms from proofs. Efficient implementation. We also aim to make progress on concrete implementations. Theoretical insights from elsewhere will be tested in actual computer systems; obstacles encountered in the latter will inform the direction of mathematical investigation.

Lopez-Ortega A.,University of Florence | Estrader M.,University of Barcelona | Salazar-Alvarez G.,University of Stockholm | Roca A.G.,Catalan Institute of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology | And 2 more authors.
Physics Reports | Year: 2015

The applications of exchange coupled bi-magnetic hard/soft and soft/hard ferromagnetic core/shell nanoparticles are reviewed. After a brief description of the main synthesis approaches and the core/shell structural-morphological characterization, the basic static and dynamic magnetic properties are presented. Five different types of prospective applications, based on diverse patents and research articles, are described: permanent magnets, recording media, microwave absorption, biomedical applications and other applications. Both the advantages of the core/shell morphology and some of the remaining challenges are discussed. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.

Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-CSA-Infra | Phase: INFRA-2012-1.1.26. | Award Amount: 8.20M | Year: 2013

This project aims at integrating the major European infrastructures in the field of high-resolution solar physics. The following actions will be taken: (i) realise Trans-national Access to external European users; (ii) enhance and spread data acquisition and processing expertise to the Europe-wide community; (iii) increase the impact of high-resolution data by offering science-ready data and facilitating their retrieval and usage; (iv) encourage combination of space and ground-based data by providing unified access to pertinent data repositories; (v) foster synergies between different research communities by organising meetings where each presents state-of-the-art methodologies; (vi) train a new generation of solar researchers through setting up schools and an ambitious mobility programme; (vii) develop prototypes for new-generation post-focus instruments; (vii) study local and non-local atmospheric turbulence, their impact on image quality, and ways to negate their effects; (viii) improve the performance of existing telescopes; (ix) improve designs of future large European ground-and space-based solar telescopes; (x) lay foundations for combined use of facilities around the world and in space; (xi) reinforce partnership with industry to promote technology transfer through existing networks; and (xii) dissemination activities towards society. The project involves all pertinent European research institutions, infrastructures, and data repositories. Together, these represent first-class facilities. The additional participation by private companies and non-European research institutions maximizes the impact on the world-wide scale. In particular, the project achievements will be of principal importance in defining the exploitation of the future 4-meter European Solar Telescope.

Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CSA-SA | Phase: SiS.2013.2.2.1-1 | Award Amount: 2.90M | Year: 2014

The overall aim of the EC call is building up a scientifically literate society, which enables its citizens to participate in the research and innovation process as part of Responsible Research and Innovation (RRI). This calls for democratic citizenship education, in which two educational approaches, often presented independently in schools, are integrated, viz. Inquiry-Based Science Education (IBSE) and Socio-Scientific Issues-Based Learning (SSI). We call this integrated approach Socio-Scientific Inquiry-Based Learning (SSIBL). The aim of the project is to collect and share existing best practices across Europe and develop learning tools, materials and in/pre-service training courses for science teachers based on the SSIBL approach. This educational methodology promotes democratic citizenship through the integration of social issues and related scientific knowledge. Our aim is to empower and facilitate science teachers and teacher educators, by in-service and pre-service professional development courses, based on reshaped best practices available among the partners. These shared selected best practices will be reflected on from an RRI perspective and improved by an international community of learners who incorporate RRI in their teaching and learning processes. The project will establish a multidisciplinary team and facilitate networking activities among teachers, teacher educators and educational researchers of 18 institutions in 11 countries. In addition, the project will build on recently developed IBSE insights and foster implementation of IBSE in educational practice.

Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-IP | Phase: NMP-2009-3.2-1 | Award Amount: 15.99M | Year: 2010

The SYNFLOW vision is the paradigm shift from batch-wise large volume processes in pharmaceuticals, fine chemicals and intermediates production comprising many separate unit operations towards highly integrated but yet flexible catalytic continuous flow processing. For this purpose, SYNFLOW develops a unique integrative approach combining molecular understanding of synthesis and catalysis with engineering science in process design and plant concepts, aiming at an efficiency breakthrough in process development and operation. The SYNFLOW mission is to overcome the traditional way of linear process development providing individual solutions for specific products, and to demonstrate the technological, economic and ecological superiority of truly designing processes by application of advanced chemical and engineering knowledge. The SYNFLOW concept is based on the definition of generic challenges with industrial relevance, represented by Case Studies provided by the industrial consortium members. Catalyst development, studies of the underlying chemical target transformations (synthetic methodology), tailored reaction engineering, conceptual process design and process evaluation interact closely in order to substantiate the SYNFLOW vision. Its success will be demonstrated on a relevant production scale as a reference for the entire European Chemical Industry. The SYNFLOW consortium brings together major industrial producers from the Pharmaceuticals, Fine Chemicals and Intermediates sectors, providers of process technology and technical catalyst supply. A number of high-ranked academic partners ensures the availability of comprehensive expertise for the suggested Case Studies. Dissemination of the results is guaranteed by the participation of DECHEMA and Britest. SYNFLOW presents a holistic approach to central challenges of the European Chemical Industries and therefore a highly promising candidate to fulfill the crucial issues of the NMP-2009-3.2-1 call.

Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CSA-CA | Phase: Fission-2011-3.5.1 | Award Amount: 1.55M | Year: 2012

Creating a sustainable network in biological dosimetry that involves a large number of experienced laboratories throughout the EU will significantly improve the accident and emergency response capabilities in case of a large-scale radiological emergency. A well organised cooperated action involving EU laboratories will offer the only chance for a fast and trustworthy dose assessment urgently needed in an emergency situation. The goal of RENEB is to establish a sustainable European network in biological dosimetry involving 23 organisations from 16 countries identified by the TENEB survey, that will guarantee highest efficiency in processing and scoring of biological samples for fast, reliable results implemented in the EU emergency management. This goal will be achieved through 5 tasks: 1) To create an operational basis of the network, based on coordination of the existing reliable and proven methods in biological dosimetry. 2) To expand and improve the network implementing appropriate new, molecular biology methods and integrating new partners. 3) To assure high quality standards by education and training activities of members and interested non-members. Here, special focus will be placed on quality assurance and management regarding the performed assays and involved laboratories. 4) To develop an operational structure of the network including contacts to national first responders, a well organised transnational infrastructure to facilitate cross-border transport of human biological samples, a long term funding strategy and to prepare an agenda to transform RENEB into a legal organisation. 5) To guarantee dissemination of knowledge by providing access to internal and external communication platforms and databases and close cooperation with national and global emergency preparedness systems and organisations. All of these activities are strictly complementary to on-going projects in the EU Security Research Programme, specifically to MULTIBIODOSE and to EURADOS.

Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: NoE | Phase: Fission-2009-3.1.1 | Award Amount: 21.29M | Year: 2010

The aim of DoReMi is to promote the sustainable integration of low dose risk research in Europe in order to aid the effective resolution of the key policy questions identified by the High Level Expert Group (HLEG) on Low Dose Risk Research ( DoReMi provides an operational tool for the development of the proposed MELODI platform (Multidisciplinary European Low Dose Risk Re-search Initiative) consisting of major national bodies and research programmes that have long term commitment in low dose risk research in Europe. A Letter of Intent between the core members of MELODI has been signed in April 2009. During the project, new members are expected to join the Initiative. The Joint Programme of Activities (JPA) of DoReMi includes: (i) a Joint Programme of Research (JPR) covering the issues outlined above and providing an overview of the needs for research infra-structures of pan-European interest and facilitating multilateral initiatives leading to better use and development of research infrastructures; (ii) a Joint Programme of Integration (JPI) to develop a coor-dinated European roadmap for the long term needs of the key players in Europe; and (iii) a Joint Pro-gramme for the Spreading of Excellence (JPSE), covering knowledge management, training and mo-bility and its implementation. The JPR focuses on the areas identified by the HLEG as the most prom-ising in terms of addressing/resolving the key policy questions, namely: the shape of dose response curve for cancer, individual susceptibilities and non-cancer effects. Radiation quality, tissue sensitivity and internal exposures will be addressed as cross cutting themes within the three main research areas. A substantial proportion of the JPA will be dedicated to the joint programme of research. The pro-gramme describes a multidisciplinary approach including interfaces with the broader biological toxico-logical and epidemiological communities. Strategic planning will be carried out in close collaboration with MELODI. The long term Strategic Research Agenda (SRA) will be developed by MELODI, whereas DoReMi research priorities are based on a shorter term Transitional Research Agenda (TRA), focusing on goals that are feasible to achieve within the 6 year project and areas where barriers need to be removed in order to proceed with the longer term strategic objectives.

Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP | Phase: HEALTH-2007-3.2-2 | Award Amount: 3.52M | Year: 2009

The large post-war baby boom is now turning into a grandparent boom, putting a triple stress on long-term care (LTC) provisions: increased numbers of elderly, increased survival of these elderly and increased survival of frail, disabled elderly through improved care and health care. Increasing body weights, through increasing disability and care dependence among the obese, further add to numbers of disabled elderly. The supply of labour is affected by the ageing of the EU population. Consequently, increasing emphasis has been put on the future development of long-term care needs, supply and use, and the functioning of LTC systems. The objectives of ANCIEN (Assessing Needs for Care In European Nations) are to review the LTC systems in EU member states, to assess the actual and future numbers of elderly care-dependent people in selected countries and to develop a methodology for comprehensive analysis of actual and future LTC needs and provisions across European countries, including the potential role of technology and policies on maintaining and improving quality. Performance indicators will be identified and relative performances of the different types of LTC systems assessed. Databases of EU countries are constructed, containing available data on LTC needs and use of the elderly. Participating partners from different countries cover the majority of the EU member states. State of the art demographic, epidemiologic and econometric models are used to project future needs and use of long-term care in representative member states with different LTC systems. Deliverables contain databases, dynamic models calculating long-term care needs, reports on future needs and use of LTC in representative member states, and country-specific and general reports on LTC systems and their performance.

Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-CSA-Infra | Phase: INFRA-2007-2.2-01 | Award Amount: 7.32M | Year: 2007

The objectives of the Preparatory Phase of the European X-ray Free-Electron Laser Facility are: a) to provide the technical, legal and financial documents which are necessary for the foundation of this new research infrastructure in Europe. b) to advance as far as possible in the specification, research and development, prototyping and industrialization of buildings, technical infrastructure, technical components, in order to start the construction phase with maximum probability to conclude it succesfully on time and budget. c) to mobilize the potential users community, which is multidisciplinary and possibly composed by scientists experienced with synchrotron light sources, with ultrafast lasers, and ultrafast electron diffraction. As far as the objectives a) are concerned, the Technical Design Report is completed, and nearly final drafts of the Convention and of the Articles of Association are available. Still missing are the basic contractual framework to regulate in-kind contributions from participating countries, and the framework contract regulating the relationship between the new international facility and the host laboratory (DESY), which are among the deliverables of the present proposal (Work Packages 4 and 5). As far as the objectives b) are concerned, the work is very advanced for accelerator and infrastructure design, where DESY personnel is engaged; for instrumentation and experiments development, the necessary personnel is lacking. One goal of this proposal is the immediate recruitment of an international staff, supported by the EC funding, in order to advance in this domain, and to impress a strong international flavour to the enterprise, which has been so far mostly carried out as a DESY activitity (Work Package 3). As far as the objectives listed under c) are concerned, with support from this proposal we plan to hold 9 workshops over the next 4 years, plus three annual Users meetings (Work Package 2).

Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-CSA-Infra-PP | Phase: INFRA-2010-2.2.3 | Award Amount: 6.68M | Year: 2010

Environmental change and climate change in particular, are expected to be most pronounced in the polar regions. For this reason, a multi-disciplinary research infrastructure covering all important elements of the coupled Earth System in the Arctic is a very valuable tool to quantify the ongoing global change and to verify the capability of Earth System models to predict future changes. The proposed EFRI project Svalbard Integrated Arctic Earth Observing System (SIOS) is intended to take this role. The main goal of the SIOS Preparatory Phase (SIOS-PP) project is to define, work out and decide on the formal framework needed to establish and operate the geographically distributed and thematically composed multi-national research infrastructure with a node function in different aspects, that SIOS will manifest. This covers, on one side, aspects common for all ESFRI initiatives, such as legal status, governance structure, financial strategy, a data management and utilization plan, and an (on- and offshore) logistics plan. In addition, SIOS-PP will address topics that are special for this infrastructure: a dedicated remote sensing strategy, an internal scientific and observational, as well as an international integration and cooperation plan, which will link SIOS to regional European Arctic and pan-Arctic scientific infrastructure networks. The SIOS-PP project will be carried out by a consortium of 27 partners from 14 countries including 4 non-EU and non-associated countries; three of the partners are national funding agencies. In addition, 19 associated partners with infrastructure or strong scientific interests on Svalbard will cooperate during the preparatory phase. The project has a duration of 3 years.

Agency: Cordis | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: BG-02-2015 | Award Amount: 5.20M | Year: 2016

The overall goal of ClimeFish is to help ensure that the increase in seafood production comes in areas and for species where there is a potential for sustainable growth, given the expected developments in climate, thus contributing to robust employment and sustainable development of rural and coastal communities. The underlying biological models are based on single species distribution and production, as well as multispecies interactions. Forecasting models will provide production scenarios that will serve as input to socio-economic analysis where risks and opportunities are identified, and early warning methodologies are developed. Strategies to mitigate risk and utilize opportunities will be identified in co-creation with stakeholders, and will serve to strengthen the scientific advice, to improve long term production planning and the policy making process. ClimeFish will address 3 production sectors through 16 case studies involving 25 species, and study the predicted effects of 3 pre-defined climate scenarios. For 7 of these cases ClimeFish will develop specific management plans (MPs) coherent with the ecosystem approach and based on a results-based scheme that will allow regulators, fishers and aquaculture operators to anticipate, prepare and adapt to climate change while minimizing economic losses and social consequences. A guideline for how to make climate-enabled MPs will be produced, and published as a low-level, voluntary European standard after a consensus-based open consultation process. As a container for the models, scenarios and MPs ClimeFish will develop the ClimeFish Decision Support Framework (DSF) which also contains the ClimeFish Decision Support System (DSS); a software application with capabilities for what-if analysis and visualization of scenarios. The presence of key international stakeholders in the project will ensure quality and relevance of the project outputs thus ensuring uptake and significant impact also after project end.

Agency: Cordis | Branch: H2020 | Program: CSA | Phase: INFRADEV-02-2016 | Award Amount: 9.05M | Year: 2017

The European Solar Telescope (EST) will be a revolutionary Research Infrastructure that will play a major role in answering key questions in modern Solar Physics. This 4-meter class solar telescope, to be located in the Canary Islands, will provide solar physicists with the most advanced state-of-the-art observing tools to transform our understanding of the complex phenomena that drive the solar magnetic activity. The principal objective of the present Preparatory Phase is to provide both the EST international consortium and the funding agencies with a detailed plan regarding the implementation of EST. The specific objectives of the proposed preparatory phase are: (1) to explore possible legal frameworks and related governance schemes that can be used by agencies to jointly establish, construct and operate EST as a new research infrastructure, with the implementation of an intermediate temporary organisational structure, as a previous step for future phases of the project; (2) to explore funding schemes and funding sources for EST, including a proposal of financial models to make possible the combination of direct financial and in-kind contributions towards the construction and operation of EST; (3) to compare the two possible sites for EST in the Canary Islands Astronomical Observatories and prepare final site agreements; (4) to engage funding agencies and policy makers for a long-term commitment which guarantees the construction and operation phases of the Telescope; (5) to involve industry in the design of EST key elements to the required level of definition and validation for their final production; (6) to enhance and intensify outreach activities and strategic links with national agencies and the user communities of EST. To accomplish the aforementioned goals, this 4-year project, promoted by the European Association for Solar Telescopes (EAST) and the PRE-EST consortium, encompassing 23 research institutions from 16 countries, will set up the Project Office

Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP | Phase: NMP.2013.1.2-1 | Award Amount: 4.43M | Year: 2013

Gastroenteritis, caused by the airborne Norovirus, is the third most deadly infectious disease worldwide, infecting ~4% of the population annually, worldwide, and has related costs measured in billions annually in the EU alone. Today, detection of airborne viruses can only be done in retrospect in the laboratory, which severely limits the ability to rapidly react and limit the spread of an outbreak. The NOROSENSOR consortium will address this problem by developing the first of its kind, real-time sensor for airborne viruses, with particular focus on the NoV. Because the virus concentration in air can be very low, and because rapid and efficient virus trapping and concentration methods have been missing, no solution exists today. The NOROSENSOR project will fill this important need by integrating a number of recently developed, highly powerful technologies: Novel nanobiotechnology: nanobead enhanced rolling circle amplification (nano-RCA), engineered synthetic DNA aptamers, and proximity ligation assays (PLA) First ever airborne nanoparticle manipulation: capturing, filtering and up-concentration of viruses using acoustophoresis and electrostatic precipitation. with beyond state-of-the-art: Ultra-sensitive QCM mass-sensitive transducers and electronics. Novel Off-stoichiometry Thiol-Ene-Epoxies (OSTE) polymers for cartridge and reagent storage on-chip. The consortium consist of six of the highest ranked European Universities, each experts in their research area, two SMEs providing a unique expertise in their core business areas, and a large multinational industry in infection control technology.

Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP | Phase: ENV.2008. | Award Amount: 4.73M | Year: 2009

Long-range transport of contaminants to the Arctic, the resulting exposures observed in Arctic human populations, and impacts of such exposures on human health have been the subject of considerable work in recent years, providing a baseline against which to compare future developments. Global climate change has the potential to remobilize environmental contaminants and alter contaminant transport pathways, fate, and routes of exposure in human populations. The Arctic is particularly sensitive to climate change and already exhibits clear impacts. Research into contaminant exposure and its effects on human health in the Arctic, in comparison with other exposed populations in Europe, presents an opportunity to gain insight into changes that may later impact other areas. The influence of climate change on contaminant spreading and transfer and the resultant risk to human populations in the Arctic and other areas of Europe will be studied by: 1) Research on the ways in which climate change will affect the long-range transport and fate of selected groups of contaminants, and possible implications for the re-distribution of contaminants (geographically and between relevant environmental media). This will involve modelling, utilizing the information base that exists on the distribution of such contaminants in the Arctic and other areas of Europe; 2) Research on the impacts that changing pathways and climatic conditions will have on contaminant uptake and transfer within food webs, leading to foods consumed by humans. This will involve experimental work, process studies and targeted analytical studies, the latter focussed on supporting the modelling work and process studies related to human exposure to contaminants; 3) Research focussing on human health, aimed at determining how climate-mediated changes in the environmental fate of selected groups of contaminants will result in changes in exposure of human populations, in the Arctic and in selected areas of Europe.

Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: NOE | Phase: ICT-2011.1.6 | Award Amount: 5.99M | Year: 2011

The goal of EINS is coordinating and integrating European research aimed at achieving a deeper multidisciplinary understanding of the development of the Internet as a societal and technological artefact, whose evolution is increasingly interwined with that of human societies. Its main objective is to allow an open and productive dialogue between all the disciplines which study Internet systems under any technological or humanistic perspective, and which in turn are being transformed by the continuous advances in Internet functionalities and applications. EINS will bring together research institutions focusing on network engineering, computation, complexity, security, trust, mathematics, physics, sociology, game theory, economics, political sciences, humanities, law, energy, transport, artistic expression, and any other relevant social and life sciences.\nThis multidisciplinary bridging of the different disciplines may also be seen as the starting point for a new Internet Science, the theoretical and empirical foundation for an holistic understanding of the complex techno-social interactions related to the Internet. It is supposed to inform the future technological, social, political choices concerning Internet technologies, infrastructures and policies made by the various public and private stakeholders, for example as for the far-ended possible consequences of architectural choices on social, economic, environmental or political aspects, and ultimately on quality of life at large.\nThe individual contributing disciplines will themselves benefit from a more holistic understanding of the Internet principles and in particular of the network effect. The unprecedented connectivity offered by the Internet plays a role often underappreciated in most of them; whereas the Internet provides both an operational development platform and a concrete empirical and experimental model. These multi- and inter-disciplinary investigations will improve the design of elements of Future Internet, enhance the understanding of its evolving and emerging implications at societal level, and possibly identify universal principles for understanding the Internet-based world that will be fed back to the participating disciplines. EINS will:\nCoordinate the investigation, from a multi-disciplinary perspective, of specific topics at the intersection between humanistic and technological sciences, such as privacy & identity, reputation, virtual communities, security & resilience, network neutrality\nLay the foundations for an Internet Science, based i.a. on Network Science and Web Science, aiming at understanding the impact of the network effect on human societies & organisations, as for technological, economic, social & environmental aspects\nProvide concrete incentives for academic institutions and individual researchers to conduct studies across multiple disciplines, in the form of online journals, conferences, workshops, PhD courses, schools, contests, and open calls

Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-TP | Phase: KBBE.2013.1.2-08 | Award Amount: 7.75M | Year: 2014

MareFrame seeks to remove barriers preventing a more widespread use of an Ecosystem-based Approach to Fisheries Management (EAFM). It will develop assessment methods and a Decision Support Framework (DSF) for management of marine resources and thereby enhance the capacity to provide integrated assessment, advice and decision support for an EAFM. Enabling comparisons between relevant what-if scenarios and their likely consequences, DSF will support the implementation of the new Common Fisheries Policy (CFP) and the Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD). The project SMEs, together with RTD institutions and stakeholders, will develop and demonstrate the use of innovative decision support tools through training actions, role-play and workshops. Indicators of Good Environmental Status (GES) will be developed along with models for ecosystem-based management. The models will take multi-species approaches into account and be developed and compared through seven datasets of six European regional seas. The models will draw on historical data sets and data from new analytical methods. Model performance will be compared and evaluated using a simulated ecosystem as an operating model. Learning from the experience of previous and on-going research, MareFrame integrates stakeholders at its core using a co-creation approach that combines analytical and participatory processes to provide knowledge that can be applied to policy-making, improving management plans and implementation of EAFM. The project dissemination will use innovative ways to ensure effective usage of project outcomes. The work packages and the allocation of roles have been designed to ensure effective collaboration through the projects lifetime. MareFrame liaises with other national and international research projects and is of high relevance to the future management of living marine resources in Europe in a changing environment, taking a holistic view incorporating socio-economic and legislative issues.

Recent epidemiological studies suggest that cancer risk after exposures with doses comparable to the dose limits for occupationally exposed workers may be larger than assumed by ICRP in the derivation of these limits. The value of cancer risk from such exposures and its dependence on tissue, radiation type and individual factors is largely unknown. The innovative approach proposed here combines epidemiology and radiobiology in order to quantify cancer risks after low-dose or low-dose-rate exposures to ionizing radiation. Key factors of radiation induced carcinogenesis such as genomic instability will be measured in cancer tissues and blood samples from members of the following radio-epidemiological cohorts: French Haemangioma Cohort, Mayak Worker Cohort and thyroid cancer cases after the Chernobyl accident. Inter-cellular communication after exposure to low-dose radiation exposure and its influence on apoptosis, cell proliferation, differentiation and genomic instability will be explored with 2D cell cultures and 3D tissue models. This includes research on stem cells, which will be isolated from healthy human breast tissue. The results of the radiobiological studies will be integrated in the development of models of carcinogenesis for evaluation of major epidemiological cohorts: Atomic Bomb Survivors, French-Swedish-Italian Thyroid Cancer Cohort, Mayak Worker Cohort, Swedish Haemangioma Cohort, UkrAm Cohort on thyroid cancer after the Chernobyl accident, and UK National Registry for Radiation Workers. Cancer risk will be determined for the breast, lung, thyroid and the digestive tract after low-dose-rate exposure to low-LET radiation (external gamma radiation and internal radiation from 131I) and to high-LET radiation (alpha-particles from incorporated plutonium). Lifetime cancer risks including individual risk factors will be calculated to establish a new basis for deriving dose limits and estimating cancer risks including those from medical diagnostic exposures.

Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP | Phase: ENV.2008. | Award Amount: 3.98M | Year: 2009

Brominated flame retardants (BFRs) will be phased out because of their environmental hazards. Less toxic alternatives appear to be available already but comprehensive information on their possible toxicological effects are lacking. ENFIRO offers a prototypical case study on substitution options for BFRs resulting in a comprehensive dataset on viability of production and application, environmental safety, and a complete life cycle assessment. Dissemination will ensure the project results to arrive at policymakers desks. The ENFIRO consortium is a unique collaboration between industries, SMEs and universities with a wide variety of scientific disciplines. ENFIRO will contribute to the phasing out of BFRs as proposed in the European Water Framework Directive. The approach and the results of ENFIRO will be useful for similar substitution studies, e.g. in REACH. Following a study on literature and industrial information, and prioritizing , three flame retardant (FR)/product combinations will be selected (e.g. metal-based FRs, phosphorous-based and nanoclay-based FRs in printed circuit boards, paints and foam). These will be studied for environmental and toxicological risks, and for viability of industrial implementation, i.e. production of the FR, fire safety and application of the FR into products (electronics, furniture, paints, foams, etc.). All information from these tests will be used for a risk assessment. The outcome of that assessment will, together with socio-economic information be used in a complete life cycle assessment. The project will follow a pragmatic approach, avoiding final recommendations on environment-compatible substitution options that would not be viable for implementation by industry. A Substitution Information Exchange Forum with members representing FR users (large industries) has been invited to guide this project.

Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: MC-ITN | Phase: PEOPLE-2007-1-1-ITN | Award Amount: 3.11M | Year: 2008

In this ITN we investigate the mechanism of mineral reequilibration (phase transformation) in the presence of a fluid phase in a wide range of minerals and rocks, under a range of chemical and physical conditions, using both natural and experimental samples. Interface-coupled dissolution-reprecipitation is a recently defined mechanism which applies to a wide range of mineral transformation phenomena. We apply these principles in individual projects to better understand the mechanisms of processes important in earth sciences and in industry, including metasomatic reactions in rocks, chemical weathering, mineral replacement mechanisms in CO2 sequestration, the aqueous durability of nuclear waste materials, remediation of contaminated water by mineral reaction, and the preservation of stone-based cultural heritage. The research methods bring together a range of complementary expertise, from field-related studies to nano-scale investigations of reaction interfaces using state-of-the-art high resolution analytical methods. The application of fundamental principles of mineral reequilibration to a wide range of applications, together with industrial involvement at all levels will ensure that the project provides a strong platform for training.

Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-IP | Phase: ENV.2008. | Award Amount: 7.40M | Year: 2009

Europes four regional seas (Baltic, Black, Mediterranean and NE Atlantic) have suffered severe environmental degradation due to human pressure. Existing measures to manage pressures have proven inadequate and the EC has responded by proposing a new policy (Maritime Strategy Blue Book) and environmental legislation (Marine Strategy Directive), both currently close to adoption. These instruments rely on the Ecosystem Approach, a management paradigm that encompasses humans and the supporting ecosystem. But the science base for this approach needs strengthening and practical tools must be developed and tested for policy implementation. In particular, criteria for assessing costs and benefits of management actions are poorly developed, particularly in the complex marine environment where multiple uses and management conflicts are common. The KnowSeas consortium will strengthen the science base for managing Europes seas through the practical application of systems thinking. It will work at the two scales envisaged for emergent EU policy: the Regional Sea Scale and Member State Economic Exclusive Zones (EEZs). We have developed a new approach of Decision Space Analysis to investigate mismatches of scale. Knowledge created through the FP6 European Lifestyles and Marine Ecosystems project, augmented with necessary new studies of climate effects, fisheries and maritime industries - in EEZ case studies - will provide a basis for assessing changes to natural systems and their human causes. New research will examine and model economic and social impacts of changes to ecosystem goods and services and costs and benefits of various management options available through existing and proposed policy instruments. Institutional and social analysis will determine conflicts of interest and examine governance as well as stakeholder values and perceptions. Our research will develop and test an assessment toolbox through regional liaison groups and a multisectoral Project Advisory Board.

Sedlar J.,Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute | Shupe M.D.,University of Colorado at Boulder | Tjernstrom M.,University of Stockholm
Journal of Climate | Year: 2012

Cloud and thermodynamic characteristics from three Arctic observation sites are investigated to understand the collocation between low-level clouds and temperature inversions.Aregime where cloud topwas 100-200 mabove the inversion base [cloud inside inversion (CII)] was frequently observed at central Arctic Ocean sites, while observations from Barrow, Alaska, indicate that cloud tops were more frequently constrained to inversion base height [cloud capped by inversion (CCI)]. Cloud base and top heights were lower, and temperature inversions were also stronger and deeper, during CII cases.Both cloud regimeswere often decoupled from the surface except for CCI over Barrow. In-cloud lapse rates differ and suggest increased cloud-mixing potential for CII cases. Specific humidity inversions were collocated with temperature inversions for more than 60% of the CCI and more than 85% of the CII regimes. Horizontal advection of heat and moisture is hypothesized as an important process controlling thermodynamic structure and efficiency of cloud-generated motions. The portion of CII clouds above the inversion contains cloud radar signatures consistent with cloud droplets. The authors test the longwave radiative impact of cloud liquid above the inversion through hypothetical liquid water distributions. Optically thin CII clouds alter the effective cloud emission temperature and can lead to an increase in surface flux on the order of 1.5 W m -2 relative to the same cloud but whose top does not extend above the inversion base. The top of atmosphere impact is even larger, increasing outgoing longwave radiation up to 10 W m -2. These results suggest a potentially significant longwave radiative forcing via simple liquid redistributions for a distinctly dominant cloud regime over sea ice. © 2012 American Meteorological Society.

Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: MC-ITN | Phase: PEOPLE-2007-1-1-ITN | Award Amount: 1.79M | Year: 2008

Services are currently of great interest and importance to both policy-makers and businesses in Europe, and are a major factor in maintaining European growth and competitiveness over the coming decades. Previously, data relating to the interactions between trade flows, regulatory regimes and the European political economy has been inconsistent and fragmented. Now, thanks to the efforts of the EC, OECD and World Bank, more harmonised and accessible data is available. This provides an important opportunity for the introduction and development of doctoral dissertations. The goal of the proposed network Globalization, Investment, and Services Trade - GIST is to develop a cohort of researchers in Europe focused on international trade and Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) in the service sectors, and to integrate this network with the policy community. The service sector has traditionally been treated as a sector whose outputs are purely non-tradable. As a result, the existing body of research on international trade and trade policy is focused almost entirely on agriculture and manufacturing and research on multinationals and foreign direct investment is also focused on manufacturing firms and industries. Yet, while economists, political scientists, geographers, and institutional scholars remain focused on the set of international regulatory systems governing merchandise trade, dramatic changes have moved services from non-tradable to the realm of tradability. The geographic anchor of services has been cast loose, as the telecommunications revolution has changed the nature of activities that can be traded. The proposed network will explore these developments in the work package Theory of cross-boarder trade and FDI which will explore the growing importance of services in all OECD countries, the limited tradability of many services, the deregulation of service markets and FDI liberalization policies. Real world changes in the ownership and structure of service-sector indus

Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP | Phase: HEALTH.2010.1.2-1 | Award Amount: 6.55M | Year: 2010

A new generation of molecular tools is becoming available that can digitally record numbers, identities and locations of a broad range of molecular markers for increased diagnostic accuracy. This project will for the first time combine synergistically several groundbreaking technological innovations by the partners, notably padlock and proximity probes with rolling circle amplification for single molecule detection and counting, directed self-assembly of solid phases, and advanced microfluidics and read-out techniques, bringing these from the research lab into integrated instruments useful in routine. This will enable minimally invasive diagnostics, prognostics, and follow-up of treatment of cancers. Blood samples and fine needle aspirates will be subjected to high content, multiplex and multimodal assays of nucleic acids, proteins and interacting complexes thereof in single cells as well as in cell-free bodily fluids. We will use flow cytometry to collect multi-parameter information for large populations of cells, and individual detected molecules will be recorded using a fluorescence activated molecule counter developed by one of the partners. Also, very rare cells and molecules will be targeted through enrichment techniques using novel capturing approaches of unprecedented efficiency. We will apply these diagnostic approaches to characterize biomarkers in solid tumors and in leukemia and lymphoma for minimally invasive diagnostics, monitoring disease progress and selecting optimal therapy, and the assays will be clinically validated in small-scale studies of well-characterized patient samples. This project directly addresses four of the five topics in this call.

Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP | Phase: SST.2008.1.1.3. | Award Amount: 5.10M | Year: 2009

Noise pollution is a major environmental problem within the EU. The social costs of traffic noise have been estimated to 0.4% of total GDP. Road traffic is the dominant source, and also rail traffic noise is significant. At the same time, road and rail traffic are expected to steadily increase, and the source strength is not expected to significantly decrease within the near future. To reduce the outdoor traffic noise to a sufficiently low level for a good acoustic environment is a major challenge of high need. Here, we will focus on noise propagation abatement for the outdoor environment. Following the EU Directive on environmental noise, a series of major action have been taken in noise abatement, but the sustainability has rarely been paid attention. The main idea of our project is to optimize the use of green areas, green surfaces and other natural elements in combination with artificial elements in urban and rural environments for reducing the noise impact of road and rail traffic. The project offers a variety of powerful abatement strategies that will make a cost effective improvement by its combination of approaches concerning: ground and road surface treatments; trees, forests and tall vegetation; greening of buildings and other surfaces; and innovative barriers. The noise impact will be assessed in terms of sound levels (including spectra and time patterns) as well as perceived environment (including annoyance, well-being and other health related aspects). The main objectives of the project are: to show by full scale evaluation that the proposed abatement methods work; to deliver noise prediction methods applicable to the proposed abatements, which can also be used in noise mapping software; to deliver assessment methods for the perceived noise environment; to deliver a good practice guide for the end-users; and to show the cost benefit, including the positive effect on urban air quality and CO2 neutrality, of the resulting noise abatement methods.

Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP | Phase: HEALTH.2013.4.2-3 | Award Amount: 2.92M | Year: 2014

The HEALTH.2013.4.2-3 call identifies a need for new or improved statistical methodology for clinical trials for the efficient assessment of safety and/or efficacy of treatment for small population groups. This project brings together international experts in innovative clinical trial design methodology in these specific areas along with key stakeholders including regulatory authorities, industry, clinicians and patient groups to address this need. Our aim is the development novel methodology for the design and analysis of clinical trials in small populations. We will focus on four specific areas where we believe there are particular challenges: (i) early phase dose-finding studies in small populations, (ii) decision-theoretic methods for clinical trials in small populations, (iii) confirmatory trials in small populations and personalised medicines, (iv) use of evidence synthesis in the planning and interpretation of clinical trials in small populations and rare diseases. We will build on recent research advances, of our own and of others in this area. In the rare disease setting, we will focus on Bayesian and decision-theoretic methods that formally enable comparison of the gain in information with the cost, both in economic and opportunity terms, of clinical experimentation, and assess how information from outside the trial can formally be incorporated in the design and decision-making processes. In the personalised medicine setting, we will develop methods that allow evaluation of efficacy in a number of sub-populations simultaneously in a confirmatory clinical trial without any reduction in scientific or statistical rigour.

Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-CSA-Infra | Phase: INFRA-2010-1.1.19 | Award Amount: 9.36M | Year: 2011

Environmental change and particularly amplified global climate change are accelerating in the Arctic. These changes already affect local residents and feedback from the Arctics land surface to the climate system, will have global implications. However, climate change and its impacts are variable throughout the wide environmental and land use envelopes of the Arctic. Unfortunately, the Arctic is generally remote, sparsely populated and research and monitoring activities are more restricted in time and space than elsewhere. This limitation comes when there is a rapidly expanding need for knowledge as well as increasing technological opportunities to make data collection in the field and accessibility more efficient. INTERACT is a network under the auspices of SCANNET, a circumarctic network of terrestrial field bases. INTERACT specifically seeks to build capacity for research and monitoring in the European Arctic and beyond. Partnerships will be established between Station Managers and researchers within Joint Research Activities that will develop more efficient networks of sensors to measure changing environmental conditions and make data storage and accessibility more efficient through a single portal. New communities of researchers will be offered access to Arctic terrestrial infrastructures while local stakeholders as well as major international organisations will be involved in interactions with the infrastructures. This will lead to increased public awareness of environmental change and methods to adapt to them, increased access to information for education at all levels, and input to major international research and assessment programmes.The whole consortium will form a coherent and integrated unit working within a concept of a wide environmental and land use envelopes in which local conditions determine the directions and magnitudes of environmental change whereas the balance and synergies of processes integrated across the whole region have global impacts.

Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: MC-ITN | Phase: PEOPLE-2007-1-1-ITN | Award Amount: 4.16M | Year: 2008

The Council of the European Union expressively welcomed the development of a first European roadmap for research infrastructures. The aim of this recently published roadmap was to identify vital new infrastructures that are crucial for the future European research area, in particular for capacity building. These multi-disciplinary projects require substantial investments, forty percent of which are directly linked to new infrastructures using particle accelerators. This drastically underlines the importance of this field to ensure long-term European competitiveness in the sciences. The future Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR), the X-ray Free Electron Laser (FEL) and the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN will provide a new set of beams to a truly interdisciplinary community. In addition, smaller scale projects are emerging that aim for novel studies with merged molecular beams or experiments with cooled antiprotons at lowest energies to pave the way for fundamental studies in a number of different fields. The development of new particle accelerators with unprecedented beam characteristics drives the need for an intense R&D program in diagnostic techniques. The successful operation of these machines will only be possible with adequate beam instrumentation. The aim of the here-proposed Marie Curie Initial Training Network is to develop beyond-state-of-the-art diagnostic techniques for future accelerator facilities and to train students and young researchers within a European network between several major research centres, leading Universities, and partners from industry.

Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: NoE | Phase: HEALTH-2009-2.3.2-1 | Award Amount: 16.97M | Year: 2009

This is a proposal from 55 partners from 36 institutes to form a NoE that will seek to integrate European malaria research that is directed towards a better understanding of the basic biology of the parasite, its vector and of the biology of the interactions between the parasite and both its mammalian host and vectors. All the member institutes and researchers have demonstrated both their excellence and their ability to contribute to a successful network. The structure of the proposed network significantly evolves prior concepts of network structure introducing new modes of research that have recently emerged. Comprising of 4 research clusters the core activities will include molecular cell biology of the parasite, host immunity, vector biology, population biology and systems biology. One arm of the network activities will be concerned with the timely and effective translation of research respecting the IP rights of partner institutes. The network will also contribute significantly to the production of the next generation of malaria researchers through the operation of an expanded European PhD School for malaria research based at EMBL, students enjoying two supervisors based in different member states. Bespoke training courses for PhD students and network personnel will be offered throughout the duration of the network to maximise individual potential. To create a long term benefit from network activities a limited programme of post-doctoral fellowships within the network will be established. Furthermore, individual career mentoring facilities and an alumni association will continue to guide and engage network graduates. New members will be affiliated annually on a competitive basis with an emphasis on young, emerging Principle Investigators. Through the establishment of an umbrella Foundation and active lobbying of government and non-government funding agencies as well as the establishment of a charitable profile the network will strive to become self-determining.

Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: ERC-SG | Phase: ERC-SG-PE2 | Award Amount: 1.50M | Year: 2012

This project focuses on the realization and application of trapped Rydberg ions for quantum information processing and quantum simulation. It will bring together two prospective quantum computational systems: trapped ions and Rydberg atoms. Joining them will form a novel quantum system with advantages from both sides. This approach will open a new path of investigation for quantum computing and simulation and will allow investigation of different physical qualities not yet addressed in the existing systems. In particular, it promises to speed up entangling interactions by three orders of magnitude and to extend the interaction distance by at least a factor of two between neighbouring ions. The higher speed of entangling interactions would allow the execution of more complex quantum algorithms before decoherence destroys the stored quantum information. The increased coupling distance would enable the controlled interaction of neighbouring ions which are trapped individually. This would allow setting up a quantum computational system formed by a Coulomb crystal or a two-dimensional array of individually trapped ions. Such qualities make trapped Rydberg ions a powerful alternative approach for scalable quantum information processing. In particular, a string, crystal or two-dimensional array of interacting trapped Rydberg ions can be used for simulations of complex quantum systems intractable by classical computers.

Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-CSA-Infra | Phase: INFRA-2008-1.1.1 | Award Amount: 4.14M | Year: 2009

Population ageing is among the most pressing challenges of the 21st century in Europe. Addressing this challenge scientifically demands an infrastructure of micro data of the changing health, economic and social living conditions of individuals as they go through the ageing process. SHARE, the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe, is an infrastructure of multidisciplinary, longitudinal, and cross-nationally harmonized micro data that has been created in response to these demands. Currently, SHARE contains two waves of data for about 32,000 respondents aged 50\ in 17 European countries. SHARE became a great success: More than 2300 researchers are working with the data, and SHARE has been elected to be one of the future ESFRI infrastructures. This project is the essential device to enhance the longitudinal stability of the SHARE panel and to improve access and consulting services to users in the years 2009 and 2010. It will: -enhance the longitudinal stability of the panel by keeping in touch with the panel members, monitoring moves, re-interviewing lost panel members, and ascertaining last year of life events of deceased panel members. The scientific value of SHARE critically depends on continuous panel care. -improve the research potential from the SHARE infrastructure by adding imputed values for missing variables, calibrated weights, geo-coded and environmental variables, and meta/para-statistics derived from IT-driven survey methods. -enhance the SHARE survey instrument in response to user feedback, to changes in the institutional environment, and to new survey technologies recently developed, making the interview more effective and less burdensome for the respondents. Such enhancements need to be implemented in 2009/early 2010 to be in time for the ESFRI-financed fourth wave of data collection. -improve and maintain the much applauded user-friendly access for SHARE data users through services provided by central and national support points.

Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP | Phase: Fission-2010-1.1.2 | Award Amount: 2.00M | Year: 2011

Solid/liquid chemical equilibrium hypotheses (sorption, solubility, solid-solution formation) are key concepts in the assessment of nuclear waste safety. For radionuclides at trace concentrations this corresponds to constant solution concentrations, or solid/liquid distribution ratios, if environmental conditions remain constant. However, these concepts do not account for irreversible incorporation of radionuclides in the solid phases. Indeed, there is often a gradual and very slow transition from simple adsorption processes to incorporation of trace elements in the surface structure of solid phases. For certain tetravalent actinides apparent solubility equilibrium applies to only the surface without bulk phase equilibrium. This can lead to very large uncertainty in solubility values and derived thermodynamic constants. Equilibrium concepts are characterized by a dynamic state of equal forward and backward reaction rates, under conditions where phase compositions remain constant. Most of the problems arise from a lack of understanding of the dynamics of slow processes close to equilibrium, specifically in the coupling of sorption with other surface equilibrium reactions such as dissolution/precipitation, recrystallisation, isotopic exchange and with the bulk phase equilibrium. The project intends to assess the effect of surface properties on apparent solubility as well as the kinetics of incorporation of radionuclides in the structure of a solid phase, and the associated reaction mechanisms for various solids in a systematic manner, using isotope exchange under close-to-equilibrium conditions. The project results will impact strongly (1) the use/misuse of solubility data for thermodynamics; (2) the understanding of affinity/rate relations close to equilibrium; (3) the inclusion of irreversibility in models on the long-term mobility of radionuclides; and (4) the coupling of radionuclide chemistry with main element chemistry in the repository environment.

Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-IP | Phase: SSH-2010-3.2-1 | Award Amount: 10.21M | Year: 2011

ALICE RAP is a Europe wide project of 43 partner research institutions involving 107 researchers from 25 European countries providing 1000 months of a plurality of scientific endeavour to analyse the place and challenges of addictions and lifestyles to the cohesion, organization and functioning of contemporary European society. Through integrated multidisciplinary research, a wide range of factors will be studied through a foresight approach to inform a redesign of effective addictions governance. Ownership will be described by an historical study of addiction through the ages, an analysis of public and private stakeholder views, and through image analyses, of professional and citizenship views. A study of how addictions are classified and defined will be followed by estimates of their health, social and economic impact. Determinants of addiction will be investigated through a coordinated and cohesive social, economic and biological analysis of initiation, transition into problem use and transition into and out of dependence. The business of addiction will be analyzed through studies of revenues, profits and participants in legal and illegal trade, the impact of suppliers on addictive substance use and behaviours, and analyses of webs of influence on policy responses. Addictions governance will be studied by describing the views and forces that determine the ways societies steer themselves and by stock taking of present governance practices to old and emerging addictions. Youth as customers will be analyzed through considering the impacts of new technologies on promoting and mitigating use, by studying the interrelations of culture and biology, and by determining features that promote resilience and nudge young people to reduce problematic use. The programme itself will be professionally managed from a partnership perspective to promote a coordinated and integrated approach to the high volume of research and its policy implications.

Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-CSA | Phase: Fission-2013-3.4.1 | Award Amount: 5.53M | Year: 2013

COMET will strengthen the pan-European research initiative on the impact of radiation on man and the environment by facilitating the integration of radioecological research. COMET will build upon the foundations laid by the European Radioecology Alliance (ALLIANCE) and the on-going FP7 STAR Network of Excellence in radioecology. By collaborating with the European platforms on nuclear and radiological emergency response (NERIS) and low dose risk research (MELODI), COMET will significantly aid preparation for the implementation of the Horizon 2020 umbrella structure for Radiation Protection. In close association with STAR and the ALLIANCE, COMET will take forward the development of a Strategic Research Agenda as the basis for developing innovative mechanisms for joint programming and implementation (JPI) of radioecological research. To facilitate and foster future integration under a common federating structure, research activities developed within COMET will be targeted at radioecological research needs that will help achieve priorities of the NERIS and MELODI platforms. These research activities will be initiated in collaboration with researchers from countries where major nuclear accidents have occurred. Flexible funds, unallocated to specific tasks at project initiation, have been included within the COMET budget to facilitate RTD activities identified through the JPI mechanisms developed that are of joint interest to the ALLIANCE, NERIS and MELODI. It will also strengthen the bridge with the non-radiation community. Furthermore, COMET will develop strong mechanisms for knowledge exchange, dissemination and training to enhance and maintain European capacity, competence and skills in radioecology. The COMET consortium has 13 partners, expanding from the organisations within the FP7 STAR project. In particular, COMET partners from countries which have experienced major nuclear accidents (i.e. Ukraine and Japan) and/or who hold Observatory sites.

Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-CSA | Phase: Fission-2013-3.1.1 | Award Amount: 10.26M | Year: 2013

Within the OPERRA project, it is proposed that the MELODI Association, as a well-advanced network, takes the lead in establishing the necessary structures able to manage the long-term European research programmes in radiation protection, also taking advantage of the valuable experience gathered through the DoReMi network of excellence. Whilst in fields adjacent to low-dose risk research (radioecology, nuclear emergency management) scientific issues would continue to be hosted by the sister associations, Alliance and NERIS, these associations are encouraged to join MELODI to establish an umbrella structure as equal partners. OPERRA will exploit the synergies of EURATOM and other EC programmes considering the most relevant joint program areas and mechanisms for funding joint activities. The project will also strengthen the links with national funding programs as well as the European education and training structures. Also, it will take steps towards a greater involvement of those new Member States who could benefit from increased participation in the radiation research programmes. Finally, OPERRA will take steps to further integrate the joint use of infrastructures in European countries, and to develop and facilitate an easier access to research infrastructures. The final objective of this project is to build up an umbrella coordination structure that has the capacity in a legal and logistical sense to administer future calls for research in radiation protection as a whole (including low-dose risk, radioecology, nuclear emergency management, and also research activities related to the medical uses of ionizing radiation) on behalf of the European Commission. OPERRA will prepare the organisation for a first competitive call by the end of 2013 for projects in low-dose risk research and a second competitive call in 2014 for broader projects in radiation protection research, subject to the approval of EC services, with the support of Go-between administrator operator and an external advisory entity.

Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-CSA-Infra | Phase: INFRA-2008-1.1.1 | Award Amount: 18.74M | Year: 2009

The Project promotes the access to five European Research Infrastructures, and it is structured intop eight Networking Activities, plus the Management of the Consortium, and fourteen Joint Research Activities. The Project represents the continuation of the successful HadronPhysics project in FP6 and originates from the initiative of more than 2.500 European scientists working in the field of hadron physics. Hadron physics deals with the study of strongly interacting particles, the hadrons. Hadrons are composed of quarks and gluons. Their interaction is described by Quantum Chromo Dynamics, the theory of the strong force. Hadrons form more complex systems, in particular atomic. Under extreme conditions of pressure and temperature, hadrons may loose their identity and dissolve into a new state of matter similar to the primordial matter of the early Universe. The Networking Activities are related to the organization of experimental and theoretical collaborative work concerning both ongoing activities at present Research Infrastructures and planned experiments at future facilities. In hadron physics the close interaction between experimentalists and theoreticians is of paramount importance. The Joint Research Activities concentrate on technological innovations for present and future experiments. Applications in material science, medicine, information, technology, etc., represent natural fall-outs. The main objective of this Integrating Activity is to optimize the use and development of the Research Infrastructures existing in Europe working in the field of hadron physics. The Project aims as well at structuring, on European scale, the way Research Infrastructures operate, and at fostering their joint development in terms of capacity and performance. The approach used is the bottom up approach, to respond to the needs of the scientific community in all fields of science and technology.

Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP | Phase: ENV.2013.6.2-2 | Award Amount: 16.30M | Year: 2013

SOLUTIONS will deliver a conceptual framework for the evidence-based development of environmental and water policies. This will integrate innovative chemical and effect-based monitoring tools with a full set of exposure, effect and risk models and assessment options. Uniquely, SOLUTIONS taps (i) expertise of leading European scientists of major FP6/FP7 projects on chemicals in the water cycle, (ii) access to the infrastructure necessary to investigate the large basins of Danube and Rhine as well as relevant Mediterranean basins as case studies, and (iii) innovative approaches for stakeholder dialogue and support. In particular, International River Commissions, EC working groups and water works associations will be directly supported with consistent guidance for the early detection, identification, prioritization, and abatement of chemicals in the water cycle. A user-friendly tool providing access to a set of predictive models will support stakeholders to improve management decisions, benefiting from the wealth of data generated from monitoring and chemical registration. SOLUTIONS will give a specific focus on concepts and tools for the impact and risk assessment of complex mixtures of emerging pollutants, their metabolites and transformation products. Analytical and effect-based screening tools will be applied together with ecological assessment tools for the identification of toxicants and their impacts. Beyond state-of-the-art monitoring and management tools will be elaborated allowing risk identification for aquatic ecosystems and human health. The SOLUTIONS approach will provide transparent and evidence-based lists of River Basin Specific Pollutants for the case study basins and support the review of the list of WFD priority pollutants.

Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-IP | Phase: SSH.2012.3.2-1 | Award Amount: 8.36M | Year: 2013

The main objectives of this project are to investigate the diversity of family forms, relationships, and life courses in Europe; to assess the compatibility of existing policies with these changes; and to contribute to evidence-based policy-making. The project will extend our knowledge on how policies promote well-being, inclusion and sustainable societal development among families. Our approach relies on three key premises. First, family life courses are becoming more diverse and complex. Second, individual lives are interdependent, linked within and across generations. Third, social contexts and policies shape individual and family life courses. Building upon these premises we a) explore the growing complexity of family configurations and transitions, b) examine their implications for men, women and children with respect to inequalities in life chances, intergenerational relations and care arrangements, c) investigate how policies address family diversity, d) develop short- and longer-term projections, and e) identify future policy needs. Transversal dimensions that are integrated into the project are gender, culture, socioeconomic resources and life stages. Our approach is multidisciplinary combining a wide range of expertise in social sciences, law and the humanities represented in the consortium of 25 research partners from 15 European countries, old and new member states, and three transnational civil society actors. We will conduct comparative analyses applying advanced quantitative methods to high quality register and survey data, and qualitative studies. The project will also develop a database of the legal content of family forms available in European countries, suitable for comparative analyses. Together with various stakeholders, government agencies, national and local policy-makers, non-governmental organizations and additional members of the scientific community across Europe, we will identify and disseminate innovation and best policy practices.

Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-CSA-Infra | Phase: INFRA-2008-1.1.1 | Award Amount: 10.78M | Year: 2009

Mosquitoes transmit a variety of infectious diseases that cause a tremendous burden to public health. Due to climate changes and to the increase in international trade and tourism the threats posed by mosquitoes are increasingly affecting large parts of Europe, causing understandable concerns among the populations of many Member States. Control methods, mainly based on insecticide usage, are struggling to cope with the challenges posed by the biology and ecology of mosquito vectors. INFRAVEC aims at bridging the gap between the recent advances in transgenic technology and its implementation as a novel powerful approach for vector control. To this aim, a large European Infrastructure will be established, in which the coordination of efforts, expertise and facilities provided by the individual research groups and institutions will bolster and considerably expand the overall research capabilities of the research community. INFRAVEC will operate, through a number of Networking, Joint Research, Transnational and Service activities, towards the objective of considerably strengthening research capability in Europe by sharing knowledge, resources and technology. INFRAVEC will mainly focus on Anopheles gambiae, the major vector of malaria, and Aedes albopictus, a viral disease vector that is rapidly spreading through Europe. Four Infrastructure facilities will be integrated in the project: 1) the Genetically Modified mosquito laboratory of Imperial College London; 2) the Mosquito Mass-rearing facility at the Centro Agricoltura ed Ambiente (with the support of the International Atomic Energy Agency); 3) the Bioinformatics facility at EMBLEBI, UK; and 4) the Mosquito Confined Release facility at ISRIM. INFRAVEC will provide a formidable research capability to external users and facilitate the performance of five research projects aimed at utilizing basic knowledge of mosquito genetics and biology in an unprecedented effort to develop novel opportunities for mosquito control.

News Article | December 5, 2016

are hereby summoned to the extraordinary general meeting to be held on 21 December 2016 at 2 p.m. CET at the offices of Advokatfirman Vinge, Norrlandsgatan 10, Stockholm Upon the request of the shareholder Dimesilia Holdings Ltd., that has informed that it represents 89.59 per cent of the outstanding shares in RusForest AB (publ) (the “Company”) as at the date of this notice, the board of directors hereby convenes an extraordinary general meeting in the Company. Dimesilia Holdings Ltd. has requested that the general meeting resolves to determine the number of members and deputy members of the board of directors in the Company, the fees to the board of directors and election of members and chairman of the board of directors. Shareholders who wish to participate in the general meeting must: firstly        be included in the shareholders’ register maintained by Euroclear Sweden AB as of 15 December 2016; secondly   notify the Company of their participation in the general meeting no later than 15 December 2016. The notification shall be in writing to RusForest AB, attn. Gustav Wetterling, Hovslagargatan 5, 111 48 Stockholm, Sweden, via fax +46 8 545 015 54 or via email to The notification shall state the name, personal/corporate identity number, shareholding, address and daytime telephone number, and, where applicable, information about representatives, counsel and assistants. When applicable, complete authorisation documents, such as powers of attorney for representatives and counsel, registration certificates or corresponding documents, shall be appended to the notification. Shareholders whose shares have been registered in the name of a bank or securities institute must temporarily re-register their shares in their own names with Euroclear Sweden AB in order to be entitled to participate in the general meeting. Shareholders wishing such re-registration must inform their nominee of this well before 15 December 2016, when the re-registration must have been completed. Shareholders represented by proxy shall issue a dated and signed power of attorney for the proxy. If the power of attorney is issued on behalf of a legal entity, a certified copy of a registration certificate or a corresponding document for the legal entity shall be appended. The power of attorney is valid for a maximum of one year after the issuance or for the duration indicated in the power of attorney, whichever is longer, but not for more than five years after issuance. The registration certificate, where applicable, may not be older than one year. The power of attorney in original and, where applicable, the registration certificate should be submitted to the Company by mail at the address set forth above well in advance of the general meeting. A proxy form is available at Shareholders are reminded of their right to request information in accordance with Chapter 7 Section 32 of the Swedish Companies Act (Sw. aktiebolagslagen). There are a total of 130,655,471 shares and votes in the Company as of the date of this notice. Proposals regarding the chairman of the extraordinary general meeting, the number of members and deputy members of the board of directors, fees to the board of directors and election of members of the board of directors (items 2, 7, 8 and 9) The shareholder Dimesilia Holdings Ltd., that has informed that it represents 89.59 per cent of the outstanding shares in the Company as at the date of this notice, has submitted the following proposals: -     Jesper Schönbeck, member of the Swedish Bar Association, is proposed to chair the general meeting (item 2). -     The number of board members shall be three (3), with no deputy members (item 7). -     The fees to the members of the board of directors shall be reduced and the annual fee to each board member shall amount to SEK 180,000 and the annual fee to the chairman of the board of directors shall amount to SEK 340,000, insofar as they do not draw any salary from the Company. Furthermore, Dimesilia proposes that an annual fee of SEK 120,000 shall be paid to the chairman of the audit committee and SEK 120,000 to the chairman of the operational committee established by the board of directors in the Company (item 8). -     Re-election of Peter Nilsson, and election of Michalis Avraam and Niklas Bergman as new board members, for the period up until the annual general meeting 2017. Furthermore, Dimesilia proposes to elect Niklas Bergman as the chairman of the board of directors, Michalis Avraam as the chairman of audit committee and Peter Nilsson as the chairman of operational committee. The current board members Per Brilioth, Alexander Rudik and Camilla Öberg have declined to stand for re-election (item 9). Michalis Avraam has an ACA qualification from the Institute of Chartered Accountants in England & Wales and a bachelor in Economics from the University of East Anglia, Norwich. He is the founder and managing director of Michalis Avraam & Partners Ltd. Michalis Avraam is a qualified and registered Insolvency Practitioner and is also a leading member of projects on capacity building, civic engagement, youth, advocacy, gender, conflict resolution, peace and reconciliation. Niklas Bergman has a LL.M. from the University of Stockholm and has among other things studied Business Administration at the University of Lund. He is partner and managing director of Northlaw Advisors and has a long experience in corporate law matters, including as a member of the Swedish Bar Association at Baker & McKenzie and as Head of Legal Affairs of Universum Group AB. As a current member of the board of directors, Peter Nilsson is not affiliated with Dimesilia but has accepted to be nominated for re-election as member of the board of directors in order to provide the Company with continuity and stability and the continued support to the Company with his industrial background and knowledge. RusForest is a Swedish forestry company operating in Eastern Siberia. The Company controls long-term timber leases and utilizes these resources to produce a wide range of sawnwood products and wood pellets. RusForest is listed on NASDAQ First North (ticker “RUSF”). RusForest AB's Certified Adviser on First North is Pareto Securities AB. For additional information, please visit the Company’s website at or contact: The information was submitted for publication by Group CFO on 2016-12-05 at 19:00 CET.

Agency: Cordis | Branch: H2020 | Program: IA | Phase: DRS-03-2015 | Award Amount: 21.10M | Year: 2016

Effective EU support to a large external crisis requires new approaches. In response to this challenge and to identified user and market needs from previous projects, Reaching Out proposes an innovative multi-disciplinary approach that will optimize the efforts, address a wide spectrum of users and maximize market innovation success. This approach results in five main objectives: to 1. Develop a Collaborative Framework, with distributed platforms of functional services, 2. Implement a flexible and open collaborative innovation process involving users and SMEs, suppliers, operators and research organisations, 3. Develop, upgrade and integrate 78 new connectable and interoperable tools, 4. Conduct 5 large scale demonstrations on the field: o health disaster in Africa (Epidemics in Guinea, with strong social and cultural issues), o natural disaster in a politically complex region and a desert environment (Earthquake in the Jordan Valley, led jointly by Jordan, Israel and Palestine), o three global change disasters in Asia targeted at large evacuation and humanitarian support in Bangladesh (long lasting floods, huge storms and associated epidemics,), EU citizen support and repatriation in Shanghai (floods & storm surge), radiological and industrial disasters impacting EU assets in Taiwan (flash floods, landslides, storm surge and chemical and radiological disasters), supported and co-funded by local authorities, 5. Provide recommendations and evaluations for future legal and policy innovations. The project will be conducted under the supervision of senior end-users. It will be performed with flexible and proven procedures by a balanced consortium of users, industry, innovative SMEs, RTO and academia in the EU and the demonstration regions. The main expected impact is to improve external disaster and crisis management efficiency and cost-benefit and increase the EU visibility whilst enhancing EU industry competitiveness and enlarging the market.

Agency: Cordis | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: INT-04-2015 | Award Amount: 3.72M | Year: 2016

This Project aims to address an increasingly pressing global challenge: How to achieve the EUs development goals and the UNs Sustainable Development Goals, while meeting the global target of staying within two degrees global warming and avoid transgressing other planetary boundaries. EU policies must align with sustainable development goals (Article 11 TFEU). The impacts of climate change and global loss of natural habitat undermine the progress achieved by pursuing the Millennium Development Goals and threaten the realisation of EU development policy goals. Our focus is the role of EUs public and private market actors. They have a high level of interaction with actors in emerging and developing economies, and are therefore crucial to achieving the EUs development goals. However, science does not yet cater for insights in how the regulatory environment influences their decision-making, nor in how we can stimulate them to make development-friendly, environmentally and socially sustainable decisions. Comprehensive, ground-breaking research is necessary into the regulatory complexity in which EU private and public market actors operate, in particular concerning their interactions with private and public actors in developing countries. Our Consortium, leading experts in law, economics, and applied environmental and social science, is able to analyse this regulatory complexity in a transdisciplinary and comprehensive perspective, both on an overarching level and in depth, in the form of specific product life-cycles: ready-made garments and mobile phones. We bring significant new evidence-based insights into the factors that enable or hinder coherence in EU development policy; we will advance the understanding of how development concerns can be successfully integrated in non-development policies and regulations concerning market actors; and we provide tools for improved PCD impact assessment as well as for better corporate sustainability assessment.

Agency: Cordis | Branch: H2020 | Program: MSCA-RISE | Phase: MSCA-RISE-2014 | Award Amount: 571.50K | Year: 2015

DiasporaLink is a 4-year exchange program between 24 universities and research institutes representing EU, the Americas, Africa and Australia and will investigate, evaluate and facilitate transnational diaspora entrepreneurship, TDE as driver of development and wealth creation in countries of origin and residence. The partners in DiasporaLink have together a unique possibility to have a substantial impact on a global, European and national level targeting different groups and stakeholders: The international research community Institutions and policy makers in the social, economic and development field Diaspora organizations and communities Media and press This is underlined by the specific network of the partners GEM Global Entrepreneurship Monitor IMISCOE International Migration, Integration, Social Cohesion International Council for Small Businesses Swedish TDE network Core tasks are: Structure research on diaspora cross-border entrepreneurship in migration corridors Create awareness among policy and decision makers of the potential of TDE through publications and a web-site Build a IT-curricula for transnational entrepreneurship within and outside the universities Build an ICT-platform for internal communication and for transnational team building The exchange of staff is built around research in common WPs and around regular and touring workshops both internal and external. The objective is to create a global, extended university network with the mission to monitor the entrepreneurship in migration corridors, define obstacles and support the corridor stakeholders with information and tuition. Essential is close contacts with diaspora entrepreneurs and diaspora organizations are systematically approached through workshops and media, for involving diaspora organizations as active partners.

Picano F.,KTH Royal Institute of Technology | Breugem W.-P.,Technical University of Delft | Mitra D.,University of Stockholm | Brandt L.,KTH Royal Institute of Technology
Physical Review Letters | Year: 2013

Shear thickening appears as an increase of the viscosity of a dense suspension with the shear rate, sometimes sudden and violent at high volume fraction. Its origin for noncolloidal suspension with non-negligible inertial effects is still debated. Here we consider a simple shear flow and demonstrate that fluid inertia causes a strong microstructure anisotropy that results in the formation of a shadow region with no relative flux of particles. We show that shear thickening at finite inertia can be explained as an increase of the effective volume fraction when considering the dynamically excluded volume due to these shadow regions. © 2013 American Physical Society.

Gordon L.J.,University of Stockholm | Finlayson C.M.,Charles Sturt University | Falkenmark M.,University of Stockholm
Agricultural Water Management | Year: 2010

Agricultural systems as well as other ecosystems generate ecosystem services, i.e., societal benefits from ecological processes. These services include, for example, nutrient reduction that leads to water quality improvements in some wetlands and climatic regulation through recycling of precipitation in rain forests. While agriculture has increased 'provisioning' ecosystem services, such as food, fiber and timber production, it has, through time, substantially impacted other ecosystem services. Here we review the trade-offs among ecosystem services that have been generated by agriculture-induced changes to water quality and quantity in downstream aquatic systems, wetlands and terrestrial systems. We highlight emerging issues that need urgent attention in research and policy making. We identify three main strategies by which agricultural water management can deal with these large trade-offs: (a) improving water management practices on agricultural lands, (b) better linkage with management of downstream aquatic ecosystems, and (c) paying more attention to how water can be managed to create multifunctional agro-ecosystems. This can only be done if ecological landscape processes are better understood, and the values of ecosystem services other than food production are also recognized. © 2009 Elsevier B.V.

Branca R.M.M.,Karolinska Institutet | Orre L.M.,Karolinska Institutet | Johansson H.J.,Karolinska Institutet | Granholm V.,University of Stockholm | And 5 more authors.
Nature Methods | Year: 2014

We present a liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS)-based method permitting unbiased (gene prediction-independent) genome-wide discovery of protein-coding loci in higher eukaryotes. Using high-resolution isoelectric focusing (HiRIEF) at the peptide level in the 3.7-5.0 pH range and accurate peptide isoelectric point (pI) prediction, we probed the six-reading-frame translation of the human and mouse genomes and identified 98 and 52 previously undiscovered protein-coding loci, respectively. The method also enabled deep proteome coverage, identifying 13,078 human and 10,637 mouse proteins.

Kasson P.M.,University of Virginia | Lindahl E.,KTH Royal Institute of Technology | Lindahl E.,University of Stockholm | Pande V.S.,Stanford University
Journal of the American Chemical Society | Year: 2011

Membrane interfaces are critical to many cellular functions, yet the vast array of molecular components involved make the fundamental physics of interaction difficult to define. Water has been shown to play an important role in the dynamics of small biological systems, for example when trapped in hydrophobic regions, but the molecular details of water have generally been thought dispensable when considering large membrane interfaces. Nevertheless, spectroscopic data indicate that water has distinct, ordered behavior near membrane surfaces. While coarse-grained simulations have achieved success recently in aiding understanding the dynamics of membrane assemblies, it is natural to ask, does the missing chemical nature of water play an important role? We have therefore performed atomic-resolution simulations of vesicle fusion to understand the role of chemical detail, particularly the molecular structure of water, in membrane fusion and at membrane interfaces more generally. These membrane interfaces present a form of hydrophilic confinement, yielding surprising, non-bulk-like water behavior. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

Kolb A.,University of Bremen | Dahlgren J.P.,University of Stockholm | Ehrlen J.,University of Stockholm
Ecology | Year: 2010

Negative effects of habitat fragmentation on individual performance have been widely documented, but relatively little is known about how simultaneous effects on multiple vital rates translate into effects on population viability in long-lived species. In this study, we examined relationships between population size, individual growth, survival and reproduction, and population growth rate in the perennial plant Phyteuma spicatum. Population size positively affected the growth of seedlings, the survival of juveniles, the proportion of adults flowering, and potential seed production. Analyses with integral projection models, however, showed no relationship between population size and population growth rate. This was due to the fact that herbivores and pathogens eliminated the relationship between population size and seed production, and that population growth rate was not sensitive to changes in the vital rates that varied with population size. We conclude that effects of population size on vital rates must not translate into effects on population growth rate, and that populations of long-lived organisms may partly be able to buffer negative effects of small population size on vital rates that have a relatively small influence on population growth rate. Our study illustrates that we need to be cautious when assessing the consequences of habitat fragmentation for population viability based on effects on only one or a few vital rates. © 2010 by the Ecological Society of America.

Sorlin S.,KTH Royal Institute of Technology | Sorlin S.,University of Stockholm
Environmental Science and Policy | Year: 2013

This article examines the concepts 'environment' and 'expertise'. It is argued that these concepts, while having long and diverse individual histories, acquired new meaning through a process of mutual co-production which occurred largely in the period 1920-1960, thus significantly preceding the common understanding of environmentalism as a phenomenon emerging in the 1960s. It is further argued that environmental expertise is much predicated on natural science in a range of fields that were integrated into a comprehensive understanding scaling upwards from the local to the global. Quantitative analysis, observing, measuring, and monitoring rates of change of a growing set of indicators were other key features of this emerging understanding of the environmental. Yet another key aspect was the self-proclaimed ability of environmental expertise to predict rates and directions of current and, crucially, future changes of global environmental conditions, increasingly assuming that these changes were largely of human origin. In addition to thus presenting a brief history of environmental expertise the article also makes the point that the environmental was, despite changed by human action, essentially regarded as something that did not in itself belong to the human or the social and thus the implicit prerogative of the natural sciences. The article argues, on the contrary, that there is solid historical evidence to suggest that 'environment' should also, perhaps primarily, be understood as a social concept, or rather as an extension of the social into nature. As conventional environmental expertise has failed to provide the advice needed to question the driving forces behind environmental degradation and lack of sustainability it is here instead suggested that environmental expertise be fundamentally reconfigured to include the social sciences and humanities, and that concerted research efforts are directed to the understanding of the formation of environmental expertise. © 2013.

Duit A.,University of Stockholm | Feindt P.H.,Wageningen University | Meadowcroft J.,Carleton University
Environmental Politics | Year: 2016

‘Bringing the state back in’ to research on comparative, inter-, and trans-national environmental politics and policy will contribute to better understanding of the limits and prospects of contemporary approaches to environmental politics and the overall evolution of contemporary states once environmental issues become central. The rationale for the state as an analytical perspective in environmental policy and politics is explained, and an empirically oriented concept of the environmental state is introduced, along with a tentative sketch of its evolution in historical perspective. A research agenda on the environmental state is mapped out, centring around variation and convergence in environmental states across space and time; the political/economic dynamics of contemporary environmental states; and inter-linkages among environmental problems, the constitution of political communities, and the functioning of the public power. In conclusion, the ways in which the contributions to this volume address that research agenda are introduced. © 2015 Taylor & Francis.

Brandenburg A.,KTH Royal Institute of Technology | Brandenburg A.,University of Stockholm
Astrophysical Journal | Year: 2014

Using direct numerical simulations of three-dimensional hydromagnetic turbulence, either with helical or non-helical forcing, we show that the kinetic-to-magnetic energy dissipation ratio always increases with the magnetic Prandtl number, i.e., the ratio of kinematic viscosity to magnetic diffusivity. This dependence can always be approximated by a power law, but the exponent is not the same in all cases. For non-helical turbulence, the exponent is around 1/3, while for helical turbulence it is between 0.6 and 2/3. In the statistically steady state, the rate of energy conversion from kinetic into magnetic by the dynamo must be equal to the Joule dissipation rate. We emphasize that for both small-scale and large-scale dynamos, the efficiency of the energy conversion depends sensitively on the magnetic Prandtl number, and thus on the microphysical dissipation process. To understand this behavior, we also study shell models of turbulence and one-dimensional passive and active scalar models. We conclude that the magnetic Prandtl number dependence is qualitatively best reproduced in the one-dimensional model as a result of dissipation via localized Alfvén kinks. © 2014. The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved.

El-Shehawy R.,IMDEA Madrid Institute for Advanced Studies | Gorokhova E.,University of Stockholm | Fernandez-Pinas F.,Autonomous University of Madrid | del Campo F.F.,Autonomous University of Madrid
Water Research | Year: 2012

Global temperature is expected to rise throughout this century, and blooms of cyanobacteria in lakes and estuaries are predicted to increase with the current level of global warming. The potential environmental, economic and sanitation repercussions of these blooms have attracted considerable attention among the world's scientific communities, water management agencies and general public. Of particular concern is the worldwide occurrence of hepatotoxic cyanobacteria posing a serious threat to global public health. Here, we highlight plausible effects of global warming on physiological and molecular changes in these cyanobacteria and resulting effects on hepatotoxin production. We also emphasize the importance of understanding the natural biological function(s) of hepatotoxins, various mechanisms governing their synthesis, and climate-driven changes in food-web interactions, if we are to predict consequences of the current and projected levels of global warming for production and accumulation of hepatotoxins in aquatic ecosystems. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

Nyhlen J.,University of Stockholm | Duan L.,KTH Royal Institute of Technology | Akermark B.,University of Stockholm | Sun L.,KTH Royal Institute of Technology | Privalov T.,University of Stockholm
Angewandte Chemie - International Edition | Year: 2010

The missing link? DFT calculations demonstrate that a binuclear mechanism of O2 evolution involving seven-coordinate ruthenium species, which operates through the direct coupling of oxygen radicals and does not require crossing of prohibitively high potential-energy barriers, is plausible (see scheme). (Figure Presented) © 2010 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.

Tong L.,KTH Royal Institute of Technology | Duan L.,KTH Royal Institute of Technology | Xu Y.,Dalian University of Technology | Privalov T.,University of Stockholm | Sun L.,KTH Royal Institute of Technology
Angewandte Chemie - International Edition | Year: 2011

Small change, big difference: A minor structural modification of water-oxidation catalysts changes the kinetics of O2 evolution from second- to first-order (see scheme). According to DFT calculations, the torsional flexibility of the chelating ligands and their reorganization through the catalytic cycle are implicated in pathway selectivity, and the auxiliary carboxylate group becomes involved in proton-coupled nucleophilic attack. © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

Bergstrom J.,University of Stockholm | Faber C.,KTH Royal Institute of Technology | van der Geer G.,University of Amsterdam
Selecta Mathematica, New Series | Year: 2014

We give an explicit conjectural formula for the motivic Euler characteristic of an arbitrary symplectic local system on the moduli space A3 of principally polarized abelian threefolds. The main term of the formula is a conjectural motive of Siegel modular forms of a certain type; the remaining terms admit a surprisingly simple description in terms of the motivic Euler characteristics for lower genera. The conjecture is based on extensive counts of curves of genus three and abelian threefolds over finite fields. It provides a lot of new information about vector-valued Siegel modular forms of degree three, such as dimension formulas and traces of Hecke operators. We also use it to predict several lifts from genus 1 to genus 3, as well as lifts from G2 and new congruences of Harder type. © 2013 Springer Basel.

Brandenburg A.,KTH Royal Institute of Technology | Brandenburg A.,University of Stockholm | Lazarian A.,University of Wisconsin - Madison
Space Science Reviews | Year: 2013

Recent progress in astrophysical hydromagnetic turbulence is being reviewed. The physical ideas behind the now widely accepted Goldreich-Sridhar model and its extension to compressible magnetohydrodynamic turbulence are introduced. Implications for cosmic ray diffusion and acceleration is being discussed. Dynamo-generated magnetic fields with and without helicity are contrasted against each other. Certain turbulent transport processes are being modified and often suppressed by anisotropy and inhomogeneities of the turbulence, while others are being produced by such properties, which can lead to new large-scale instabilities of the turbulent medium. Applications of various such processes to astrophysical systems are being considered. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.

Michel B.,French National Center for Scientific Research | Michel B.,University Paris - Sud | Bernander R.,University of Stockholm
BioEssays | Year: 2014

Replication of the main chromosome in the halophilic archaeon Haloferax volcanii was recently reported to continue despite deletion of all active replication origins. Equally surprising, the deletion strain grew faster than the parent strain. It was proposed that origin-less H. volcanii duplicate their chromosomes via recombination-dependent replication. Here, we recall our present knowledge of this mode of chromosome replication in different organisms. We consider the likelihood that it accounts for the viability of H. volcanii deleted for its main specific replication origins, as well as possible alternative interpretations of the results. The selective advantages of having defined chromosome replication origins are discussed from a functional and evolutionary perspective. © 2014 WILEY Periodicals, Inc.

Ankner T.,University of Stockholm | Cosner C.C.,University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center | Helquist P.,University of Stockholm | Helquist P.,University of Notre Dame
Chemistry - A European Journal | Year: 2013

Transition-metal-catalyzed alkenylation of enolates provides a direct method to synthesize broadly useful β,γ-unsaturated carbonyl compounds from the corresponding carbonyl compound and alkenyl halides. Despite being reported in the early seventies, this reaction class saw little development for many years. In the past decade, however, efforts to develop this reaction further have increased considerably, and many research groups have reported efficient coupling protocols, including enantioselective versions. These reactions most commonly employ palladium catalysts, but there are also some important reports using nickel. There are many examples of this powerful transformation being used in the synthesis of complex natural products. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

Duan L.,KTH Royal Institute of Technology | Bozoglian F.,Institute of Chemical Research of Catalonia | Mandal S.,Institute of Chemical Research of Catalonia | Stewart B.,University of Stockholm | And 5 more authors.
Nature Chemistry | Year: 2012

Across chemical disciplines, an interest in developing artificial water splitting to O 2 and H 2, driven by sunlight, has been motivated by the need for practical and environmentally friendly power generation without the consumption of fossil fuels. The central issue in light-driven water splitting is the efficiency of the water oxidation, which in the best-known catalysts falls short of the desired level by approximately two orders of magnitude. Here, we show that it is possible to close that 'two orders of magnitude' gap with a rationally designed molecular catalyst [Ru(bda)(isoq) 2] (H 2 bda = 2,2'-bipyridine-6,6'- dicarboxylic acid; isoq = isoquinoline). This speeds up the water oxidation to an unprecedentedly high reaction rate with a turnover frequency of >300 s -1. This value is, for the first time, moderately comparable with the reaction rate of 100-400s -1 of the oxygen-evolving complex of photosystem II in vivo. © 2012 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

Ekdahl Y.,University of Stockholm | Farahani H.S.,KTH Royal Institute of Technology | Behm M.,University of Stockholm | Lagergren J.,KTH Royal Institute of Technology | Ohman M.,University of Stockholm
Genome Research | Year: 2012

Adenosine-to-inosine (A-to-I) RNA editing targets double-stranded RNA stem-loop structures in the mammalian brain. It has previously been shown that miRNAs are substrates for A-to-I editing. For the first time, we show that for several definitions of edited miRNA, the level of editing increases with development, thereby indicating a regulatory role for editing during brain maturation. We use high-throughput RNA sequencing to determine editing levels in mature miRNA, from the mouse transcriptome, and compare these with the levels of editing in pri-miRNA. We show that increased editing during development gradually changes the proportions of the two miR-376a isoforms, which previously have been shown to have different targets. Several other miRNAs that also are edited in the seed sequence show an increased level of editing through development. By comparing editing of pri-miRNA with editing and expression of the corresponding mature miRNA, we also show an editing-induced developmental regulation of miRNA expression. Taken together, our results imply that RNA editing influences the miRNA repertoire during brain maturation.

Benmakhlouf H.,Karolinska University Hospital | Benmakhlouf H.,University of Stockholm | Sempau J.,Polytechnic University of Catalonia | Andreo P.,University of Stockholm
Medical Physics | Year: 2014

Purpose: To determine detector-specific output correction factors, k fclin,fmsr Qclin,Qmsr , in 6 MV small photon beams for air and liquid ionization chambers, silicon diodes, and diamond detectors from two manufacturers. Methods: Field output factors, defined according to the international formalism published by Alfonso et al. [Med. Phys. 35, 5179-5186 (2008)], relate the dosimetry of small photon beams to that of the machine-specific reference field; they include a correction to measured ratios of detector readings, conventionally used as output factors in broad beams. Output correction factors were calculated with the PENELOPE Monte Carlo (MC) system with a statistical uncertainty (type-A) of 0.15% or lower. The geometries of the detectors were coded using blueprints provided by the manufacturers, and phase-space files for field sizes between 0.5×0.5 cm2 and 10×10 cm2 from a Varian Clinac iX 6MV linac used as sources. The output correction factors were determined scoring the absorbed dose within a detector and to a small water volume in the absence of the detector, both at a depth of 10 cm, for each small field and for the reference beam of 10×10 cm2. Results: The Monte Carlo calculated output correction factors for the liquid ionization chamber and the diamond detector were within about ±1% of unity even for the smallest field sizes. Corrections were found to be significant for small air ionization chambers due to their cavity dimensions, as expected. The correction factors for silicon diodes varied with the detector type (shielded or unshielded), confirming the findings by other authors; different corrections for the detectors from the two manufacturers were obtained. The differences in the calculated factors for the various detectors were analyzed thoroughly and whenever possible the results were compared to published data, often calculated for different accelerators and using the EGSnrc MC system. The differences were used to estimate a type-B uncertainty for the correction factors. Together with the type-A uncertainty from theMonte Carlo calculations, an estimation of the combined standard uncertainty was made, assigned to the mean correction factors from various estimates. Conclusions: The present work provides a consistent and specific set of data for the output correction factors of a broad set of detectors in a Varian Clinac iX 6 MV accelerator and contributes to improving the understanding of the physics of small photon beams. The correction factors cannot in general be neglected for any detector and, as expected, their magnitude increases with decreasing field size. Due to the reduced number of clinical accelerator types currently available, it is suggested that detector output correction factors be given specifically for linac models and field sizes, rather than for a beam quality specifier that necessarily varies with the accelerator type and field size due to the different electron spot dimensions and photon collimation systems used by each accelerator model © 2014 American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

Kolb A.,University of Bremen | Ehrlen J.,University of Stockholm
Evolutionary Ecology | Year: 2010

Linking trait selection to environmental context is necessary to move beyond the simple recognition that selection is spatially variable and to understand what ultimately drives this variation. Natural selection acts through differences among individuals in lifetime fitness and information about effects on fitness components is therefore often not sufficient to gain such an understanding. We investigated how environmental context influenced intensity of seed predation, flower abortion and selection on floral display traits in 44-52 populations of the perennial herb Primula veris over 2 years. Phenotypic selection on both inflorescence height and flower number varied among populations and was mediated partly by pre-dispersal seed predation and flower abortion in one of the years. Among-population variation in selection on inflorescence height, but not flower number, was linked to variation in canopy cover via its effects on seed predation. Lifetime fitness was less sensitive to seed predator damage in shaded environments but estimates of selection based on lifetime fitness agreed qualitatively with those based on seed output. Our results demonstrate that seed predators constitute an important link between environmental conditions and trait evolution in plants, and that selection on plant traits by seed predators can depend on environmental context. © 2009 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

Roos J.,Enskede Arsta Vantor Psychiatric Outpatient Services | Werbart A.,University of Stockholm
Psychotherapy Research | Year: 2013

Among potential predictors of dropout, client variables are most thoroughly examined. This qualitative literature review examines the current state of knowledge about therapist, relationship and process factors influencing dropout. Databases searches identified 44 relevant studies published January 2000-June 2011. Dropout rates varied widely with a weighted rate of 35%. Fewer than half of the studies directly addressed questions of dropout rates in relation to therapist, relationship or process factors. Therapists' experience, training and skills, together with providing concrete support and being emotionally supportive, had an impact on dropout rates. Furthermore, the quality of therapeutic alliance, client dissatisfaction and pre-therapy preparation influenced dropout. To reduce dropout rates, therapists need enhanced skills in building and repairing the therapeutic relationship. © 2013 Copyright Society for Psychotherapy Research.

Brena B.,Uppsala University | Siegbahn P.E.M.,University of Stockholm | Agren H.,KTH Royal Institute of Technology
Journal of the American Chemical Society | Year: 2012

The Mn 1s near-edge absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) has been computed by means of transition-state gradient-corrected density functional theory (DFT) on four Mn4Ca clusters modeling the successive S0 to S 3 steps of the oxygen-evolving complex (OEC) in photosystem II (PSII). The model clusters were obtained from a previous theoretical study where they were determined by energy minimization. They are composed of Mn(III) and Mn(IV) atoms, progressing from Mn(III)3Mn(IV) for S0 to Mn(III)2Mn(IV)2 for S1 to Mn(III)Mn(IV) 3 for S2 to Mn(IV)4 for S3, implying an Mn-centered oxidation during each step of the photosynthetic oxygen evolution. The DFT simulations of the Mn 1s absorption edge reproduce the experimentally measured curves quite well. By the half-height method, the theoretical IPEs are shifted by 0.93 eV for the S0 → S 1 transition, by 1.43 eV for the S1 → S2 transition, and by 0.63 eV for the S2 → S3 transition. The inflection point energy (IPE) shifts depend strongly on the method used to determine them, and the most interesting result is that the present clusters reproduce the shift in the S2 → S3 transition obtained by both the half-height and second-derivative methods, thus giving strong support to the previously suggested structures and assignments. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

Bergman B.,University of Stockholm | Sandh G.,University of Stockholm | Sandh G.,Uppsala University | Lin S.,University of Connecticut | And 2 more authors.
FEMS Microbiology Reviews | Year: 2013

The last several decades have witnessed dramatic advances in unfolding the diversity and commonality of oceanic diazotrophs and their N2-fixing potential. More recently, substantial progress in diazotrophic cell biology has provided a wealth of information on processes and mechanisms involved. The substantial contribution by the diazotrophic cyanobacterial genus Trichodesmium to the nitrogen influx of the global marine ecosystem is by now undisputable and of paramount ecological importance, while the underlying cellular and molecular regulatory physiology has only recently started to unfold. Here, we explore and summarize current knowledge, related to the optimization of its diazotrophic capacity, from genomics to ecophysiological processes, via, for example, cellular differentiation (diazocytes) and temporal regulations, and suggest cellular research avenues that now ought to be explored. © 2012 Federation of European Microbiological Societies.

Cvetkovic V.,KTH Royal Institute of Technology | Frampton A.,University of Stockholm
Water Resources Research | Year: 2012

Resolving the hydrodynamic control of retention is an important step in predictive modeling of transport of sorbing tracers in fractured rock. The statistics of the transport resistance parameter β[T/L] and the related effective active specific surface area s f [1/L] are studied in a crystalline rock volume on a 100 m scale. Groundwater flow and advective transport are based on generic boundary conditions and realistic discrete fracture networks inferred from the Laxemar site, southeast Sweden. The overall statistics of β are consistent with statistics of the water residence time τ; the moments of β vary linearly with distance, at least up to 100 m. The correlation between log τ and log β is predominantly linear, however, there is significant dispersion; the parameter s f strongly depends on the assumed hydraulic law (theoretical cubic or empirical quadratic). Fast and slow trajectories/segments in the network determine the shape of the β distribution that cannot be reproduced by infinitely divisible model over the entire range; the low value range and median can be reproduced reasonably well with the tempered one-sided stable density using the exponent in the range 0.35-0.7. The low percentiles of the β distribution seems to converge to a Fickian type of behavior from a 50 to 100 m scale. Copyright 2012 by the American Geophysical Union.

Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: NoE | Phase: Fission-2010-3.5.1 | Award Amount: 8.04M | Year: 2011

With a renewed interest in nuclear energy and the scientific challenges related to the nuclear fuel cycle, the need for radioecological expertise is increasing world-wide. Concurrently, education related to radioecology has steadily declined, leading experts are approaching retirement, and funding for radioecological research is at a minimum in many European countries. To face this challenge and avoid further fragmentation, nine leading organisations propose to establish a Network of Excellence in radioecology, called STAR. The goal is to efficiently integrate important organisations, infrastructures, and research efforts into a sustainable network that contributes to a European Research Area in radioecology. To achieve this, a Joint Programme of Activities will be implemented covering integration and sharing of infrastructures; training, education and mobility; knowledge management and dissemination; as well as three key research themes (integrating human and non-human radiological risk assessments; radiation protection in a multi-contaminant context; ecologically relevant low-dose effects). The coordinator, IRSN, is one of the largest radioecological research institutes in Europe with an excellent record in large project management. Three STAR partners are members of the High Level Expert Group on Low Dose Risk Research, ensuring that STAR will provide effective links to the wider community of low dose risk research. STAR will interact with other European and international research institutes in radioecology, radiobiology and ecology to produce the best research for addressing the key scientific challenges in radioecology. To address stakeholders needs and policy questions, a strong link with end-users will be achieved via dedicated workshops, conferences and advanced dissemination tools. STAR will promote integration, networking and scientific excellence to benefit human and environmental radiation protection.

Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: MC-ITN | Phase: FP7-PEOPLE-2013-ITN | Award Amount: 3.97M | Year: 2013

The strong temporal dynamics of the East African landscape and natural-resource distributions have always encouraged people to innovate and adapt to changing conditions. However, increasing population growth, changes in patterns of land tenure, industrialization, weak systems of governance, and global climate change have exacerbated previously localized environmental problems such as soil erosion, depletion of water catchments, loss of forests and grazing land, falling soil fertility and biodiversity. Novel approaches for resolving these challenges are thus urgently needed. Based on the premise that the past is key to understanding the present and planning for the future, this ITN will establish a leading European training network devoted to combining state-of-the-art research methods to tap into under-appreciated knowledge of how indigenous peoples have previously adapted to East Africas intrinsically unstable climate and land/water resources. By bringing together ecologists, archaeologists, anthropologists, geographers, historians and agronomists the ITN will provide cross-disciplinary training to a new generation of researchers, enabling them to interpret data relating to past and present socio-cultural and ecological dynamics from across the environmental and social sciences and the humanities. Organized by researchers from seven European universities in partnership with Bayer East Africa and U&We, the ITN will co-operate closely with academic counterparts, private-sector stakeholders, NGOs and local communities in East Africa. It will highlight how detailed awareness of the complex history of human-environment interaction in East Africa is central to well-founded and ecologically sustainable resource management, thereby restore the important function of indigenous know-how crucial for devising development policies and climate-risk management for specific areas, and train a new generation of future ecosystem-service managers, policy makers and entrepreneurs.

Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CSA-CA | Phase: SSH-2007-8.0-02;SSH-2007-2.1-01 | Award Amount: 857.67K | Year: 2008

This project seeks to improve research capacity and develop collaboration amongst researchers in Europe and East Africa, and by doing so to contribute to the larger objective of regional integration. The project will enhance integration in the research community in both Europe and East Africa through bringing researchers together in a series of training activities. These activities will focus on two kinds of transborder environment: mountains and Lake Tanganyika. Through this focus on resources which span the borders of the multiple political units of East Africa, the project will contribute directly to public understanding of some of the challenges to regional integration in East African context. The project is organized around four themes, all of which relate to human use and management of these cross border resources: resource management and livelihood sustainability, environmental and climate change, migration and identity and the role of small and medium cities. At the core of the project, five institutions four European, and one East African will be brought together; the project will also draw on the skills and knowledge of four university research institutions in Europe, whose staff will take the role of leaders for each of the four themes. All the individuals and institutions involved have substantial experience of work in Africa, and have commitment both to the enhancement of an integrated European research capacity and to the building of research capacity and regional integration in East Africa.

Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP | Phase: SSH.2012.1.3-2 | Award Amount: 3.09M | Year: 2013

The INSPIRES project aims to contribute to resilient and inclusive labour markets in Europe. It comparatively assesses the resilience and inclusiveness of labour markets in European countries, it identifies innovative policies that have contributed to resilience and inclusiveness and it analyzes strategies of policy learning that facilitate the development and transfer of these innovations within and across European nation states. In order to do so, it analyzes in-depth the evolution of labour markets policies, employment policies and social policies. Moreover, it qualitatively and quantitatively assesses the labour market position of vulnerable groups from 2000 onwards. INSPIRES covers eleven countries from all European welfare traditions: Mediterranean, Eastern-European, Anglo-Saxon, Scandinavian and the continental regimes. The consortium consists of a multidisciplinary team of leading European scholars that focus on the labour market, employment issues and social policies. The INSPIRES project aims to accumulate practice-oriented knowledge on the factors that positively and negatively affect resilience and inclusiveness. It seeks to explain differences within and between countries, and within and between the labour market positions of different vulnerable groups on the labour market. INSPIRES intends to isolate the impact of national policies from the structural demographic, social and economic characteristics on labour market resilience. Building upon this analysis, it tries to identify processes of policy learning and innovation that occur in the interactions between policy makers, politicians, non-profit organizations, trade unions, business associations and other stakeholders at the European, national and regional level. The outcomes of INSPIRES contribute to facilitating policy learning and innovation processes across territorial and sectoral boundaries and to the creation of inclusive and resilient labour markets in European countries.

Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CSA-CA | Phase: REGIONS-2012-2013-1 | Award Amount: 3.05M | Year: 2013

The project UPSIDE aims at delivering economic and societal benefits by fostering the emergence and development of User-driven Participatory Solutions for Innovation in Digitally-centered Ecosystems. The project aims at promoting the development of cooperation frameworks and synergy linkages between research, innovation activities within the companies, urban development policies and open user-driven innovation ecosystems which are close to the interests and needs of cities and their stakeholders, including citizens and businesses, and which may bridge the gap between short-term city development priorities and longer term technological research and experimentation. Building on the priorities of the cities involved in the project and the market potential, the UPSIDE partners will focus on the following areas: health, including ambient assisted living, intelligent transport systems / mobility public services (e- and m-Government), energy, with a common viewpoint of developing user-driven participatory solutions that use the ICT specializations within each of the partner regions. The cities shall contribute to the faster development of technologies and markets not only through policy support but also by providing the right scale for test beds, which are needed in order to optimize different applications and scale up pilot projects to ensure real-life deployment. The test beds in each partner region shall contribute to the emergence of shared innovation platforms and a faster development of single European markets for innovative digital services. The mid to long-term objective is to ensure global market leadership for the UPSIDE clusters. Societal benefits will be generated by fostering the uptake of ICT-based technologies but also by implementing in the partner regions platforms for the development of user-driven participatory solutions that take into account the multiple stakeholder perspective within the framework of larger regional digital agendas.

Agency: Cordis | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: BG-10-2016 | Award Amount: 8.72M | Year: 2016

Arctic climate change increases the need of a growing number of stakeholders for trustworthy weather and climate predictions, both within the Arctic and beyond. APPLICATE will address this challenge and develop enhanced predictive capacity by bringing together scientists from academia, research institutions and operational prediction centres, including experts in weather and climate prediction and forecast dissemination. APPLICATE will develop a comprehensive framework for observationally constraining and assessing weather and climate models using advanced metrics and diagnostics. This framework will be used to establish the performance of existing models and measure the progress made within the project. APPLICATE will make significant model improvements, focusing on aspects that are known to play pivotal roles in both weather and climate prediction, namely: the atmospheric boundary layer including clouds; sea ice; snow; atmosphere-sea ice-ocean coupling; and oceanic transports. In addition to model developments, APPLICATE will enhance predictive capacity by contributing to the design of the future Arctic observing system and through improved forecast initialization techniques. The impact of Arctic climate change on the weather and climate of the Northern Hemisphere through atmospheric and oceanic linkages will be determined by a comprehensive set of novel multi-model numerical experiments using both coupled and uncoupled ocean and atmosphere models. APPLICATE will develop strong user-engagement and dissemination activities, including pro-active engagement of end-users and the exploitation of modern methods for communication and dissemination. Knowledge-transfer will also benefit from the direct engagement of operational prediction centres in APPLICATE. The educational component of APPLICATE will be developed and implemented in collaboration with the Association of Early Career Polar Scientists (APECS).

Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CSA-SA | Phase: INCO.2011-7.5 | Award Amount: 2.12M | Year: 2012

The general objective of the project is to use the Nansen International Environmental and Remote Sensing Centre (NIERSC) established in St. Petersburg, Russia, and funded by Norway and Germany, as the joint research facility to extend, consolidate and strengthen scientific cooperation between researchers from the EU Member States and Associated Countries with those from Russia through the joint studies of climate and environmental changes in the Arctic and Sub-Arctic in the 21st century and their socio-economic impact. NIERSC research facilities, enhanced and expanded in the frame of the project, will be opened to the researchers from other Member States, specifically from Austria, Finland, France, Sweden and UK, additionally to researchers from Germany, Norway and Russia, founders of NIERSC. Increasing and extending scientific cooperation between researchers from the Member States and Associated Countries with Russian researchers will be organized through involvement of additional researchers in the NIERSC ongoing projects and preparation of new future joint scientific projects in the area of environmental and climate research in the Arctic and Sub-Arctic including socio-economic issues via organization of joint scientific workshops and seminars. Since 1992 NIERSC has built a wide network with Russian research institutions, universities and governmental agencies which will serve in the future for further enhancement of European-Russian cooperation in proposed research area far beyond the completion of EuRuCAS. To sustain this cooperation in the future, young generation of researchers will be greatly involved in the project through research periods at NIERSC and organizing Summer School with the focus on environmental and climate research in the Arctic and Sub-Arctic including socio-economic impact. Within EuRuCAS implementation the ways for opening NIERSC institutional arrangements for new members from EU Member States and/or Associated Countries will be defined.

Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP | Phase: HEALTH.2011.2.4.3-2 | Award Amount: 9.96M | Year: 2011

The DIABAT project will employ knowledge of the function, dysfunction and physiological regulation of brown adipocytes to develop innovative therapeutic and preventive strategies for type 2 diabetes. Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is currently a worldwide recognized target to combat obesity and diabetes due to last years re-discovery of functional BAT in adult humans by several of the members of the DIABAT network (van Marken LIchtenbelt et al., N. Engl. J. Med. 360, 1500, 2009; Virtanen, Enerbck & Nuutila, N. Engl. J. Med. 360, 1518, 2009) along with sharp rise in insight in cellular, genetic, and regulatory mechanisms from animal studies. Therefore, the DIABAT project aims at recruiting and re-activating endogenous energy-dissipating BAT as a preventive and/or remedial measure for weight and blood sugar control in obesity-related type 2 diabetes (diabesity), thereby halting or preventing destruction and facilitating recovery of pancreatic beta-cells under diabetic conditions.

Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-IP | Phase: SSH.2013.1.2-1 | Award Amount: 6.46M | Year: 2014

The overriding aim of this project is to conduct a comparative EU wide analysis on youth unemployment that is sensitive to gender, ethnic and class differences and the historical legacies of multi-level institutions shaping relevant policies. This aim will be achieved through 10 objectives organized around 12 research, management, dissemination and scientific coordination work packages. There are three cross-cutting research WPs that examine Performance, Policy Learning and its limitations and include the production of an International Handbook on Strategic Transitions for Youth Labour in Europe; Six substantive research WPs focus on issues of: Labour Market Mismatch in terms of education and skills as well as geographical mobility; Family and Cultural barriers to employment and, the opportunities and consequences of Self-Employment and Flexicurity. The central concept informing this project is based on a policy learning approach to address youth unemployment. This involves an ongoing process of including a wide range of EU stakeholders to inform the research and disseminate the results in different institutional conditions. It provides a recent historical analysis accounting for factors prior to, and following on from, the on-going economic crisis. It informs policy makers about of what works and why. The consortium will achieve the expected impact of 1) advancing the knowledge base of employment strategies to overcome youth unemployment, defining measures, methods and evaluations, 2) creating a critical network of stakeholder organisation. Outputs will include: An International Handbook on Strategic Transitions for Youth Labour in Europe. Multimedia dissemination: working papers, policy briefings, newsletters, press coverage and video podcasts. A comparative analyses of where and under which circumstances innovative and effective policies for getting young people into work are evident, where these policies work and why; Policy recommendations, from both case studies and quantitative analysis, on the impacts of these employment strategies; Timely and professional dissemination to key stakeholders facilitated by the partner EurActiv. Three WPs focus on the management, dissemination and scientific coordination of the project to achieve these objectives and outputs.

Agency: Cordis | Branch: H2020 | Program: MSCA-ITN-ETN | Phase: MSCA-ITN-2015-ETN | Award Amount: 3.86M | Year: 2016

Infectious diseases are a major burden to public health and the global economy, not in the least due to antimicrobial resistance. Rapid point of care (POC) in vitro diagnostics (IVD) are key tools in the effective clinical management of patients with infectious diseases. Yet there is still a large unmet clinical need for more rapid POC IVDs generating more clinically relevant, actionable information. Effectively addressing this need requires a change in the current approach in training researchers on IVDs, generating a new breed of IVD researchers capable of closing the gap between the clinical and technological perspective. ND4ID takes up this challenge by offering 15 ESRs a world-class first of its kind training programme where they will be exposed to the full breadth of disciplines spanning clinical, technological and market-oriented viewpoints, from both the academic and non-academic sector. Through a set of synergistic research projects on novel POC assays, targeting the most important and urgent clinical needs at world leading academic or private sector research groups, the ESRs are offered a holistic training program, preparing them to be lead players in the future IVD field. This training through research is augmented by a unique comprehensive network-wide training programme covering clinical, technical and translational knowledge and skills of relevance to IVD research, development and exploitation. As such, ND4ID will deliver ESRs that will be in high demand serving as an example for other academic and non-academic actors active in training IVD researchers and further strengthening Europes position in the internally competitive arena of IVD technology.

Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CSA | Phase: ICT-2011.8.1 | Award Amount: 1.66M | Year: 2012 will launch the European Living Learning Network by schools and for schools.\n\ is a facilitated grassroots initiative initially formed from school networks in 6 European countries and partnerships abroad including schools in developing countries. Linked to a facilitators network of higher education institutions, thematic organizations, experts, learning content and technology providers, schools will be enabled to co-develop and embark into Learning Expeditions jointly with leading players in European science, creativity and innovation. First confirmations of support have been ensured e.g. from Oscar Award winning filmmaker Luc Jacque.\n\ will intensify the collaboration of schools with Europes higher education institutions that are at the forefront of European innovation in learning organizational models and pedagogical concepts. In particular will benefit from the experiences of Aalto University in Finland - today considered a leading European case with new models like Design Factory and Aalto Entrepreneurship Society.\n\ fosters creativity and exploration. applies crowdsourcing principles to let schools develop own ideas for Learning Expeditions while building collaboration with other schools and facilitators. will support the community building of Learning Expeditions and initial funding. will establish mechanisms for crowd- and facilitator network based funding of Learning Expeditions.\n\ will initiate a collaborative sharing platform of European TEL research with schools in a facilitated context addressing organizational innovation, collaboration opportunities, cross-cultural networking as well as open base technologies, data and resources. will simplify the transfer of technologies out of research projects to schools by applying user oriented principles such as an app store approach.

Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-IP | Phase: ENV.2010.1.1.2-1 | Award Amount: 9.81M | Year: 2011

The Pan-European Gas-AeroSOls-climate interaction Study (PEGASOS) European large scale integrating project brings together most of the leading European research groups, with state-of the-art observational and modeling facilities to: (1) Quantify the magnitude of regional to global feedbacks between atmospheric chemistry and a changing climate and to reduce the corresponding uncertainty of the major ones. (2) Identify mitigation strategies and policies to improve air quality while limiting their impact on climate change. The project is organized into four scientific Themes designed to optimize the integration of methodologies, scales, and ultimately our understanding of air quality and climate interactions: (I) Anthropogenic and biogenic emissions and their response to climate and socio-economy (II) Atmospheric interactions among chemical and physical processes (III) Regional and global links between atmospheric chemistry and climate change (IV) Air quality in a changing climate: Integration with policy PEGASOS will bridge the spatial and temporal scales that connect local surface-air pollutant exchanges, air quality and weather with global atmospheric chemistry and climate. Our major focus for air quality will be Europe including effects of changes in pollutant emissions elsewhere and the time horizon for the study will be the next 50 years. During the project we will provide improved process understanding in areas of major uncertainty for better quantification of feedbacks between air quality and a changing climate. We will present, for the first time, a fully integrated analysis of dynamically changing emissions and deposition, their link to tropospheric chemical reactions and interactions with climate, and emerging feedbacks between chemistry-climate and surface processes. We will target both local and regional scales, taking into account chemistry and climate feedbacks on the global scale.

Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CSA-SA | Phase: Fission-2008-6.0.3 | Award Amount: 76.87K | Year: 2009

In recent years a number of accidents have occurred that show the necessity to be prepared for a possible large-scale radiological accident or a terrorist attack, where the casualties will be members of the public. The accident may likely have an international scale and the radiation exposure can range from very low to substantial. An important initial step in the medical response to large-scale radiological accident is the triage of patients according to the severity of exposure. Here, an essential tool of doses assessment is biological dosimetry. It allows confirming or rejecting the doses suggested by the clinical triage. In Europe there are several laboratories with considerable experience in biological dosimetry. Each laboratory can easily perform biological dose assessment for incidents involving a few people. However, in a large-scale radiological accident or terrorist outrage the number of people that may need to be screened could easily exceed the capacity of a single laboratory. Hence, there is an urgent need to develop a European network of laboratories involved in biological dosimetry in order to be prepared for a radiological mass casualty. It should be mentioned that biodosimetry networking has already been recognised as a sensible and worthwhile emergency response capability in several regions of the world (USA, South America, Canada, Japan), however, not in Europe. The objectives of this CSA-SA is to define the framework of a NoE in biological dosimetry and to perform a feasibility study to determine its viability. The final report will be accompanied by statements of intent from the key organisations committing themselves to sustainable integration of their research in the area of biological dosimetry. The report will form the background to the consideration of including such a topic in a subsequent EURATOM WP with the expectation that a credible proposal would be received

Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: MC-ITN | Phase: PEOPLE-2007-1-1-ITN | Award Amount: 4.07M | Year: 2008

The development and production of glycoarrays will provide the foreground knowledge necessary to lead to a step change in the diagnosis and treatment of diseases ranging from cancers to autoimmune diseases. Carbohydrates play a pivotal role in the molecular interactions that govern biological events at the centre of health and disease. This has become more evident as the characterisation and identification of proteins and their interactions through proteomics has advanced during the last decade. Whilst proteomics is providing a wealth of information, it does not deal with the results of post-translational modifications such as glycosylation which are frequently the driving force behind the biological activity of proteins. This lack of information is beginning to be addressed by the emerging field of glycomics, the mapping of all carbohydrate-protein interactions. The proposed training network is multidisciplinary involving carbohydrate chemistry, array technology and application. The programme offers young scientist an outstanding opportunity to be involved in the development stages of the glycoarray technology and apply this technology to important biological questions.

Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP | Phase: SSH-2009-3.3.1. | Award Amount: 3.44M | Year: 2010

In recent times, Europe has experienced increasing tensions between national majorities and ethnic or religious minorities, more particularly with marginalised Muslim communities. In some countries challenges relate more to immigrant groups while in other countries they refer to native minority claims. It is in this geopolitical context that the ACCEPT project responds to Topic 3.3.1 and notably in the quest for investigating whether European societies have become more or less tolerant during the past 20 years and in the necessity to clarify: (a) how is tolerance defined conceptually, (b) how it is codified in norms, institutional arrangements, public policies but also social practices, (c) how tolerance can be measured and how the degree of tolerance of a society across time or of several countries at the same time can be compared (whose tolerance, who is tolerated, and what if degrees of tolerance vary with reference to different minority groups). The project starts from a distinction between liberal tolerance (not interfering with practices or forms of life of a person even if one disapproves of them) and egalitarian tolerance referring to institutional arrangements and public policies that fight negative stereotyping, promote positive inclusive identities and re-organise the public space in ways that accommodate diversity. It reviews critically past empirical research and the scholarly theoretical literature on the topic. It conducts original empirical research on key events of national and European relevance that thematise different understandings and practices of tolerance. Bringing together empirical and theoretical findings, ACCEPT generates a State of the Art on Tolerance and Cultural Diversity in Europe targeting policy makers, NGOs and practitioners, a Handbook on Ideas of Tolerance and Cultural Diversity in Europe aimed to be used at upper high school level and with local/national policy makers, a Tolerance Indicators Toolkit where qualitative and quantitative indicators may be used to score each countrys performance on tolerating cultural diversity. These indicators will inform the evaluation and development of public policies in this area. Last but not least the ACCEPT project will produce a book manuscript on Tolerance, Pluralism and Cultural Diversity in Europe. The project includes direct communication and feedback mechanisms with civil society, political and media actors for the dissemination and exploitation of its findings.

Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP | Phase: SSH-2007-3.2-01 | Award Amount: 1.66M | Year: 2008

The research project aims to study how ethnic differences in education contribute to the diverging prospects for minority ethnic youth and their peers in urban settings. Through a comparative endeavor involving nine countries from among old and new member states of the European Union, EDUMIGROM will explore how far existing educational policies, practices and experiences in markedly different welfare regimes protect minority ethnic youth against marginalization and eventual social exclusion. Despite great variations in economic development and welfare arrangements, recent developments seem to lead to similar consequences for certain groups of second-generation immigrants in the western half of the continent and Roma in Central and Eastern Europe. Formally citizens with full rights in the respective states, people affiliated with these groups tend to experience new and intensive forms of involuntary separation, social exclusion, and second-class citizenship. The project will critically examine the role of education in these processes of minoritization. In ethnically diverse urban communities, schools often become targets for locally organized political struggles shaped by a broader political and civic culture of ethnic mobilization. EDUMIGROM aims to investigate how schools operate in their roles of socialization and knowledge distribution, and how they influence young peoples identity formation. The project will also explore how schools contribute to reducing, maintaining, or deepening inequalities in young peoples access to the labor market, further education and training, and also to different domains of social, cultural, and political participation. The results of macro-level investigations, a comparative survey and multi-faceted field research in local settings will provide rich datasets for intra- and cross-country comparisons and evidence-based policy making.

Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CSA-SA | Phase: HEALTH-2007-2.3.2-14 | Award Amount: 1.67M | Year: 2009

To bridge the gap between the biological sciences, health and development in Africa, a consortium is created and named the PRD College, which proposes to reorganise and educate young African and European scientists to perform research, on poverty related and neglected diseases (PR&ND) that is relevant to development. These diseases are common ground for both the African nations who wish to develop and the European Union who wishes to contribute to and collaborate with Africa for development. Experiences with members of this consortium on the Multilateral Initiative on Malaria (MIM) that was begun by the TDR of World Health Organisation and subsequently the Gates Malaria Partnership of the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine and recently with the EU funded Network of Excellence (BioMALPAR) post-doctoral programmes, confirmed that scientific capacity building in Africa is beneficial for both disease control as well as for national development, but that the scientific sector in Africa cannot yet stand on its own feet and needs to be enhanced and directed towards development in order to be sustainable. The PRD College will stimulate an early collaboration and enable young scientists to place science within the context of development in Africa. Certain capacity areas will be given focus through elective and mandatory courses followed by an internship in development at an African institution and a science exchange program. Divided into a 6 work packages and 4 committees, training capacity will be strengthened at 3 PRD Centres in Uganda, South Africa and Cameroon and involve MDs, advanced PhD Students or Post-Docs participants from Africa (12) and Europe (12). The PRD College will transform every trainee scientist to a level where participants can become trainers in their own country, using the oil-stain effect principle to spread knowledge and this new approach.

Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP | Phase: ENV.2013.6.2-3 | Award Amount: 3.70M | Year: 2013

The objective of ARTS is to benefit policy, practice and theory related to accelerating sustainability transitions and to create opportunities for innovation (including social innovation) by coupling, rescaling and accelerating sustainability initiatives in European city-regions. ARTS will create interfaces between policy, practice and theory that are spaces for co-creation, theory building, policy experimentation, social innovation and learning. ARTS will have an aggregated impact on transition regions, on national and European policy related to facilitating transitions, and on theory and governance of sustainability transitions. The focal unit of analysis will be innovative activities and related actor-networks that are fundamentally changing energy, food, shelter and mobility provisioning patterns at the scale of a city or region, situated within a wider European context. ARTS will explore how lessons from these initiatives can be drawn for broader transitions to sustainable low-carbon European societies. We seek to identify the values, conditions and mechanisms for accelerating sustainability transitions, develop strategies to assist and stimulate their acceleration and assess them with dynamic modelling approaches. We will explore these conditions based on a diverse set of transition initiatives in five regions across Europe in an inter- and transdisciplinary way: Brighton, Budapest, Dresden, Flanders, and Stockholm. The developed acceleration governance approach and modelling platform, support decision making, and social learning processes to speed-up the implementation of EUs Sustainable Development and Biodiversity Strategies. They deliver to the energy targets (20/20/20 targets, the EU Energy Strategy), and the targets addressed in the Roadmaps (2050-Competitive Low-carbon Economy, Resource Efficient Europe), while supporting transitions to innovative (Innovation Union Flagship Initiative) socially sustainable (2020 Growth Strategy) low-carbon societies.

Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP | Phase: SSH-2009-5.2.1. | Award Amount: 3.75M | Year: 2010

Due to new language policies, new forms of mobility, new media and technologies, new methods of research, new dangers to minority languages, and new forms of globalization, the linguistic landscape in Europe is experiencing a profound transformation. There is a wealth of research on the teaching and use of major European languages as vehicular languages, and abundant information on the use of minority and heritage languages in Europe. However, as a basis for coherent language policy-making in Europe, we still need a systematic way to describe and measure the balance between different European languages and the impact of this balance on linguistic and cultural diversity. The project ELDIA (European Linguistic Diversity for All) combines linguistic, sociological, legal, and statistical experts from seven European countries into a consortium committed to investigating multilingualism and linguistic diversity. The research will be based on societal context analyses and fieldwork among both majority and minority speakers from samples of carefully selected multilingual speaker communities along the main cultural watershed of Europe, on both sides of the great East-West frontier and in different socio-political contexts. The central aim of the project is to create an easily applicable measurement instrument, the European Language Vitality Barometer (EuLaViBar), which can be used for the investigation of further language situations within and outside Europe. The project will also create a novel dataset for future research and will substantially contribute to the international networking of early-career researchers. Above all, by departing from the reality of multilingualism and focusing on multicultural identities and the agency of individual speakers, the project will contribute to the practical and scholarly understanding of the mechanisms of language diversity in an unprecedented way.

Due to their unique properties, engineered nanoparticles (ENP) are now used for a myriad of novel applications with great economic and technological importance. However, some of these properties, especially their surface reactivity, have raised health concerns, which have prompted scientists, regulators, and industry to seek consensus protocols for the safe production and use of the different forms of ENP. There is currently a shortage of field-worthy, cost-effective ways - especially in real time - for reliable assessment of exposure levels to ENP in workplace air. In addition to the problems with the size distribution, a major uncertainty in the safety assessment of airborne ENP arises from the lack of knowledge of their physical and chemical properties, and the levels of exposure. A special challenge of ENP monitoring is to separate ubiquitous background nanoparticles from different sources from the ENP. Here the main project goal is to develop innovative concepts and reliable methods for characterizing ENP in workplace air with novel, portable and easy-to-use devices suitable for workplaces. Additional research objectives are (1) identification of relevant physico-chemical properties and metrics of airborne ENP; establishment of reference materials; (2) exploring the association between physico-chemical and toxicological properties of ENP; (3) analyzing industrial processes as a source of ENP in workplace air; (4) developing methods for calibration and testing of the novel devices in real and simulated exposure situations; and (5) dissemination of the research results to promote the safe use of ENP through guidance, standards and education, implementing of safety objectives in ENP production and handling, and promotion of safety related collaborations through an international nanosafety platform.

Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: MC-ITN | Phase: FP7-PEOPLE-2010-ITN | Award Amount: 3.06M | Year: 2011

The FUNEA vision is to develop an integrated and multidisciplinary research and training programme in the field of inorganic nitrides for energy applications. In terms of fundamental research, the FUNEA aims to advance the state-of-the-art knowledge and understanding of inorganic nitrides and mixed nitride-anion systems by achieving the ability to synthesise, manipulate, characterize, understand and model binary and ternary nitrides and oxonitrides with functional properties. By this a breakthrough in the nitride chemistry will be achieved steering in a new era for materials with advanced functionality and exceptional levels of performance. In terms of technological applications, the FUNEA focuses on the energetic applications of novel nitride-based materials with this addressing the main needs of the 21st century. To meet this vision, eight European academic research groups with complementary expertise in the synthesis, processing and characterization of materials and five industrial partners, each of whom have made a commitment to study these new functional nitrides, have decided to create a network of scientific cooperation with the following goals: (i) to create an interdisciplinary approach to the synthesis, processing and characterization of novel nitrides for energy applications, (ii) to train high-quality young researchers, experienced in the interdisciplinary science of the nitrides. These young professionals will lead the field forward and onward to its bright future in the European science and technology. Specifically, FUNEA aims to train 11 ESRs and 2 ERs with an overall target of 40% women researchers, and (iii) to establish a European network of scientists in academic institutes and industry in the field of inorganic nitrides, that will continue to grow and enhance European competitiveness over the next years.

Agency: Cordis | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: PHC-01-2014 | Award Amount: 6.22M | Year: 2015

A large body of evidence supports associations between exposure to anthropogenic chemicals and endocrine disruptive effects, leading to disorders in humans and wildlife. Based on the scientific documentation it is beyond doubt that endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) are of concern and need to be handled according to the risks they pose, as single chemicals or as mixtures. To develop chemical risk assessment to respond to these concerns, there is an urgent need to improve our understanding of the mechanisms and health effects of EDCs, in particular in mixtures. This will require selection, refinement and development of tools for assessment of EDC mixtures to bring current risk assessment procedures to a level where they can support risk management. This project is designed to promote the use of safe chemicals for the next generation. EDC-MixRisk aims to meet the societal need for improved decision-making regarding human exposure risks to mixtures of EDCs. EDC-MixRisk will determine risks for multiple adverse health outcomes based on molecular mechanisms involved after early life exposure to EDC mixtures. The task is approached through interdisciplinary cooperation between experts in epidemiology, experimental toxicology and molecular biology, and risk assessment. The value of this combined research effort is: i) Identification of EDC mixtures that are associated with multiple adverse health outcomes in three health domains (growth and metabolism, neurodevelopment and sexual development) in epidemiology; ii) Identification of molecular mechanisms and pathways underlying the associations between exposure and adverse health outcomes by the use and development of state-of-the-art experimental models and iii) Development of a transparent and systematic framework in risk assessment for integrating epidemiological and experimental research to facilitate the assessment of risk and societal impact, thus promoting better risk management for EDCs and their mixtures.

Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: MC-IAPP | Phase: FP7-PEOPLE-2009-IAPP | Award Amount: 1.95M | Year: 2010

Europes list of achievements in space research and applications have largely delivered through collaboration in ESA and through national efforts. Establishing the GMES programme EU sustains a competitive infrastructure and knowledge to support Earth monitoring. The transfer of these capacities to the public sector and policy makers needs to be realized through active collaboration along the full Research and Technology value chain (research-development-customer/user). As the inland and near-coastal waters are under the strongest anthropogenic impact, there is a need for a better and more efficient way to monitor their ecological status & processes, which is the underlying scientific goal of this proposal. WaterS focuses on creating conditions for strategic dynamic partnerships in the form of long-term cooperation between three excellent research groups with proven high competence and capacity in the field of remote sensing of optically complex waters from Tartu Observatory (Estonia), Stockholm University (Sweden), Finnish Environment Institute (Finland), and three successful and quickly developing enterprises with unique complementary expertise and tools: Water Insight (The Netherlands); Brockmann Consult (Germany); Vattenfall Power Consult (Sweden). The advanced research programme of WaterS consortium will be realized through the following transfer of knowledge programme: Introduction of the state-of-the-art methods and knowledge in optically complex waters in Nordic waters by researchers of the academia to service developers in the industry; Supporting the development of new open-service concepts in EO business by exploiting complementary competences and synergy; Bringing together academic and industry partners in five countries to learn and get familiar with different research and business traditions, cultural aspects and skills requirements.

Agency: Cordis | Branch: H2020 | Program: MSCA-ITN-EJD | Phase: MSCA-ITN-2016 | Award Amount: 1.57M | Year: 2017

CATMEC is a multi-partner European Joint Doctorate (EJD) Programme offering research training in state-of-the-art sustainable chemical synthesis, catalysis, computational chemistry and bioactive molecule design on both traditional and non-traditional (eg flow) platforms. This Doctoral Training Programme integrates complementary, interdisciplinary and intersectoral training and together with enhanced European mobility through planned secondments of researchers, will contribute to EU policy objectives in scientific training and degree assessment. The researchers will be supervised and mentored by internationally recognised experts and have access to state-of-the-art equipment. Hands-on training will be supplemented by formal training courses in relevant and related fields, and a wide variety of complementary training courses, workshops and seminars. The training of researchers will benefit from secondments to industrial partners, gaining exposure to commercial and complementary environments. Overall, it is anticipated that the CATMEC project will provide Early Stage Researchers (ESRs) with an outstanding training experience, through extensive technical and complementary skills development.

Li J.-Q.,China Agricultural University | Andersson P.G.,University of Stockholm | Andersson P.G.,University of KwaZulu - Natal
Chemical Communications | Year: 2013

A bidentate iridium NHC-phosphine complex has been developed and applied to the N-monoalkylation of aromatic amines with a wide range of primary alcohols and to the N-heterocyclization of amino alcohols. This reaction resulted in high isolated product yields, even at room temperature and under solvent-free conditions. © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2013.

Osterblom H.,University of Stockholm | Folke C.,University of Stockholm | Folke C.,Royal Swedish Academy Of Sciences
Ecology and Society | Year: 2013

Overfishing has historically caused widespread stock collapses in the Southern Ocean. Until recently, illegal, unreported, and unregulated (IUU) fishing threatened to result in the collapse of some of the few remaining valuable fish stocks in the region and vulnerable seabird populations. Currently, this unsustainable fishing has been reduced to less than 10% of former levels. We describe and analyze the emergence of the social-ecological governance system that made it possible to curb the fisheries crisis. For this purpose, we investigated the interplay between actors, social networks, organizations, and institutions in relation to environmental outcomes. We drew on a diversity of methods, including qualitative interviews, quantitative social network and survey data, and literature reviews. We found that the crisis triggered action of an informal group of actors over time, which led to a new organization (ISOFISH) that connected two independent networks (nongovermental organizations and the fishing industry), and later (COLTO) linked to an international body and convention (CCAMLR). The emergence of the global adaptive governance systems for stewardship of a regional marine resource took place over a 15-year period. We describe in detail the emergence process and illustrate the usefulness of analyzing four features of governance and understanding socialecological processes, thereby describing structures and functions, and their link to tangible environmental outcomes. © 2013 by the author(s).

Wahlberg N.,University of Turku | Wheat C.W.,University of Stockholm | Pena C.,University of Turku
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013

The macroevolutionary history of the megadiverse insect order Lepidoptera remains little-known, yet coevolutionary dynamics with their angiospermous host plants are thought to have influenced their diversification significantly. We estimate the divergence times of all higher-level lineages of Lepidoptera, including most extant families. We find that the diversification of major lineages in Lepidoptera are approximately equal in age to the crown group of angiosperms and that there appear to have been three significant increases in diversification rates among Lepidoptera over evolutionary time: 1) at the origin of the crown group of Ditrysia about 150 million years ago (mya), 2) at the origin of the stem group of Apoditrysia about 120 mya and finally 3) a spectacular increase at the origin of the stem group of the quadrifid noctuoids about 70 mya. In addition, there appears to be a significant increase in diversification rate in multiple lineages around 90 mya, which is concordant with the radiation of angiosperms. Almost all extant families appear to have begun diversifying soon after the Cretaceous/Paleogene event 65.51 mya. © 2013 Wahlberg et al.

Pawlowski K.,University of Stockholm | Demchenko K.N.,RAS Komarov Botanical Institute
Protoplasma | Year: 2012

Filamentous aerobic soil actinobacteria of the genus Frankia can induce the formation of nitrogen-fixing nodules on the roots of a diverse group of plants from eight dicotyledonous families, collectively called actinorhizal plants. Within nodules, Frankia can fix nitrogen while being hosted inside plant cells. Like in legume/rhizobia symbioses, bacteria can enter the plant root either intracellularly through an infection thread formed in a curled root hair, or intercellularly without root hair involvement, and the entry mechanism is determined by the host plant species. Nodule primordium formation is induced in the root pericycle as for lateral root primordia. Mature actinorhizal nodules are coralloid structures consisting of multiple lobes, each of which represents a modified lateral root without a root cap, a superficial periderm and with infected cells in the expanded cortex. In this review, an overview of nodule induction mechanisms and nodule structure is presented including comparisons with the corresponding mechanisms in legume symbioses. © 2012 Springer-Verlag.

Nassel D.R.,University of Stockholm | Wegener C.,University of Marburg
Peptides | Year: 2011

Neuropeptides referred to as neuropeptide F (NPF) and short neuropeptide F (sNPF) have been identified in numerous invertebrate species. Sequence information has expanded tremendously due to recent genome sequencing and EST projects. Analysis of sequences of the peptides and prepropeptides strongly suggest that NPFs and sNPFs are not closely related. However, the NPFs are likely to be ancestrally related to the vertebrate family of neuropeptide Y (NPY) peptides. Peptide diversification may have been accomplished by different mechanisms in NPFs and sNPFs; in the former by gene duplications followed by diversification and in the sNPFs by internal duplications resulting in paracopies of peptides. We discuss the distribution and functions of NPFs and their receptors in several model invertebrates. Signaling with sNPF, however, has been investigated mainly in insects, especially in Drosophila. Both in invertebrates and in mammals NPF/NPY play roles in feeding, metabolism, reproduction and stress responses. Several other NPF functions have been studied in Drosophila that may be shared with mammals. In Drosophila sNPFs are widely distributed in numerous neurons of the CNS and some gut endocrines and their functions may be truly pleiotropic. Peptide distribution and experiments suggest roles of sNPF in feeding and growth, stress responses, modulation of locomotion and olfactory inputs, hormone release, as well as learning and memory. Available data indicate that NPF and sNPF signaling systems are distinct and not likely to play redundant roles. © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Wheat C.W.,University of Stockholm | Wahlberg N.,University of Turku
Trends in Ecology and Evolution | Year: 2013

Phylogenomic advances provide more rigorous estimates for the timing of evolutionary divergences than previously available (e.g., Bayesian relaxed-clock estimates with soft fossil constraints). However, because many family-level clades and higher, as well as model species within those clades, have not been included in phylogenomic studies, the literature presents temporal estimates likely harboring substantial errors. Blindly using such dates can substantially retard scientific advancement. We suggest a way forward by conducting analyses that minimize prior assumptions and use large datasets, and demonstrate how using such a phylogenomic approach can lead to significantly more parsimonious conclusions without a good fossil record. We suggest that such an approach calls for research into the biological causes of conflict between molecular and fossil signatures. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

Frank M.G.,University of Pennsylvania | Cantera R.,University of Stockholm
Trends in neurosciences | Year: 2014

Sleep is widely believed to play an essential role in synaptic plasticity. However, the precise mechanisms governing this presumptive function are largely unknown. There is also evidence for independent circadian oscillations in synaptic strength and morphology. Therefore, synaptic changes observed after sleep reflect interactions between state-dependent (e.g., wake versus sleep) and state-independent (circadian) processes. In this review we consider how sleep and biological clocks influence synaptic plasticity. We discuss these findings in the context of current plasticity-based theories of sleep function and propose a new model that integrates circadian and brain-state influences on synaptic plasticity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Wheat C.W.,University of Helsinki | Wheat C.W.,University of Stockholm | Wahlberg N.,University of Turku
Systematic Biology | Year: 2013

The timing of the origin of arthropods in relation to the Cambrian explosion is still controversial, as are the timing of other arthropod macroevolutionary events such as the colonization of land and the evolution of flight. Here we assess the power of a phylogenomic approach to shed light on these major events in the evolutionary history of life on earth. Analyzing a large phylogenomic dataset (122 taxa, 62 genes) with a Bayesian-relaxed molecular clock, we simultaneously reconstructed the phylogenetic relationships and the absolute times of divergences among the arthropods. Simulations were used to test whether our analysis could distinguish between alternative Cambrian explosion scenarios with increasing levels of autocorrelated rate variation. Our analyses support previous phylogenomic hypotheses and simulations indicate a Precambrian origin of the arthropods. Our results provide insights into the 3 independent colonizations of land by arthropods and suggest that evolution of insect wings happened much earlier than the fossil record indicates, with flight evolving during a period of increasing oxygen levels and impressively large forests. These and other findings provide a foundation for macroevolutionary and comparative genomic study of Arthropoda. © 2012 The Author(s).

Ellegard K.,Linköping University | Svedin U.,University of Stockholm
Journal of Transport Geography | Year: 2012

The aim of this article is to put Torsten Hägerstrand's contribution to the development of the activity approach in transport geography into the context of his development of time-geography as an integrative ecological world view. This is discussed from a biographical perspective where experiences in his everyday life and scientific investigations are linked into a theoretical whole. The theoretical approach of Hägerstrand can be traced to experiences several years before he presented his time-geographic approach. He studied conditions for individuals' existence in different geographic, social, and ecological contexts by engaging new methods and cross-fertilizing research fields; he developed precise concepts and a notation system general enough to describe any kind of individual and applicable at different levels of aggregation. He combined theoretical and methodological developments in science with active involvement in the Swedish planning model in various sectors, not least urban and transport planning - at the same time as he criticized the fragmentation of society into separate sectors for policy and planning purposes. The article shows that Hägerstrand's early sources of inspiration were in his struggle to develop both a precise and general time-geographic approach. The activity approach in transport research is ingrained in time-geography since the extension of and distance between locations of resources make transport inevitable. Hence, the human needs of transport are generated from activities in people's everyday lives. Hägerstrand's activity approach was developed in an era when transport prognoses based on the development of demand for transportation as such prevailed. Today, the activity approach is a dominant strand in transportation research. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

Demant J.,University of Aarhus | Torronen J.,University of Stockholm
Substance Use and Misuse | Year: 2011

A traditional heavy intoxication-oriented drinking style, "heroic drinking," is a central drinking practice in Denmark and Finland, especially among men. However, it seems that another drinking style leading to intoxication, "playful drinking," has become more prevalent in Denmark as well as in Finland. Playful drinking is characterized by self-presentations in diverse forms of game situations in which you need to play with different aspects of social and bodily styles. We approach the positions of heroic drinking and playful drinking among young adults (between 17 and 23 years) in Denmark and Finland by analyzing how they discuss these two drinking styles in focus groups (N = 16). © 2011 Informa Healthcare USA, Inc.

Heidbuchel I.,University of Arizona | Troch P.A.,University of Arizona | Lyon S.W.,University of Stockholm | Weiler M.,Albert Ludwigs University of Freiburg
Water Resources Research | Year: 2012

The transit time of water is an important indicator of catchment functioning and affects many biological and geochemical processes. Water entering a catchment at one point in time is composed of water molecules that will spend different amounts of time in the catchment before exiting. The next water input pulse can exhibit a totally different distribution of transit times. The distribution of water transit times is thus best characterized by a time-variable probability density function. It is often assumed, however, that the variability of the transit time distribution is negligible and that catchments can be characterized with a unique transit time distribution. In many cases this assumption is not valid because of variations in precipitation, evapotranspiration, and catchment water storage and associated (de)activation of dominant flow paths. This paper presents a general method to estimate the time-variable transit time distribution of catchment waters. Application of the method using several years of rainfall-runoff and stable water isotope data yields an ensemble of transit time distributions with different moments. The combined probability density function represents the master transit time distribution and characterizes the intra-annual and interannual variability of catchment storage and flow paths. Comparing the derived master transit time distributions of two research catchments (one humid and one semiarid) reveals differences in dominant hydrologic processes and dynamic water storage behavior, with the semiarid catchment generally reacting slower to precipitation events and containing a lower fraction of preevent water in the immediate hydrologic response. © 2012. American Geophysical Union. All Rights Reserved.

Andersson G.,Linköping University | Andersson G.,Karolinska Institutet | Cuijpers P.,VU University Amsterdam | Carlbring P.,University of Stockholm | And 3 more authors.
World Psychiatry | Year: 2014

Internet-delivered cognitive behavior therapy (ICBT) has been tested in many research trials, but to a lesser extent directly compared to faceto- face delivered cognitive behavior therapy (CBT). We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of trials in which guided ICBT was directly compared to face-to-face CBT. Studies on psychiatric and somatic conditions were included. Systematic searches resulted in 13 studies (total N=1053) that met all criteria and were included in the review. There were three studies on social anxiety disorder, three on panic disorder, two on depressive symptoms, two on body dissatisfaction, one on tinnitus, one on male sexual dysfunction, and one on spider phobia. Face-to-face CBT was either in the individual format (n=6) or in the group format (n=7). We also assessed quality and risk of bias. Results showed a pooled effect size (Hedges' g) at post-treatment of -0.01 (95% CI: -0.13 to 0.12), indicating that guided ICBT and face-to-face treatment produce equivalent overall effects. Study quality did not affect outcomes. While the overall results indicate equivalence, there are still few studies for each psychiatric and somatic condition and many conditions for which guided ICBT has not been compared to face-to-face treatment. Thus, more research is needed to establish equivalence of the two treatment formats.

Drew D.,University of Stockholm | Boudker O.,New York Medical College
Annual Review of Biochemistry | Year: 2016

The determination of the crystal structures of small-molecule transporters has shed light on the conformational changes that take place during structural isomerization from outward- to inward-facing states. Rather than using a simple rocking movement of two bundles around a central substrate-binding site, it has become clear that even the most simplistic transporters utilize rearrangements of nonrigid bodies. In the most dramatic cases, one bundle is fixed while the other, structurally divergent, bundle carries the substrate some 18 Å across the membrane, which in this review is termed an elevator alternating-access mechanism. Here, we compare and contrast rocker-switch, rocking-bundle, and elevator alternating-access mechanisms to highlight shared features and novel refinements to the basic alternating-access model. © Copyright 2016 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved.

Daniel C.,University of Stockholm | Veno M.T.,University of Aarhus | Ekdahl Y.,University of Stockholm | Kjems J.,University of Aarhus | Ohman M.,University of Stockholm
Nucleic Acids Research | Year: 2012

Transcripts have been found to be site selectively edited from adenosine-to-inosine (A-to-I) in the mammalian brain, mostly in genes involved in neurotransmission. While A-to-I editing occurs at double-stranded structures, other structural requirements are largely unknown. We have investigated the requirements for editing at the I/M site in the Gabra-3 transcript of the GABAA receptor. We identify an evolutionarily conserved intronic duplex, 150 nt downstream of the exonic hairpin where the I/M site resides, which is required for its editing. This is the first time a distant RNA structure has been shown to be important for A-to-I editing. We demonstrate that the element also can induce editing in related but normally not edited RNA sequences. In human, thousands of genes are edited in duplexes formed by inverted repeats in non-coding regions. It is likely that numerous such duplexes can induce editing of coding regions throughout the transcriptome. © 2012 The Author(s).

Von Heland J.,University of Stockholm | Folke C.,University of Stockholm | Folke C.,Royal Swedish Academy Of Sciences
Global Environmental Change | Year: 2014

We investigate the role of culture in sustaining essential ecosystem services in the arid and erratic climate of an agropastoral landscape in southern Madagascar. Our fieldwork and interviews in Ambovombe subprefecture in Androy addressed land use, agropastoralism, livelihood, institutions and their moral basis. Our analysis points to the interdependence of cultural practices and ecosystem services: sacred forests, crop pollination, subsistence farming, cattle economy and societal transition and purification rituals. We posit a social-ancestral contract that works as a moral attractor structuring and sustaining the agropastoral ecosystem services system. The contract between living and nonliving clan members underpins the cultural practices and rituals that regulate the vulnerable agropastoral system. We conclude that the well-being values of the inhabitants of the south of Madagascar depend upon moralities that lend legitimacy and stability to the management of the social-ecological processes that precondition ecosystem services production. Neither ecosystem nor culture delivers ecosystem services to society. Ecosystem services are generated by an interdependent social-ecological system in which knowledge, practice, and beliefs coevolve: culture is a key factor in their generation and persistence. The study suggests these are significant interdependences to consider in dynamic analyses of ecosystem service production. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

da Silva J.A.L.,University of Lisbon | Holm N.G.,University of Stockholm
Journal of Colloid and Interface Science | Year: 2014

Scientific explanations for the origin of life are incomplete and may differ on some issues. Here, we argue that some prebiological steps have occurred in environments with borophosphates and/or silicophosphates in the form of hydrogels, on the basis of their chemical groups and structural properties. These could have decreased the diffusion rate of some prebiotic molecules, stabilized molecules with vicinal cis-diol groups, reduced the hydrolytic activity of water and inserted catalytic metal ions into their networks. Additionally, these hydrogels could have acted as reaction media, supplied a phosphate source for phosphorylations and produced crystals that may have permitted enantiomeric enrichment of prebiotic molecules, thus providing conditions for the emergence of protocells. © 2014 Elsevier Inc.

Athanasopoulos P.,Newcastle University | Bylund E.,University of Stockholm
Cognitive Science | Year: 2013

In this article, we explore whether cross-linguistic differences in grammatical aspect encoding may give rise to differences in memory and cognition. We compared native speakers of two languages that encode aspect differently (English and Swedish) in four tasks that examined verbal descriptions of stimuli, online triads matching, and memory-based triads matching with and without verbal interference. Results showed between-group differences in verbal descriptions and in memory-based triads matching. However, no differences were found in online triads matching and in memory-based triads matching with verbal interference. These findings need to be interpreted in the context of the overall pattern of performance, which indicated that both groups based their similarity judgments on common perceptual characteristics of motion events. These results show for the first time a cross-linguistic difference in memory as a function of differences in grammatical aspect encoding, but they also contribute to the emerging view that language fine tunes rather than shapes perceptual processes that are likely to be universal and unchanging. Copyright © 2012 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

Polasky S.,University of Minnesota | Carpenter S.R.,University of Wisconsin - Madison | Folke C.,Royal Swedish Academy Of Sciences | Folke C.,University of Stockholm | Keeler B.,University of Minnesota
Trends in Ecology and Evolution | Year: 2011

Global change issues are complex and the consequences of decisions are often highly uncertain. The large spatial and temporal scales and stakes involved make it important to take account of present and potential consequences in decision-making. Standard approaches to decision-making under uncertainty require information about the likelihood of alternative states, how states and actions combine to form outcomes and the net benefits of different outcomes. For global change issues, however, the set of potential states is often unknown, much less the probabilities, effect of actions or their net benefits. Decision theory, thresholds, scenarios and resilience thinking can expand awareness of the potential states and outcomes, as well as of the probabilities and consequences of outcomes under alternative decisions. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

Goldkuhl G.,Linköping University | Goldkuhl G.,University of Stockholm
European Journal of Information Systems | Year: 2012

Qualitative research is often associated with interpretivism, but alternatives do exist. Besides critical research and sometimes positivism, qualitative research in information systems can be performed following a paradigm of pragmatism. This paradigm is associated with action, intervention and constructive knowledge. This paper has picked out interpretivism and pragmatism as two possible and important research paradigms for qualitative research in information systems. It clarifies each paradigm in an ideal-typical fashion and then conducts a comparison revealing commonalities and differences. It is stated that a qualitative researcher must either adopt an interpretive stance aiming towards an understanding that is appreciated for being interesting; or a pragmatist stance aiming for constructive knowledge that is appreciated for being useful in action. The possibilities of combining pragmatism and interpretivism in qualitative research in information systems are analysed. A research case (conducted through action research (AR) and design research (DR)) that combines interpretivism and pragmatism is used as an illustration. It is stated in the paper that pragmatism has influenced IS research to a fairly large extent, albeit in a rather implicit way. The paradigmatic foundations are seldom known and explicated. This paper contributes to a further clarification of pragmatism as an explicit research paradigm for qualitative research in information systems. Pragmatism is considered an appropriate paradigm for AR and DR. © 2012 Operational Research Society Ltd. All rights reserved.

Jahnke A.,University of Stockholm | Mayer P.,University of Aarhus
Journal of Chromatography A | Year: 2010

The partitioning of non-polar analytes into the silicone polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) is the basis for many analytical approaches such as solid phase microextraction (SPME), stir bar sorptive extraction (SBSE) and environmental passive sampling. Recently, the methods have been applied to increasingly complex sample matrices. The present work investigated the possible effect of complex matrices on the sorptive properties of PDMS. First, SPME fibers with a 30. μm PDMS coating were immersed in 15 different matrices, including sediment, suspensions of soil and humic substances, mayonnaise, meat, fish, olive oil and fish oil. Second, the surface of the fibers was wiped clean, and together with matrix-free control fibers, they were exposed via headspace to 7 non-polar halogenated organic chemicals in spiked olive oil. The fibers were then solvent-extracted, analyzed, and the ratios of the mean concentrations in the matrix-immersed fibers to the control fibers were determined for all matrices. These ratios ranged from 92% to 112% for the four analytes with the highest analytical precision (i.e. polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) 3, 28, 52 and brominated diphenyl ether (BDE) 3), and they ranged from 74% to 133% for the other three compounds (i.e. PCBs 101, 105 and γ-hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH)). We conclude that, for non-polar, hydrophobic chemicals, the sorptive properties of the PDMS were not modified by the diverse investigated media and consequently that PDMS is suited for sampling of these analytes even in highly complex matrices. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.

Shishova M.,Saint Petersburg State University | Lindberg S.,University of Stockholm
Journal of Plant Physiology | Year: 2010

An important question in modern plant biology concerns the mechanisms of auxin perception. Despite the recently discovered soluble receptor, the F-box protein TIR1, there is no doubt that another type of signal perception exists, and is linked to the plasma membrane. Two models for the receptor have been suggested: either the receptor includes a protein kinase, or it is coupled with a G-protein. We propose a third model, acting through Ca2+-channels in the plasma membrane. The model is based on the revealed rapid auxin-induced reactions, including changes in the membrane potential, shifts in cytosol concentration of Ca2+ and H+ and modulation of cell sensitivity to hormones by the external Ca2+ concentration. Detailed inhibitor analysis with both living cells and isolated plasma membranes show that auxin might directly stimulate Ca2+ transport through the plasma membrane. A hypothetical scheme of auxin perception at the plasma membrane is suggested together with further transduction events. In addition, comparative analyses of auxin and serotonin perceptions are provided. © 2010 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

Alexanderson H.,Norwegian University of Life Sciences | Alexanderson H.,University of Aarhus | Alexanderson H.,University of Stockholm | Murray A.S.,University of Aarhus
Quaternary Science Reviews | Year: 2012

Recent OSL dating of various Late Quaternary deposits in Sweden has resulted in several sets of ages that appear inconsistent with geological interpretation; they usually overestimate the expected age. We explore the problems and potential of OSL-dating in Sweden by analysing quartz-OSL-ages from several known-age sites in Sweden and by investigating their luminescence properties. Two difficulties in obtaining accurate and precise ages are incomplete bleaching and low-sensitivity quartz. Incomplete bleaching can give rise to age overestimation, but the importance of this effect can be minimised by selecting suitable sediment facies, although for some settings unexplained overestimates still remain. Low quartz OSL sensitivity leads to practical problems in measurements and larger uncertainties in dose estimates, but not necessarily to systematic age overestimation. Sites that contain Dala sandstone clasts and/or sediments that may have had extensive reworking during the Quaternary seem to provide high-sensitivity quartz. We consider such sites to show the most potential for accurate and precise OSL-dating in Sweden. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd.

Barthel S.,University of Stockholm | Barthel S.,Royal Swedish Academy Of Sciences | Isendahl C.,Uppsala University
Ecological Economics | Year: 2013

Food security has always been a key resilience facet for people living in cities. This paper discusses lessons for food security from historic and prehistoric cities. The Chicago school of urban sociology established a modernist understanding of urbanism as an essentialist reality separate from its larger life-support system. However, different urban histories have given rise to a remarkable spatial diversity and temporal variation viewed at the global and long-term scales that are often overlooked in urban scholarship. Drawing on two case studies from widely different historical and cultural contexts - the Classic Maya civilization of the late first millennium AD and Byzantine Constantinople - this paper demonstrates urban farming as a pertinent feature of urban support systems over the long-term and global scales. We show how urban gardens, agriculture, and water management as well as the linked social-ecological memories of how to uphold such practices over time have contributed to long-term food security during eras of energy scarcity. We exemplify with the function of such local blue-green infrastructures during chocks to urban supply lines. We conclude that agricultural production is not "the antithesis of the city," but often an integrated urban activity that contribute to the resilience of cities. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

Colding J.,Royal Swedish Academy Of Sciences | Colding J.,University of Stockholm | Barthel S.,Royal Swedish Academy Of Sciences | Barthel S.,University of Stockholm
Ecological Economics | Year: 2013

While cultural diversity is increasing in cities at a global level as a result of urbanization, biodiversity is decreasing with a subsequent loss of ecosystem services. It is clear that diversity plays a pivotal role in the resilience building of ecosystems; however, it is less clear what role cultural diversity plays in the resilience building of urban systems. In this paper we provide innovative insights on how common property systems could contribute to urban resilience building. Through a review of recent findings on urban common property systems and the relevant literature, we deal with urban green commons (UGCs) and discuss their potential to manage cultural and biological diversity in cities. We describe three examples of UGCs, i.e. collectively managed parks, community gardens, and allotment areas, with a focus on their institutional characteristics, their role in promoting diverse learning streams, environmental stewardship, and social-ecological memory. We discuss how UGCs can facilitate cultural integration through civic participation in urban land-management, conditions for the emergence of UGCs, the importance of cognitive resilience building, and what role property-rights diversity plays in urban settings. We conclude by elucidating some key insights on how UGCs can promote urban resilience building. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

Dasu A.,County Council of Ostergotland | Dasu A.,Linköping University | Toma-Dasu I.,University of Stockholm
Medical Physics | Year: 2013

Purpose: To explore the impact of variable proton relative biological effectiveness (RBE) on dose fractionation for clinically relevant situations. A generic RBE = 1.1 is generally used for isoeffect calculations, while experimental studies showed that proton RBE varies with tissue type, dose, and linear energy transfer (LET). Methods: An analytical expression for the LET and α/β dependence of the linear-quadratic (LQ) model has been used for proton simulations in parallel with the assumption of a generic RBE = 1.1. Calculations have been performed for ranges of LET values and fractionation sensitivities to describe clinically relevant cases, such as the treatment of head and neck and prostate tumors. Isoeffect calculations were compared with predictions from a generic RBE value and reported clinical results. Results: The generic RBE = 1.1 appears to be a reasonable estimate for the proton RBE of rapidly growing tissues irradiated with low LET radiation. However, the use of a variable RBE predicts larger differences for tissues with low α/β (both tumor and normal) and at low doses per fraction. In some situations these differences may appear in contrast to the findings from photon studies highlighting the importance of accurate accounting for the radiobiological effectiveness of protons. Furthermore, the use of variable RBE leads to closer predictions to clinical results. Conclusions: The LET dependence of the RBE has a strong impact on the predicted effectiveness of fractionated proton radiotherapy. The magnitude of the effect is modulated by the fractionation sensitivity and the fractional dose indicating the need for accurate analyses both in the target and around it. Care should therefore be employed for changing clinical fractionation patterns or when analyzing results from clinical studies for this type of radiation. © 2013 American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

Aronsson K.,University of Stockholm | Gottzen L.,Linköping University
Language in Society | Year: 2011

This article concerns generation and food morality, drawing on video recordings of dinners in Swedish middle-class families. A detailed analysis of affect displays during one family dinner extends prior work on food morality (Ochs, Pontecorvo, & Fasulo 1996; Grieshaber 1997; Bourdieu 2003; Wiggins 2004), documenting ways in which participants may shift between distinct generational positions with respect to affects and food morality (from "irresponsible child" to caretaker positions). In our recordings, an elder sibling is shifting between a series of contrasting affective stances (Ochs & Schieffelin 1989; M. Goodwin 2006; Stivers 2008), linked to generational positions along an implicit age continuum: positioning himself, at one end of the continuum, as his young brother's accomplice, and at the other as an adult, a serious guardian of food morality. This study shows that generational positions are not fixed, but are positions adopted as parts of language socialization and interactional events. © Cambridge University Press 2011.

Favati A.,University of Stockholm | Favati A.,Linköping University
Proceedings. Biological sciences / The Royal Society | Year: 2014

Stability of 'state' has been suggested as an underlying factor explaining behavioural stability and animal personality (i.e. variation among, and consistency within individuals in behavioural responses), but the possibility that stable social relationships represent such states remains unexplored. Here, we investigated the influence of social status on the expression and consistency of behaviours by experimentally changing social status between repeated personality assays. We used male domestic fowl (Gallus gallus domesticus), a social species that forms relatively stable dominance hierarchies, and showed that behavioural responses were strongly affected by social status, but also by individual characteristics. The level of vigilance, activity and exploration changed with social status, whereas boldness appeared as a stable individual property, independent of status. Furthermore, variation in vocalization predicted future social status, indicating that individual behaviours can both be a predictor and a consequence of social status, depending on the aspect in focus. Our results illustrate that social states contribute to both variation and stability in behavioural responses, and should therefore be taken into account when investigating and interpreting variation in personality.

Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: MC-IRSES | Phase: FP7-PEOPLE-2012-IRSES | Award Amount: 214.70K | Year: 2013

The project is focused on the ecological and morphological characteristics of river channels and related processes of erosion, sediment transport and deposition under changing boundary conditions described by socio economic and climate change scenarios. We will study effects of these changes on river systems at different spatial and temporal scales. The specific focus of the project is addressing the interface between the river channel and related slope systems. We will study historic evolution of river systems and will simulate future developments using scenarios. The main projects scopes are: 1) Exchange of experience, methods and knowledge in fluvio-morphologic processes research. 2) Developing and harmonization of tools and models for monitoring and management of hillslope-river channel-systems. 3) Assessment of hydromorphological processes, and pressures across multiple temporal and spatial scales in different European river systems; We will examine the links between erosive processes and hydromorphology in the context of integrated river basin management, considering the interactions with other elements of the whole system such as anthropogenic pressures and environmental changes. The new tools will help to assess the processes dynamics at the interface between hydrogeomorphological river processes and slope systems in a qualitative way. Moreover, new innovative techniques will be developed and applied that allow a quantification of the processes. The special focus is on remote sensing, aerial photography, field measurements with total stations, GPS, statistical analysis, all integrated in a GIS. We will reach these targets as a multidisciplinary team across Europe, sharing knowledge, developing new approaches and applying them in different environments. We will explicitly aim to identify and integrate the different and overlapping conceptual understandings of scientists from the different disciplines carrying out joined research in this project.

Agency: Cordis | Branch: H2020 | Program: IA | Phase: SC5-17-2015 | Award Amount: 5.74M | Year: 2016

Ground Truth 2.0 delivers the demonstration and validation of six scaled up citizen observatories in real operational conditions both in the EU and in Africa. It will strengthen the full feedback-loop in the information chain from citizen-based data collection to knowledge sharing for joint decision-making and cooperative planning. The project focuses on environmental indicators in urban and rural areas related to spatial planning issues, with a specific focus on flora and fauna as well as water availability and water quality for land and natural resources management. This is supported by an innovative web-based service for worldwide mapping and updating of land use. The overall objectives of Ground Truth 2.0 are to implement sustainable citizen observatories for the demonstration of their societal and economic benefits, and the global market uptake of the Ground Truth 2.0 concept and enabling technologies. The trans-disciplinary Ground Truth 2.0 approach consists of a multi-actor innovation process to combine the social dimensions of citizen observatories with enabling technologies so that their customisation and deployment is tailored to the envisaged societal and economic impacts of the observatories. The demonstration cases (4 EU and 2 African) cover the full spectrum of citizen-sensed data usage and citizen engagement, and therefore allow testing and validating of the concept and technologies, and evaluation of their impacts under a range of conditions. The Ground Truth 2.0 consortium presents a good mix of industry, SME, NGO, government, research and academia to ensure the roll out and uptake of the observatories. Ground Truth 2.0 is coordinating and interacting with other relevant initiatives, such as GEOSS, INSPIRE as well as the sister projects funded under the same call (namely GROW, SCENT and LANDSENSE) to create mutual synergies.

Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP | Phase: ICT-2007.5.1 | Award Amount: 11.27M | Year: 2008

The POCEMON project aims to the hardware and software development of a multi-purpose autoimmune diseases diagnostic platform by combining Lab-on-Chip (LOC) technologies, genomic micro-arrays of HLA (human leukocyte antigens) typing, microelectronics, mobile devices, intelligent algorithms and wireless communications. The multi-purpose platform will be provided as a portable integrated platform with application to primary care level. The final product will be capable to communicate through its PDA device with the Laboratory Information Server (LIS) for detailed analysis, diagnosis and information extraction concerning autoimmune diseases; the LIS will be also developed inside the time-framework of the project. Microelectronics-micro-fludics for the LOC and robotics for the HLA micro-arrays construction, constitute the main state-of-the-art scientific technologies which will be employed for the development of the portable diagnostic genomics laboratory. Autoimmune disorders (diseases) develop when the immune system destroys normal body tissues. HLA genes are the major determinants used by the bodys immune system for recognition and differentiation of self from non-self (foreign substances). The combination of LOC technologies with genomic micro-arrays of HLA typing will provide a state-of-the-art diagnosis at primary care level, concerning multiple sclerosis and rheumatoid arthritis which are linked with the HLA CLASS I and II genes. The development of a primary care diagnostic LOC platform based on micro-arrays of HLA typing is the main target of this proposed project. Easily adapted developments will lead to the diagnosis on the majority of autoimmune disorders. The POCEMON platform will advance and promote primary health care diagnosis across Europe.

Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP | Phase: SSH.2013.4.2-1 | Award Amount: 2.89M | Year: 2014

The project Media, Conflict and Democratisation investigates the role of traditional media and ICTs in conflicts that accompany and follow transitions to democracy. Our research focuses on three major arenas of contentious politics in emerging democracies: constitutional conflicts, accountability conflicts and election conflicts. We argue that the media cannot be sufficiently understood in isolation, but have to be seen as part of an arena of public contestation that is occupied by multiple actors, each of which thriving to dominate the interpretations and outcomes of ongoing conflicts. Thus, the project aims to investigate The way in which traditional media in emerging democracies portray conflicts and whether media coverage contributes to the polarisation or moderation of divisions The diffusion of conflict messages through new ICTs; The role perceptions, ethics and working practices of journalists in conflict situations; The communication behaviour of conflict parties governments, political leaders, civil society groups during conflicts and how communications heightens or ameliorates tensions The empirical research will be carried out in four emerging democracies: Serbia, Egypt, Kenya and South Africa. These countries were chosen because their political development is of great significance for the respective geographical region in which they are located. All four countries have experienced severe democratisation conflicts, but represent distinct contexts that help to understand how cultural, political and social factors shape the role of the media in democratisation conflicts. The project will closely work together with relevant stakeholders to develop recommendations for communication interventions that help to prevent conflicts and provide strategies for effective conflict management and conflict resolution. In particular, we will provide knowledge and skills as to how ICT tools can be used for effective communication management during conflicts

Agency: Cordis | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: EURO-1-2014 | Award Amount: 2.29M | Year: 2015

The Eurozone crisis corroborated the warnings of economists that weak economic policy coordination and loose fiscal oversight would be insufficient to stabilise the monetary union. To prevent a recurrence of the crisis, economists, political actors and the Blueprint of the European Commission are asking for the construction of a deep and genuine economic and monetary union with reinforced governance architecture beyond the recently adopted mechanisms. Many models of a fiscal union have been proposed and discussed. What is missing are not ideas and economic analysis, but the political consensus among member states governments for a specific integration path. Therefore, this political science project analyses the politics of economic and fiscal integration, that is, the conflict structure among member states. To this end, we aim to study the preferences of member states governments for different models of a fiscal union. Our theoretical framework builds on the comparative political economy literature and liberal intergovernmentalism and argues that domestic economic, fiscal and political factors are the main determinants of member states preferences. To empirically study the extent to which governments preferences are shaped by these factors, we propose to conduct 165 semi-structured interviews with decision makers in all member states. The interview data will be analysed with a mixed-method strategy including quantitative analysis as well as case studies. We fully expect that the findings of the project will provide guidance for the successful implementation of a feasible reform of the governance architecture of the EU to the effective stabilisation of the economy. In addition to the political feasibility analysis, we aim to study the legal context of potential integration scenarios. The consortium conducting this research covers all regions of the EU and consists of 8 distinguished political scientists and one legal scholar.

Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP | Phase: HEALTH-2007-2.3.2-2 | Award Amount: 3.93M | Year: 2008

Tuberculosis (TB) is a leading public health problem. About half of the 10% of Mycobacterium tuberculosis-infected individuals develop overt clinical disease, do so within two years of primary infection. The remaining half of the TB patients, develop clinical disease later, owing to reactivation of pulmonary TB. Of importance, it is not understood why only 10% infected individuals develop active disease. In this project, we will investigate the molecular and cellular interactions between mycobacteria and host cells, and the regulation of such interactions by cellular immune responses. Such interactions dictate the outcome of infection, ranging from asymptomatic infection to life-threatening disease. For this purpose, we have established a consortium of experts in Genetics, Immunology, Microbiology and Paediatrics and a biotechnology company. We will dissect the molecular and cellular immune responses, combining mice models, and human patients. In both approaches, the responses of various host target cells regulating mycobacterial growth and the mycobacterial adaptation to different host cell responses to infection will be studied. The role of innate and adaptive immune responses in the control of mycobacterial growth and the regulation of inflammation will be studied as well. In addition, we will investigate such responses using a third model based on mice reconstituted de novo with human hematopoietic-derived cell lineages. Finally, targeted and genome-wide explorations will be employed in large familial samples to identify novel susceptibility genes involved in the immune control of primary M. tuberculosis infection and secondary pulmonary TB. The outcome of HOMITB will be an assessment of molecular and cellular interactions crucial for the design of novel vaccination, immunotherapeutic strategies and better diagnostic biomarkers. The feasibility of this programme is attested by the high scientific quality and remarkable complementarities of the participants.

Agency: Cordis | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: EURO-4-2014 | Award Amount: 2.28M | Year: 2015

The European Union (EU) is facing the daunting prospect of transboundary crises: threats that escalate across national borders and policy domains. EU member states must collaborate to address these crises. EU governance can play a pivotal role in facilitating a joint response. But does the EU have the institutional leadership capacities to deal with transboundary crises? The response to the financial crisis a textbook example of a transboundary crisis revealed deep problems with crisis leadership, including conflicting diagnoses, regulatory gaps, unclear political jurisdictions and responsibilities, a lack of problem solving capacity, and blame-shifting. Growing euroscepticism has been directly related to the EUs role during this transboundary crisis. This project outlines the institutional requirements for effective and legitimate crisis leadership in the face of transboundary crisis. We define crisis leadership as a set of strategic management functions, including the detection of impending threats, the collection and sharing of information, the coordination of partners, and the communication to the public about the crisis and the response. The project analyses the capacities of political leaders in EU institutions and member states to fulfill these leadership functions. It will pinpoint the existing and required capacities to support these functions. It investigates the crisis management capacities of individual political leaders, and EU institutions. It explores the effects of political leadership on the member state level and studies how crisis management capacity is exercised in various policy sectors. The project will result in recommendations for effective and legitimate crisis leadership. It establishes a crisis management capital index that allows for an evidence-based assessment. It proposes strategies to build support for transboundary crisis management in a multilevel system, reconnecting citizens with an idea of what the EU can do for them.

Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CSA-CA | Phase: KBBE-2007-1-2-11 | Award Amount: 1.07M | Year: 2008

It is widely recognised that scientific efforts need to be coordinated to strengthen the knowledge base in support of policy-making in a global context. This is a complicated task that requires effective coordination and cooperation among States, RFOs and other agencies. States with an obligation to ensure sustainability of the resources they exploit should seek (i) to promote responsible fisheries and (ii) to promote good, coordinated scientific research. In the case of the EU, actions should be consistent with major international agreements (UNCLOS, CCRF, UNIA, WSSD) and contribute to improving coherence between different EU Policies. The purpose of this Coordination Action is to facilitate a coherent approach towards research directed at the assessment and management of fish resources. The targets are particularly those areas where the European fleet is fishing in international or third country waters, or where the EU has important development goals. Thus, the principal objectives of TXOTX are: To collate information from all RFMO/RFOs and Fisheries Partnership Agreements as well as selected additional regions of special interest (with emphasis on CPA areas) on the extent of scientific research programmes being undertaken by the various actors. To analyse the data available and methodologies applied in assessment and management procedures regionally, in order to identify data and research gaps and opportunities for greater research coordination that may be promoted by the EU in support to scientific advice to fisheries management. To develop recommendations on how to improve cooperation with third parties in order to enhance research and resource status The TXOTX consortium proposes to build a network of scientists in countries with a strategic geographical distribution to produce a synthesis of data collection standards, assessment methods, management procedures that will be disseminated among participants, stakeholders and public in general

Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-IP | Phase: SSH.2012.1.1-1 | Award Amount: 8.10M | Year: 2013

Where the available research data on ESL only explains isolated aspects of the evolution towards ESL, the project analyses ESL from a holistic perspective. By framing the complex and often subtle interplay of factors influencing ESL on macro/meso/micro level; and by deconstructing these configurations of influencing factors in the specific contexts where they occur, we expect to uncover specific combinations of variables and contexts influencing the processes related to ESL. This allows us to formulate conceptual models useful for the development and implementation of policies and specific measures to influence ESL, making the project not only relevant to academics, but also to policy makers, school staff and civil society. aims to provide insights into the mechanisms and processes influencing a pupils decision to leave school/training early; as well as into the decision of ESLers to enroll in alternative learning arenas unrelated to a regular school - but wherein specific creative or innovative methods of knowledge and skill transfer are used. Additionally, focuses on the vulnerable group of youngsters that left education or training early and are identified as NEET (Not in Education, Employment or Training). also aims to identify and analyze the intervention and compensation measures that succeeded in transferring knowledge and in keeping pupils in education/training, although they showed high (theoretical) risk of ESL. In order to be able to compare the data gathered in 7 partner countries, will develop and refine the theoretical framework on ESL, formulating a workable yet nuanced definition of ESL. Through a mixed-method design, a total of 28140 surveys and 1176 interviews/FGD will be conducted, generating in-depth data while allowing systematic comparisons and quantitative generalizations. Results are targeted at different audiences/stakeholders: EU- & national policy makers, school staff, academics and civil society.

Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: MC-ITN | Phase: FP7-PEOPLE-ITN-2008 | Award Amount: 1.47M | Year: 2010

PETAF aims to serve as a European research and training platform for joint philosophical research on perspectivalism in thought and language and its consequences for our conception of objective, mind-independent reality. PETAF comprises seven full network partners and five associate partners, four of which from industry. It is to provide seven Early Stage Researchers (ESRs) with the skills necessary for meeting the demands of top research in this area of philosophy, and the opportunity to apply and enhance these skills, and to acquire further, complementary skills, in professional contexts outside academia. PETAFs research programme addresses both foundational issues in metaphysics and in logic and semantics and local issues in more specialised areas in which perspective-bound cognition plays a pivotal role, i.e. the philosophy of space and time, the philosophy of alethic and epistemic modality, the philosophy of subjectivity and consciousness, and the philosophy of norms and value. PETAFs training programme, which is conducted in close interaction with the projected research, consists of seven well-articulated training modules, of which six are devoted to research training in the aforementioned fields and one is devoted to complementary skills training. Secondments at PETAFs industrial partners are core elements of the training programme, as is reflected in the time that ESRs are expected to spend with industry. PETAF thus seeks to significantly increase the career opportunities and job prospects of its recruited ESRs, both inside and outside academia.

The Tiss.EU project will analyse the impact of current EU legislation and guidelines on biomedical research which is based on the procurement, storage and transfer of human tissues and cells in and across the European Union. The importance of tissue derived from the human body for biomedical research is ever increasing. In the Theme Translating research for human health of FP7, the EU actively encourages the networking of human sample biobank initiatives. National differences in the regulation of the handling of these tissues and cells, however, represent a serious barrier for biomedical research in the Member States and associated countries. EU legislation has dealt with these topics but covers mainly clinical application. A EU biobanking directive is still missing. This is a major handicap for translational research involving human samples. The project will evaluate the consequences of current EU legislation and related guidelines, as well as the way they are implemented at a national level, on translational research activities. It will identify regulation deficits and inconsistencies, and create an evidence base for the revision of legislation, if necessary.

Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP | Phase: ICT-2013.3.3 | Award Amount: 5.30M | Year: 2014

Through further development, integration and validation of micro-nano-bio and biophotonics systems from previous projects CanDo will develop an instrument that will permit the identification and concentration determination of rare cells in peripheral blood for two key societal challenges, early and low cost anti-cancer drug efficacy determination and cancer diagnosis/monitoring.A cellular link between the primary malignant tumor and the peripheral metastases, responsible for 90% of cancer-related deaths, has been established in the form of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) in peripheral blood. Furthermore the relatively short survival time of CTCs in peripheral blood means that their detection is indicative of tumor progression thereby providing in addition to a prognostic value an evaluation of therapeutic efficacy and early recognition of tumor progression in theranostics. In cancer patients however blood concentrations are very low (=1 CTC/1E9 cells) and current detection strategies are too insensitive, limiting use to prognosis of only those with advanced metastatic cancer. Similarly problems occur in therapeutics with anti-cancer drug development leading to lengthy and costly trials often preventing access to market. There is therefore a clear need for a novel analytical platform capable of highly reproducible and reliable identification of CTC concentrations of interest in an easily accessible format.With all relevant industrial stakeholders and users onboard CanDo is uniquely capable of delivering such a platform. Its novel cell separation/SERS analysis technologies plus nucleic acid based molecular characterization will provide an accurate CTC count with high throughput and high yield meeting both key societal challenges. Being beyond the state of art it will lead to substantial share gains not just in the high end markets of drug discovery and cancer diagnostics but due to modular technologies in others e.g. transport, security and safety and environment.

Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP-SICA | Phase: ENV.2010.3.1.1-4 | Award Amount: 2.46M | Year: 2011

The WHaTeR project aims to contribute to the development of appropriate water harvesting techniques (WHTs). These WHTs should be sustainable under dynamic global and regional pressure, and strengthen rainfed agriculture, improve rural livelihood and increase food production and security in Sub-Saharan Africa. In total 3 European and 5 African organisations will be involved; namely VU University Amsterdam (The Netherlands), Newcastle University (United Kingdom), Stockholm Resilience Centre (Sweden), University of Kwazulu Natal (South Africa), Sokoine University (Tanzania), Southern and Eastern Africa Rainwater Network (Kenya), National Institute for Environment and Agricultural Research (Burkina Faso) and Arba Minch University (Ethiopia). Project activities will be divided over 14 Work Packages. The first Work Package covers project management and the second comprises a situation analysis - through revisits to water harvesting sites in 15 African countries studied previously by participating organisations . The next four Work Packages focus on detailed research and technology development activities on cross-cutting themes (environmental sustainability; technology development; livelihood improvement; uptake and upscaling; and global and regional impact) and will be conducted together with four country-based Work Packages (in Burkina Faso, Ethiopia, South Africa and Tanzania). One Work Package will concentrate on stakeholder communication and outreaching activities, and the final Work Packages consists of synthesis and dissemination of project results, inclduing production of guidelines for WHTs. The project will spend an estimated 74% of the budget on RTD, 13% on other costs related to stakeholder workshops and outreaching and 13% on project management. The expected impacts of the project comprise technology support for farmers, development of stakeholder communication networks, innovative water harvesting systems, tools for impact assessment, upstream-downstream land use, and policy support for integrated water management and adaptation to climate change to promote EU and African strategies on strengthening rainfed agriculture, food security and livelihoods.

Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: MC-IRSES | Phase: FP7-PEOPLE-2013-IRSES | Award Amount: 175.60K | Year: 2013

The main objective of GHG-LAKE joint research programme is to increase mobility and exchange of researchers between EU countries, Russia and US to obtain better understanding of energy and greenhouse gases (methane and carbon dioxide) budgets in lake ecosystems at high-latitude, which are potentially most prone to on-going and future climate changes. Factors controlling the carbon cycles are investigated by means of intensive field measurements and process based modelling. This program focuses on four research aspects: 1) gas exchange processes; 2) carbon cycle, including greenhouse gases (GHG) flux database development for lacustrine ecosystems; 3) energy and greenhouse gas flux measurements, including research and knowledge transfer of key methodological aspects for comprehensive measurement sites; 4) process based biogeochemical modelling for GHGs production and transport in water bodies, as well as state of art large eddy simulation modelling for resolving non-homogeneous and non-stationary atmospheric boundary layer flow over heterogeneous surfaces (e.g. small lake surrounded by forest). GHG-LAKE programme builds a basis for long-term collaboration between the leading EU, Russian and US research organizations in the area of limnology, GHGs monitoring and modelling and climate change research in order to achieve new scientific results and breakthroughs. The proposed programme is interdisciplinary and the expected results will touch in particular the environmental sciences, limnology, biogeochemistry and micrometeorology research communities. GHG-LAKE will exploit complementary expertise of the participant organizations in order to create synergies among participants and to establish long-lasting partnership. As multi- and cross-disciplinary studies essential in climate change research are lacking in Russia, this programme will essentially also work towards an integrated approach for future joint international projects.

Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-IP | Phase: NMP-2008-1.2-1 | Award Amount: 12.34M | Year: 2009

The objective of the AddNano project is to investigate the prospects for overcoming the many existing technological barriers in the supply and usage chain, towards the establishment of a large scale market introduction of a new generation of fluid lubricants incorporating nanomaterials. The AddNano consortium combines technological expertise and industrial representation from all parts of the prospective value chain to investigate the development of new nano-based lubricants. Fluid lubricants are used in almost every field of human technological activity and their purpose is multifold: they reduce frictional resistance, protect the engine against wear between contacting surfaces, remove wear debris, reduce heating and contribute to cooling, improve fuel economy, improve emissions. Advanced nanomaterials recently developed, such as inorganic fullerene-like materials (IFs) and others, have shown some initial promise for their contribution to reducing friction and enhancing protection against wear. If able to be developed into full commercial-scale production, if they can be incorporated in a stable fashion into full formulations, and if their performance benefits relative to the best of conventional technologies can be sustained under those circumstances, they offer the prospect for some performance breakthroughs not seen since the development of the now ubiquitous anti-wear additives, Zinc Dialkyl Dithiophosphates (ZDDPs), around 70 years ago. Within engine oils and other lubricant applications, such as transmission fluids, and for greases used in rotational bearings, the potential exists for lubricants containing nanomaterials to significantly reduce friction and enhance machine durability. This can contribute to substantial energy savings, reduced equipment maintenance and longer machine lifetime.

Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP | Phase: NMP-2007-3.2-2;NMP-2007-3.4-2 | Award Amount: 5.09M | Year: 2008

Several industries have an increasing interest in improving their access to pure single enantiomers of biologically active substances. The latter often form the basis for valued added products relevant for, among others, the pharmaceutical, cosmetic, and food industries. Up to now there exist two generally rivalling concepts for producing pure enantiomers. One approach is based on developing and applying enantioselective synthesis techniques, which often consist of a large number of reaction steps. Alternatively, simple non-selective synthesis can be applied in combination with advanced downstream separation techniques and recycling strategies. These two competing approaches have been up to now hardly combined and considered in a holistic way. It is the goal of the proposed project to combine the available chemical and physical methods to effectively and efficiently produce single enantiomers at high purity. For this a strong consortium of academic and industrial experts in various fields of synthesis and separation technologies will work together on several well selected model systems as well as industrially relevant components. Based on case studies performed, main outcome of the project will be innovative, shorter, cheaper and widely applicable pathways for the production of pure enantiomers, which will be brought into industrial practice and enhance the competitiveness of European industry.

Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP | Phase: SEC-2010.4.2-1 | Award Amount: 18.36M | Year: 2011

The goal of BRIDGE is to increase safety of citizens by developing technical and organisational solutions that significantly improve crisis and emergency management. The key to this is to ensure interoperability, harmonization and cooperation among stakeholders on the technical and organisational level. Therefor BRIDGE delivers: - Resilient ad-hoc network infrastructures, focussing on the requirements evolving from emergency scenarios - Generic, extensible middleware to support integration of data sources, networks, and systems - Context management system to foster interoperability of data, providing meaningful, reliable information Technical interoperability is crucial for improving multi-agency collaboration and continuous training, but its full potential can only unfold, if technology can be integrated and sustained into agency workflows and communication processes. On the level of organisational harmonisation, BRIDGE will provide: - Methods and tools that support run-time intra- and inter-agency collaboration - Model-based automated support system combined with scenario-based training - Agent-based dynamic workflow composition and communication support system Making available an increasing amount of data for crisis response systems has to be accompanied with developing intelligent human-computer interaction models to make these data usable. BRIDGE will contribute to this by developing: - Adaptive, multi-modal user interfaces - Novel stationary and mobile interaction techniques - Approaches on how to raise awareness through visualization of ad-hoc networks BRIDGE is committed to an iterative user-centred approach incorporating and validating user and domain requirements. The consortium consists of a well-balanced mix of cross-disciplinary academics, technology developers, domain experts and end-user representatives. Furthermore, the establishment of a User Advisory Board will guarantee active end-user involvement during the whole project

Edman J.,University of Stockholm | Stenius K.,Finnish National Institute for Health and Welfare
International Journal of Drug Policy | Year: 2014

Background: The drug and alcohol fields are characterised by continuous contestations of key concepts and the competing uses of concepts by various actors, in different geographies and over time. This study investigates the political processes leading to legislation enabling coercive treatment of (non-psychotic) drug users in Finland and Sweden from the 1950s until the early 1980s. The drug treatment policies are analysed through conceptual changes and innovations. Methods: The article analyses conceptual discussions in public reports in Finland and Sweden, focusing on the work preceding the first legislations where both alcohol and drug treatment were included (in Finland 1961, in Sweden 1982). Theories from conceptual history are applied. Results: The Finnish and Swedish discussions carry arguments from two periods of the Nordic welfare state: in an early development stage and a fragile situation in Finland, and in a more mature and affluent time in Sweden. The paternalistic arguments vary over time and between countries. Still, in both countries and time periods, the view of the drug problem as a youth issue, as particularly enslaving and on society's obligation to protect drug using individuals from damaging their future give enough motivation for coercive treatment. The conceptual work included avoidance of certain terms but in other cases, a broadening of their meaning, to adopt them to the political goals. Conclusion: Close analyses of conceptual history can reveal new features of drug policy struggles and show how central concepts in drugs and alcohol field are continuously contested. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

Tacon A.G.J.,University of Sao Paulo | Metian M.,University of Stockholm
Reviews in Fisheries Science | Year: 2013

In a world where nearly 30% of humanity is suffering from malnutrition and over 70% of the planet is covered with water, aquatic foods represent an essential component of the global food basket to improve the nutrition, health, and well being of all peoples.It is not by chance that Japan, the country with one of the world's highest reported life expectancies and lowest incidences of obesity and deaths from heart related illnesses, is also one of the world's top consumers of captured and farmed aquatic animal food products and aquatic plants. According to the FAO, in 2009, total captured and farmed aquatic animal food products accounted for 16.6% of the global population's intake of animal protein, providing more than three billion people with almost 20% of their average per capita intake of animal protein, and 4.3 billion people with at least 15% of such protein.This article reviews the nutritional composition of different farmed and captured aquatic food products and compares these with conventional terrestrial meat products. In addition to the superior nutritional profile and benefits of aquatic animal food products, small-sized marine pelagic fish play an important role in the nutrition of the poor as an affordable and much needed source of high quality animal protein and essential amino acids, omega-3 fatty acids, vitamins, minerals, and trace elements. As one of the best aquatic animal foods from a nutritional perspective, the direct consumption of small pelagic fish should be encouraged and promoted, as apposed to the continued targeted use of these species for reduction into fishmeal and fish oil for use in animal feeds. © 2013 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.

Simmons T.R.,CNRS Chemistry and Biology of Metals Laboratory | Berggren G.,CNRS Chemistry and Biology of Metals Laboratory | Berggren G.,University of Stockholm | Bacchi M.,CNRS Chemistry and Biology of Metals Laboratory | And 3 more authors.
Coordination Chemistry Reviews | Year: 2014

Over the last 15 years, a plethora of research has provided major insights into the structure and function of hydrogenase enzymes. This has led to the important development of chemical models that mimic the inorganic enzymatic co-factors, which in turn has further contributed to the understanding of the specific molecular features of these natural systems that facilitate such large and robust enzyme activities. More recently, efforts have been made to generate guest-host models and artificial hydrogenases, through the incorporation of transition metal-catalysts (guests) into various hosts. This adds a new layer of complexity to hydrogenase-like catalytic systems that allows for better tuning of their activity through manipulation of both the first (the guest) and the second (the host) coordination spheres. Herein we review the aforementioned advances achieved during the last 15 years, in the field of inorganic biomimetic hydrogenase chemistry. After a brief presentation of the enzymes themselves, as well as the early bioinspired catalysts, we review the more recent systems constructed as models for the hydrogenase enzymes, with a specific focus on the various strategies employed for incorporating of synthetic models into supramolecular frameworks and polypeptidic/protein scaffolds, and critically discuss the advantages of such an elaborate approach, with regard to the catalytic performances. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.

Belyaev I.Y.,Cancer Research Institute | Belyaev I.Y.,University of Stockholm
Mutation Research - Reviews in Mutation Research | Year: 2010

Several proteins involved in DNA repair and DNA damage signaling have been shown to produce discrete foci in response to ionizing radiation. These foci are believed to co-localize to DSB and referred to as ionizing radiation-induced foci (IRIF) or DNA repair foci. Recent studies have revealed that some residual IRIF remain in cells for a relatively long time after irradiation, and have indicated a possible correlation between radiosensitivity of cells and residual IRIF. Remarkably, residual foci are significantly larger in size than the initial foci. Increase in the size of IRIF with time upon irradiation has been found in various cell types and has partially been correlated with dynamics and fusion of initial foci. Although it is admitted that the number of IRIF reflect that of DSB, several studies report a lack of correlation between kinetics for IRIF and DSB and a lack of co-localization between DSB repair proteins. These studies suggest that some proportion of residual IRIF that depend on cell type, dose, and post-irradiation time may represent alternations in chromatin structure after DSB have been repaired or misrepaired. While precise functions of residual foci are presently unknown, their possible link to remaining chromatin alternations, nuclear matrix, apoptosis, delayed repair and misrejoining of DSB, activity of several kinases, phosphatases, and checkpoint signaling has been suggested. Another intriguing possibility is that some of DNA repair foci may mark break-points at chromosomal aberrations (CA). While this possibility has not been confirmed substantially, the residual foci seem to be useful for biological dosimetry and estimation of individual radiosensitivity in radiotherapy of cancer. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Enormous amounts of 13C-depleted carbon rapidly entered the exogenic carbon cycle during the onset of the Paleocene-Eocene thermal maximum (PETM), as attested to by a prominent negative carbon isotope (δ 13C) excursion and deep-sea carbonate dissolution. A widely cited explanation for this carbon input has been thermal dissociation of gas hydrate on continental slopes, followed by release of CH 4 from the seafloor and its subsequent oxidation to CO 2 in the ocean or atmosphere. Increasingly, papers have argued against this mechanism, but without fully considering existing ideas and available data. Moreover, other explanations have been presented as plausible alternatives, even though they conflict with geological observations, they raise major conceptual problems, or both. Methane release from gas hydrates remains a congruous explanation for the δ 13C excursion across the PETM, although it requires an unconventional framework for global carbon and sulfur cycling, and it lacks proof. These issues are addressed here in the hope that they will prompt appropriate discussions regarding the extraordinary carbon injection at the start of the PETM and during other events in Earth's history. © Author(s) 2011.

Eriksson M.,University of Stockholm | Radwan M.,Diamorph AB | Shen Z.,University of Stockholm
International Journal of Refractory Metals and Hard Materials | Year: 2013

Spark plasma sintering (SPS) is an extremely fast solidification technique for compounds that are difficult to sinter within the material group's metals, ceramics, or composites thereof. SPS uses a uniaxial pressure and a very rapid heating cycle to consolidate these materials. The heating is generated by Joule effect when a strong, pulsed electric current passes the conductive graphite die and also through the sample, if conductive. Cemented carbides (hard metals) are mostly used for metal cutting and drilling, wood cutting or rock drilling tools and are consolidated either by pressureless sintering (PLS), hot pressing (HP), or hot isostatic pressing (HIP). With SPS the main benefit is the ability to control the WC grain size due to the short sintering times at high temperature. In addition, unwished reactions between WC and cobalt to form other phases are minimized. By SPS the amount of cobalt can be reduced towards zero in fully dense WC materials. With this technique it is easy to prepare gradient materials where a ductile weldable metal can be joined with the cemented carbide part. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

Jalalian N.,University of Stockholm | Ishikawa E.E.,University of Sao Paulo | Silva L.F.,University of Sao Paulo | Olofsson B.,University of Stockholm
Organic Letters | Year: 2011

A fast, high-yielding synthesis of diaryl ethers with use of mild and metal-free conditions has been developed. The scope includes bulky ortho-substituted diaryl ethers, which are difficult to obtain by metal-catalyzed protocols. Halo-substituents, racemization-prone amino acid derivatives, and heteroaromatics are also tolerated. The methodology is expected to be of high utility in the synthesis of complex molecules and in the pharmaceutical industry. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

Mitchell J.L.,University of California at Los Angeles | Matemkovics M.,University of California at Berkeley | Caballero R.,University of Stockholm | Turtle E.P.,Johns Hopkins University
Nature Geoscience | Year: 2011

Saturn's moon Titan exhibits an active weather cycle that involves methane. Equatorial and mid-latitude clouds can be organized into fascinating morphologies on scales exceeding 1,000km (ref.). Observations include an arrow-shaped equatorial cloud that produced detectable surface accumulation, probably from the precipitation of liquid methane. An analysis of an earlier cloud outburst indicated an interplay between high- and low-latitude cloud activity, mediated by planetary-scale atmospheric waves. Here we present a combined analysis of cloud observations and simulations with a three-dimensional general circulation model of Titan's atmosphere, to obtain a physical interpretation of observed storms, their relation to atmosphere dynamics and their aggregate effect on surface erosion. We find that planetary-scale Kelvin waves arise naturally in our simulations, and robustly organize convection into chevron-shaped storms at the equator during the equinoctial season. A second and much slower wave mode organizes convection into southern-hemisphere streaks oriented in a northwestg-southeast direction, similar to observations. As a result of the phasing of these modes, precipitation rates can be as high as twenty times the local average in our simulations. We conclude that these events, which produce up to several centimetres of precipitation over length scales exceeding 1,000km, play a crucial role in fluvial erosion of Titan's surface. © 2011 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

Silva Jr. L.F.,University of Sao Paulo | Olofsson B.,University of Stockholm
Natural Product Reports | Year: 2011

This report describes the recent applications of hypervalent iodine reagents in the total synthesis of natural products. The large diversity of high-yielding and chemoselective reactions that can be achieved, even for highly functionalized molecules, is summarized, demonstrating that hypervalent iodine reagents have become an essential tool in synthetic organic chemistry. © 2011 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP | Phase: HEALTH-2007-2.4.3-4 | Award Amount: 3.94M | Year: 2008

Obesity represents the major risk factor for the cardiometabolic syndrome, which is an epidemic disease that generates a severe global socio-economic burden for the public health systems. Enhanced production of proinflammatory adipocytokines by expanded adipose tissue is now considered as a key event in the pathogenesis of this syndrome. This process involves i) the systemic release of adipokines, preferentially by visceral abdominal fat and ii) the paracrine, adipokine-mediated crosstalk between periorganic fat and different organs including skeletal and cardiac muscle. Members of the ADAPT consortium have pioneered this novel view of adipose tissue as an active endocrine organ. However, there is very limited knowledge if adipokines and their downstream signalling pathways may represent drugable targets potentially opening new avenues to combat the devastating complications linked to obesity and the cardiometabolic syndrome. Therefore, the major goal of this project is to identify novel or existing adipocytokines as drug targets that could be used to reverse obesity-associated inflammation and adverse reactions related to excess fat, as outlined in the work programme. For this purpose the mustidisciplinary ADAPT consortium has been formed which integrates basic and clinical science, bioinformatics, in silico drug design and the specific expertise of a large pharmaceutical company. To reach the objectives, a stepwise strategy will be used including i) the identification of novel adipocytokines and the cellular sources and regulation of adipokine production, ii) the analysis of intraorgan crosstalk within adipose tissue which plays a pivotal role in adipose tissue inflammation, iii) the assessment of interorgan crosstalk with a focus on skeletal and cardiac muscle and the role of brown fat and iv) the pharmacological and clinical evaluation of adipokines as drug targets and potential biomarkers.

Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP | Phase: ENV.2012.6.1-2 | Award Amount: 6.98M | Year: 2012

The science of complex systems distinguishes linear from non-linear dynamics. Simpler systems can often be satisfactory described by linear models, but complex systems require non-linear models that can capture more of the characteristics of such systems, such as thresholds, feedback loops, avalanche effects, and irreversibility. Linear systems can be validated by aligning models to the past and using the model to predict the future. Non-linear systems, however, are often time-asymmetric - they can be explained with the wisdom of hindsight, but are not always predictable. For example, systems may respond sharply to minor perturbations, and the quality of this response is a measure of the system resilience. In practice, non-linear dynamics are significant both at the micro-scale of small history and at the macro-scale of deep time. The brilliant young scientist, for example, may experience a series of epiphanies that change his/her understanding and behaviour in an unpredictable and irreversible way. The scientific community as a whole may experience an innovation-cascade that has a similar effect on a much larger scale. Current models of climate change and carbon emission assume the immediate past is a reasonable guide to the future. They struggle to represent the complex causal structures and time-asymmetries of many socio-natural systems. COMPLEX will integrate the quasi-classic models of meso-scale processes with our best understanding of fine-grained space-time patterns and the system-flips that are likely to occur in the long interval between now and 2050. We believe the sub-national region is the key point of entry for studying climate change and its cause-effect interrelations. It is small enough to be sensitive to local factors, large enough to interact with supra-national agencies and stable enough to be historically and culturally distinctive. In addition to undertaking case studies in Norway, Sweden, Netherlands, Spain and Italy, We will develop a suite of modelling tools and decision-support systems to inform national and supra-national policy and support communities across Europe working to make the transition to a low-carbon economy.

Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: MC-ITN | Phase: FP7-PEOPLE-2011-ITN | Award Amount: 3.35M | Year: 2011

All over the world, stable concepts of home and belonging have, for a variety of reasons, become the exception rather than the rule. This has led to dramatic cultural, social and political changes and challenges. The study of diaspora and migration has therefore evolved into a burgeoning field of research with an urgent practical relevance. In a wide and sometimes confusing array of approaches it is mainly covered by the humanities and the social sciences. The CoHaB Network unites world-leading institutions in this field in the conviction that interdisciplinary training as well as international and inter-sectoral co-operation are key to any productive study of diasporas. CoHaB gains scope and momentum by its Network of Networks rationale, binding together already existing cooperations. It is based on the resolve to strengthen interdisciplinary research in the field with a view to establishing diaspora studies as a transdisciplinary research area in its own right. Training young researchers on the basis of this conviction means to provide them with the opportunity to conduct their work in a variety of disciplinary environments as well as outside a purely academic context. Specifically, CoHaB aims at stimulating and facilitating cooperation by negotiating core concepts between the various disciplines involved among the partner institutions. Each of these disciplines has developed its own, highly sophisticated understanding of diaspora studies, and it is high time that these diverse understandings entered into a sustained dialogue. For this purpose, early stage researchers from various disciplinary backgrounds, but with similar interests in the field of diaspora studies, will join forces to develop their projects on a shared platform. This will assist them in opening their projects to a strong, interdisciplinary research environment and in producing tangible results for their own research careers, for the scientific community, and for the general public at large.

Agency: GTR | Branch: NERC | Program: | Phase: Research Grant | Award Amount: 37.89K | Year: 2014

The Eurasian Boreal region is warming 3 times faster than the global mean making it a priority region for identifying and understanding land-atmosphere-climate interactions and feedbacks. Much of the warming at these high latitudes is driven by short-lived climate pollutants (SLCPs) such as black carbon and ozone. There is a severe paucity of observations of SLCPs over the Eurasian Boreal region presenting a major challenge to improving our understanding. This proposal aims build capability for improving understanding of SLCP budgets and climate feedbacks in the Eurasian high latitudes. This will be achieved through the establishment of a network of European and Russian scientists, and exploitation of existing observations and global model simulations to motivate future large-scale field observation experiments in the Eurasian boreal region. We will leverage existing NERC investment in our ongoing research into European pollution export and evaluation of atmospheric composition in global models to provide scientific impetus and direction for new research priorities. We will build new, and strengthen existing collaborations between a network of researchers across Europe and Russia. By synthesising existing observations and multi-model simulations, we will motivate the requirements for future observations and prioritise processes that require improved understanding. Within our network we will hold a number of workshops to discuss a) existing data synthesis, b) model-observation comparisons, c) future data needs in the Eurasian boreal region, and d) plans for future aircraft field campaigns. In addition, we will make a scoping visit to the Central Aerological Observatory near Moscow, Russia, in order to evaluate the feasibility of different strategies for a joint aircraft campaign, considering issues such as logistics for joint operations and communication, geo-political constraints on aircraft operations, and experimental strategies for joint flying. The overall end-result of this project will be a coherent community of international scientists with a robust knowledge base of deficiencies in our understanding of short-lived climate pollutants, priorities for observations, and a strategy for developing future large-scale observation networks and large-scale field projects in the Eurasian boreal regions.

Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP | Phase: HEALTH.2011.3.3-1 | Award Amount: 3.93M | Year: 2012

Rationale Social inequalities in health are a major challenge to public health in Europe and hence a priority topic for the EU. While the average level of health in EU countries has continued to improve over the last decades, differences in health between advantaged and disadvantaged sections of the population within each country remain substantial. A broad spectrum of policies influences the determinants of health inequalities. Such interventions are seldom evaluated for their impact on population health in general and even more rarely for their differential impact on different socioeconomic groups. There is an urgent need to extend and strengthen the evidence base on differential policy impact, to help identify the most effective ways to reduce health inequalities in different EU countries. Methodologically, this is a highly challenging task for which traditional experimental evaluation designs are neither adequate nor feasible. Objectives 1 Develop, evaluate and refine methodologies for assessing the effects of social, economic and health policies on the pattern and magnitude of health inequalities among socioeconomic groups. 2 Assess the differential health effects by socioeconomic group of natural policy experiments in the fields of unemployment and poverty reduction; tobacco and alcohol control; and access to education and preventive health care. 3 Synthesise the evidence from the findings of objectives 1-2, and actively engage users in the research in order to promote transfer of knowledge for policy and practice with maximum effectiveness. Approach New methods of policy analysis and evaluation of natural experiments will be combined with a unique longitudinal dataset of health determinants and health outcomes by socioeconomic group in more than 20 European countries covering several decades, in order to generate new knowledge on differential effects of policies targeting the strategic drivers of health inequalities.

Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: MC-ITN | Phase: PEOPLE-2007-1-1-ITN | Award Amount: 2.02M | Year: 2008

Development Economics has seen an explosion of high quality empirical work in the past ten years. But despite the quality of many individual researchers, Europe is lagging behind the US in terms of number of students, faculty, and publications. Remedying this gap is important, not only for scientific reasons, but also because development research is a critical input to decision making by Governments and international Institutions. The partners in the proposed ITN are dedicated to producing the next generation of research scholars working on development issues in Europe. The ITN will harness and combine intellectual resources which are scattered across Europe to offer doctoral students a first rate training, comparable to the best opportunities available worldwide. The Network will emphasise rigorous empirical methods put to the service of fundamental questions in development economics. The work will evolve around three workpackages: WP1 (Human capital and policy evaluation) will investigate how households respond to incentives, design policies to improve education and health, and evaluate their impact. WP2 (Market access for the poor) will study market imperfections in insurance, credit, product and labour markets and evaluate the effectiveness of innovative schemes to address them. WP3 (Institutions: Micro evidence) will study the emergence of social norms, the legacy of historical institutions, and their implications for governance and accountability. Training will involve student exchanges across nodes, participation in team research projects, and support for students travel and field work. The distinguishing features are: (a) formal coursework with emphasis on rigorous empirical methods and exposure to other disciplines in PhD courses, workshops and summer schools. (b) active participation in data collection and field projects in developing countries, attained through participation in (often multidisciplinary) team research projects and internships with industry partners and NGOs. Fieldwork experience is an essential element of training for development economists, but is rarely offered in doctoral programs. (c) opportunities to forge relationships with faculty and students throughout Europe through exchanges, workshops, and virtual networks.

Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP | Phase: SSH-2010-2.1-2 | Award Amount: 1.78M | Year: 2011

Radical changes in the local governance of social cohesion in many Member States of the European Union are the focus of LOCALISEs research on the organisational challenges of an integrated social and employment policy. The multiple needs of the most vulnerable groups in society require the integration of formerly separate policy fields. This creates positive dynamics for reducing social inequalities, fostering social cohesion and enhancing labour market participation the crucial objectives of the new EU2020 strategy. Local activation policies are framed by Member States policies and patterns of regional inequality. But the shift of competences to the local level, the involvement of new actors and a closer collaboration of different agencies create new demands in interorganisational coordination. How do different institutional contexts influence local worlds of social cohesion? How do local actors deal with the conflicts and dilemmas caused by integrated social cohesion policies? What impact do these policies have on social inequality and the conception of social citizenship? LOCALISE addresses these questions by integrating multiple disciplines, and partners experienced in European and Social Policy research. A common theoretical and methodological approach guides the research in each work package. LOCALISE will create a critical mass of research in three key areas: we first analyse how European programmes, national governance patterns and the regional socio-economic context affect the local governance of social cohesion. Secondly, LOCALISE studies how 18 local entities in six European countries (France, Germany, Italy, Poland, Sweden and United Kingdom) cope with the challenges of an integrated social cohesion policy. Finally, we analyse the impact of these policies on social inequalities, citizenship and the most vulnerable social groups.

Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP | Phase: KBBE-2008-2-1-01;KBBE-2008-2-4-01 | Award Amount: 4.01M | Year: 2009

Proposal summary Anthropogenic perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) have recently gained socio-economic and scientific interest. PFCs constitute a newly emanating group of environmental contaminants, with physico-chemical as well as toxicological properties different from those of other halogenated compounds. PFCs are generally persistent in the environment, and can be found over a broad concentration range and within most parts of the aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. Food, produced with natural ingredients, and possibly beverages, including drinking water, are likely to be contaminated with PFCs, giving rise to human exposure. Whether or not industrial food processing and packaging may give rise to additional contamination of food and beverages is currently not understood. Whatever the sources, PFCs have indeed been found to be present at a global scale in blood of the general population. PERFOOD brings together the institutes most renowned in Europe and the Globe for their chemical analytical work on PFCs with experts in food consumption and drinking water quality as well as food processing and packaging. The aims of the present project are to develop robust and reliable analytical tools including reference materials for the determination of PFCs in food items, and to use these to (i) qualify and quantify PFCs in our diet, employing a large European sampling campaign; (ii) understand how PFCs are transferred from the environment into dietary items, and (iii) quantify the possible contribution of food/beverage contact materials and food and water processing to the overall PFC levels in our diet. The newly gained knowledge will enable us to evaluate the possible routes, including their relative importance, of human exposure to PFCs via our diet, to assess the role of the technosphere in the contamination of our food, and to identify ways to reduce the PFC contamination of dietary articles.

Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: MC-ITN | Phase: FP7-PEOPLE-2013-ITN | Award Amount: 3.34M | Year: 2013

Good policy design requires understanding of how agents respond to incentives and how they interact through market and non-market institutions. New approaches to policy design have recently emerged. These rely on controlled experiments as well as analysis of natural policy experiments. They allow us not only to evaluate whether a policy has been successful but also to test the theoretical channels through which the policy is assumed to operate. This can help us generate more effective policies. PODER will train a new generation of European doctoral students in the use of these techniques to design and evaluate policies to fight poverty. The training will combine coursework and methodological tools taught at the academic nodes with on-site training in project management and data collection learnt from private sector partners. PODERs research agenda will be organized around three workpackages: health and education, private sector development, and governance, political economy and institutions. PODER aims reduce the US-Europe gap in the quality and impact of development economics research. The network will have an impact in three dimensions. It will reorient both the content and approach to doctoral training in development economics, adding a new focus on rigorous techniques for the assessment of alternative policy designs and an emphasis on fieldwork. This will enhance the career prospects of the networks ESRs and ERs. Second, PODER will help create a durable European infrastructure for research training in development economics, by allowing researchers to take advantage of training opportunities beyond their own institutions and to interact with other researchers working on similar projects in different countries. Third, PODER has a unique set of relationships with donors and developing country governments that will ensure that the PODER research agenda will be fully exploited by the policy community and the private sector.

Agency: Cordis | Branch: H2020 | Program: MSCA-ITN-ETN | Phase: MSCA-ITN-2016 | Award Amount: 3.62M | Year: 2016

The energy crisis, environmental pollution and global warming are serious problems that are of great concern throughout the world. Around 40% of the worlds energy consumption is dedicated to the production of materials and chemicals. Thus, there is a need to develop high-performance materials based on renewable resources, simpler to synthesise and cost effective. Carbon materials derived from renewable resources (e.g., biomass) are ideal candidates to meet these needs. The main objective of our proposed Innovative Training Network is to develop new scientific knowledge, capability, technology, and commercial products for biomass-derived carbons (BCs); thus impacting the way that Europe uses and innovates with sustainable carbon materials. This will be accomplished through outstanding research and training programmes for fourteen early-stage researchers (ESRs). Our proposed research programme is feasible given the varied expertise and knowledge of the academic and industrial participants. We expect that GreenCarbon will improve our ability to rationally design a range of functionalised BC-derived materials using different individual and synergistically coupled processes and expand their practical applications. Our research programme comprehensively covers all aspects from precursors (the nature of biomass) to processing (thermochemical conversion, porosity development, chemical functionalisation) and application (e.g., CO2 capture, heterogeneous catalysis and chemicals from biomass) enabling a unique design of engineered sustainable BC materials. At the same time, our training programme is designed with the aim to empower the ESRs through the provision of a comprehensive and coherent training package, which includes complementary competencies and knowledge in all the science, engineering and business skills so as to be capable of deploying new technologies within different environments both inside and outside of academia.

Melvin T.M.,University of East Anglia | Grudd H.,University of Stockholm | Briffa K.R.,University of East Anglia
Holocene | Year: 2013

We describe the analysis of existing and new maximum-latewood-density (MXD) and tree-ring width (TRW) data from the Torneträsk region of northern Sweden and the construction of 1500 year chronologies. Some previous work found that MXD and TRW chronologies from Torneträsk were inconsistent over the most recent 200 years, even though they both reflect predominantly summer temperature influences on tree growth. We show that this was partly a result of systematic bias in MXD data measurements and partly a result of inhomogeneous sample selection from living trees (modern sample bias). We use refinements of the simple Regional Curve Standardisation (RCS) method of chronology construction to identify and mitigate these biases. The new MXD and TRW chronologies now present a largely consistent picture of long-timescale changes in past summer temperature in this region over their full length, indicating similar levels of summer warmth in the medieval period (MWP, c. ce 900-1100) and the latter half of the 20th century. Future work involving the updating of MXD chronologies using differently sourced measurements may require similar analysis and appropriate adjustment to that described here to make the data suitable for the production of un-biased RCS chronologies. The use of 'growth-rate' based multiple RCS curves is recommended to identify and mitigate the problem of 'modern sample bias'. © The Author(s) 2012.

Lidmar-Bergstrom K.,University of Stockholm | Bonow J.M.,Södertörn University College | Japsen P.,Geological Survey of Denmark
Global and Planetary Change | Year: 2013

Stratigraphic Landscape Analysis (SLA) is based on a) the relationship between peneplains (low-relief denudation surfaces) in basement and their cover rocks of different age, b) the crosscutting relationships between such re-exposed peneplains and never covered (epigene) peneplains, and c) the occurrence of valleys incised below peneplains. Previous studies based on detailed SLA of the South Swedish Dome (SSD) have identified two major re-exposed peneplains, the flat sub-Cambrian peneplain and the sub-Jurassic/Cretaceous peneplain with undulating hilly relief. Both surfaces developed close to former sea levels, were subsequently transgressed, and buried below sedimentary covers. The preservation of these peneplains documents that uplift of the land surface was followed by subsidence. Crosscutting relationships between these re-exposed and tilted peneplains and a third peneplain, an epigene and horizontal plain with residual hills, demonstrate that the latter is younger and thus of post-Cretaceous age. Three topographic highs characterize Scandinavia, the Northern Scandes (NS), the Southern Scandes (SS), and the low SSD. We show that the three relief types of the SSD can be identified across Scandinavia and that they demonstrate phases of uplift/denudation and subsidence/burial of Scandinavia during the Phanerozoic. In particular, we show that the epigene peneplains of the NS, the SS and the SSD are Cenozoic erosion surfaces and this also leads us to identify three major Cenozoic morphotectonic units. A result of our studies is that the paradigm of continuous uplift of steady state landscapes cannot be assumed as a universal model of landform evolution. © 2012 Elsevier B.V..

Kitsak M.,Boston University | Kitsak M.,University of California at San Diego | Gallos L.K.,City College of New York | Havlin S.,Bar - Ilan University | And 4 more authors.
Nature Physics | Year: 2010

Networks portray a multitude of interactions through which people meet, ideas are spread and infectious diseases propagate within a society 1-5. Identifying the most efficient 'spread-ers' in a network is an important step towards optimizing the use of available resources and ensuring the more efficient spread of information. Here we show that, in contrast to common belief, there are plausible circumstances where the best spreaders do not correspond to the most highly connected or the most central people 6-10. Instead, we find that the most efficient spreaders are those located within the core of the network as identified by the k-shell decomposition analysis11-13, and that when multiple spreaders are considered simultaneously the distance between them becomes the crucial parameter that determines the extent of the spreading. Furthermore, we show that infections persist in the high-k shells of the network in the case where recovered individuals do not develop immunity. Our analysis should provide a route for an optimal design of efficient dissemination strategies. © 2010 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

Petermann E.,University of Oxford | Petermann E.,University of Birmingham | Woodcock M.,University of Oxford | Helleday T.,University of Oxford | Helleday T.,University of Stockholm
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America | Year: 2010

DNA replication starts at initiation sites termed replication origins. Metazoan cells contain many more potential origins than are activated (fired) during each S phase. Origin activation is controlled by the ATR checkpoint kinase and its downstream effector kinase Chk1, which suppresses origin firing in response to replication blocks and during normal S phase by inhibiting the cyclin-dependent kinase Cdk2. In addition to increased origin activation, cells deficient in Chk1 activity display reduced rates of replication fork progression. Here we investigate the causal relationship between increased origin firing and reduced replication fork progression. We use the Cdk inhibitor roscovitine or RNAi depletion of Cdc7 to inhibit origin firing in Chk1-inhibited or RNAi-depleted cells. We report that Cdk inhibition and depletion of Cdc7 can alleviate the slow replication fork speeds in Chk1-deficient cells. Our data suggest that increased replication initiation leads to slow replication fork progression and that Chk1 promotes replication fork progression during normal S phase by controlling replication origin activity.

Friedman K.,Reef Fisheries Observatory | Eriksson H.,University of Stockholm | Tardy E.,Reef Fisheries Observatory | Pakoa K.,Reef Fisheries Observatory
Fish and Fisheries | Year: 2011

Identifying rates of change in the abundance of sea cucumbers under differing management regimes is fundamental to estimating commercial yields, identifying ecological interactions and facilitating management. Here, we review the status of sea cucumber stocks from a range of Pacific Island countries (Samoa, Tonga, Palau, Fiji and Papua New Guinea), some of which have had a moratorium on exports for up to a decade. We use a time-series approach to look at variation in sea cucumber presence, coverage and density from survey and re-survey data. Results give an appreciation of variation between 'high' status (less impacted) and depleted stocks. Survey data show marked declines in coverage and abundance as a result of artisanal fishing activity, and although species groups were not lost at a country level, local extirpation and range restriction was noted. Resilience and 'recovery' following cessation of fishing varied greatly, both among locations and among the species targeted. Worryingly, even after extended periods of moratorium, the density of some species was markedly low. In many cases, the densities were too low for commercial fishing, and may be at a level where the effective population size is constrained due to 'Allee' affects. From these results, we suggest that management regimes presently employed are generally not well aligned with the level of response to fishing mortality that can be expected from sea cucumber stocks. New adaptive, precautionary approaches to management are suggested, which would allow more timely interventions to be made, while refined information on stock dynamics is sought. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

Duvander A.-Z.,University of Stockholm | Johansson M.,Swedish Social Insurance Inspectorate
Journal of European Social Policy | Year: 2012

Since the introduction of parental leave in Sweden a more gender-equal division of such leave has been targeted. In 1995 one month was reserved for each parent, implying that the month was forfeited if not used by the same parent. A second month was reserved in 2002. In 2008, a gender equality bonus was introduced, meaning that tax credits were given to parents who shared the leave equally. This study investigates the effects of these reforms on parental leave use by means of a difference-in-difference approach with parents of children born just before and just after the introduction of each reform. We use register data from the Swedish Social Insurance Agency, which include all parents residing in Sweden. The results indicate a strong effect on parental leave use resulting from the introduction of the first reserved month, a more modest but clear effect resulting from the second reserved month and, so far, no effect resulting from the gender equality bonus. Possible interpretations of the results are that (1) reserved time may be more effective than an economic bonus, (2) change from low levels of use may be easier and (3) reforms may matter most when they are first introduced. © The Author(s) 2012.

Christiansen B.,Danish Meteorological Institute | Ljungqvist F.C.,University of Stockholm
Climate of the Past | Year: 2012

We present two new multi-proxy reconstructions of the extra-tropical Northern Hemisphere (30-90°N) mean temperature: a two-millennia long reconstruction reaching back to 1 AD and a 500-yr long reconstruction reaching back to 1500 AD. The reconstructions are based on compilations of 32 and 91 proxies, respectively, of which only little more than half pass a screening procedure and are included in the actual reconstructions. The proxies are of different types and of different resolutions (annual, annual-to-decadal, and decadal) but all have previously been shown to relate to local or regional temperature. We use a reconstruction method, LOCal (LOC), that recently has been shown to confidently reproduce low-frequency variability. Confidence intervals are obtained by an ensemble pseudo-proxy method that both estimates the variance and the bias of the reconstructions. The two-millennia long reconstruction shows a well defined Medieval Warm Period, with a peak warming ca. 950-1050 AD reaching 0.6 °C relative to the reference period 1880-1960 AD. The 500-yr long reconstruction confirms previous results obtained with the LOC method applied to a smaller proxy compilation; in particular it shows the Little Ice Age cumulating in 1580-1720 AD with a temperature minimum of g -1.0 °C below the reference period. The reconstructed local temperatures, the magnitude of which are subject to wide confidence intervals, show a rather geographically homogeneous Little Ice Age, while more geographical inhomogeneities are found for the Medieval Warm Period. Reconstructions based on different subsets of proxies show only small differences, suggesting that LOC reconstructs 50-yr smoothed extra-tropical NH mean temperatures well and that low-frequency noise in the proxies is a relatively small problem. © Author(s) 2012. CC Attribution 3.0 License.

Graversen R.G.,University of Stockholm | Langen P.L.,Danish Meteorological Institute | Mauritsen T.,Max Planck Institute
Journal of Climate | Year: 2014

A vertically nonuniform warming of the troposphere yields a lapse rate feedback by altering the infrared irradiance to space relative to that of a vertically uniform tropospheric warming. The lapse rate feedback is negative at low latitudes, as a result of moist convective processes, and positive at high latitudes, due to stable stratification conditions that effectively trap warming near the surface. It is shown that this feedback pattern leads to polar amplification of the temperature response induced by a radiative forcing. The results are obtained by suppressing the lapse rate feedback in the Community Climate System Model, version 4 (CCSM4). The lapse rate feedback accounts for 15% of the Arctic amplification and 20% of the amplification in the Antarctic region. The fraction of the amplification that can be attributed to the surface albedo feedback, associated with melting of snow and ice, is 40% in the Arctic and 65% in Antarctica. It is further found that the surface albedo and lapse rate feedbacks interact considerably at high latitudes to the extent that they cannot be considered independent feedback mechanisms at the global scale. © 2014 American Meteorological Society.

Kamerlin S.C.L.,University of Stockholm | Kamerlin S.C.L.,Swedish ience Research Center | Warshel A.,University of Southern California
Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics | Year: 2011

Recent years have witnessed a tremendous explosion in computational power, which in turn has resulted in great progress in the complexity of the biological and chemical problems that can be addressed by means of all-atom simulations. Despite this, however, our computational time is not infinite, and in fact many of the key problems of the field were resolved long before the existence of the current levels of computational power. This review will start by presenting a brief historical overview of the use of multiscale simulations in biology, and then present some key developments in the field, highlighting several cases where the use of a physically sound simplification is clearly superior to a brute-force approach. Finally, some potential future directions will be discussed. © the Owner Societies 2011.

Petermann E.,University of Birmingham | Helleday T.,University of Oxford | Helleday T.,University of Stockholm
Nature Reviews Molecular Cell Biology | Year: 2010

Single-molecule analyses of DNA replication have greatly advanced our understanding of mammalian replication restart. Several proteins that are not part of the core replication machinery promote the efficient restart of replication forks that have been stalled by replication inhibitors, suggesting that bona fide fork restart pathways exist in mammalian cells. Different models of replication fork restart can be envisaged, based on the involvement of DNA helicases, nucleases, homologous recombination factors and the importance of DNA double-strand break formation. © 2010 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

Andreo P.,University of Stockholm | Burns D.T.,Bureau International des Poids et Mesures BIPM | Salvat F.,University of Barcelona
Physics in Medicine and Biology | Year: 2012

A systematic analysis of the available data has been carried out for mass energy-absorption coefficients and their ratios for air, graphite and water for photon energies between 1 keV and 2 MeV, using representative kilovoltage x-ray spectra for mammography and diagnostic radiology below 100 kV, and for 192Ir and 60Co gamma-ray spectra. The aim of this work was to establish an envelope of uncertainty based on the spread of the available data. Type A uncertainties were determined from the results of Monte Carlo (MC) calculations with the PENELOPE and EGSnrc systems, yielding mean values for ν en/ with a given statistical standard uncertainty. Type B estimates were based on two groupings. The first grouping consisted of MC calculations based on a similar implementation but using different data and/or approximations. The second grouping was formed by various datasets, obtained by different authors or methods using the same or different basic data, and with different implementations (analytical, MC-based, or a combination of the two); these datasets were the compilations of NIST, Hubbell, JohnsCunningham, Attix and Higgins, plus MC calculations with PENELOPE and EGSnrc. The combined standard uncertainty, u c, for the ν en/ values for the mammography x-ray spectra is 2.5%, decreasing gradually to 1.6% for kilovoltage x-ray spectra up to 100 kV. For 60Co and 192Ir, u cis approximately 0.1%. The Type B uncertainty analysis for the ratios of ν en/ values includes four methods of analysis and concludes that for the present data the assumption that the data interval represents 95% confidence limits is a good compromise. For the mammography x-ray spectra, the combined standard uncertainties of (ν en/) graphite,airand (ν en/) graphite,waterare 1.5%, and 0.5% for (ν en/) water,air, decreasing gradually down to u c= 0.1% for the three ν en/ ratios for the gamma-ray spectra. The present estimates are shown to coincide well with those of Hubbell (1977 Rad. Res. 70 5881), except for the lowest energy range (radiodiagnostic) where it is concluded that current databases and their systematic analysis represent an improvement over the older Hubbell estimations. The results for (ν en/) graphite,airfor the gamma-ray dosimetry range are moderately higher than those of Seltzer and Bergstrom (2005 private communication). © 2012 Institute of Physics and Engineering in Medicine.

Christiansen B.,Danish Meteorological Institute | Ljungqvist F.C.,University of Stockholm
Journal of Climate | Year: 2011

A new multiproxy reconstruction of the Northern Hemisphere extratropical mean temperature over the last millennium is presented. The reconstruction is performed with a novel method designed to avoid the underestimation of low-frequency variability that has been a general problem for regression-based reconstruction methods. The disadvantage of this method is an exaggerated high-frequency variability. The reconstruction is based on a set of 40 proxies of annual to decadal resolution that have been shown to relate to the local temperature. The new reconstruction shows a very cold Little Ice Age centered around the 17th century with a cold extremum (for 50-yr smoothing) of about 1.1 K below the temperature of the calibration period, AD 1880-1960. This cooling is about twice as large as corresponding numbers reported by most other reconstructions. In the beginning of the millennium the new reconstruction shows small anomalies in agreement with previous studies. However, the new temperature reconstruction decreases faster than previous reconstructions in the first 600 years of the millennium and has a stronger variability. The salient features of the new reconstruction are shown to be robust to changes in the calibration period, the source of the local temperatures, the spatial averaging procedure, and the screening process applied to the proxies. An ensemble pseudoproxy approach is applied to estimate the confidence intervals of the 50-yr smoothed reconstruction showing that the period AD 1500-1850 is significantly colder than the calibration period. © 2011 American Meteorological Society.

Kamerlin S.C.L.,University of Stockholm | Wilkie J.,University of Birmingham
Organic and Biomolecular Chemistry | Year: 2011

We present 2-dimensional potential energy surfaces and optimised transition states (TS) for water attack on a series of substituted phosphate monoester monoanions at the DFT level of theory, comparing a standard 6-31++g(d,p) basis set with a larger triple-zeta (augmented cc-pVTZ) basis set. Small fluorinated model compounds are used to simulate increasing leaving group stability without adding further geometrical complexity to the system. We demonstrate that whilst changing the leaving group causes little qualitative change in the potential energy surfaces (with the exception of the system with the most electron withdrawing leaving group, CF 3O -, in which the associative pathway changes from a stepwise A N + D N pathway to a concerted A ND N pathway), there is a quantitative change in relative gas-phase and solution barriers for the two competing pathways. In line with previous studies, in the case of OCH 3, the barriers for the associative and dissociative pathways are similar in solution, and the two pathways are equally viable and indistinguishable in solution. However, significantly increasing the stability of the leaving group (decreasing proton affinity, PA) results in the progressive favouring of a stepwise dissociative, D N + A N, mechanism over associative mechanisms. © 2011 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: MC-ITN | Phase: FP7-PEOPLE-2010-ITN | Award Amount: 3.63M | Year: 2011

The main research goal is to further understanding of how and to what extent flame retardant (FR) chemicals used in every-day consumer goods and construction materials enter humans and of the risk to health that such exposure presents. Our vision is that this enhanced understanding will inform assessment of risk associated both with recent and current-use flame retardant chemicals, and of those under development, and ultimately lead to more sustainable approaches to meeting fire safety regulations. Our principal objectives are to discover: (1) the mechanisms via which FRs migrate from products within which they are incorporated; (2) how and to what extent such migration leads to human exposure; and (3) the effects of such exposure. To achieve our goal and objectives we will use a range of state-of-the-art techniques associated with analytical chemistry, electron microscopy, mathematical modelling, in vitro toxicology, and omics. The network is an interdisciplinary cooperative of chemists, biologists, physicists and toxicologists. Intersectoral aspects unite basic and applied scientists working in universities, two SMEs, a large (non-university) public sector research organisation and a government research institute. The projects S&T objectives will be delivered through research in 3 Work Packages (WPs): viz. WP1- Migration pathways, WP2- Human exposure (pathways and monitoring), and WP3- Understanding effects of human exposure. The aim of the Training Programme is to increase the knowledge base and experience of trainees in the different research areas and to develop their transferable skills for future careers in the private sector, public sector, or the regulatory community. Six training objectives will be delivered through a suite of 6 Core Skills Areas (Research Project, Advanced Training Courses, Project Meetings, Career Development Plan, Generic Research Skills, Transferable Research Skills).

Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: MC-IRSES | Phase: FP7-PEOPLE-2011-IRSES | Award Amount: 199.10K | Year: 2012

INTERFLAME aims to enhance scientific understanding of how and to what extent organic flame retardant (FR) chemicals present in consumer goods and materials contaminate the environment, with particular reference to humans and wildlife. INTERFLAMEs twin foci are exposure arising from indoor contamination and monitoring the efficacy of recent actions designed to reduce environmental levels. Recent research has shown that the application of FRs within consumer goods and materials has led to contamination of indoor environments with consequences for human exposure. Moreover, the hydrophobicity and environmental persistence of many FRs means that following release to outdoors, there is significant potential for a second wave of human and wildlife exposure via incorporation and bioaccumulation into the food chain. Due to concerns about the adverse effects of some FRs, various jurisdictions worldwide have introduced bans and restrictions on the manufacture and new use of such chemicals. INTERFLAME addresses the global need to monitor temporal trends in environmental contamination in response to such restrictions, and its international harmonisation of studies and exchange of knowledge is a necessary response to the substantial global variations in FR usage patterns and legislation. Its synergistic relationship with the EU-funded Marie Curie ITN INFLAME will permit comparison and contrast of exposure scenarios for FRs that prevail in Europe with those elsewhere. This will facilitate prediction of future scenarios around the globe; for example where use of a given class of FRs has yet to begin in one region, that region can learn from the experience of those where the same FRs are deployed already. In summary, INTERFLAMEs collaborative and dynamic transfer of information and expertise through staff exchanges will better inform efforts to monitor and understand the origins of exposure to such chemicals, leading to more effective strategies to minimise such exposure.

The project will define and undertake scientific methods for measurement of fatigue in various realistic seagoing scenarios using bridge, engine-room and cargo simulators; will assess the impact of fatigue on decision-making performance and will determine optimal settings for minimising those risks to both ship and seafarer. Three simulator-equipped institutes will collaborate in ensuring that enough runs of sufficient duration are undertaken to replicate ship-board conditions of operation, with real-life scenarios of voyage, workload and interruptions. Specialist input from a stress research institute, skilled in transport operations research, will set the requirements for fatigue measurement and determining performance degradation of watch-keepers. Results will be analysed and recommendations made for application by interested parties, including ship owners, maritime regulators and those setting requirements for manning and operation of ships. Output will be a Management Toolkit with software and guidance notes. Involvement of a classification society, seafarer officers union and six stakeholder partners provide expert objectivity of the project and its results, as well as widening routes for dissemination and exploitation. The project addresses concerns over the increasing losses (human, financial and environmental) of maritime accidents which frequently cite fatigue as a contributory cause and thereby resonates with the objectives and impacts of the work programme. This is a major issue at a time when the high demand for shipping capacity has led to shortages of well-qualified and experienced seafarers. The project surpasses past subjective fatigue studies, highlighting the problem, and will produce validated, statistically robust results for use in decision making, using the toolkit of results and findings. HORIZON thereby impacts on the FP7 aims of increased safety and security, reduced fatalities, with a methodology for reducing human error.

Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: MC-ITN | Phase: FP7-PEOPLE-2012-ITN | Award Amount: 4.25M | Year: 2013

A-TEAM is a major co-ordinated supradisciplinary study. It seeks to develop understanding of a variety of aspects related to external and internal exposure to selected chemicals using a single, well-characterised human cohort (the A-TEAM). Its overriding hypothesis is that current approaches used to monitor human exposure to consumer chemicals can be substantially improved by filling gaps in scientific data and understanding upon which current practices are founded. A-TEAMs main research goal is to further understanding of how and to what extent consumer chemicals enter humans, and of how we can best monitor the presence of such chemicals in our indoor environment, diet, and bodies. Our vision is that such enhanced understanding of the underpinning science will lead to more effective approaches to monitoring human exposure to chemicals within Europe, thereby improving assessment of risk associated both with recent and current-use consumer chemicals, as well as those under development, and leading ultimately to more sustainable approaches to the use of chemicals. Our principal objectives are to provide robust scientific information that will allow better understanding of: (1) how we can identify at an early stage, chemicals likely to accumulate in Europeans; (2) how to monitor chemicals in our external environment in a way that best reflects what accumulates in the body; (3) the relative importance of different exposure pathways to overall exposure for selected consumer chemicals of toxicological concern; (4) how contact with chemicals in our external environment translates into their presence in our bodies and how best to monitor this presence As well as contributing significantly to scientific knowledge; A-TEAM contributes substantially towards the training and development of the next generation of researchers thereby facilitating future advances in knowledge well beyond the lifetime of the ITN.

Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-IP | Phase: ENV.2011.1.1.3-1 | Award Amount: 9.34M | Year: 2011

Permafrost is defined as ground that remains continuously at or below 0C for at least two consecutive years; some 24% of the land surface in the northern Hemisphere is classified as permafrost. In the Northern high latitudes, strong warming has been observed over the recent decades, and climate models project strong future warming. A projected decline in the extent of permafrost will have a major impact on the Earth system, affecting global climate through the mobilization of carbon and nitrogen stored in permafrost. PAGE21 aims to understand and quantify the vulnerability of permafrost environments to a changing global climate, and to investigate the feedback mechanisms associated with increasing greenhouse gas emissions from permafrost zones. This research makes use of a unique set of Arctic permafrost investigations performed at stations that span the full range of Arctic bioclimatic zones. The project brings together the best European permafrost researchers and eminent scientists from Canada, Russia, the USA, and Japan. In a truly original approach we combine field measurements of permafrost processes, pools, and fluxes, with remote sensing data and global climate models at local, regional and, for the first time, pan-Arctic scales. The output from this research will help to advance our understanding of permafrost processes at multiple scales, resulting in improvements in global numerical permafrost modeling and the ensuing future climate projections, as well as in the assessment of stabilisation scenarios. These outputs will feed into global assessments and international monitoring programs, in which most of the consortium members are already actively participating in leading roles. This project will, in particular, provide projections on a pan-Arctic scale of greenhouse gas releases from the projected thawing of permafrost terrain during the 21st century, with direct implications for global policy discussions on emission reduction targets.

Agency: Cordis | Branch: H2020 | Program: CSA | Phase: SC5-05-2016 | Award Amount: 2.59M | Year: 2016

To better constrain the response of Earths climate system to continuing emissions, it is essential to turn to the past. A key advance would be to understand the transition in Earths climate response to changes in orbital forcing during the mid-Pleistocene transition (900 to 1200 thousand years ago) and in particular the role of greenhouse gases. Unravelling such key linkages between the carbon cycle, ice sheets, atmosphere and ocean behaviour is vital for society to better design effective mitigation and adaptation strategies. Only ice cores contain the unique and quantitative information about past climate forcing and atmospheric responses. But the ice providing essential evidence about past mechanisms of climate change more than 1 Ma ago required for our understanding of these changes (termed the Oldest Ice core), has not been found to date. The consortium BEYOND EPICA OLDEST ICE (BE-OI), formed by 14 European institutions, takes on this challenge to prepare the ground for obtaining 1.5 million year old ice from East Antarctica. BE-OI has the objectives to: - support the site selection through creation and synthesis of all necessary information on Antarctic sites through specific geophysical surveys and the use of fast drilling tools to qualify sites and validate the age of their ice; - select and evaluate the optimum drill site for the future Oldest Ice core project and establish a science and management plan for a future drilling; - coordinate the technical and scientific planning to ensure the availability of the technical means to implement suitable drill systems and analytical methodologies for a future ice-core drilling, and of well-trained personnel to operate them successfully; - establish the budget and the financial background for a future deep-drilling campaign; - embed the scientific aims of an Oldest Ice core project within the wider paleoclimate data and modelling communities through international and cross-disciplinary cooperation.

Agency: Cordis | Branch: H2020 | Program: MSCA-RISE | Phase: MSCA-RISE-2016 | Award Amount: 1.01M | Year: 2017

The overall vision of INTERWASTE is to develop scientific understanding of issues related to environmental contamination with toxic organic chemicals (specifically flame retardants (FRs) and pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCPs)) arising from their presence in the waste stream. Specific research objectives include: (a) exchange of knowledge of and best practice in methods for rapid and cost-effective identification of waste items containing restricted FRs; (b) developing scientific understanding of environmental contamination due to processing of waste items containing FRs; and (c) furthering understanding of the sources of PPCPs and FRs in the sewerage system. To facilitate such research on the global level required, INTERWASTE will exchange best practice in the analytical chemistry techniques required to study FRs and PPCPs, and evaluate the measurement capability of INTERWASTE participants via an interlaboratory comparison. INTERWASTEs vision will be achieved via a co-ordinated programme of collaboration and research secondments between world-leading research groups both within and outside the EU; coupled with annual workshops to discuss the latest findings. The research programme will exploit the complementary expertise of the consortium members, and in so doing foster synergies. Cross-sectoral interaction and knowledge sharing will be achieved via the participation of beneficiaries and partner organisations from both academic and non-academic sectors. All secondments and workshops will be conducted within a framework designed to maximise the training and career development benefits to participating staff by providing them with opportunities for knowledge and skills acquisition, with a particular (but not exclusive) focus on early career researchers. INTERWASTEs research and training programme is complemented by communication activities that will both disseminate project findings to scientific stakeholders, and engage the general public.

Agency: Cordis | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: INFRADEV-1-2014 | Award Amount: 3.96M | Year: 2015

The present project is intended to take the European Solar Telescope (EST) to the next level of development by undertaking crucial activities to improve the performance of current state-of-the-art instrumentation. Legal, industrial and socio-economic issues will also be addressed, as key questions for the attainment of EST. The particular developments and strategic tasks proposed here can be summarised in the following specific objectives: (i) Boosting new generation detectors, with the development of two prototype sensors, one for large-format imaging and a the other for high-precision polarimetry, the evaluation of an existing large format wavefront sensing camera is also addressed; (ii) Development of a capacitance-stabilised Fabry-Perot prototype for a high quality control of the parallelism of the etalon plates; (iii) new techniques for 2D solar spectro-polarimetry; with integral field units based on multi-slit image slicers or a microlens-fed spectrograph; (iv) development of large format liquid-crystal modulators, required for the large-format sensors that will be needed for the new generation large aperture telescopes ; (v) evaluation of the performance of the EST-MCAO deformable mirrors to improve the design and performance of this system; and (vi) strategic work to covering industrial, financial and legal issues related the future construction and operation of EST. The following issues will be addressed: Elaboration of a census of the European solar physics community Analysis of the technological expertise of European companies in the different countries and their potential expertise related with the construction needs of EST Revision and update of the construction budget of EST Stimulation of a discussion of all these aspects within the consortium EAST With all these elements in hand, the project will be in the condition to present a definite proposal for detailed design, construction, managing and operation of EST.

Agency: Cordis | Branch: H2020 | Program: MSCA-ITN-ETN | Phase: MSCA-ITN-2016 | Award Amount: 3.98M | Year: 2017

Clean drinking water is crucial to human health and wellbeing. The ambition of the NaToxAq ETN network is to expand the research basis for EUs leading role in securing high quality drinking waters for its citizens. Focus is on natural toxins a large group of emerging contaminants with unknown impact on drinking water resources. Both known toxins, like cyanotoxins, cyanogenic glucosides and terpenes and not yet explored toxins will be investigated. Twenty leading universities, research institutions, and water enterprises will pioneer the field through joint training of 15 ESRs investigating natural toxin emission via water reservoirs to water works and consumers. The natural toxin challenge is addressed by the concerted work of the ESRs within 4 scientific work packages comprising origin, distribution, fate and remediation. Priority toxins are selected using in silico approaches accompanied by novel non-targeted and targeted analyses to map natural toxins along vegetation and climatic gradients in Europe. Invasion of alien species, toxin emission, leaching and dissipation will be under strong influence of climate change. Data collected for toxin emission, properties and fate will be used to model effects of climate, land use, and design of remediation actions. Special attention will be paid to toxin removal at water works including development of new technologies tailored to remove natural toxins. The results will contribute to strengthening of European policies and regulation of drinking water, while new business opportunities within the fields of water supply and treatment, chemical monitoring and sensing, and the consulting sector will arise from academia-indstry collaborations. The urgency of the challenge, its eminent knowledge gaps, its multifaceted and multidisciplinary nature, and the need for scientific and public awareness to be communicated by ESRs in a balanced way makes the topic ideal for a European mobility and training network.

Agency: Cordis | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: SFS-03a-2014 | Award Amount: 7.00M | Year: 2015

Insects are the most diverse Class of life on earth, and different insects can be essential for, or highly damaging to, agriculture, horticulture and forestry. There is a pressing need, not just for new insecticides to combat resistance, but more specific, greener insecticides that target deleterious insects while sparing beneficial ones. This proposal aims to identify such insecticides by turning the insects own hormones against them, both by designing artificial neuropeptide mimetic analogs as candidate compounds, and by generating transgenic insects that carry deleterious neuropeptide payloads within them, that can propagate through a population and impact on survival at times of stress. We have assembled an international multi-actor consortium from EU member and associated member states, as well as a third country partner, with unparalleled experience in insect functional genomics, neuropeptide physiology, synthetic chemistry and synthetic biology, and in field-testing of candidates. Established links to agricultural, horticultural and forestry end-users, agencies/advisors and our SME partners ensure relevance to user need; and set out a pathway to exploitation and implementation of our results, for impact across three major economic sectors in the EU and globally. We will deliver novel, green neuropeptide-based insect pest biocontrol tools by: utilising beyond the State-of-the-Art technologies based on two approaches: rational design of neuropeptide hormone analogues; and development of genetically-encoded neuropeptides for translational insect synthetic biology in genetic pest management. bridging outstanding research and technology in neuroendocrinology and genetics to end user need, to ultimately produce neuropeptide hormone analogues and genetic pest management biocontrol tools. validating and demonstrating these novel insect biocontrol agents in laboratory, field and forest applications, based on user need and a market-driven approach.

Rocha L.E.C.,Umeå University | Liljeros F.,University of Stockholm | Holme P.,Umeå University | Holme P.,Sungkyunkwan University
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America | Year: 2010

Like many other social phenomena, prostitution is increasingly coordinated over the Internet. The online behavior affects the offline activity; the reverse is also true. We investigated the reported sexual contacts between 6,624 anonymous escorts and 10,106 sex buyers extracted from an online community from its beginning and six years on. These sexual encounters were also graded and categorized (in terms of the type of sexual activities performed) by the buyers. From the temporal, bipartite network of posts, we found a full feedback loop in which high grades on previous posts affect the future commercial success of the sex worker, and vice versa. We also found a peculiar growth pattern in which the turnover of community members and sex workers causes a sublinear preferential attachment. There is, moreover, a strong geographic influence on network structure-the network is geographically clustered but still close to connected, the contacts consistent with the inverse-square law observed in trading patterns. We also found that the number of sellers scales sublinearly with city size, so this type of prostitution does not, comparatively speaking, benefit much from an increasing concentration of people.

Lee S.H.,Umeå University | Holme P.,Umeå University | Holme P.,Sungkyunkwan University | Holme P.,University of Stockholm
Physical Review Letters | Year: 2012

During the last decade of network research focusing on structural and dynamical properties of networks, the role of network users has been more or less underestimated from the bird's-eye view of global perspective. In this era of global positioning system equipped smartphones, however, a user's ability to access local geometric information and find efficient pathways on networks plays a crucial role, rather than the globally optimal pathways. We present a simple greedy spatial navigation strategy as a probe to explore spatial networks. These greedy navigators use directional information in every move they take, without being trapped in a dead end based on their memory about previous routes. We suggest that the centralities measures have to be modified to incorporate the navigators' behavior, and present the intriguing effect of navigators' greediness where removing some edges may actually enhance the routing efficiency, which is reminiscent of Braess's paradox. In addition, using samples of road structures in large cities around the world, it is shown that the navigability measure we define reflects unique structural properties, which are not easy to predict from other topological characteristics. In this respect, we believe that our routing scheme significantly moves the routing problem on networks one step closer to reality, incorporating the inevitable incompleteness of navigators' information. © 2012 American Physical Society.

Ljungdahl P.O.,University of Stockholm | Daignan-Fornier B.,Institut Universitaire de France | Daignan-Fornier B.,French National Center for Scientific Research
Genetics | Year: 2012

Ever since the beginning of biochemical analysis, yeast has been a pioneering model for studying the regulation of eukaryotic metabolism. During the last three decades, the combination of powerful yeast genetics and genome-wide approaches has led to a more integrated view of metabolic regulation. Multiple layers of regulation, from suprapathway control to individual gene responses, have been discovered. Constitutive and dedicated systems that are critical in sensing of the intra- and extracellular environment have been identified, and there is a growing awareness of their involvement in the highly regulated intracellular compartmentalization of proteins and metabolites. This review focuses on recent developments in the field of amino acid, nucleotide, and phosphate metabolism and provides illustrative examples of how yeast cells combine a variety of mechanisms to achieve coordinated regulation of multiple metabolic pathways. Importantly, common schemes have emerged, which reveal mechanisms conserved among various pathways, such as those involved in metabolite sensing and transcriptional regulation by noncoding RNAs or by metabolic intermediates. Thanks to the remarkable sophistication offered by the yeast experimental system, a picture of the intimate connections between the metabolomic and the transcriptome is becoming clear. © 2012 by the Genetics Society of America.

Knudby A.,University of Waterloo | Nordlund L.,University of Stockholm
International Journal of Remote Sensing | Year: 2011

We tested the utility of IKONOS satellite imagery to map seagrass distribution and biomass in a 4.1 km2 area around Chumbe Island, Zanzibar, Tanzania. Considered to be a challenging environment to map, this area is characterized by a diverse mix of inter- and subtidal habitat types. Our mapped distribution of seagrasses corresponded well to field data, although the total seagrass area was underestimated due to spectral confusion and misclassification of areas with sparse seagrass patches as sparse coral and algae-covered limestone rock. Seagrass biomass was also accurately estimated (r2 = 0.83), except in areas with Thalassodendron ciliatum (r2 = 0.57), as the stems of T. ciliatum change the relationship between light interception and biomass from that of other species in the area. We recommend the use of remote sensing over field-based methods for seagrass mapping because of the comprehensive coverage, high accuracy and ability to estimate biomass. The results obtained with IKONOS imagery in our complex study area are encouraging, and support the use of this data source for seagrass mapping in similar areas. © 2011 Taylor & Francis.

Nakase I.,Kyoto University | Akita H.,Hokkaido University | Kogure K.,Kyoto Pharmaceutical University | Graslund A.,University of Stockholm | And 3 more authors.
Accounts of Chemical Research | Year: 2012

Over the last 20 years, researchers have designed or discovered peptides that can permeate membranes and deliver exogenous molecules inside a cell. These peptides, known as cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs), typically consist of 6-30 residues, including HIV TAT peptide, penetratin, oligoarginine, transportan, and TP10. Through chemical conjugation or noncovalent complex formation, these structures successfully deliver bioactive and membrane-impermeable molecules into cells. CPPs have also gained attention as an attractive vehicle for the delivery of nucleic acid pharmaceuticals (NAPs), including genes/plasmids, short oligonucleotides, and small interference RNAs and their analogues, due to their high internalization efficacy, low cytotoxicity, and flexible structural design.In this Account, we survey the potential of CPPs for the design and optimization of NAP delivery systems. First, we describe the impact of the N-terminal stearylation of CPPs. Endocytic pathways make a major contribution to the cellular uptake of NAPs. Stearylation at the N-terminus of CPPs with stearyl-octaarginine (R8), stearyl-(RxR) 4, and stearyl-TP10 prompts the formation of a self-assembled core-shell nanoparticle with NAPs, a compact structure that promotes cellular uptake. Researchers have designed modifications such as the addition of trifluoromethylquinoline moieties to lysine residues to destabilize endosomes, as exemplified by PepFect 6, and these changes further improve biological responsiveness. Alternatively, stearylation also allows implantation of CPPs onto the surface of liposomes. This feature facilitates "programmed packaging" to establish multifunctional envelope-type nanodevices (MEND). The R8-MEND showed high transfection efficiency comparable to that of adenovirus in non-dividing cells.Understanding the cellular uptake mechanisms of CPPs will further improve CPP-mediated NAP delivery. The cellular uptake of CPPs and their NAP complex involves various types of endocytosis. Macropinocytosis, a mechanism which is also activated in response to stimuli such as growth factors or viruses, is a primary pathway for arginine-rich CPPs because high cationic charge density promotes this endocytic pathway. The use of larger endosomes (known as macropinosomes) rather than clathrin- or caveolae-mediated endocytosis has been reported in macropinocytosis which would also facilitate the endocytosis of NAP nanoparticles into cells. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

Rathwell K.J.,University of Waterloo | Rathwell K.J.,University of Stockholm | Peterson G.D.,University of Stockholm
Ecology and Society | Year: 2012

In many densely settled agricultural watersheds, water quality is a point of conflict between amenity and agricultural activities because of the varied demands and impacts on shared water resources. Successful governance of these watersheds requires coordination among different activities. Recent research has highlighted the role that social networks between management entities can play to facilitate cross-scale interaction in watershed governance. For example, bridging organizations can be positioned in social networks to bridge local initiatives done by single municipalities across whole watersheds. To better understand the role of social networks in social-ecological system dynamics, we combine a social network analysis of the water quality management networks held by local governments with a social-ecological analysis of variation in water management and ecosystem services across the Montérégie, an agricultural landscape near Montréal, Québec, Canada. We analyze municipal water management networks by using one-mode networks to represent direct collaboration between municipalities, and twomode networks to capture how bridging organizations indirectly connect municipalities. We find that municipalities do not collaborate directly with one another but instead are connected via bridging organizations that span the water quality management network. We also discovered that more connected municipalities engaged in more water management activities. However, bridging organizations preferentially connected with municipalities that used more tourism related ecosystem services rather than those that used more agricultural ecosystem services. Many agricultural municipalities were relatively isolated, despite being the main producers of water quality problems. In combination, these findings suggest that further strengthening the water management network in the Montérégie will contribute to improving water quality in the region. However, such strengthening requires developing a network that better connects both agricultural and tourism oriented municipalities. Furthermore, these findings show that consideration of the social-ecological context of social networks, can help explain the structure of networks and reveal social-ecological clusters and disconnects in a network. © 2012 by the author(s).

Ibrahem I.,Mid Sweden University | Ma G.,Mid Sweden University | Afewerki S.,Mid Sweden University | Cordova A.,Mid Sweden University | Cordova A.,University of Stockholm
Angewandte Chemie - International Edition | Year: 2013

Palladium and a simple chiral amine are used as co-catalysts for the enantioselective conjugate addition of aryl boronic acids to α,β-unsaturated aldehydes (see scheme). The synthetic utility of this co-catalyzed reaction was demonstrated in the short total syntheses of (R)-(-)-curcumene and 4-aryl-2-ones. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

Holme P.,Sungkyunkwan University | Holme P.,Umeå University | Holme P.,University of Stockholm
PLoS Computational Biology | Year: 2013

One of network epidemiology's central assumptions is that the contact structure over which infectious diseases propagate can be represented as a static network. However, contacts are highly dynamic, changing at many time scales. In this paper, we investigate conceptually simple methods to construct static graphs for network epidemiology from temporal contact data. We evaluate these methods on empirical and synthetic model data. For almost all our cases, the network representation that captures most relevant information is a so-called exponential-threshold network. In these, each contact contributes with a weight decreasing exponentially with time, and there is an edge between a pair of vertices if the weight between them exceeds a threshold. Networks of aggregated contacts over an optimally chosen time window perform almost as good as the exponential-threshold networks. On the other hand, networks of accumulated contacts over the entire sampling time, and networks of concurrent partnerships, perform worse. We discuss these observations in the context of the temporal and topological structure of the data sets. © 2013 Petter Holme.

Holme P.,UmeaUniversity | Holme P.,Sungkyunkwan University | Holme P.,University of Stockholm | Saramaki J.,Aalto University
Physics Reports | Year: 2012

A great variety of systems in nature, society and technology-from the web of sexual contacts to the Internet, from the nervous system to power grids-can be modeled as graphs of vertices coupled by edges. The network structure, describing how the graph is wired, helps us understand, predict and optimize the behavior of dynamical systems. In many cases, however, the edges are not continuously active. As an example, in networks of communication via e-mail, text messages, or phone calls, edges represent sequences of instantaneous or practically instantaneous contacts. In some cases, edges are active for non-negligible periods of time: e.g.,the proximity patterns of inpatients at hospitals can be represented by a graph where an edge between two individuals is on throughout the time they are at the same ward. Like network topology, the temporal structure of edge activations can affect dynamics of systems interacting through the network, from disease contagion on the network of patients to information diffusion over an e-mail network. In this review, we present the emergent field of temporal networks, and discuss methods for analyzing topological and temporal structure and models for elucidating their relation to the behavior of dynamical systems. In the light of traditional network theory, one can see this framework as moving the information of when things happen from the dynamical system on the network, to the network itself. Since fundamental properties, such as the transitivity of edges, do not necessarily hold in temporal networks, many of these methods need to be quite different from those for static networks. The study of temporal networks is very interdisciplinary in nature. Reflecting this, even the object of study has many names-temporal graphs, evolving graphs, time-varying graphs, time-aggregated graphs, time-stamped graphs, dynamic networks, dynamic graphs, dynamical graphs, and so on. This review covers different fields where temporal graphs are considered, but does not attempt to unify related terminology-rather, we want to make papers readable across disciplines. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

Light S.,University of Stockholm | Elofsson A.,University of Stockholm | Elofsson A.,Swedish e Science Research Center
Current Opinion in Structural Biology | Year: 2013

Many proteins are composed of protein domains, functional units of common descent. Multidomain forms are common in all eukaryotes making up more than half of the proteome and the evolution of novel domain architecture has been accelerated in metazoans. It is also becoming increasingly clear that alternative splicing is prevalent among vertebrates. Given that protein domains are defined as structurally, functionally and evolutionarily distinct units, one may speculate that some alternative splicing events may lead to clean excisions of protein domains, thus generating a number of different domain architectures from one gene template. However, recent findings indicate that smaller alternative splicing events, in particular in disordered regions, might be more prominent than domain architectural changes.The problem of identifying protein isoforms is, however, still not resolved. Clearly, many splice forms identified through detection of mRNA sequences appear to produce 'nonfunctional' proteins, such as proteins with missing internal secondary structure elements. Here, we review the state of the art methods for identification of functional isoforms and present a summary of what is known, thus far, about alternative splicing with regard to protein domain architectures. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

Ibrahem I.,Mid Sweden University | Breistein P.,Mid Sweden University | Cordova A.,Mid Sweden University | Cordova A.,University of Stockholm
Angewandte Chemie - International Edition | Year: 2011

No longer a simple bor(ation): The title reaction between bis(pinacolato)diboron, enals, and 2-(triphenylphosphoranylidene)acetates employing bench-stable copper salts and a simple chiral amine co-catalyst is presented (see scheme). The reaction proceeds through a catalytic asymmetric conjugate borane addition/Wittig sequence wherein the β-boration step is 1,4-selective and gives the corresponding homoallylboronate products with high enantiomeric ratios. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

Rocha L.E.C.,Umeå University | Liljeros F.,University of Stockholm | Holme P.,Umeå University | Holme P.,Sungkyunkwan University
PLoS Computational Biology | Year: 2011

Sexual contact patterns, both in their temporal and network structure, can influence the spread of sexually transmitted infections (STI). Most previous literature has focused on effects of network topology; few studies have addressed the role of temporal structure. We simulate disease spread using SI and SIR models on an empirical temporal network of sexual contacts in high-end prostitution. We compare these results with several other approaches, including randomization of the data, classic mean-field approaches, and static network simulations. We observe that epidemic dynamics in this contact structure have well-defined, rather high epidemic thresholds. Temporal effects create a broad distribution of outbreak sizes, even if the per-contact transmission probability is taken to its hypothetical maximum of 100%. In general, we conclude that the temporal correlations of our network accelerate outbreaks, especially in the early phase of the epidemics, while the network topology (apart from the contact-rate distribution) slows them down. We find that the temporal correlations of sexual contacts can significantly change simulated outbreaks in a large empirical sexual network. Thus, temporal structures are needed alongside network topology to fully understand the spread of STIs. On a side note, our simulations further suggest that the specific type of commercial sex we investigate is not a reservoir of major importance for HIV. © 2011 Rocha et al.

Lonnell N.,University of Stockholm | Jonsson B.G.,Mid Sweden University | Hylander K.,University of Stockholm
Ecography | Year: 2014

Effective dispersal is crucial to species inhabiting transient substrates in order for them to be able to persist in a landscape. Bryophytes, pteridophytes, lichens and fungi all have wind-dispersed small diaspores and can be efficiently dispersed if their diaspores reach air masses above canopy height. However, empirical data on dispersal over landscape scales are scarce. We investigated how the colonization of an acrocarpous clay-inhabiting pioneer moss, Discelium nudum, varied between sites that differed in connectivity to potential dispersal sources at spatial scales from 1 to 20 km in a region in northern Sweden. We recorded the colonization on ̃25 introduced clay heaps at each of 14 experimental sites some months after the dispersal period. The colonization rate ranged from 0-82% and had a statistically significant relationship with a proxy for potential habitats (amount of clay-dominated soil) in a buffer of 20 km radius surrounding the experimental sites (and also weakly with the amount of substrate in a 10 km buffer). There were no significant relationships between colonization rate and connectivity at smaller scales (1 and 5 km). We made a rough estimate of the number of spores available for dispersal in a landscape, given the amount of clay-dominated soil, by recording the number of Discelium nudum colonies in two 25 × 25 km landscapes. The estimated available spore numbers in the different 20 km buffers were of the same order of magnitude as the deposition densities at the experimental sites calculated from the colonization rates. The results suggest that the spores of species with scattered occurrences and small diaspores (25 μm) in open landscapes can be deposited over extensive areas, at rates high enough to drive colonization patterns. This also implies that regional connectivity may be more important than local connectivity for these kinds of species. © 2014 The Authors.

Kehrein K.,University of Stockholm | Bonnefoy N.,French National Center for Scientific Research | Ott M.,University of Stockholm
Antioxidants and Redox Signaling | Year: 2013

Significance: The mitochondrial genetic system is responsible for the production of a few core-subunits of the respiratory chain and ATP synthase, the membrane protein complexes driving oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS). Efficiency and accuracy of mitochondrial protein synthesis determines how efficiently new OXPHOS complexes can be made. Recent Advances: The system responsible for expression of the mitochondrial-encoded subunits developed from that of the bacterial ancestor of mitochondria. Importantly, many aspects of genome organization, transcription, and translation have diverged during evolution. Recent research has provided new insights into the architecture, regulation, and organelle-specific features of mitochondrial translation. Mitochondrial ribosomes contain a number of proteins absent from prokaryotic ribosomes, implying that in mitochondria, ribosomes were tailored to fit the requirements of the organelle. In addition, mitochondrial gene expression is regulated post-transcriptionally by a number of mRNA-specific translational activators. At least in yeast, these factors can regulate translation in respect to OXPHOS complex assembly to adjust the level of newly synthesized proteins to amounts that can be successfully assembled into respiratory chain complexes. Critical Issues: Mitochondrial gene expression is determining aging in eukaryotes, and a number of recent reports indicate that efficiency of translation directly influences this process. Future Directions: Here we will summarize recent advances in our understanding of mitochondrial protein synthesis by comparing the knowledge acquired in the systems most commonly used to study mitochondrial biogenesis. However, many steps have not been understood mechanistically. Innovative biochemical and genetic approaches have to be elaborated to shed light on these important processes. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 19, 1928-1939. © Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.

Hohna S.,University of Stockholm | Stadler T.,ETH Zurich | Ronquist F.,Swedish Museum of Natural History | Britton T.,University of Stockholm
Molecular Biology and Evolution | Year: 2011

The birth-death process is widely used in phylogenetics to model speciation and extinction. Recent studies have shown that the inferred rates are sensitive to assumptions about the sampling probability of lineages. Here, we examine the effect of the method used to sample lineages. Whereas previous studies have assumed random sampling (RS), we consider two extreme cases of biased sampling: "diversified sampling" (DS), where tips are selected to maximize diversity and "cluster sampling (CS)," where sample diversity is minimized. DS appears to be standard practice, for example, in analyses of higher taxa, whereas CS may occur under special circumstances, for example, in studies of geographically defined floras or faunas. Using both simulations and analyses of empirical data, we show that inferred rates may be heavily biased if the sampling strategy is not modeled correctly. In particular, when a diversified sample is treated as if it were a random or complete sample, the extinction rate is severely underestimated, often close to 0. Such dramatic errors may lead to serious consequences, for example, if estimated rates are used in assessing the vulnerability of threatened species to extinction. Using Bayesian model testing across 18 empirical data sets, we show that DS is commonly a better fit to the data than complete, random, or cluster sampling (CS). Inappropriate modeling of the sampling method may at least partly explain anomalous results that have previously been attributed to variation over time in birth and death rates. © 2011 The Author.

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