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Stavanger, Norway

The University of Stavanger is a university located in Stavanger, Norway and established in 2005. It has about 9 000 students and 1200 administration, faculty and service staff. It is organised in three faculties, including two national centres of expertise and the Museum of Archaeology.The university offers doctorates in: Literacy; Risk Management and Societal Safety; Educational science; Health and Medicine; Management, Economics and Tourism; Sociology, Social Work and Culture & Society; Chemistry and Biological Science; Offshore Technology; Petroleum Technology; Risk Management and Societal Safety- Technical/Scientific Approach; and Information Technology, Mathematics and physics.The University of Stavanger became a member of the European Consortium of Innovative Universities in October 2012. Wikipedia.

Aven T.,University of Stavanger
Reliability Engineering and System Safety | Year: 2013

In recent years several authors have argued for the adoption of certain new types of risk perspectives which highlight uncertainties rather than probabilities in the way risk is understood and measured. The theoretical rationale for these new perspectives is well established, but the practical implications have not been so clearly demonstrated. There is a need to show how the new perspectives change the way risk is described and communicated in real-life situations and in its turn the effects on risk management and decision making. The present paper aims at contributing to this end by considering two cases, related to a national risk level, and a specific analysis concerning an LNG plant. The paper concludes that the new risk perspectives influence the current regime in many ways, in particular the manner in which the knowledge dimension is described and dealt with. Two methods for characterising the strength of knowledge are presented, one of them based on a new concept, the "assumption deviation risk", reflecting risks related to the deviations from the conditions/states defined by the assumption made. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source

In surgical research, the ability to correctly classify one type of condition or specific outcome from another is of great importance for variables influencing clinical decision making. Receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis is a useful tool in assessing the diagnostic accuracy of any variable with a continuous spectrum of results. In order to rule a disease state in or out with a given test, the test results are usually binary, with arbitrarily chosen cut-offs for defining disease versus health, or for grading of disease severity. In the postgenomic era, the translation from bench-to-bedside of biomarkers in various tissues and body fluids requires appropriate tools for analysis. In contrast to predetermining a cut-off value to define disease, the advantages of applying ROC analysis include the ability to test diagnostic accuracy across the entire range of variable scores and test outcomes. In addition, ROC analysis can easily examine visual and statistical comparisons across tests or scores. ROC is also favored because it is thought to be independent from the prevalence of the condition under investigation. ROC analysis is used in various surgical settings and across disciplines, including cancer research, biomarker assessment, imaging evaluation, and assessment of risk scores. With appropriate use, ROC curves may help identify the most appropriate cutoff value for clinical and surgical decision making and avoid confounding effects seen with subjective ratings. ROC curve results should always be put in perspective, because a good classifier does not guarantee the expected clinical outcome. In this review, we discuss the fundamental roles, suggested presentation, potential biases, and interpretation of ROC analysis in surgical research. © 2010 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Source

Norheim K.B.,University of Stavanger
Rheumatology (Oxford, England) | Year: 2011

Chronic fatigue is a common, poorly understood and disabling phenomenon in many diseases. We aim to provide an overview of fatigue in chronic autoimmune and inflammatory disease. Fatigue measurement, prevalence and confounding factors such as depression, sleep disorders and pain are reviewed in the first half of the article. In the second half of the article, we describe explanatory models of fatigue and fatigue signalling, with an emphasis on cytokines and sickness behaviour, oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction and the impact of certain genes on fatigue. Source

The promise of individualized treatment is gradually being fulfilled, and targeted therapy is becoming a powerful strategy to treat selected patients based on their molecular profile. For metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) patients anti-EGFR (epidermal growth factor receptor) targeted therapy has markedly improved disease control and survival. However, only a subgroup of patients with mCRC respond to anti-EGFR treatment, and selecting the patients with a positive effect from treatment is important for both the patient and the society. Patients with mutations in the KRAS gene are known as non-responders to anti-EGFR treatment and, consequently, KRAS testing has been employed in routine clinical practice for patient selection. However, a large number of the KRAS wildtype patients do not respond to this treatment. The molecular mechanism underlying response is not fully understood, and other members of the KRAS-BRAF pathway and PI3K-AKT pathway are investigated as predictive biomarkers. Furthermore, concordance of mutation status of primary tumors and their corresponding hepatic or pulmonary metastases, as well as treatment-induced mutations, possess another challenge for properly tailoring the appropriate therapy to this patient group. In this review, molecular biomarkers involved in prediction of response to anti-EGFR treatment are discussed. Source

Aven T.,University of Stavanger
Reliability Engineering and System Safety | Year: 2012

This paper reviews the definition and meaning of the concept of risk. The review has a historical and development trend perspective, also covering recent years. It is questioned if, and to what extent, it is possible to identify some underlying patterns in the way risk has been, and is being understood today. The analysis is based on a new categorisation of risk definitions and an assessment of these categories in relation to a set of critical issues, including how these risk definitions match typical daily-life phrases about risk. The paper presents a set of constructed development paths for the risk concept and concludes that over the last 1520 years we have seen a shift from rather narrow perspectives based on probabilities to ways of thinking which highlight events, consequences and uncertainties. However, some of the more narrow perspectives (like expected values and probability-based perspectives) are still strongly influencing the risk field, although arguments can be provided against their use. The implications of this situation for risk assessment and risk management are also discussed. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd All rights reserved. Source

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