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Saint Paul, MN, United States

The University of St. Thomas is a private, Catholic, liberal arts, and archdiocesan university located in St. Paul and Minneapolis, Minnesota, United States. Founded in 1885 as a Catholic seminary, it is named after Thomas Aquinas, the medieval Catholic theologian and philosopher who was the patron saint of students in the Roman Catholic Church. UST currently enrolls more than 10,000 students, making it one of Minnesota's largest private universities. Father Dennis Dease became the 14th president in the history of the University in 1991, and was succeeded by Dr. Julie Sullivan in 2013. Wikipedia.

Westerhaus M.,University of St. Thomas, Minnesota
Academic Medicine | Year: 2014

Research and clinical experience reliably and repeatedly demonstrate that the determinants of health are most accurately conceptualized as biosocial phenomena, in which health and disease emerge through the interaction between biology and the social environment. Increased appreciation of biosocial approaches have already driven change in premedical education and focused attention on population health in current U.S. health care reform. Medical education, however, places primary emphasis on biomedicine and often fails to emphasize and educate students and trainees about the social forces that shape disease and illness patterns. The authors of this Commentary argue that medical education requires a comprehensive transformation to incorporate rigorous biosocial training to ensure that all future health professionals are equipped with the knowledge and skills necessary to practice social medicine. Three distinct models for accomplishing such transformation are presented: SocMed’s monthlong, elective courses in Northern Uganda and Haiti; Harvard Medical School’s semester-long, required social medicine course; and the Lebanese American University’s curricular integration of social medicine throughout its entire four-year curriculum. Successful implementation of social medicine training requires the institutionalization of biosocial curricula; the utilization of innovative, engaging pedagogies; and the involvement of health professions students from broad demographic backgrounds and with all career interests. The achievement of such transformational and necessary change to medical education will prepare future health practitioners working in all settings to respond more proactively and comprehensively to the health needs of all populations. © 2014 by the Association of American Medical Colleges

Small G.E.,University of St. Thomas, Minnesota | Sterner R.W.,University of Minnesota | Finlay J.C.,University of Minnesota
Ecological Modelling | Year: 2014

As water moves through the Laurentian Great Lakes system, it experiences a steep gradient in physical and chemical conditions between oligotrophic Lake Superior and eutrophic Lake Erie, likely affecting stocks and flows of nitrogen (N) across these lakes. We used published rates, supplemented by measurements conducted during a series of research cruises from 2010 to 2012, to construct three coupled 4-compartment N models for Lakes Superior, Huron, and Erie. Linear Inverse Modeling was used to identify plausible solutions to this model, and subsequent analysis focused on the most parsimonious model solution. For the most parsimonious model solution, we used Ecological Network Analysis (ENA) to analyze N flow and cycling in this steady-state model, and to examine the ultimate source of the N removed via denitrification within each lake. We also calculated denitrification efficiencies for each lake (the fraction of N removed through denitrification relative to all N exported) for 10,000 possible solutions to the underdetermined model. The average path length of N atoms in Lake Superior was 47.4, compared to 25.7 in Lake Huron and 15.2 in Lake Erie. Lake Superior's long (191 years) hydrologic residence time and relatively high N cycling rates allow for N atoms to have multiple opportunities to enter the sediment N pool and ultimately be removed through denitrification. Despite having a low areal denitrification rate, Lake Superior had a higher denitrification efficiency (86. ±. 1%; mean. ±. 95% CI) compared to Lake Huron (64. ±. 12%), and Lake Erie (48. ±. 7%). This long residence time also makes Lake Superior highly sensitive to changes in loading rates and internal processes, probably contributing to the steady nitrate rise over the past century. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.

Verhoeven A.,University of St. Thomas, Minnesota
New Phytologist | Year: 2014

Summary: Evergreens are faced with the challenge, during winter, of low temperatures in combination with light exposure, resulting in an imbalance between light absorption and its utilization via photosynthetic carbon reduction. To cope with excess light, evergreens increase their use of thermal energy dissipation, which occurs in a sustained form during winter. There are two forms of sustained thermal dissipation that occur in winter-stressed evergreens, characterized by their rate of reversal upon warming. A rapid form reverses within minutes to hours upon warming, while a slower form reverses over the course of days. The light environment and the severity of winter conditions both play a role in determining the relative amount of each type of sustained energy dissipation throughout the winter. It is suggested that the two forms of sustained dissipation observed in winter-stressed evergreens correspond to sustained forms of the two mechanisms of thermal energy dissipation proposed by Holzwarth and colleagues, with the rapidly reversible component corresponding to a sustained form of the energy-dependent form of thermal energy dissipation (qE) and the slowly reversible component corresponding to a sustained form of the zeaxanthin-dependent mechanism (qZ). Additional outstanding questions and future directions are discussed. © 2013 New Phytologist Trust.

Eikenaar C.,Institute of Avian Research | Husak J.,University of St. Thomas, Minnesota | Escallon C.,Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University | Moore I.T.,Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University
American Naturalist | Year: 2012

Latitudinal variation in life-history traits has been the focus of numerous investigations, but underlying hormonal mechanisms have received much less attention. Steroid hormones play a central role in vertebrate reproduction and may be associated with life-history trade-offs. Consequently, circulating concentrations of these hormones vary tremendously across vertebrates, yet interspecific geographic variation in male hormone concentrations has been studied in detail only in birds. We here report on such variation in amphibians and reptiles, confirming patterns observed in birds. Using phylogenetic comparative analyses, we found that in amphibians, but not in reptiles, testosterone and baseline corticosterone were positively related to latitude. Baseline corticosterone was negatively related to elevation in amphibians but not in reptiles. For both groups, testosterone concentrations were negatively related to breeding- season length. In addition, testosterone concentrations were positively correlated with baseline corticosterone in both groups. Our findings may best be explained by the hypothesis that shorter breeding seasons increase male-male competition, which may favor increased testosterone concentrations that modulate secondary sexual traits. Elevated energetic demands resulting from greater reproductive intensity may require higher baseline corticosterone. Thus, the positive relationship between testosterone and corticosterone in both groups suggests an energetic demand for testosterone-regulated behavior that is met with increased baseline glucocorticoid concentrations. © 2012 by The University of Chicago.

Ghanem T.M.,University of St. Thomas, Minnesota | Elmagarmid A.K.,Purdue University | Larson P.-A.,Microsoft | Aref W.G.,Purdue University
ACM Transactions on Database Systems | Year: 2010

In relational database management systems, views supplement basic query constructs to cope with the demand for higher-level views of data. Moreover, in traditional query optimization, answering a query using a set of existing materialized views can yield a more efficient query execution plan. Due to their effectiveness, views are attractive to data stream management systems. In order to support views over streams, a data stream management system should employ a closed (or composable) continuous query language. A closed query language is a language in which query inputs and outputs are interpreted in the same way, hence allowing query composition. This article introduces the Synchronized SQL (or SyncSQL) query language that defines a data stream as a sequence of modify operations against a relation. SyncSQL enables query composition through the unified interpretation of query inputs and outputs. An important issue in continuous queries over data streams is the frequency by which the answer gets refreshed and the conditions that trigger the refresh. Coarser periodic refresh requirements are typically expressed as sliding windows. In this article, the sliding window approach is generalized by introducing the synchronization principle that empowers SyncSQL with a formal mechanism to express queries with arbitrary refresh conditions. After introducing the semantics and syntax, we lay the algebraic foundation for SyncSQL and propose a query-matching algorithm for deciding containment of SyncSQL expressions. Then, the article introduces the Nile-SyncSQL prototype to support SyncSQL queries. Nile-SyncSQL employs a pipelined incremental evaluation paradigm in which the query pipeline consists of a set of differential operators. A cost model is developed to estimate the cost of SyncSQL query execution pipelines and to choose the best execution plan from a set of different plans for the same query. An experimental study is conducted to evaluate the performance of Nile-SyncSQL. The experimental results illustrate the effectiveness of Nile-SyncSQL and the significant performance gains when views are enabled in data stream management systems. © 2010 ACM.

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