The University of St Andrews is a public research university in St Andrews, Fife, Scotland. It is the oldest of the four ancient universities of Scotland, and the third oldest university in the English-speaking world . It was founded between 1410 and 1413 when the Avignon Antipope Benedict XIII issued a Papal Bull to a small founding group of Augustinian clergy.St Andrews is made up from a variety of institutions, including three constituent colleges and 18 academic Schools organized into four Faculties. The university occupies historic and modern buildings located throughout the town. The academic year is divided into two terms, Martinmas and Candlemas. In term time, over a third of the town's population is either a staff member or student of the university. The student body is notably diverse: over 30% of its intake come from well over 100 countries, 15% from North America. The University's sport teams compete in BUCS competitions, and the student body is known for preserving ancient traditions such as Raisin Weekend, May Dip, and the wear of distinctive academic dress.National league tables currently rank St Andrews as the third best university in the United Kingdom. The Schools of Physics and Astronomy, International Relations, Computer Science and Mathematics are ranked first in the United Kingdom by The Guardian. International league tables rank St Andrews less highly, due in part to its small size, though The Times Higher Education World Universities Ranking names St Andrews among the world’s Top 20 Arts and Humanities universities. St Andrews has the highest student satisfaction amongst all multi-faculty universities in the United Kingdom.St Andrews has many notable alumni and affiliated faculty, including eminent mathematicians, scientists, theologians, philosophers, and politicians. Recent alumni include the former First Minister of Scotland Alex Salmond; Secretary of State for Defence Michael Fallon; United States Ambassador to Hungary Colleen Bell; Olympic gold medalist Chris Hoy; actor Crispin Bonham-Carter; and royals Prince William, Duke of Cambridge, and Catherine, Duchess of Cambridge. It boasts five Nobel Laureates: two in Chemistry and one each in Peace, Literature and Physiology or Medicine. Wikipedia.
University of Dundee, University of Abertay Dundee and University of St. Andrews | Date: 2016-12-16
A cosmetic and/or therapeutic treatment of tissue, such as tooth, is disclosed that effects, for instance, whitening and tissue re-building through mineralisation. Further, a method of performing iontophoresis utilizing an aqueous composition of a remineralising agent to achieve mineralisation is disclosed, as well as a kit for performing the mineralization or re-mineralisation.
University of St. Andrews | Date: 2016-11-18
A Raman spectroscopic detection device comprising at least one microfluidic sample channel; at least one excitation waveguide for exciting a Raman signal and at least one collection waveguide for collecting a Raman signal. The output of the excitation waveguide and the input of the collection waveguide are positioned directly in the microfluidic sample channel
University of St. Andrews | Date: 2015-01-28
The invention relates to a method of alkene metathesis. In the method, at least one monoalkene is subjected to ethenolysis in the presence of a diene. The invention also relates to the use of a diene to promote an ethenolysis reaction conducted on a monoalkene.
University of St. Andrews | Date: 2017-06-07
An optical system for generating an Airy beam light sheet comprising an optical arrangement for generating a Gaussian beam, and an optical element for converting the Gaussian beam into an Airy beam light sheet, wherein a single optical element is provided for converting the Gaussian beam into an Airy beam light sheet.
University of St. Andrews | Date: 2014-01-06
A method of preparing a 2,6 disubstituted anilines includes, reacting a 2-amino isophthalic acid diester with sufficient Grignard reagent R_(2)CH_(2)MgX to form the corresponding diol product, dehydrating the diol product to the corresponding dialkene; and hydrogenating the diol product to form the corresponding aniline. The 2,6 disubstituted anilines can be used to produce N-Heterocyciic Carbenes (NHCs). The NHCs can find application in various fields such as organic synthesis, catalysis and macromolecular chemistry. Palladium catalysts containing the NHCs are also described.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: INFRAIA-01-2016-2017 | Award Amount: 10.01M | Year: 2017
Europe has become a global leader in optical-near infrared astronomy through excellence in space and ground-based experimental and theoretical research. While the major infrastructures are delivered through major national and multi-national agencies (ESO, ESA) their continuing scientific competitiveness requires a strong community of scientists and technologists distributed across Europes nations. OPTICON has a proven record supporting European astrophysical excellence through development of new technologies, through training of new people, through delivering open access to the best infrastructures, and through strategic planning for future requirements in technology, innovative research methodologies, and trans-national coordination. Europes scientific excellence depends on continuing effort developing and supporting the distributed expertise across Europe - this is essential to develop and implement new technologies and ensure instrumentation and infrastructures remain cutting edge. Excellence depends on continuing effort to strengthen and broaden the community, through networking initiatives to include and then consolidate European communities with more limited science expertise. Excellence builds on training actions to qualify scientists from European communities which lack national access to state of the art research infrastructures to compete successfully for use of the best available facilities. Excellence depends on access programmes which enable all European scientists to access the best infrastructures needs-blind, purely on competitive merit. Global competitiveness and the future of the community require early planning of long-term sustainability, awareness of potentially disruptive technologies, and new approaches to the use of national-scale infrastructures under remote or robotic control. OPTICON will continue to promote this excellence, global competitiveness and long-term strategic planning.
Nolan S.P.,University of St. Andrews
Accounts of Chemical Research | Year: 2011
Gold has emerged as a powerful synthetic tool in the chemists arsenal. From the early use of inorganic salts such as AuCl and AuCl3 as catalysts, the field has evolved to explore ligands that fine-tune reactivity, stability, and, more recently, selectivity in gold-mediated processes. Substrates generally contain alkenes or alkynes, and they usually involve straightforward protocols in air with solvents that can oftentimes be of technical grade. The actual catalytic species is the putative cationic gold(I) complex [Au(L)]+ (where L is a phosphorus-based species or N-heterocyclic carbene, NHC). The early gold systems bearing phosphine and phosphite ligands provided important transformations and served as useful mechanistic probes. More recently, the use of NHCs as ligands for gold has rapidly gained in popularity. These two-electron donor ligands combine strong f-donating properties with a steric profile that allows for both stabilization of the metal center and enhancement of its catalytic activity. As a result, the gold-NHC complexes have been used as well-defined precatalysts and have permitted the isolation of reactive single-component systems that are now used instead of the initial [Au(L)Cl]/silver salt method. Because some are now commercially available, NHC-containing gold(I) complexes are gathering increasing interest.In this Account, we describe the chronological development of this chemistry in our laboratories, highlighting the advantages of this family of gold complexes and reviewing their synthesis and applications in catalysis. We first outline the syntheses, which are straightforward. The complexes generally exhibit high stability, allowing for indefinite storage and easy handling. We next consider catalysis, particularly examining efficacy in cycloisomerization, other skeletal rearrangements, addition of water to alkynes and nitriles, and C-H bond activation. These processes are quite atom-economical, and in the most recent C-H reactions the only byproduct is water. State-of-the-art methodology now involves single-component catalysts, precluding the need for costly silver co-catalysts. Remarkably, the use of an NHC as a supporting ligand has permitted the isolation of [Au(L)(S)]+ species (where S is a solvent molecule such as a nitrile), which can act as single-component catalysts. Some improvements are still needed, as the single components are most often synthesized with a silver reagent. Owing to the stabilizing effect of NHC coordination, some NHC-containing systems can catalyze extremely challenging reactions (at temperatures as high as 140 A°C) and react at very low loadings of gold (ppm levels). Our latest developments deal with C-H bond functionalization and hold great promise.We close with a selection of important developments by the community with gold-NHC complexes. As demonstrated by the turns and twists encountered during our own journey in the gold-NHC venture, the chemistry described here, combining fundamental organometallic, catalytic, and organic methodology, remains rich in opportunities, especially considering that only a handful of gold(I) architectures has been studied. We hope this Account will encourage young researchers to explore this emerging area, as the adage the more you do, the more you have to do surely holds true in gold-mediated catalysis. © 2010 American Chemical Society.
Nelson D.J.,University of St. Andrews |
Nolan S.P.,University of St. Andrews
Chemical Society Reviews | Year: 2013
The use of N-heterocyclic carbenes (NHCs) in chemistry has developed rapidly over the past twenty years. These interesting compounds are predominantly employed in organometallic chemistry as ligands for various metal centres, and as organocatalysts able to mediate an exciting range of reactions. However, the sheer number of NHCs known in the literature can make the appropriate choice of NHC for a given application difficult. A number of metrics have been explored that allow the electronic properties of NHCs to be quantified and compared. In this review, we discuss these various metrics and what they can teach about the electronic properties of NHCs. Data for approximately three hundred NHCs are presented, obtained from a detailed survey of the literature. © 2013 The Royal Society of Chemistry.
Whiten A.,University of St. Andrews
Nature | Year: 2014
The adoption of a new form of tool use has been observed to spread along social-network pathways in a chimpanzee community. The finding offers the first direct evidence of cultural diffusion in these animals in the wild. © 2014 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.
Agency: GTR | Branch: EPSRC | Program: | Phase: Research Grant | Award Amount: 2.08M | Year: 2017
The aim of this proposal is to establish a Core Activity within the UK Centre for Advanced Materials for Energy Generation and Transmission along the lines of the national Supergen Consortia in Energy Engineering. We anticipate being one of three Cores comprising an overall Centre activity and expect to play an important role in delivering such a Centre. Here, we build our case around the most critical element in many manifestations of Energy Materials applications, the interfaces between the active elements. The interface between active components and, indeed, the surface are usually of great importance in determining the functionality of any energy materials application. For example, the critical region determining the performance and lifetime of most electrochemical systems is normally at the electrode side of the electrode/electrolyte interface. The proposal is split into three components: (1) Platform Research within the Core (60%); (2) Flexible Funding for collaborative research with University & Industry Partners outside the Core (30%), using which we will seek to build up capability through pump-priming and proof of concept studies. Thirdly, this will be strongly supported through interactions and collaborations through (3) Networking and Outreach (10%). The grouping not only offers strong expertise in a broad range of Energy Materials, but also brings together diverse skills and disciplines in a highly complementary manner to address exciting research challenges at Energy Materials interfaces.