The University of St Andrews is a public research university in St Andrews, Fife, Scotland. It is the oldest of the four ancient universities of Scotland, and the third oldest university in the English-speaking world . It was founded between 1410 and 1413 when the Avignon Antipope Benedict XIII issued a Papal Bull to a small founding group of Augustinian clergy.St Andrews is made up from a variety of institutions, including three constituent colleges and 18 academic Schools organized into four Faculties. The university occupies historic and modern buildings located throughout the town. The academic year is divided into two terms, Martinmas and Candlemas. In term time, over a third of the town's population is either a staff member or student of the university. The student body is notably diverse: over 30% of its intake come from well over 100 countries, 15% from North America. The University's sport teams compete in BUCS competitions, and the student body is known for preserving ancient traditions such as Raisin Weekend, May Dip, and the wear of distinctive academic dress.National league tables currently rank St Andrews as the third best university in the United Kingdom. The Schools of Physics and Astronomy, International Relations, Computer Science and Mathematics are ranked first in the United Kingdom by The Guardian. International league tables rank St Andrews less highly, due in part to its small size, though The Times Higher Education World Universities Ranking names St Andrews among the world’s Top 20 Arts and Humanities universities. St Andrews has the highest student satisfaction amongst all multi-faculty universities in the United Kingdom.St Andrews has many notable alumni and affiliated faculty, including eminent mathematicians, scientists, theologians, philosophers, and politicians. Recent alumni include the former First Minister of Scotland Alex Salmond; Secretary of State for Defence Michael Fallon; United States Ambassador to Hungary Colleen Bell; Olympic gold medalist Chris Hoy; actor Crispin Bonham-Carter; and royals Prince William, Duke of Cambridge, and Catherine, Duchess of Cambridge. It boasts five Nobel Laureates: two in Chemistry and one each in Peace, Literature and Physiology or Medicine. Wikipedia.
Nolan S.P.,University of St. Andrews
Accounts of Chemical Research | Year: 2011
Gold has emerged as a powerful synthetic tool in the chemists arsenal. From the early use of inorganic salts such as AuCl and AuCl3 as catalysts, the field has evolved to explore ligands that fine-tune reactivity, stability, and, more recently, selectivity in gold-mediated processes. Substrates generally contain alkenes or alkynes, and they usually involve straightforward protocols in air with solvents that can oftentimes be of technical grade. The actual catalytic species is the putative cationic gold(I) complex [Au(L)]+ (where L is a phosphorus-based species or N-heterocyclic carbene, NHC). The early gold systems bearing phosphine and phosphite ligands provided important transformations and served as useful mechanistic probes. More recently, the use of NHCs as ligands for gold has rapidly gained in popularity. These two-electron donor ligands combine strong f-donating properties with a steric profile that allows for both stabilization of the metal center and enhancement of its catalytic activity. As a result, the gold-NHC complexes have been used as well-defined precatalysts and have permitted the isolation of reactive single-component systems that are now used instead of the initial [Au(L)Cl]/silver salt method. Because some are now commercially available, NHC-containing gold(I) complexes are gathering increasing interest.In this Account, we describe the chronological development of this chemistry in our laboratories, highlighting the advantages of this family of gold complexes and reviewing their synthesis and applications in catalysis. We first outline the syntheses, which are straightforward. The complexes generally exhibit high stability, allowing for indefinite storage and easy handling. We next consider catalysis, particularly examining efficacy in cycloisomerization, other skeletal rearrangements, addition of water to alkynes and nitriles, and C-H bond activation. These processes are quite atom-economical, and in the most recent C-H reactions the only byproduct is water. State-of-the-art methodology now involves single-component catalysts, precluding the need for costly silver co-catalysts. Remarkably, the use of an NHC as a supporting ligand has permitted the isolation of [Au(L)(S)]+ species (where S is a solvent molecule such as a nitrile), which can act as single-component catalysts. Some improvements are still needed, as the single components are most often synthesized with a silver reagent. Owing to the stabilizing effect of NHC coordination, some NHC-containing systems can catalyze extremely challenging reactions (at temperatures as high as 140 A°C) and react at very low loadings of gold (ppm levels). Our latest developments deal with C-H bond functionalization and hold great promise.We close with a selection of important developments by the community with gold-NHC complexes. As demonstrated by the turns and twists encountered during our own journey in the gold-NHC venture, the chemistry described here, combining fundamental organometallic, catalytic, and organic methodology, remains rich in opportunities, especially considering that only a handful of gold(I) architectures has been studied. We hope this Account will encourage young researchers to explore this emerging area, as the adage the more you do, the more you have to do surely holds true in gold-mediated catalysis. © 2010 American Chemical Society. Source
University of St. Andrews | Date: 2014-01-20
An optical apparatus comprising a disposable non-magnetic optical fibre probe for coupling light into a sample and receiving light from the sample for performing Raman spectroscopy, and a non-magnetic optical extension releasably connected to the disposable non-magnetic optical probe for transmitting light into the disposable non-magnetic optical probe and receiving light from the disposable non-magnetic optical probe.
University of St. Andrews | Date: 2014-02-12
A computer processor based method for controlling a plurality of computer displays in response to user behavior, the method comprising identifying at least one display that is unattended by the user by determining the users visual focus, and applying an overlay window to the unattended display to control visualization of the identified unattended display.
University of St. Andrews | Date: 2014-01-06
A method of preparing a 2,6 disubstituted anilines includes, reacting a 2-amino isophthalic acid diester with sufficient Grignard reagent R
Whiten A.,University of St. Andrews
Nature | Year: 2014
The adoption of a new form of tool use has been observed to spread along social-network pathways in a chimpanzee community. The finding offers the first direct evidence of cultural diffusion in these animals in the wild. © 2014 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved. Source