Saint Andrews, United Kingdom

University of St. Andrews

www.st-andrews.ac.uk/
Saint Andrews, United Kingdom

The University of St Andrews is a public research university in St Andrews, Fife, Scotland. It is the oldest of the four ancient universities of Scotland, and the third oldest university in the English-speaking world . It was founded between 1410 and 1413 when the Avignon Antipope Benedict XIII issued a Papal Bull to a small founding group of Augustinian clergy.St Andrews is made up from a variety of institutions, including three constituent colleges and 18 academic Schools organized into four Faculties. The university occupies historic and modern buildings located throughout the town. The academic year is divided into two terms, Martinmas and Candlemas. In term time, over a third of the town's population is either a staff member or student of the university. The student body is notably diverse: over 30% of its intake come from well over 100 countries, 15% from North America. The University's sport teams compete in BUCS competitions, and the student body is known for preserving ancient traditions such as Raisin Weekend, May Dip, and the wear of distinctive academic dress.National league tables currently rank St Andrews as the third best university in the United Kingdom. The Schools of Physics and Astronomy, International Relations, Computer Science and Mathematics are ranked first in the United Kingdom by The Guardian. International league tables rank St Andrews less highly, due in part to its small size, though The Times Higher Education World Universities Ranking names St Andrews among the world’s Top 20 Arts and Humanities universities. St Andrews has the highest student satisfaction amongst all multi-faculty universities in the United Kingdom.St Andrews has many notable alumni and affiliated faculty, including eminent mathematicians, scientists, theologians, philosophers, and politicians. Recent alumni include the former First Minister of Scotland Alex Salmond; Secretary of State for Defence Michael Fallon; United States Ambassador to Hungary Colleen Bell; Olympic gold medalist Chris Hoy; actor Crispin Bonham-Carter; and royals Prince William, Duke of Cambridge, and Catherine, Duchess of Cambridge. It boasts five Nobel Laureates: two in Chemistry and one each in Peace, Literature and Physiology or Medicine. Wikipedia.

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Patent
University of St. Andrews | Date: 2016-11-18

A Raman spectroscopic detection device comprising at least one microfluidic sample channel; at least one excitation waveguide for exciting a Raman signal and at least one collection waveguide for collecting a Raman signal. The output of the excitation waveguide and the input of the collection waveguide are positioned directly in the microfluidic sample channel


Patent
University of St. Andrews | Date: 2017-06-28

A method of depolymerising a lignin includes oxidising the lignin to provide an oxidised lignin wherein benzylic OH of -O-4 linkages have been converted to carbonyl. The oxidised lignin is depolymerised with a metal selected from the group consisting of zinc, magnesium, aluminium and titanium or mixtures thereof, in the presence of an ammonium salt or carbon dioxide. Also described are methods for manufacturing phenolic products from lignin and a method for the cleavage of a -O-4 linkage in a substrate.


Patent
University of St. Andrews | Date: 2015-07-29

An optical system for generating an Airy beam light sheet comprising an optical arrangement for generating a Gaussian beam, and an optical element for converting the Gaussian beam into an Airy beam light sheet, wherein a single optical element is provided for converting the Gaussian beam into an Airy beam light sheet.


Patent
University of Leeds and University of St. Andrews | Date: 2017-08-02

The present invention relates to a hydrogel formulation in which the solid phase is composed of a continuous network of siloxane bonds and one or more calcium phosphate phases doped with one or more metal dopants.


Patent
University of Dundee, University of Abertay Dundee and University of St. Andrews | Date: 2016-12-16

A cosmetic and/or therapeutic treatment of tissue, such as tooth, is disclosed that effects, for instance, whitening and tissue re-building through mineralisation. Further, a method of performing iontophoresis utilizing an aqueous composition of a remineralising agent to achieve mineralisation is disclosed, as well as a kit for performing the mineralization or re-mineralisation.


Patent
University of St. Andrews | Date: 2017-06-07

An optical system for generating an Airy beam light sheet comprising an optical arrangement for generating a Gaussian beam, and an optical element for converting the Gaussian beam into an Airy beam light sheet, wherein a single optical element is provided for converting the Gaussian beam into an Airy beam light sheet.


Patent
University of St. Andrews | Date: 2015-01-28

The invention relates to a method of alkene metathesis. In the method, at least one monoalkene is subjected to ethenolysis in the presence of a diene. The invention also relates to the use of a diene to promote an ethenolysis reaction conducted on a monoalkene.


Patent
University of Aberdeen and University of St. Andrews | Date: 2017-09-13

This invention relates to an engineered leader-independent heterocyclase (also known as a cyclodehydratase) comprising a defined cyanobactin leader sequence which drives the efficient conversion of heterocyclisable amino acids, such as Ser, Thr and Cys, within a peptide substrate lacking a leader sequence into heterocycles produce a homogenous heterocycle-containing product. This may be useful in biotechnology and chemical synthesis.


Nolan S.P.,University of St. Andrews
Accounts of Chemical Research | Year: 2011

Gold has emerged as a powerful synthetic tool in the chemists arsenal. From the early use of inorganic salts such as AuCl and AuCl3 as catalysts, the field has evolved to explore ligands that fine-tune reactivity, stability, and, more recently, selectivity in gold-mediated processes. Substrates generally contain alkenes or alkynes, and they usually involve straightforward protocols in air with solvents that can oftentimes be of technical grade. The actual catalytic species is the putative cationic gold(I) complex [Au(L)]+ (where L is a phosphorus-based species or N-heterocyclic carbene, NHC). The early gold systems bearing phosphine and phosphite ligands provided important transformations and served as useful mechanistic probes. More recently, the use of NHCs as ligands for gold has rapidly gained in popularity. These two-electron donor ligands combine strong f-donating properties with a steric profile that allows for both stabilization of the metal center and enhancement of its catalytic activity. As a result, the gold-NHC complexes have been used as well-defined precatalysts and have permitted the isolation of reactive single-component systems that are now used instead of the initial [Au(L)Cl]/silver salt method. Because some are now commercially available, NHC-containing gold(I) complexes are gathering increasing interest.In this Account, we describe the chronological development of this chemistry in our laboratories, highlighting the advantages of this family of gold complexes and reviewing their synthesis and applications in catalysis. We first outline the syntheses, which are straightforward. The complexes generally exhibit high stability, allowing for indefinite storage and easy handling. We next consider catalysis, particularly examining efficacy in cycloisomerization, other skeletal rearrangements, addition of water to alkynes and nitriles, and C-H bond activation. These processes are quite atom-economical, and in the most recent C-H reactions the only byproduct is water. State-of-the-art methodology now involves single-component catalysts, precluding the need for costly silver co-catalysts. Remarkably, the use of an NHC as a supporting ligand has permitted the isolation of [Au(L)(S)]+ species (where S is a solvent molecule such as a nitrile), which can act as single-component catalysts. Some improvements are still needed, as the single components are most often synthesized with a silver reagent. Owing to the stabilizing effect of NHC coordination, some NHC-containing systems can catalyze extremely challenging reactions (at temperatures as high as 140 A°C) and react at very low loadings of gold (ppm levels). Our latest developments deal with C-H bond functionalization and hold great promise.We close with a selection of important developments by the community with gold-NHC complexes. As demonstrated by the turns and twists encountered during our own journey in the gold-NHC venture, the chemistry described here, combining fundamental organometallic, catalytic, and organic methodology, remains rich in opportunities, especially considering that only a handful of gold(I) architectures has been studied. We hope this Account will encourage young researchers to explore this emerging area, as the adage the more you do, the more you have to do surely holds true in gold-mediated catalysis. © 2010 American Chemical Society.


Whiten A.,University of St. Andrews
Nature | Year: 2014

The adoption of a new form of tool use has been observed to spread along social-network pathways in a chimpanzee community. The finding offers the first direct evidence of cultural diffusion in these animals in the wild. © 2014 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

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