The University of Sri Jayewardenepura is a university in Sri Lanka. It is in Gangodawila, Nugegoda, near Sri Jayewardenepura Kotte, the capital city. It was formed in 1958 out of the Vidyodaya Pirivena, a Buddhist educational centre. Wikipedia.
Priyadarshani A.M.B.,University of Sri Jayewardenepura
Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition | Year: 2017
Vitamin A deficiency is one of the most prevalent deficiency disorders in the world. As shown by many studies plant food based approaches have a real potential on prevention of vitamin A deficiency in a sustainable way. Carotenoids are important as precursors of vitamin A as well as for prevention of cancers, coronary heart diseases, age-related macular degeneration, cataract etc. Bioaccessibility and bioefficacy of carotenoids are known to be influenced by numerous factors including dietary factors such as fat, fiber, dosage of carotenoid, location of carotenoid in the plant tissue, heat treatment, particle size of food, carotenoid species, interactions among carotenoids, isomeric form and molecular linkage and subject characteristics. Therefore even when carotenoids are found in high quantities in plant foods their utilization may be unsatisfactory because some factors are known to interfere as negative effectors. © 2017 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.
News Article | February 16, 2017
Experimental evidence confirms what surveys have long suggested: Physicians are more likely to prescribe antibiotics when they believe there is a high expectation of it from their patients, even if they think the probability of bacterial infection is low and antibiotics would not be effective, according to a study published by the American Psychological Association. Numerous studies have shown that inappropriate and excessive antibiotic use remains one of the main causes of antibiotic resistance and is widely considered a major threat to global health. "Much effort has been spent encouraging physicians to adhere to clinical guidelines when prescribing antibiotics. However, with few notable exceptions, these efforts rarely address the non-clinical factors, such as how to tackle patients' expectations," said the study's lead author, Miroslav Sirota, PhD, of the University of Essex. The study is published in the journal Health Psychology. Researchers conducted two separate experiments involving 436 physicians in the United Kingdom. In the first experiment, practicing family physicians (50 percent male) from around the U.K. filled out a questionnaire that presented them with one of several different vignettes. All the vignettes involved a 15-year-old girl accompanied by her mother who is on her third day of symptoms of a typical ear infection with fever, ear pain and reduced hearing, however is systematically well with no ear perforation or discharge. In one version, the mother insists that the doctor help the girl to recover quickly since she has to participate in an important swim meet in four days (high expectations condition). In another vignette, there is no upcoming swim meet; rather, the girl has already finished her swimming season (low expectations condition). The physicians assessed the probability of a bacterial infection and expressed their willingness to prescribe antibiotics on a scale of zero to 10. While ear infections can be either bacterial (which may respond to antibiotics) or viral (which don't respond to antibiotics), U.K. guidelines, which is in line with the U.S. and Canadian guidelines, suggest physicians can safely withhold or delay antibiotics unless the child is systematically unwell, has perforation and/or discharge in the ear canal, or if the symptoms have persisted for four days or more, the authors noted. The order of the questions given to the physicians was manipulated randomly for each participant, so some received the bacterial probability question first and then the question on antibiotics prescribing while others saw the questions reversed. Overall, despite the order of the questions, physicians who read the vignette where the mother had higher expectations for antibiotics prescribed them even though they were no more likely than physicians in the low expectations group to think the infection was bacterial. "This was a somewhat reassuring finding as we thought that the effect of non-clinical factors might have been even more serious than we had imagined," said Sirota. "Imagine, for example, that a physician rationalized her decision to prescribe the antibiotics by increasing the perceived probability of a bacterial infection. We did not find any evidence of that happening, which is good news, and has taught us something new about the 'localized' effect of expectations." The second experiment presented a story of an adult patient with ear infection symptoms who either had low or high expectations for antibiotics - similar to the vignette in the first experiment. In this case, 52 percent of physicians prescribed antibiotics and were more likely to prescribe them if the patient expected antibiotics during the consultation. As in the previous experiment, there was no difference between the doctor's reports of bacterial probability and antibiotics prescribing. In the third vignette, involving an adult patient with typical cold symptoms who had high expectations for antibiotics, only 12 percent said they would prescribe them. "We do not intend our study to criticize physicians and how they prescribe antibiotics," stressed Sirota. "Rather, we want to point out that the over prescribing of antibiotics is a serious systemic issue: we should all work together- from patients having more realistic expectations about antibiotic effectiveness to physicians managing patients' expectations when contradicting clinical guidelines - to tackle its multiple facets." Article: "Expectations for Antibiotics Increase Their Prescribing: Causal Evidence About Localized Impact," by Miroslav Sirota, PhD, University of Essex; Thomas Round, BS, King's College London; Shyamalee Samaranayaka, MD, University of Sri Jayewardenepura; and Olga Kostopoulou, PhD, Imperial College. Health Psychology, published online Feb. 16, 2017. Full text of the article is available from the APA Public Affairs Office and at Contact: Miroslav Sirota can be contacted by email at firstname.lastname@example.org or by phone at +44 (0) 1206 874 229. The American Psychological Association, in Washington, D.C., is the largest scientific and professional organization representing psychology in the United States. APA's membership includes nearly 115,700 researchers, educators, clinicians, consultants and students. Through its divisions in 54 subfields of psychology and affiliations with 60 state, territorial and Canadian provincial associations, APA works to advance the creation, comunication and application of psychological knowledge to benefit society and improve people's lives.
Ariyasingha I.D.I.D.,Open University of Sri Lanka |
Fernando T.G.I.,University of Sri Jayewardenepura
Swarm and Evolutionary Computation | Year: 2015
Most real world combinatorial optimization problems are difficult to solve with multiple objectives which have to be optimized simultaneously. Over the last few years, researches have been proposed several ant colony optimization algorithms to solve multiple objectives. The aim of this paper is to review the recently proposed multi-objective ant colony optimization (MOACO) algorithms and compare their performances on two, three and four objectives with different numbers of ants and numbers of iterations. Moreover, a detailed analysis is performed for these MOACO algorithms by applying them on several multi-objective benchmark instances of the traveling salesman problem. The results of the analysis have shown that most of the considered MOACO algorithms obtained better performances for more than two objectives and their performance depends slightly on the number of objectives, number of iterations and number of ants used. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.
Senaratna B.C.V.,University of Sri Jayewardenepura
Sri Lanka Journalof Child Health | Year: 2012
Introduction: Labour export is the main source of foreign exchange earning for Sri Lanka. Women form 52% of this and when they migrate, many of them leave behind their children who face abuse and neglect as a result. Objectives: To describe the difficulties encountered by these children and strengths demonstrated by them and to describe factors associated with the difficulties they encounter. Method: A qualitative, descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out in administrative districts of Colombo, Gampaha and Kurunegala. Data was collected through focus group discussions with school teachers and semi-structured interviews with primary carers of migrants' children and religious leaders. Results: Qualitative content analysis of data showed emergence of several themes. These children performed poorly in academic activities, lacked concentrating abilities and failed to improve despite additional help. They did not participate in extracurricular activities due to poor moral support and had a wide range of behavioural problems such as aggression, cruelty, stealing, hyperactivity, disruptive behaviour etc. They found it difficult to establish new relationships and sustain existing ones, including relationships with parents. Many children were physically, psychologically, emotionally and sexually abused and most were neglected by their carers. They also lacked acceptable role models. However, some children had strengths to cope with stressors resulting from mothers' absence, were mature in thinking and behaviour, survived in many situations without help and found access to adequate human and physical resources. Mothers' migration, poor emotional bonding with substitute carers, inadequacy in physical, financial, and human resources, disadvantaged social conditions and behaviours of adults in families increased their difficulties. Conclusions: Migrant women's children have many difficulties resulting from mothers' absence. Their strengths to face life's challenges, comparatively, seem minimal.
Hettiaratchi U.P.,University of Sri Jayewardenepura
The Ceylon medical journal | Year: 2011
The mature jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus) is consumed in Sri Lanka either as a main meal or a meal accompaniment. However, there is no scientific data on the nutrient compositions of cooked jackfruit meals. Thus, the objective of the study was to carry out a nutritional assessment of a composite jackfruit breakfast meal comprising seeds and flesh. A jackfruit meal comprising of flesh (80% available carbohydrate) and seeds (20% available carbohydrate) was included in the study. The study was carried out in a random cross over design. Setting University of Sri Jayewardenepura. Study participants Healthy individuals (n=10, age: 20-30 yrs). The macronutrient contents, rapidly and slowly available glucose (SAG) contents, water solubility index of the jackfruit meal were determined according to standard methods. The GI of the meal was calculated according to FAO/WHO guidelines. The moisture content of the boiled jackfruit flesh was high (82% FW). Jack seeds contained 4.7% protein (FW), 11.1% total dietary fibre (FW) and 8% resistant starch (FW). Jackfruit meal elicited a GI of 75. The Glycaemic Load (GL) of the normal serving size of the meal is medium. The slowly available glucose (SAG) percentage of jackfruit meal (30%) was twice that of the standard. The boiled jackfruit flesh contained disintegrated starch granules while seeds contained intact swollen and disintegrated granules. The jackfruit seeds are a good source of starch (22%) and dietary fibre. The meal is categorized as a low GI meal. The low GI could be dueto the collective contributions from dietary fibre, slowly available glucose and un-gelatinised (intact) starch granules in the seeds.
Dayaratne S.P.,University of Sri Jayewardenepura |
Gunawardana K.D.,University of Sri Jayewardenepura
Journal of Cleaner Production | Year: 2015
In response to the winds of change world over, as a result of rapid advance in science and technology, it has strengthened the Small and Medium Scale Enterprises (SMEs) to exert themselves as engines of their economy in the sphere of production as a whole economy as well as increase of production and competition in the market. This situation is augmented as a result of consumer demand. Its impact is such that we discern a rapid increase of population, urbanization, social mobility and transition with vigorous competition. Looking at opportunities to maximize production to satisfy customer needs, SMEs do not consider the factors that affect environment during manufacturing process, selling and distribution and consumption stages. Considering the magnitude of the excessive toxic effect on the bio-sphere and in order to protect the natural environment for the sustenance and conservation of organisms, it is imperative for all the parties concerned to take up responsibility to include carbon footprint mitigating measures during industrial processes. Available literature revealed that different types of systems have been set up to minimize carbon footprint by the industry at both national and international levels, but still there are issues on identifying carbon footprint usage and emission levels along with implementation systems/methodologies introduced. Researchers identified energy consumption being largely associated at the rubber mill and emissions are extraordinarily connected to productivity of kW/H of energy consumption. In order to carry out research goal barriers in implementing energy-efficient carbon footprint minimization measures, responses to one hundred questionnaires were collected from rubber product manufacturing SMEs registered under the Ministry of Industry and Commerce, Sri Lanka. Twenty five unstructured interviews were conducted with relevant professionals in order to ascertain their opinion. There are vital findings in this research - mainly the correlation of factors affecting relationship on minimizing energy efficient carbon footprint effects which will phase-in obliging emphasis on policy makers to rethink their planning. This was proved by using the fishbone model. Major barriers were identified by using content analysis of respondents. In order to identify the CO2 emission level, the researcher examined the calculation model developed from the results to quantify carbon emission level from the three rubber-band manufacturing factories that were selected as case study domains. Case-studies revealed the overall emissions from the production of rubber band amounting to 1.16, 1.53 and 1.23 ton CO2-eq/ton product respectively. These findings could be directly benefited by any country where rubber production is being put into practice; in order to identify factors that would minimize global warming potentials of rubber manufacturing SMEs, by the application of cleaner manufacturing model to achieve sustainable production. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.
Senaratne B.C.,University of Sri Jayewardenepura
The Ceylon medical journal | Year: 2011
Many married Sri Lankan women annually migrate for employment overseas. Despite widely speculated psychological consequences in these children, their mental health status has not been systematically studied using validated instruments. To describe mental health status of children of women overseas workers and compare that with children of locally employed women, and to describe socio-demographic factors and risk factors associated with abnormal mental health in these children. A cross sectional comparative survey was conducted among 253 children (aged 5-10 years) of women migrant workers in the Colombo District and age and sex matched controls from same neighbourhood. Tools used were the validated Sinhala translation of Child Behaviour Check List (CBCL-S) and questionnaires on socio-demographic/risk factors and school functioning. Mean CBCL-S scores and proportion of children with mental health problems were significantly higher in the study group. Not having an elder sibling, father not living with child, mother educated up to grade 5 or less, change of principal carer (PC) twice or more, living with a relative (or not living in own home), child not communicating freely with PC, and not being permitted to engage in recreational activities at school were significantly associated with abnormal mental health of children of migrant women. A high awareness is required among health and social care authorities regarding mental health problems in these children and relevant risk factors in order to take preventive measures.
Wanigasuriya K.,University of Sri Jayewardenepura
MEDICC Review | Year: 2014
INTRODUCTION: This manuscript updates a review previously published in a local journal in 2012, about a new form of chronic kidney disease that has emerged over the past two decades in the northcentral dry zone of Sri Lanka, where the underlying causes remain undetermined. Disease burden is higher in this area, particularly North Central Province, and affects a rural and disadvantaged population involved in rice-paddy farming. Over the last decade several studies have been carried out to estimate prevalence and identify determinants of this chronic kidney disease of uncertain etiology. OBJECTIVE: Summarize the available evidence on prevalence, clinical profile and risk factors of chronic kidney disease of uncertain etiology in the north-central region of Sri Lanka. METHODS: PubMed search located 16 manuscripts published in peer-reviewed journals. Three peer-reviewed abstracts of presentations at national scientific conferences were also included in the review. RESULTS: Disease prevalence was 5.1%-16.9% with more severe disease seen in men than in women. Patients with mild to moderate stages of disease were asymptomatic or had nonspecific symptoms; urinary sediments were bland; 24-hour urine protein excretion was <1 g; and ultrasound demonstrated bilateral small kidneys. Interstitial fibrosis was the main pathological feature on renal biopsy. The possibility of environmental toxins affecting vulnerable population groups in a specific geographic area was considered in evaluating etiological factors. Pesticide residues were detected in affected patients' urine, and mycotoxins detected in foods were below maximum statutory limits. Calcium-bicarbonate-type water with high levels of fluoride was predominant in endemic regions. Significantly high levels of cadmium in urine of cases compared to controls, as well as the disease's dose-related response to these levels, has drawn attention to this element as a possible contributing factor. Familial clustering of patients is suggestive of a polygenic inheritance pattern comparable to that associated with diseases of multifactorial etiology. CONCLUSIONS: Available data suggest that chronic kidney disease of uncertain etiology is an environmentally acquired disease, but to date no definitive causal factor has been identified. Geographic distribution and research findings suggest a multifactorial etiology. KEYWORDS Chronic kidney disease, uncertain etiology, prevalence, clinical profile, risk factors, rural communities, paddy farming, environmentally acquired disease, Sri Lanka.
Talagala T.,University of Sri Jayewardenepura
Epidemiology Biostatistics and Public Health | Year: 2015
Dengue fever and its deadly complication dengue hemorrhagic fever is an infectious mosquito borne disease. The rise in dengue fever has made a heavy economic burden to the country. Climate variability is considered as the major determinant of dengue transmission. Sri Lanka has a favorable climatic condition for development and transmission of dengue. Hence the aim of this study is to estimate the effect of diverse climatic variables on the transmission of dengue while taking the lag effect and nonlinear effect into account. Weekly data on dengue cases were obtained from January, 2009 to September, 2014. Temperature, precipitation, visibility, humidity, and wind speed were also recorded as weekly averages. Quasi Poisson regression combined with distributed lag nonlinear model was used to identify the association between dengue incidence and climate variables. Results of DLNM revealed; mean Temperature 25°C – 27°C at lag 1 – 8 weeks, precipitation higher than 70mm at lag 1- 5 weeks and 20- 50mm at lag 10 – 20 weeks, humidity ranged from 65% to 80% at lag 10 – 18 weeks, visibility greater than 14 km have a positive impact on the occurrence of dengue incidence while, mean temperature higher than 28°C at lag 6 – 25 weeks, maximum temperature at lag 4 – 6 weeks, precipitation higher than 65mm at lag 15 – 20 weeks, humidity less than 70% at lag 4 – 9 weeks, visibility less than 14km, high wind speed have a negative impact on the occurrence of dengue incidence. These findings help to strengthen dengue prevention and control campaigns. © 2015, Prex S.p.A. All rights Reserved.
Gunawardena U.A.D.P.,University of Sri Jayewardenepura
Energy Policy | Year: 2010
The objective of the paper is to estimate environmental externalities related to a run of river project in Sri Lanka and to investigate inequity in distribution of impacts among different social groups. Diversion of the river resulted in loss of water sports (for high-income groups both local and remote), loss of historical monuments (for remote high-income groups) and recreation losses (for local poor). Removal of forest cover leads to loss of non-timber products (for local poor) and carbon storage (for remote high- and low-income groups). Loss of home garden productivity was borne by local poor groups. Benefit of the project, generation of 145 GWh annually, was a gain for the grid connected groups. The impacts were valued using various valuation methods. The base case of the cost benefit analysis resulted in NPV of US$ 11,335,730. When distributional weights are applied for different income groups, both the sign and magnitude of net benefits change. In order to be viable, the project needs diversion of at least 9% of generated electricity to the poorest households in the country. Implications for energy policy towards reducing externality and inequality impacts are also discussed. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.