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Santa Catarina, Brazil

Cruzeta A.P.S.,Post University | Schneider I.J.C.,University of Southern Santa Catarina | Traebert J.,Post University
International Journal of Infectious Diseases

Objective: The objective of this study was to estimate the impact of seasonality and immunization on hospitalization rates of elderly people in a southern Brazilian state. Methods: An epidemiological study of ecological design, combining time-series in the period 1995-2009, was carried out. The medical records of individuals residing in Santa Catarina aged ≥60 years were obtained from the Hospital Information System of the Brazilian National Health System. Multiple linear regression analysis was used to calculate the impact exerted by seasonality and by influenza immunization coverage on hospitalization rates. Results: A decrease of 5.73% in the rate of hospitalization was observed in the first quarters of the years, and an increase of 8.75% in the third quarters of the years, showing the impact of seasonality. The results also showed that as the vaccination coverage rate increased 1%, a decrease of 0.1% was observed in the hospitalization rate. Conclusion: Seasonality and immunization had an impact on the hospitalization rates of individuals aged ≥60 years in the state of Santa Catarina during the period studied. © 2013 International Society for Infectious Diseases. Source

Objective: To compare clinical, radiological, and laboratory characteristics of individuals with pulmonary tuberculosis co-infected or not with HIV. Methods: A cross-sectional study, in which signs and symptoms were assessed by anamnesis and physical examination in patients hospitalized with pulmonary tuberculosis. The results of sputum smear microscopy and culture for Mycobacterium tuberculosis, as well as hemoglobin levels and CD4 + T-cell counts, were obtained from medical records, and chest X-ray reports were consulted. Results: We included 50 pulmonary tuberculosis patients, who were divided into two groups (HIV-positive and HIV-negative; n = 25 per group). The mean age of the participants was 38.4 ± 10.5 years; 46 (92%) were males; and 27 (54%) were White. Expectoration was presented by 21 (84%) and 13 (52%) of the patients in the HIV-negative and HIV-positive groups, respectively (p = 0.016). Radiological findings of cavitation were present in 10 (43%) and 2 (10%) of the patients in the HIV-negative and HIV-positive groups, respectively (p = 0.016), whereas an interstitial pattern was observed in 18 (78%) and 8 (40%), respectively (p = 0.012). The mean hemoglobin level was 11.1 ± 2.9 g/dL and 9.3 ± 2.2 g/dL in the HIV-negative and HIV-positive groups, respectively (p = 0.015). Conclusions: In our sample of tuberculosis patients, expectoration was less prevalent, hemoglobin levels were lower, and cavitation was less common, as was an interstitial pattern, among those co-infected with HIV than among those without HIV co-infection. Source

Hellmann F.,University of Southern Santa Catarina | Hellmann F.,Federal University of Santa Catarina | Verdi M.,Federal University of Santa Catarina | Schlemper Junior B.R.,University of West Santa Catarina | Caponi S.,Federal University of Santa Catarina
Archives of Medical Research

The Declaration of Helsinki (DoH), adopted by the World Medical Association (WMA), is one of the most influential international documents in research ethics, is turning 50 in 2014. Its regular updates, seven versions (1975, 1983, 1989, 1996, 2000, 2008, 2013) and two notes of clarification (2002, 2004), characterize it as a 'live' document. The seventh version of the DoH was amended by the 64th WMA General Assembly, Fortaleza, Brazil, October 2013. The new version was reorganized and restructured, with paragraphs subdivided and regrouped. However, the DoH remains controversial and some ethical issues are still uncovered. The major problem was the insertion of the phrase 'less effective than the best proven' on placebo paragraph in order to allow double standard in medical research in low-resource countries. The DoH is a 'live' document, which will continually have to deal with new topics and challenges. Health equity needs to be a priority, and with that, a single ethical standard for medical research. © 2014 IMSS. Source

Correa T.S.,University of South Santa Catarina | dos Santos K.M.,University of South Santa Catarina | Galato D.,University of Southern Santa Catarina
Arquivos de Neuro-Psiquiatria

Headache is a worldwide health problem which affects quality of life. Objective: To identify the prevalence and management of headache and examine its impact. Method: A cross-sectional study with 240 participants was performed to collect data related to (a) headache occurrence, (b) its impact through the "Migraine Disability Assessment Test" (Midas), and (c) headache management. Results: Last year prevalence (2008) was 64.6%. There was a low Midas score in 80.6% of cases. With regard to headache management, 86.4% of respondents said that they use medicines, mainly analgesics (73.9%). Prescribed medicines were used in 31.0% of cases, although 72.4% of those were old prescriptions. Headache was associated with gender (p=0.0002), occupation (p=0.0109) and mean age (p=0.0083), while the Midas score was associated with pain intensity (p=0.0069) and the use of drugs only during headache crisis (p=0.0464). Conclusion: There was a high prevalence of headaches and a low level of disability among the population studied, being the management based on self-medication. Source

Fonseca G.,Federal University of Sao Paulo | Netto S.A.,University of Southern Santa Catarina
Estuaries and Coasts

In the present study, we test whether large-scale patterns of estuarine nematodes are predicted by the “everything is everywhere” (EiE) hypothesis or by the moderate endemicity hypothesis (MEH). Specifically, we tested whether nematode genus richness and composition differ among geographical regions, latitudes, and between habitats (estuaries with and without mangroves). The meta-analysis included published data from 43 estuaries around the world. Only the most abundant genera (>1 % of relative abundance) were considered in the analysis. Each estuary was treated as an analytical unit. Results indicated that genus richness did not differ among geographical regions and between habitats, whereas latitude explained 36 % of the variability in genus richness. Genus richness assumed a bimodal pattern with higher values around the equator and in temperate regions. Canonical analysis revealed distinct nematode genus compositions in three main geographical regions and in both habitat types. These results suggest that nematodes are dispersion-limited and influenced by environmental conditions. The main conclusion is that large-scale patterns of estuarine nematodes are better predicted by the MEH, in line with studies of macroorganisms. Moreover, nematode genus turnover decreased with increasing latitude, a pattern already reported for harpacticoid copepods, land birds, vascular plants, mammals, and butterflies. © 2014, Coastal and Estuarine Research Federation. Source

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