Toowoomba, Australia
Toowoomba, Australia

The University of Southern Queensland is based in Toowoomba, Queensland, Australia, with campuses also in Springfield, Fraser Coast and Ipswich. The institution was established in 1967 as the Darling Downs campus of the Queensland Institute of Technology . In 1971, it became the Darling Downs Institute of Advanced Education, then the University College of Southern Queensland in 1990 and finally the University of Southern Queensland in 1992.USQ is spread across 4 campuses: Toowoomba, Fraser Coast and Springfield.In 2014, the total number of programs offered was 10 for pathway programs 76 for undergraduates and 85 for postgraduates.Total student enrolments in 2012 were 27,228, of which international students studying on-campus was 1,853 and studying externally was 3,969. Overall, 19,976 students studied online/externally, 4,468 studied on-campus at USQ Toowoomba, 898 studied on-campus at USQ Fraser Coast and 1886 studied on-campus at USQ Springfield Wikipedia.

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Wandel A.P.,University of Southern Queensland
Combustion and Flame | Year: 2014

A Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) study is performed to determine a quantitative indicator of imminent global extinction in spray flames ignited by a spark. The cases under consideration have Group Combustion numbers sufficiently small that each droplet has an individual flame form around it, which subsequently merge. The structure of the flames is examined, including identification of non-premixed behaviour in the core of the flame and premixed flame fronts except in the presence of droplets, which cause strong non-premixed behaviour. The reaction progress variable c is studied and its dissipation rate is identified as being a key indicator of whether a flame will globally extinguish after being ignited by the spark. Specifically, immediately after the spark is deactivated, the volume containing the end of the flame front and hot products is studied in detail with respect to c. For successful flames, it is observed that regions of zero dissipation of c were predominantly restricted to the highest reaction progress variable (c > 0.98), with zero probability within the range 0.95 < c < 0.98 and low probability within 0.9 < c < 0.95. In contrast, cases which subsequently extinguished had substantial probability of zero dissipation for 0.95 < c < 0.98. This region was a secondary structure separate from the main flame kernel that was unable to evaporate sufficient liquid to create a self-sustaining flame and therefore contributed to the subsequent quenching of the flame. In the successfully-burning case under consideration, this region was part of the main flame structure. The low reaction rate contributed to a thickened flame structure near the hot core, which reduced the heat transfer to the flame front and prevented effective evaporation and preheating of the fluid ahead of the flame front. Calculation of the conditional probability of c for its dissipation rate being zero could provide a quantitative measure to determine whether a flame is likely to extinguish within a relatively short timeframe. This is equivalent to detecting that, for every value of 0.9 < c < 1, there are volumes of significant size where the value of c is uniform. Note that a successful flame must have a volume of substantial size with c = 1. From a practical perspective, if each individual flame kernel is monitored, then extinction is imminent if secondary structures of incomplete reactions are present when the spark ceases adding energy. © 2014 The Combustion Institute.

Maraseni T.N.,University of Southern Queensland
Energy Policy | Year: 2013

The Kyoto Protocol adopted three flexible market-based mechanisms (Emissions Trading; Joint Implementation; Clean Development Mechanism) to meet emission reduction targets in a cost-effective manner. Of these, the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) is the only mechanism that links developed and developing countries. China has been a dominant player in CDM markets with >50.86% of the world's 4768 CDM projects. This study surveyed key CDM stakeholders from which the identification and ranking of the 10 most important factors that determine the selection of CDM investors in China. The most important factors were "reputation of company" and "experience in CDM project in China" whilst "personal friendship or relationship" was the least influential. European countries (mainly UK, The Netherlands, Sweden and Germany) are the major investors and have both strong reputations in the CDM arena in addition to having assisted China in capacity development activities for CDM in early 2000. An understanding of these selection factors that potential CDM hosts use in their joint venture decisions should benefit CDM investors. This knowledge should also provide the policy and strategic level framework for future potential CDM hosts in other developing countries. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

Manalo A.,University of Southern Queensland
Construction and Building Materials | Year: 2013

This paper presents the structural behaviour of an emerging prefabricated wall system made up of glass fibre reinforced rigid polyurethane foam (PUF) and Magnesium Oxide (MgO) board. Full-scale wall specimens were prepared and tested under transverse bending, compression and shear. The results of the experimental investigation showed that the behaviour of the composite walls is governed by the strength of the MgO board. A complete interaction between the rigid PUF and MgO board was achieved using epoxy adhesives. In compression, a 17% lower failure load was measured for wall specimen with the MgO board attached to the wall frame with a 10 mm offset from the bottom plate than the wall with the sheathing flushed to the bottom plate. Under in-plane shear test, the single and two-panel composite wall systems exhibited similar shear stiffness and strength. The provision of tie-down anchor bolts increased the shear strength by almost 15% but has no significant contribution to the shear stiffness. Finally, the results confirmed the potential of this composite wall system in residential modular construction.©2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Yousif B.F.,University of Southern Queensland
Materials and Design | Year: 2013

Nowadays, there is demand to evaluate tribological performance of new engineering materials using different techniques. Various laboratory tribo-machines have been designed and fabricated such as Pin-on-Disc (POD), ASTM G99, Block-on-Ring (BOR), ASTM G77 or G137-953, Dry Sand Rubber Wheel (DSRW), ASTM G655, Wet Sand Rubber Wheel (WSRW), ASTM G105, and sand/steel wheel test under wet/dry conditions (ASTM B611). A concept of integrating more than one tribo-technique at different contact mechanisms (line or area) working simultaneously under same test condition against same material is introduced in a current designed machine. Different wear modes (adhesive, two-body-abrasive, threebody-abrasive, under dry, lubricated, or slurry conditions) can be conducted on the same machine. Results of adhesive wear, friction and interface temperature of glass fibre reinforced polyester composite under wet/dry contact condition are reported at 50 N load for different sliding speeds (2.8-7.8 m/s) using the new machine. Weight loss and friction coefficient of the composite were substantially influenced by introducing water as lubricant. Additionally, the contact condition has the high influence key on the wear and frictional performance of the composite. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

Shalwan A.,University of Southern Queensland | Yousif B.F.,University of Southern Queensland
Materials and Design | Year: 2013

In this article, a comprehensive literature review on the mechanical and tribological behaviour of polymeric composites based on natural fibres is introduced. The effects of volume fraction, orientations, treatments and physical characteristics of different types of natural fibres on the mechanical and tribological properties of several thermoset and thermoplastic polymers are addressed. The effects of the tribological operating parameters (applied load, sliding velocity and sliding distance) on the frictional and wear performance of natural fibre polymer composites are demonstrated. The collected date and analyses revealed that volume fraction, orientations, type of treatment and physical characteristics of the natural fibres significantly influence the mechanical and tribological behaviour of composites. The most influence key in designing natural fibre/polymer composite is the interfacial adhesion of the fibre with the matrix. NaOH chemical treatment found to be the most useful treatment method to enhance the interfacial adhesion of the natural fibres with the matrix, while other techniques exhibited either no effect or deterioration on the fibre strength. Frictional characteristics of the natural fibre composites are poor and solid lubricants are recommended to reduce the friction coefficient of the materials. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

Manalo A.C.,University of Southern Queensland
Composite Structures | Year: 2013

The behaviour of structural fibre composite sandwich beams made up of glass fibre composite skins and phenolic core material was investigated under three-point short beam and asymmetrical beam shear tests. The effect of the shear span-to-depth ratio (a/. D) on the strength and failure behaviour of the composite sandwich beams was examined. The results showed that with increasing a/. D ratio, the failure load of the sandwich beam is decreasing. On the contrary, the coupling effect of flexural stresses increases with increasing a/. D ratio. Noticeably, the fibre composite sandwich beams tested under asymmetrical beam shear exhibited higher failure load compared to beams tested under short beam shear. Analysis showed that the shear stress in the core is more dominant than flexural stress when the a/. D ratio is 1 for the sandwich beams under short beam test and 1-3 for the sandwich beams tested under asymmetrical beams shear test. The proposed prediction equation which accounts for the combined effect of shear and flexural stresses due to the changing a/. D ratio, presented a good agreement with the experimental results, showing that it can reasonably estimate the failure load of structural fibre composite sandwich beams. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

Wandel A.P.,University of Southern Queensland
Proceedings of the Combustion Institute | Year: 2013

A Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) study has been conducted into droplets evaporating and burning under the influence of a spark. Specifically, underlying physical causes behind configurations globally extinguishing or failing to ignite have been investigated. It has been found that the global mixture fraction mean and standard deviation need to be sufficiently large (i.e. sufficient fuel must have evaporated to be available for mixing) in order for a flame to be sustained, with the standard deviation a more universal measure of success. In addition, a predictor to extinction has been identified: successful flames have a substantially large region containing hot products with low scalar dissipation rate. This stable region forms a kernel that is able to supply sufficient heat to promote flame propagation without depleting too quickly. In contrast, flows that fail to ignite never form a region containing hot products, while flows that are about to globally extinguish do not have a region with low scalar dissipation within the hot products. This predictor was also observed in the equivalent partially-premixed gaseous configuration. These indicators were found to be independent of droplet size, droplet number density and turbulent intensity and observed both while the spark was active and after the spark effect had completely dissipated. Further work will aim to quantify the scale of this effect to obtain a reliable measure of when the predictor of no low scalar dissipation amongst hot products is encountered. © 2012 The Combustion Institute.

Hamawand I.,University of Southern Queensland
Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews | Year: 2015

Greenhouse gases especially methane has been proven to have a significant effect on global warming and climate changes. Large share of methane is emitted to the environment from wastewater treatment plants mostly from uncovered anaerobic digesters. The estimated methane emission is approximately 618 Mt carbon dioxide-equivalents (CO2-e) globally. Methane emissions from uncovered anaerobic digesters can be avoided by carrying out some modification to the treatment process and design. These potential modifications were illustrated in details in this paper. The aims are to gain better understanding of anaerobic digestion process and its performance. This paper is discussing and analysing the difficulties associated with anaerobic digestion process specifically in meat industry and many methods to overcome these problems. There are many ways for enhancing the performance of anaerobic digestion process such as through simulation, co-digestion, addition of surfactants, pre-treatment and optimal digester design. It is obvious that solving the problems associated with anaerobic process may raise investors interest in covered anaerobic digesters and as a consequence will remarkably reduce emission of greenhouse gases. Anaerobic digester would not only function as a water treatment process but as a resource of renewable energy as well. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

Zhuge Y.,University of Southern Queensland
Journal of Composites for Construction | Year: 2010

In the last two decades, several seismic retrofitting techniques for masonry structures have been developed and practiced and fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP) material has been increasingly used owing to its high strength/stiffness to mass ratio and easy application. Although much research has been carried out on FRP strengthening of unreinforced masonry (URM) structures, most of it has been experimental studies to investigate the effectiveness of retrofitting techniques rather than the development of a rational design model. In addition, more research has been conducted on FRP-retrofitted URM walls under out-of-plane loads where flexural behavior dominates, the research on the shear strength of FRP-retrofitted URM walls has been limited. This paper presents a review of research in this area. Existing retrofitting techniques are overviewed, followed by a detailed discussion of experimental results of failure modes as they are directly related to the design model. The available design models are then assessed based on a test database collected from the available literature. Limitations of each model are addressed. © 2010 ASCE.

Gow J.,University of Southern Queensland
African health sciences | Year: 2013

Zambian Health Workers Retention Scheme (ZHWRS) commenced in 2003. The schemes' original aim was to retain and recruit Zambian doctors in rural and remote districts. The aim of the ZHWRS subsequently expanded to also include other health workers, in either rural or urban areas. The scheme was formulated to address, in part, the drastic shortage of health workers. To evaluate the effectiveness of the ZHWRS in achieving its aim. The data on the number of health workers recruited by the ZHWRS and the spatial distribution of them was reviewed. A survey of health workers was undertaken to elicit their views of their working conditions, their job satisfaction and the effectiveness of retention schemes in retaining or increasing the numbers of and overall satisfaction of health workers. The ZHWRS has not been successful in recruiting sufficient numbers of health workers to reverse the shortage problem or even to meet the modest targets of the scheme itself. However, these improvements do not decrease the likelihood of Department of Health (DoH) workers leaving their rural based positions. The ZHWRS has not fully met either its original or revised aims. The drastic shortage of health workers in Zambia continues.

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