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Toowoomba, Australia

The University of Southern Queensland is based in Toowoomba, Queensland, Australia, with campuses also in Springfield, Fraser Coast and Ipswich. The institution was established in 1967 as the Darling Downs campus of the Queensland Institute of Technology . In 1971, it became the Darling Downs Institute of Advanced Education, then the University College of Southern Queensland in 1990 and finally the University of Southern Queensland in 1992.USQ is spread across 4 campuses: Toowoomba, Fraser Coast and Springfield.In 2014, the total number of programs offered was 10 for pathway programs 76 for undergraduates and 85 for postgraduates.Total student enrolments in 2012 were 27,228, of which international students studying on-campus was 1,853 and studying externally was 3,969. Overall, 19,976 students studied online/externally, 4,468 studied on-campus at USQ Toowoomba, 898 studied on-campus at USQ Fraser Coast and 1886 studied on-campus at USQ Springfield Wikipedia.

Manalo A.C.,University of Southern Queensland
Composite Structures | Year: 2013

The behaviour of structural fibre composite sandwich beams made up of glass fibre composite skins and phenolic core material was investigated under three-point short beam and asymmetrical beam shear tests. The effect of the shear span-to-depth ratio (a/. D) on the strength and failure behaviour of the composite sandwich beams was examined. The results showed that with increasing a/. D ratio, the failure load of the sandwich beam is decreasing. On the contrary, the coupling effect of flexural stresses increases with increasing a/. D ratio. Noticeably, the fibre composite sandwich beams tested under asymmetrical beam shear exhibited higher failure load compared to beams tested under short beam shear. Analysis showed that the shear stress in the core is more dominant than flexural stress when the a/. D ratio is 1 for the sandwich beams under short beam test and 1-3 for the sandwich beams tested under asymmetrical beams shear test. The proposed prediction equation which accounts for the combined effect of shear and flexural stresses due to the changing a/. D ratio, presented a good agreement with the experimental results, showing that it can reasonably estimate the failure load of structural fibre composite sandwich beams. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

Yousif B.F.,University of Southern Queensland
Materials and Design | Year: 2013

Nowadays, there is demand to evaluate tribological performance of new engineering materials using different techniques. Various laboratory tribo-machines have been designed and fabricated such as Pin-on-Disc (POD), ASTM G99, Block-on-Ring (BOR), ASTM G77 or G137-953, Dry Sand Rubber Wheel (DSRW), ASTM G655, Wet Sand Rubber Wheel (WSRW), ASTM G105, and sand/steel wheel test under wet/dry conditions (ASTM B611). A concept of integrating more than one tribo-technique at different contact mechanisms (line or area) working simultaneously under same test condition against same material is introduced in a current designed machine. Different wear modes (adhesive, two-body-abrasive, threebody-abrasive, under dry, lubricated, or slurry conditions) can be conducted on the same machine. Results of adhesive wear, friction and interface temperature of glass fibre reinforced polyester composite under wet/dry contact condition are reported at 50 N load for different sliding speeds (2.8-7.8 m/s) using the new machine. Weight loss and friction coefficient of the composite were substantially influenced by introducing water as lubricant. Additionally, the contact condition has the high influence key on the wear and frictional performance of the composite. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

Maraseni T.N.,University of Southern Queensland
Energy Policy | Year: 2013

The Kyoto Protocol adopted three flexible market-based mechanisms (Emissions Trading; Joint Implementation; Clean Development Mechanism) to meet emission reduction targets in a cost-effective manner. Of these, the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) is the only mechanism that links developed and developing countries. China has been a dominant player in CDM markets with >50.86% of the world's 4768 CDM projects. This study surveyed key CDM stakeholders from which the identification and ranking of the 10 most important factors that determine the selection of CDM investors in China. The most important factors were "reputation of company" and "experience in CDM project in China" whilst "personal friendship or relationship" was the least influential. European countries (mainly UK, The Netherlands, Sweden and Germany) are the major investors and have both strong reputations in the CDM arena in addition to having assisted China in capacity development activities for CDM in early 2000. An understanding of these selection factors that potential CDM hosts use in their joint venture decisions should benefit CDM investors. This knowledge should also provide the policy and strategic level framework for future potential CDM hosts in other developing countries. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

Wandel A.P.,University of Southern Queensland
Combustion and Flame | Year: 2014

A Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) study is performed to determine a quantitative indicator of imminent global extinction in spray flames ignited by a spark. The cases under consideration have Group Combustion numbers sufficiently small that each droplet has an individual flame form around it, which subsequently merge. The structure of the flames is examined, including identification of non-premixed behaviour in the core of the flame and premixed flame fronts except in the presence of droplets, which cause strong non-premixed behaviour. The reaction progress variable c is studied and its dissipation rate is identified as being a key indicator of whether a flame will globally extinguish after being ignited by the spark. Specifically, immediately after the spark is deactivated, the volume containing the end of the flame front and hot products is studied in detail with respect to c. For successful flames, it is observed that regions of zero dissipation of c were predominantly restricted to the highest reaction progress variable (c > 0.98), with zero probability within the range 0.95 < c < 0.98 and low probability within 0.9 < c < 0.95. In contrast, cases which subsequently extinguished had substantial probability of zero dissipation for 0.95 < c < 0.98. This region was a secondary structure separate from the main flame kernel that was unable to evaporate sufficient liquid to create a self-sustaining flame and therefore contributed to the subsequent quenching of the flame. In the successfully-burning case under consideration, this region was part of the main flame structure. The low reaction rate contributed to a thickened flame structure near the hot core, which reduced the heat transfer to the flame front and prevented effective evaporation and preheating of the fluid ahead of the flame front. Calculation of the conditional probability of c for its dissipation rate being zero could provide a quantitative measure to determine whether a flame is likely to extinguish within a relatively short timeframe. This is equivalent to detecting that, for every value of 0.9 < c < 1, there are volumes of significant size where the value of c is uniform. Note that a successful flame must have a volume of substantial size with c = 1. From a practical perspective, if each individual flame kernel is monitored, then extinction is imminent if secondary structures of incomplete reactions are present when the spark ceases adding energy. © 2014 The Combustion Institute.

Wandel A.P.,University of Southern Queensland
Proceedings of the Combustion Institute | Year: 2013

A Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) study has been conducted into droplets evaporating and burning under the influence of a spark. Specifically, underlying physical causes behind configurations globally extinguishing or failing to ignite have been investigated. It has been found that the global mixture fraction mean and standard deviation need to be sufficiently large (i.e. sufficient fuel must have evaporated to be available for mixing) in order for a flame to be sustained, with the standard deviation a more universal measure of success. In addition, a predictor to extinction has been identified: successful flames have a substantially large region containing hot products with low scalar dissipation rate. This stable region forms a kernel that is able to supply sufficient heat to promote flame propagation without depleting too quickly. In contrast, flows that fail to ignite never form a region containing hot products, while flows that are about to globally extinguish do not have a region with low scalar dissipation within the hot products. This predictor was also observed in the equivalent partially-premixed gaseous configuration. These indicators were found to be independent of droplet size, droplet number density and turbulent intensity and observed both while the spark was active and after the spark effect had completely dissipated. Further work will aim to quantify the scale of this effect to obtain a reliable measure of when the predictor of no low scalar dissipation amongst hot products is encountered. © 2012 The Combustion Institute.

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