Toowoomba, Australia

University of Southern Queensland

www.usq.edu.au
Toowoomba, Australia

The University of Southern Queensland is based in Toowoomba, Queensland, Australia, with campuses also in Springfield, Fraser Coast and Ipswich. The institution was established in 1967 as the Darling Downs campus of the Queensland Institute of Technology . In 1971, it became the Darling Downs Institute of Advanced Education, then the University College of Southern Queensland in 1990 and finally the University of Southern Queensland in 1992.USQ is spread across 4 campuses: Toowoomba, Fraser Coast and Springfield.In 2014, the total number of programs offered was 10 for pathway programs 76 for undergraduates and 85 for postgraduates.Total student enrolments in 2012 were 27,228, of which international students studying on-campus was 1,853 and studying externally was 3,969. Overall, 19,976 students studied online/externally, 4,468 studied on-campus at USQ Toowoomba, 898 studied on-campus at USQ Fraser Coast and 1886 studied on-campus at USQ Springfield Wikipedia.

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News Article | April 18, 2017
Site: www.eurekalert.org

Saturated fat is a prime suspect in the onset of osteoarthritis after QUT scientists found it changed the composition of cartilage, particularly in the weight-bearing joints of the hip and knee. Research, published today in Scientific Reports, conducted by Professor Yin Xiao, from QUT's Institute of Health and Biomedical Innovation and his team, in collaboration with Professor Lindsay Brown and his team at University of Southern Queensland, is possibly the first study to investigate the association between osteoarthritis and common dietary fatty acids. The researchers studied the effects on joints of diets rich in a variety of saturated fatty acids found in such foods as butter, coconut oil, palm oil and animal fat, and simple carbohydrates - a high-fat, high carbohydrate diet common to "junk food". "Our findings suggest that it's not wear and tear but diet that has a lot to do with the onset of osteoarthritis," Professor Xiao said. "The main function of cartilage is to seal the bone ends in a joint and absorb pressure on the bones during weight-bearing movement such as walking. "We found that a diet containing simple carbohydrates together with 20 per cent saturated fats produced osteoarthritic-like changes in the knee. "Saturated fatty acid deposits in the cartilage change its metabolism and weaken the cartilage, making it more prone to damage. This would, in turn, lead to osteoarthritic pain from the loss of the cushioning effect of cartilage. "We also found changes in the bone under the cartilage on a diet rich in saturated fat." PhD student Sunder Sekar said the team tested lauric acid, a saturated fatty acid found in coconut oil. "Interestingly, when we replaced the meat fat in the diet with lauric acid we found decreased signs of cartilage deterioration and metabolic syndrome so it seems to have a protective effect," Mr Sekar said. He said fatty acids could cause tissue inflammation in the entire "joint environment". "We tested a variety of saturated fats and found that long term use of animal fat, butter, and palm oil could weaken the cartilage. "Replacement of traditional diets containing coconut-derived lauric acid with palm oil-derived palmitic acid or animal fat-derived stearic acid has the potential to worsen the development of both metabolic syndrome and osteoarthritis." Professor Xiao's previous research has found that antioxidants and anti-cholesterol drugs could slow the progression of joint damage caused by fatty acids. The study is supported by the Prince Charles Hospital Research Foundation.


News Article | April 19, 2017
Site: www.biosciencetechnology.com

Saturated fat is a prime suspect in the onset of osteoarthritis after QUT scientists found it changed the composition of cartilage, particularly in the weight-bearing joints of the hip and knee. Research, published today in Scientific Reports, conducted by Professor Yin Xiao, from QUT's Institute of Health and Biomedical Innovation and his team, in collaboration with Professor Lindsay Brown and his team at University of Southern Queensland, is possibly the first study to investigate the association between osteoarthritis and common dietary fatty acids. The researchers studied the effects on joints of diets rich in a variety of saturated fatty acids found in such foods as butter, coconut oil, palm oil and animal fat, and simple carbohydrates - a high-fat, high carbohydrate diet common to "junk food". "Our findings suggest that it's not wear and tear but diet that has a lot to do with the onset of osteoarthritis," Professor Xiao said. "The main function of cartilage is to seal the bone ends in a joint and absorb pressure on the bones during weight-bearing movement such as walking. "We found that a diet containing simple carbohydrates together with 20 per cent saturated fats produced osteoarthritic-like changes in the knee. "Saturated fatty acid deposits in the cartilage change its metabolism and weaken the cartilage, making it more prone to damage. This would, in turn, lead to osteoarthritic pain from the loss of the cushioning effect of cartilage. "We also found changes in the bone under the cartilage on a diet rich in saturated fat." PhD student Sunder Sekar said the team tested lauric acid, a saturated fatty acid found in coconut oil. "Interestingly, when we replaced the meat fat in the diet with lauric acid we found decreased signs of cartilage deterioration and metabolic syndrome so it seems to have a protective effect," Mr Sekar said. He said fatty acids could cause tissue inflammation in the entire "joint environment". "We tested a variety of saturated fats and found that long term use of animal fat, butter, and palm oil could weaken the cartilage. "Replacement of traditional diets containing coconut-derived lauric acid with palm oil-derived palmitic acid or animal fat-derived stearic acid has the potential to worsen the development of both metabolic syndrome and osteoarthritis." Professor Xiao's previous research has found that antioxidants and anti-cholesterol drugs could slow the progression of joint damage caused by fatty acids. The study is supported by the Prince Charles Hospital Research Foundation.


Patent
Horticulture Innovation Australia Ltd and University of Southern Queensland | Date: 2017-03-15

The various embodiments disclosed herein relate to identification of one or more specific objects among several other objects. Certain exemplary implementations relate to systems, methods, and devices for identification of one or more specific plant species among several different plants, especially real-time identification of weed plant species in a real-world environment such as a crop field. Other embodiments relate to identification systems, methods, or devices in combination with action components, such as a spraying system for spraying the weed plants identified in real time.


Wandel A.P.,University of Southern Queensland
Combustion and Flame | Year: 2014

A Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) study is performed to determine a quantitative indicator of imminent global extinction in spray flames ignited by a spark. The cases under consideration have Group Combustion numbers sufficiently small that each droplet has an individual flame form around it, which subsequently merge. The structure of the flames is examined, including identification of non-premixed behaviour in the core of the flame and premixed flame fronts except in the presence of droplets, which cause strong non-premixed behaviour. The reaction progress variable c is studied and its dissipation rate is identified as being a key indicator of whether a flame will globally extinguish after being ignited by the spark. Specifically, immediately after the spark is deactivated, the volume containing the end of the flame front and hot products is studied in detail with respect to c. For successful flames, it is observed that regions of zero dissipation of c were predominantly restricted to the highest reaction progress variable (c > 0.98), with zero probability within the range 0.95 < c < 0.98 and low probability within 0.9 < c < 0.95. In contrast, cases which subsequently extinguished had substantial probability of zero dissipation for 0.95 < c < 0.98. This region was a secondary structure separate from the main flame kernel that was unable to evaporate sufficient liquid to create a self-sustaining flame and therefore contributed to the subsequent quenching of the flame. In the successfully-burning case under consideration, this region was part of the main flame structure. The low reaction rate contributed to a thickened flame structure near the hot core, which reduced the heat transfer to the flame front and prevented effective evaporation and preheating of the fluid ahead of the flame front. Calculation of the conditional probability of c for its dissipation rate being zero could provide a quantitative measure to determine whether a flame is likely to extinguish within a relatively short timeframe. This is equivalent to detecting that, for every value of 0.9 < c < 1, there are volumes of significant size where the value of c is uniform. Note that a successful flame must have a volume of substantial size with c = 1. From a practical perspective, if each individual flame kernel is monitored, then extinction is imminent if secondary structures of incomplete reactions are present when the spark ceases adding energy. © 2014 The Combustion Institute.


Maraseni T.N.,University of Southern Queensland
Energy Policy | Year: 2013

The Kyoto Protocol adopted three flexible market-based mechanisms (Emissions Trading; Joint Implementation; Clean Development Mechanism) to meet emission reduction targets in a cost-effective manner. Of these, the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) is the only mechanism that links developed and developing countries. China has been a dominant player in CDM markets with >50.86% of the world's 4768 CDM projects. This study surveyed key CDM stakeholders from which the identification and ranking of the 10 most important factors that determine the selection of CDM investors in China. The most important factors were "reputation of company" and "experience in CDM project in China" whilst "personal friendship or relationship" was the least influential. European countries (mainly UK, The Netherlands, Sweden and Germany) are the major investors and have both strong reputations in the CDM arena in addition to having assisted China in capacity development activities for CDM in early 2000. An understanding of these selection factors that potential CDM hosts use in their joint venture decisions should benefit CDM investors. This knowledge should also provide the policy and strategic level framework for future potential CDM hosts in other developing countries. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.


Manalo A.,University of Southern Queensland
Construction and Building Materials | Year: 2013

This paper presents the structural behaviour of an emerging prefabricated wall system made up of glass fibre reinforced rigid polyurethane foam (PUF) and Magnesium Oxide (MgO) board. Full-scale wall specimens were prepared and tested under transverse bending, compression and shear. The results of the experimental investigation showed that the behaviour of the composite walls is governed by the strength of the MgO board. A complete interaction between the rigid PUF and MgO board was achieved using epoxy adhesives. In compression, a 17% lower failure load was measured for wall specimen with the MgO board attached to the wall frame with a 10 mm offset from the bottom plate than the wall with the sheathing flushed to the bottom plate. Under in-plane shear test, the single and two-panel composite wall systems exhibited similar shear stiffness and strength. The provision of tie-down anchor bolts increased the shear strength by almost 15% but has no significant contribution to the shear stiffness. Finally, the results confirmed the potential of this composite wall system in residential modular construction.©2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Yousif B.F.,University of Southern Queensland
Materials and Design | Year: 2013

Nowadays, there is demand to evaluate tribological performance of new engineering materials using different techniques. Various laboratory tribo-machines have been designed and fabricated such as Pin-on-Disc (POD), ASTM G99, Block-on-Ring (BOR), ASTM G77 or G137-953, Dry Sand Rubber Wheel (DSRW), ASTM G655, Wet Sand Rubber Wheel (WSRW), ASTM G105, and sand/steel wheel test under wet/dry conditions (ASTM B611). A concept of integrating more than one tribo-technique at different contact mechanisms (line or area) working simultaneously under same test condition against same material is introduced in a current designed machine. Different wear modes (adhesive, two-body-abrasive, threebody-abrasive, under dry, lubricated, or slurry conditions) can be conducted on the same machine. Results of adhesive wear, friction and interface temperature of glass fibre reinforced polyester composite under wet/dry contact condition are reported at 50 N load for different sliding speeds (2.8-7.8 m/s) using the new machine. Weight loss and friction coefficient of the composite were substantially influenced by introducing water as lubricant. Additionally, the contact condition has the high influence key on the wear and frictional performance of the composite. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.


Wandel A.P.,University of Southern Queensland
Proceedings of the Combustion Institute | Year: 2013

A Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) study has been conducted into droplets evaporating and burning under the influence of a spark. Specifically, underlying physical causes behind configurations globally extinguishing or failing to ignite have been investigated. It has been found that the global mixture fraction mean and standard deviation need to be sufficiently large (i.e. sufficient fuel must have evaporated to be available for mixing) in order for a flame to be sustained, with the standard deviation a more universal measure of success. In addition, a predictor to extinction has been identified: successful flames have a substantially large region containing hot products with low scalar dissipation rate. This stable region forms a kernel that is able to supply sufficient heat to promote flame propagation without depleting too quickly. In contrast, flows that fail to ignite never form a region containing hot products, while flows that are about to globally extinguish do not have a region with low scalar dissipation within the hot products. This predictor was also observed in the equivalent partially-premixed gaseous configuration. These indicators were found to be independent of droplet size, droplet number density and turbulent intensity and observed both while the spark was active and after the spark effect had completely dissipated. Further work will aim to quantify the scale of this effect to obtain a reliable measure of when the predictor of no low scalar dissipation amongst hot products is encountered. © 2012 The Combustion Institute.


Hamawand I.,University of Southern Queensland
Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews | Year: 2015

Greenhouse gases especially methane has been proven to have a significant effect on global warming and climate changes. Large share of methane is emitted to the environment from wastewater treatment plants mostly from uncovered anaerobic digesters. The estimated methane emission is approximately 618 Mt carbon dioxide-equivalents (CO2-e) globally. Methane emissions from uncovered anaerobic digesters can be avoided by carrying out some modification to the treatment process and design. These potential modifications were illustrated in details in this paper. The aims are to gain better understanding of anaerobic digestion process and its performance. This paper is discussing and analysing the difficulties associated with anaerobic digestion process specifically in meat industry and many methods to overcome these problems. There are many ways for enhancing the performance of anaerobic digestion process such as through simulation, co-digestion, addition of surfactants, pre-treatment and optimal digester design. It is obvious that solving the problems associated with anaerobic process may raise investors interest in covered anaerobic digesters and as a consequence will remarkably reduce emission of greenhouse gases. Anaerobic digester would not only function as a water treatment process but as a resource of renewable energy as well. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.


Zhuge Y.,University of Southern Queensland
Journal of Composites for Construction | Year: 2010

In the last two decades, several seismic retrofitting techniques for masonry structures have been developed and practiced and fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP) material has been increasingly used owing to its high strength/stiffness to mass ratio and easy application. Although much research has been carried out on FRP strengthening of unreinforced masonry (URM) structures, most of it has been experimental studies to investigate the effectiveness of retrofitting techniques rather than the development of a rational design model. In addition, more research has been conducted on FRP-retrofitted URM walls under out-of-plane loads where flexural behavior dominates, the research on the shear strength of FRP-retrofitted URM walls has been limited. This paper presents a review of research in this area. Existing retrofitting techniques are overviewed, followed by a detailed discussion of experimental results of failure modes as they are directly related to the design model. The available design models are then assessed based on a test database collected from the available literature. Limitations of each model are addressed. © 2010 ASCE.

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