University of Southern CaliforniaLos Angeles
University of Southern CaliforniaLos Angeles
Juarez T.,University of Southern CaliforniaLos Angeles |
Biener J.,Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory |
Weissmuller J.,TU Hamburg - Harburg |
Weissmuller J.,and Institute of Materials Research |
Hodge A.M.,University of Southern CaliforniaLos Angeles
Advanced Engineering Materials | Year: 2017
Nanoporous (np) metals have generated much interest since they combine several desirable material characteristics, such as high surface area, mechanical size effects, and high conductivity. Most of the research has been focused on np Au due to its relatively straightforward synthesis, chemical stability, and many promising applications in the fields of catalysis and actuation. Other materials, such as np-Cu, Ag, and Pd have also been studied. This review discusses recent advances in the field of np metals, focusing on new research areas that implement and leverage structural hierarchy while using np metals as their base structural constituents. First, we focus on single-element porous metals that are made of np metals at the fundamental level, but synthesized with additional levels of porosity. Second, we discuss the fabrication of composite structures, which use auxiliary materials to enhance the properties of np metals. Important applications of these hierarchical materials, especially in the fields of catalysis and electrochemistry, are also reviewed. Finally, we conclude with a discussion about future opportunities for the advancement and application of np metals. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Schirripa M.,Southern Medical University |
Zhang W.,Southern Medical University |
Heinemann V.,Ludwig Maximilians University of Munich |
Cao S.,University of Southern CaliforniaLos Angeles |
And 14 more authors.
International Journal of Cancer | Year: 2017
The Insulin-like growth factor (IGF)/IGF-receptor pathway with its scaffolding proteins Insulin Receptor Substrate (IRS)1 and IRS2 are crucial regulators of metabolism and progression in metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC). The goal of the study was the identification of predictive and prognostic markers among IRS1, IRS2, IGF1 and IGF-1R SNPs in mCRC patients enrolled in the FIRE-3 trial. Four SNPs of IRS (IRS1 rs1801278, rs1801123; IRS2 rs1805097, rs2289046) and four SNPs of IGF1-IGFR1 (rs6214, rs6220, rs2946834, rs2016347) were analyzed by PCR/direct-sequencing in the FIRE-3 trial. The relation of SNPs with PFS and OS was evaluated through Kaplan-Meier method and log-rank test in the overall population and in subgroup according to RAS status and treatment arm. In the overall population IRS1 rs1801123 C/- carriers (N= 105) achieved significantly worse OS compared to T/T (N=464) in univariate (HR=1.32 [95%CI 1.03-1.70], p=0.029) and in multivariable. Similar results were observed among RAS wild type. Patients with IGF1 rs2946834 T/- variant (N= 280) achieved improved PFS compared to C/C (N=257) in univariate (HR=0.77 [95%CI 0.64-0.92], p=0.004) and in multivariable. In the RAS wild-type subgroup IGF1 rs2946834 T/- carriers showed better PFS and OS compared to C/C (univariate HR for PFS=0.65 [95%CI 0.51-0.81], p<0.001; multivariable HR for PFS=0.63 [95%CI 0.50-0.81], p<0.001). IRS1 rs1801123 SNP was identified as a new prognostic marker for mCRC. IGF1 rs2946834 was confirmed as prognostic factor in the overall population and in RAS wild type patients. Our findings underline the importance of IGF downstream signaling pathway in RAS wild-type mCRC patient. © 2017 UICC.
Ansari S.,University of Southern CaliforniaLos Angeles |
Phark J.-H.,University of Southern CaliforniaLos Angeles |
Duarte S.,University of Southern CaliforniaLos Angeles |
Paulino da Silva M.,University of Sao Paulo |
And 3 more authors.
Journal of Biomedical Materials Research - Part B Applied Biomaterials | Year: 2015
Recently we have demonstrated the ability of monoclonal antibodies (mAb) specific for bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-2 immobilized on different scaffolds to mediate bone formation, a process referred to as Antibody Mediated Osseous Regeneration (AMOR). One of the key properties of regenerated bone is its biomechanical strength, in particular in load-bearing areas. This study sought to test the hypothesis that the biomechanical strength of regenerated bone depends of the mode of regeneration, as well as the scaffold used. Four different scaffolds, namely titanium granules (Ti), alginate hydrogel, anorganic bovine bone mineral (ABBM), and absorbable collagen sponge (ACS) were functionalized with anti-BMP-2 or isotype control mAb and implanted into rat critical-size calvarial defects. The morphology, density and strength of the regenerated bone were evaluated after 8 weeks. Results demonstrated that scaffolds functionalized with anti-BMP-2 mAb exhibited varying degrees of bone volume and density. Ti and ABBM achieved the highest bone volume, density, and strength of bone. When anti-BMP-2 mAb was immobilized on Ti or ABBM, the strength of the regenerated bone were 80% and 77% of native bone respectively, compared with 60% of native bone in sites implanted with rh-BMP-2. Control interventions with isotype mAb did not promote considerable bone regeneration and exhibited significantly lower mechanical properties. SEM analysis showed specimens immobilized with anti-BMP-2 mAb formed new bone with organized structure bridging the crack areas. Altogether, the present data demonstrated that the morphological and mechanical properties of bone bioengineered through AMOR could approximate that of native bone, when appropriate scaffolds are used. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.