Time filter

Source Type

Southampton, United Kingdom

The University of Southampton is a public university located in Southampton, England. Southampton is a research intensive university and a founding member of the Russell Group of elite British universities.The origins of the university date back to the founding of the Hartley Institution in 1862 following a legacy to the Corporation of Southampton by Henry Robertson Hartley. In 1902, the Institution developed into the Hartley University College, with degrees awarded by the University of London. On 29 April 1952, the institution was granted a Royal Charter to give the University of Southampton full university status. It is a member of the European University Association, the Association of Commonwealth Universities and is an accredited institution of the Worldwide Universities Network.Besides being recognised as one of the leading research universities in the UK, Southampton has also achieved consistently high scores for its teaching and learning activities. It additionally has one of the highest proportions of income derived from research activities in Britain, and is regularly ranked in the top 100 universities in the world. As of 2014 Southampton is one of the few universities to achieve a top 20 UK position in the most established national and international rankings .The University of Southampton currently has over 16,000 undergraduate and 7,000 postgraduate students, making it the largest university by higher education students in the South East region. The university has seven teaching campuses. The main campus is located in the Highfield area of Southampton and is supplemented by four other campuses within the city: Avenue Campus housing the Faculty of Humanities, the National Oceanography Centre housing courses in Ocean and Earth science, Southampton General Hospital offering courses in Medicine and Health science, and Boldrewood Campus an engineering and maritime technology campus housing also the university's strategic ally Lloyd's Register. In addition, the university operates a School of Art based in nearby Winchester and an international branch in Malaysia offering courses in Engineering. Each campus is equipped with its own library facilities.The university has over 5000 places at university-owned halls of residence, spread over two main complexes and several other smaller halls located within a couple of miles from the university. The University of Southampton Students' Union, provides support, representation and social activities for the students ranging from involvement in the Union's four media outlets to any of the 200 affiliated societies and 80 sports. The university owns and operates a sports ground at nearby Wide Lane for use by students and also operates a sports centre on the main campus. Highfield Campus also houses three main art venues supported by the university and Arts Council England. Wikipedia.

Gale P.A.,University of Southampton
Accounts of Chemical Research

Cystic fibrosis is the most well-known of a variety of diseases termed channelopathies, in which the regulation of ion transport across cell membranes is so disrupted that the threshold of a pathology is passed. The human toll exacted by these diseases has led a number of research groups, including our own, to create compounds that mediate ion transport across lipid bilayers.In this Account, we discuss three classes of synthetic compounds that were refined to bind and transport anions across lipid bilayer membranes. All of the compounds were originally designed as anion receptors, that is, species that would simply create stable complexes with anions, but were then further developed as transporters. By studying structurally simple systems and varying their properties to change the degree of preorganization, the affinity for anions, or the lipophilicity, we have begun to rationalize why particular anion transport mechanisms (cotransport or antiport processes) occur in particular cases. For example, we have studied the chloride transport properties of receptors based on the closely related structures of isophthalamide and pyridine-2,6-dicarboxamide: the central ring in each case was augmented with pendant methylimidazole groups designed to cotransport H+ and Cl -. We observed that the more preorganized pyridine-based receptor was the more efficient transporter, a finding replicated with a series of isophthalamides in which one contained hydroxyl groups designed to preorganize the receptor. This latter class of compound, together with the natural product prodigiosin, can transport bicarbonate (as part of a chloride/bicarbonate antiport process) across lipid bilayer membranes.We have also studied the membrane transport properties of calix[4]pyrroles. Although the parent meso-octamethylcalix[4]pyrrole functions solely as a Cs+/Cl - cotransporter, other compounds with increased anion affinities can function through an antiport process. One example is octafluoro-meso- octamethylcalix[4]pyrrole; with its electron-withdrawing substituents, it can operate through a chloride/bicarbonate antiport process. Moreover, calix[4]pyrroles with additional hydrogen bond donors can operate through a chloride/nitrate antiport process. Thus, increasing the affinity of the receptor in these cases allows the compound to transport an anion in the absence of a cation.Finally, we have studied the transport properties of simple thioureas and shown that these compounds are highly potent chloride/bicarbonate antiport agents that function at low concentrations. In contrast, the urea analogues are inactive. The higher hydrophobicity (reflected in higher values for the logarithm of the water-octanol partition constant, or log P) and lower polar surface areas of the thiourea compounds compared to their urea analogues may provide a clue to the high potency of these compounds. This observation might serve as a basis for designing future small-molecule transporters. © 2011 American Chemical Society. Source

Holgate S.T.,University of Southampton
Immunological Reviews

The adoption of the concept that asthma is primarily a disease most frequently associated with elaboration of T-helper 2 (Th2)-type inflammation has led to the widely held concept that its origins, exacerbation, and persistence are allergen driven. Taking aside the asthma that is expressed in non-allergic individuals leaves the great proportion of asthma that is associated with allergy (or atopy) and that often has its onset in early childhood. Evidence is presented that asthma is primarily an epithelial disorder and that its origin as well as its clinical manifestations have more to do with altered epithelial physical and functional barrier properties than being purely linked to allergic pathways. In genetically susceptible individuals, impaired epithelial barrier function renders the airways vulnerable to early life virus infection, and this in turn provides the stimulus to prime immature dendritic cells toward directing a Th2 response and local allergen sensitization. Continued epithelial susceptibility to environmental insults such as viral, allergen, and pollutant exposure and impaired repair responses leads to asthma persistence and provides the mediator and growth factor microenvironment for persistence of inflammation and airway wall remodeling. Increased deposition of matrix in the epithelial lamina reticularis provides evidence for ongoing epithelial barrier dysfunction, while physical distortion of the epithelium consequent upon repeated bronchoconstriction provides additional stimuli for remodeling. This latter response initially serves a protective function but, if exaggerated, may lead to fixed airflow obstruction associated with more severe and chronic disease. Dual pathways in the origins, persistence, and progression of asthma help explain why anti-inflammatory treatments fail to influence the natural history of asthma in childhood and only partially does so in chronic severe disease. Positioning the airway epithelium as fundamental to the origins and persistence of asthma provides a rationale for pursuit of therapeutics that increase the resistance of the airways to environmental insults rather than concentrating all effort on suppressing inflammation. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Source

Levitt M.H.,University of Southampton
Annual Review of Physical Chemistry

Nuclear singlet states may have lifetimes that are much longer than the conventional relaxation time of nuclear spin magnetization. This review covers how these states may be generated, observed, and exploited in solution nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). Potential applications include the study of slow molecular processes, the elucidation of molecular geometry, and the transport of hyperpolarized nuclear spin order. © Copyright ©2012 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved. Source

Gale P.A.,University of Southampton
Chemical Society Reviews

This critical review covers advances in anion complexation in the year 2008 and 2009. The review discusses anion receptors that employ hydrogen bond donors (both NH and CH), electrostatic interactions, Lewis acidic centres and combinations of these three types of binding interaction to complex anions. Additionally nanotechnological approaches to anion sensing in aqueous solution, lipid bilayer transporters and recent work on the use of anions to drive conformational change are highlighted (130 references). © 2010 The Royal Society of Chemistry. Source

A method of electrically measuring the electrical properties of individual particles flowing in a liquid, which method comprises: (i) providing apparatus (

Discover hidden collaborations