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The University of Glamorgan was a university based in South Wales prior to the merger with University of Wales, Newport that formed the University of South Wales in April 2013. The university was based in Pontypridd, Rhondda Cynon Taf with campuses in Trefforest, Glyntaff, Merthyr Tydfil, Tyn y Wern and Cardiff. The university had four faculties, and was the only university in Wales which had no link with the University of Wales. Wikipedia.

Lipp A.,University of South Wales
The Cochrane database of systematic reviews | Year: 2013

Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) is a surgical procedure performed to maintain nutrition in the short- or long-term. During the procedure, a feeding tube that delivers either a liquid diet, or medication, via a clean or sterile delivery system, is placed surgically through the anterior abdominal wall. Those undergoing PEG tube placement are often vulnerable to infection because of age, compromised nutritional intake, immunosuppression, or underlying disease processes such as malignancy and diabetes mellitus. The increasing incidence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) contributes both an additional risk to the placement procedure, and to the debate surrounding antibiotic prophylaxis for PEG tube placement. The aim of surgical antimicrobial prophylaxis is to establish a bactericidal concentration of an antimicrobial drug in the patient's serum and tissues, via a brief course of an appropriate agent, by the time of PEG tube placement in order to prevent any peristomal infections that might result from the procedure. To establish whether prophylactic use of systemic antimicrobials reduces the risk of peristomal infection in people undergoing placement of percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy tubes. In August 2013, for this third update, we searched the Cochrane Wounds Group Specialised Register; The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library); Ovid Medline; Ovid Medline (In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations); Ovid Embase; and EBSCO CINAHL. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) evaluating the use of prophylactic antimicrobials during PEG tube placement, with no restrictions regarding language of publication, date of publication, or publication status. Both review authors independently selected studies. Both review authors independently extracted data and assessed study quality. Meta-analyses were performed where appropriate. One new trial was identified and included in this update, bringing the total to 13 eligible RCTs, with a total of 1637 patients. All trials reported peristomal infection as an outcome. A pooled analysis of 12 trials resulted in a statistically significant reduction in the incidence of peristomal infection with prophylactic antibiotics (1271 patients pooled: OR 0.36, 95% CI 0.26 to 0.50). The newly identified trial compared IV antibiotics with antibiotics via PEG and could not be included in the meta-analysis. Administration of systemic prophylactic antibiotics for PEG tube placement reduces peristomal infection.

Lipp A.,University of South Wales
The Cochrane database of systematic reviews | Year: 2014

Surgical face masks were originally developed to contain and filter droplets containing microorganisms expelled from the mouth and nasopharynx of healthcare workers during surgery, thereby providing protection for the patient. However, there are several ways in which surgical face masks could potentially contribute to contamination of the surgical wound, e.g. by incorrect wear or by leaking air from the side of the mask due to poor string tension. To determine whether disposable surgical face masks worn by the surgical team during clean surgery prevent postoperative surgical wound infection. We searched The Cochrane Wounds Group Specialised Register on 23 October 2013; The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library); Ovid MEDLINE; Ovid MEDLINE (In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations); Ovid EMBASE; and EBSCO CINAHL. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and quasi-randomised controlled trials comparing the use of disposable surgical masks with the use of no mask. Two review authors extracted data independently. Three trials were included, involving a total of 2113 participants. There was no statistically significant difference in infection rates between the masked and unmasked group in any of the trials. From the limited results it is unclear whether the wearing of surgical face masks by members of the surgical team has any impact on surgical wound infection rates for patients undergoing clean surgery.

Antenatal screening has become standard practice in many countries. However, not all pregnant women choose to be tested. In the UK, the incidence of some birth defects is found to be higher in babies of Asian women than in those of women from other ethnic groups, while there is some evidence suggesting that ethnic minorities, especially Asian women, are less likely to undergo antenatal screening and prenatal diagnosis, the reasons for which are unclear. This study aims to identify and describe the literature on issues around antenatal screening and prenatal diagnostic testing for genetic disorders among women of Asian descent in western countries. The Medline, CINAHL, ASSIA and PsycInfo databases were searched for the period of 1995 and 2010. Twenty-one studies met the inclusion criteria and were therefore reviewed. In general, Asian women were found to hold favourable attitudes towards testing. However, they reported a poorer understanding of testing than white women and not being offered a test, and were less able to make informed choices. Asian women in the UK and Australia were found to be less likely than their white counterparts to have undergone prenatal diagnosis, while such differences were not found in the USA and Canada. The equity of access to quality antenatal care, alongside comprehensive well thought out antenatal screening programmes, can be assured if strategies are in place which actively involve all ethnic groups and take account of social and cultural appropriateness for the population served. An understanding of broad factors that inform women's decision-making on test uptake would help health professionals provide women and their families with more culturally sensitive information and support that they may additionally need to make more informed choices. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

Lusardi G.,University of South Wales
The Cochrane database of systematic reviews | Year: 2013

Urinary tract infections account for about 40% of hospital-acquired (nosocomial) infections, and about 80% of urinary tract infections acquired in hospital are associated with urinary catheters. To determine if certain antibiotic prophylaxes are better than others in terms of prevention of urinary tract infections, complications, quality of life and cost-effectiveness in short-term catheterisation in adults. We searched the Cochrane Incontinence Group Specialised Register, which contains trials identified from the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE and MEDLINE in Process, and handsearching of journals and conference proceedings (searched 31st October 2012). Additionally, we examined all reference lists of identified trials. All randomised and quasi-randomised trials comparing antibiotic prophylaxis for short-term (up to and including 14 days) catheterisation in adults. Data were independently extracted by all review authors and compared. Disagreements were resolved by discussion. Data were processed as described in the Cochrane Handbook for Systemtic Reviews of Interventions. Where data had not been fully reported, clarification was sought directly from the authors of the trial. Six parallel-group randomised controlled trials with 789 participants met the inclusion criteria. All six trials compared antibiotic prophylaxis versus no prophylaxis. Studies presented a low to unclear risk of bias with similar interventions and measured outcomes.The primary outcome of bacteriuria was less common in the prophylaxis group amongst surgical patients with asymptomatic bacteriuria (I(2) = 0; risk ratio (RR) 0.20; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.13 to 0.31) . Two non-surgical studies could not be combined in a meta-analysis due to heterogeneity and only one showed significantly fewer cases of bacteriuria (RR 0.19; 95% CI 0.09 to 0.37).Two trials of surgical patients with asymptomatic bacteriuria only (255 participants) compared one type of antibiotic prophylaxis with another and neither study showed a significant difference in cases of bacteriuria.One study (78 participants) compared antibiotic prophylaxis in patients at catheterisation only versus antibiotic prophylaxis throughout catheterisation period with asymptomatic bacteriuria. Antibiotics at catheterisation only, resulted in significantly fewer cases of bacteriuria than giving prophylaxis throughout the catheterisation period (RR 0.29 95% CI 0.09 to 0.91).Secondary data of pyuria were provided by two surgical studies (255 participants). When studies were pooled, pyuria occurred in significantly fewer cases in the prophylactic antibiotic group (RR 0.23, 95% CI 0.13 to 0.42). The number of gram-negative isolates in patients' urine just before catheter removal in one study (RR 0.05, 95% CI 0.00 to 0.79) and six weeks after hospital discharge (RR 0.36, 95% CI 0.23 to 0.56) were significantly lower. There were no events in the treatment group before catheter removal. When pooled data from two studies showed significantly reduced febrile morbidity in those receiving antibiotic prophylaxis (RR 0.53 95% CI 0.31 to 0.89).Although all studies assessed micro-organisms isolated from the urine specimens the data were too heterogenous to pool in a meta-analysis and have been provided in a narrative form. Further secondary data such as economic analysis, length of stay and quality of life were not covered in detail. The limited evidence indicated that receiving prophylactic antibiotics reduced the rate of bacteriuria and other signs of infection, such as pyuria, febrile morbidity and gram-negative isolates in patients' urine, in surgical patients who undergo bladder drainage for at least 24 hours postoperatively. There was also limited evidence that prophylactic antibiotics reduced bacteriuria in non-surgical patients.

Murphy D.J.,University of South Wales
Journal of Oil Palm Research | Year: 2014

In recent years, the oil palm sector has witnessed a period of historically high prices with buoyant global demand and high levels of production driven largely by economic development in major Asian countries such as India and China. However, the oil palm sector is also confronted by many important challenges that require attention. Such challenges include fragmentation of the industry, stagnating yields, and an image problem that is largely due to the conversion of tropical rainforest and peatlands in a few regions in South-east Asia. The biological and managerial tools to surmount these challenges already exist but need more focussed application and political support. Potentially groundbreaking biological tools include the new molecular breeding technologies, such as those made possible by the recent publication of the oil palm genome sequence (Singh et al., 2013a, b). Two key R&D targets for the industry are: • higher oil yield in fruits and trees; and • higher mesocarp oleic acid composition - preferably over 65% w/w. The more focussed use of new and traditional technologies can also help to confront pest and disease problems, to redesign of crop architecture, and to facilitate yield and harvesting efficiency. In the mediumterm future, we can look forward to a considerable geographical extension of oil palm cultivation in a broad zone across the tropics of Africa, Asia and the Americas. If these and other measures can be taken, increased palm oil output could more than meet the highest projections for future vegetable oil requirements while minimising adverse environmental consequences. Improved oil palm varieties could also considerably increase the global market share for this highly productive tropical crop at the expense of some of the less efficient temperate oilseed crops.

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