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The University of South Florida, also known as USF, is a member institution of the State University System of Florida, one of the state's three flagship universities for public research, and is located in Tampa, Florida, USA. Founded in 1956, USF is the eighth largest university in the nation and the third largest in the state of Florida, with a total enrollment of 47,122 as of 2009. USF has an autonomous campus in St. Petersburg, and branch centers in Sarasota and Lakeland. Wikipedia.

Samui P.,Vellore Institute of Technology | Dixon B.,University of South Florida
Hydrological Processes | Year: 2012

This article employs Support Vector Machine (SVM) and Relevance Vector Machine (RVM) for prediction of Evaporation Losses (E) in reservoirs. SVM that is firmly based on the theory of statistical learning theory, uses regression technique by introducing ε-insensitive loss function has been adopted. RVM is based on a Bayesian formulation of a linear model with an appropriate prior that results in a sparse representation. The input of SVM and RVM models are mean air temperature (T) ( °C), average wind speed (WS) (m/sec), sunshine hours (SH)(hrs/day), and mean relative humidity (RH) (%). Equations have been also developed for prediction of E. The developed RVM model gives variance of the predicted E. A comparative study has also been presented between SVM, RVM and ANN models. The results indicate that the developed SVM and RVM can be used as a practical tool for prediction of E. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd..

Heide K.M.,University of South Florida
International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology | Year: 2014

Almost all of the literature on male parricide victims focuses on fathers killed with only little information available on stepparents killed. This study is the first to compare the victim, offender, and case correlates in incidents when fathers and stepfathers were killed. Supplementary Homicide Report data were used for the period 1976 to 2007 to investigate similarities and differences between the two male victim parricide types in the United States. Similarities between fathers and stepfathers included more than 80% of fathers and stepfathers were killed in single victim, single offender homicides. Their killers were adult sons and stepsons in more than 70% of the cases. Juvenile offenders were significantly less likely to be involved in the killings of fathers and stepfathers in more recent years. Significant differences emerged with respect to age and weapon use in the killings of fathers and stepfathers. Stepfathers and stepchildren, relative to fathers and their offspring, were significantly younger. Juvenile offenders were significantly more likely than their adult counterparts to use firearms to kill fathers (79% vs. 54%) and stepfathers (72% vs. 58%). Significant gender differences in weapons used to kill fathers were found among juvenile and adult offenders, with males more likely to use firearms than females. Reasons for the possible differences are discussed in the conclusion. © The Author(s) 2013.

Hou X.,University of South Florida
Finite Fields and their Applications | Year: 2013

Let k be a positive integer and S2 k = x + x4 + ⋯ + x42 k - 1 ∈ F2 [x]. It was recently conjectured that x + S2 k 42 k + S2 k 4k + 3 is a permutation polynomial of F43 k. In this note, the conjecture is confirmed and a generalization is obtained. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Balducci L.,University of South Florida
Annals of Oncology | Year: 2012

A good death and a death with dignity may be achieved when death is congruent with the personal values of the patient. It behooves the practitioner to recognize these values and to cater to them. This paper describes effective communication with the dying person, and the partnership of treatment team, patient and family in face of the patient death. To identify and define the patient wishes it is necessary to learn how to interpret the patient's non verbal as often patients are unable to formulate the questions they wish to ask concerning their passing. These difficulties stem from several cultural factors including concern about disturbing the practitioner. It is the treatment team's responsibility to facilitate this discussion. A good death is achieved when symptoms are controlled and when patients and family recognize death as a unique living experience to be treasured as any other living experience. A death with dignity brings healing, that is always possible even when cure is out of reach. Patient's and practitioner's values may be at odd in face of controversial issues including euthanasia, assisted suicide and terminal sedation. Though he/she should not be compelled to execute these requests, the practitioner should be able to entertain an open discussion with the patient concerning these issues. Open communication and reflective listening even in presence of disagreements are the venue of healing. The study of death and dying requires novel approaches including personal narrative and qualitative research to complement traditional research instrument, such as questionnaire that cannot embrace the whole human dimension. © The Author 2012. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society for Medical Oncology. All rights reserved.

Brooks S.M.,University of South Florida
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine | Year: 2013

The Occupational Medicine Forum is prepared by the ACOEM Occupational and Environmental Medical Practice Committee and does not necessarily represent an official ACOEM position. The Forum is intended for health professionals and is not intended to provide medical or legal advice, including illness prevention, diagnosis or treatment, or regulatory compliance. Such advice should be obtained directly from a physician and/or attorney. Copyright © 2013 by American College of Occupational and Environmental Medicine.

Hudson N.,University of South Florida
Journal of Loss and Trauma | Year: 2016

Poverty is more than an income level; it is a socially constructed identity that leaves scars of psychological impoverishment. Using autoethnography, I tell my story about growing up poor, climbing out of poverty as an adult, and falling back into poverty during marriage. I explore the unforgettable traumas of poverty, including empty cupboards, social rejection, humiliation, homelessness, and loneliness. Through the lens of Goffman’s frame analysis theory, I cope with my memories of hardship and stigmatized identity. © 2016, Copyright © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

Dzik W.I.,University of Amsterdam | Zhang X.P.,University of South Florida | De Bruin B.,University of Amsterdam
Inorganic Chemistry | Year: 2011

In this Forum contribution, we highlight the radical-type reactivities of one-electron-reduced Fischer-type carbenes. Carbene complexes of group 6 transition metals (Cr, Mo, and W) can be relatively easily reduced by an external reducing agent, leading to one-electron reduction of the carbene ligand moiety. This leads to the formation of "carbene-radical" ligands, showing typical radical-type reactivities. Fischer-type carbene ligands are thus clearly redox-active and can behave as so-called "redox noninnocent ligands". The "redox noninnocence" of Fischer-type carbene ligands is most clearly illustrated at group 9 transition metals in the oxidation state II+ (CoII, RhII, and IrII). In such carbene complexes, the metal effectively reduces the carbene ligand by one electron in an intramolecular redox process. As a result, the thus formed "carbene radicals" undergo a variety of radical-type C-C and C-H bond formations. The redox noninnocence of Fischer-type carbene ligands is not just a chemical curiosity but, in fact, plays an essential role in catalytic cyclopropanation reactions by cobalt(II) porphyrins. This has led to the successful development of new chiral cobalt(II) porphyrins as highly effective catalysts for asymmetric cyclopropanation with unprecedented reactivity and stereocontrol. The redox noninnocence of the carbene intermediates results in the formation of carbene-radical ligands with nucleophilic character, which explains their effectiveness in the cyclopropanation of electron-deficient olefins and their reduced tendency to mediate carbene dimerization. To the best of our knowledge, this represents the first example in which the redox noninnocence of a reacting ligand plays a key role in a catalytic organometallic reaction. This Forum contribution ends with an outlook on further potential applications of one-electron-activated Fischer-type carbenes in new catalytic reactions. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

Litman G.W.,All Childrens Hospital | Litman G.W.,University of South Florida | Litman G.W.,H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center and Research Institute | Rast J.P.,University of Toronto | Fugmann S.D.,U.S. National Institute on Aging
Nature Reviews Immunology | Year: 2010

Adaptive immunity is mediated through numerous genetic and cellular processes that generate favourable somatic variants of antigen-binding receptors under evolutionary selection pressure by pathogens and other factors. Advances in our understanding of immunity in mammals and other model organisms are revealing the underlying basis and complexity of this remarkable system. Although the evolution of adaptive immunity has been thought to occur by the acquisition of novel molecular capabilities, an increasing amount of information from new model systems suggest that co-option and redirection of pre-existing systems are the main source of innovation. We combine evidence from a wide range of organisms to obtain an integrated view of the origins and patterns of divergence in adaptive immunity. © 2010 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

Dagne G.A.,University of South Florida
Mathematical Biosciences | Year: 2010

This paper presents new methods, using a Bayesian approach, for analyzing longitudinal count data with excess zeros and nonlinear effects of continuously valued covariates. In longitudinal count data there are many problems that can make the use of a zero-inflated Poisson (ZIP) model ineffective. These problems are unobserved heterogeneity and nonlinear effects of continuously valued covariates. Our proposed semiparametric model can simultaneously handle these problems in a unified framework. The framework accounts for heterogeneity by incorporating random effects and has two components. The parametric component of the model which deals with the linear effects of time invariant covariates and the non-parametric component which gives an arbitrary smooth function to model the effect of time or time-varying covariates on the logarithm of mean count. The proposed methods are illustrated by analyzing longitudinal count data on the assessment of an efficacy of pesticides in controlling the reproduction of whitefly. © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Mullarkey M.T.,University of South Florida
Proceedings of the ACM Conference on Computer Supported Cooperative Work, CSCW | Year: 2012

This research conducts a survey of Social Networking Systems (SNS) literature and develops a Typology that challenges and identifies gaps in the basic questions thus far explored in SNS literature. The gap analysis exposes the previously unexplored opportunity for SNS with Organizations as Users (OAU) and deduces a framework for anticipating the emergence of full blown SNS with OAU that will rival the "Facebooks" of the world that thus far focus only on Individuals as Users. © 2012 ACM.

Calder K.B.,University of South Florida | Smoller B.R.,University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences
Advances in Anatomic Pathology | Year: 2010

Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is a rare aggressive cutaneous malignancy of the elderly and immunocompromised populations. The clinical presentation of MCC is nonspecific, with the majority of cases presenting as localized skin involvement. Histologically and immunophenotypically, MCC is defined by both neuroendocrine and epithelial differentiation. Recently, the Merkel cell polyomavirus has been implicated in the pathogenesis of MCC. In addition, there have been numerous studies evaluating the histologic and immunohistochemical characteristics of MCC as they relate to diagnosis and prognosis. The purpose of this paper is to review the most salient and clinically relevant updates in the pathogenesis and histologic features of MCC. Specific attention is given to the clinical and histologic predictors of prognosis, staging, and the controversies concerning sentinel lymph node biopsy and therapy. © 2010 by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

Shin S.-I.,University of Colorado at Boulder | Shin S.-I.,University of South Florida | Sardeshmukh P.D.,University of Colorado at Boulder
Climate Dynamics | Year: 2011

Evidence is presented that the recent trend patterns of surface air temperature and precipitation over the land masses surrounding the North Atlantic Ocean (North America, Greenland, Europe, and North Africa) have been strongly influenced by the warming pattern of the tropical oceans. The current generation of atmosphere-ocean coupled climate models with prescribed radiative forcing changes generally do not capture these regional trend patterns. On the other hand, even uncoupled atmospheric models without the prescribed radiative forcing changes, but with the observed oceanic warming specified only in the tropics, are more successful in this regard. The tropical oceanic warming pattern is poorly represented in the coupled simulations. Our analysis points to model error rather than unpredictable climate noise as a major cause of this discrepancy with respect to the observed trends. This tropical error needs to be reduced to increase confidence in regional climate change projections around the globe, and to formulate better societal responses to projected changes in high-impact phenomena such as droughts and wet spells. © 2010 Springer-Verlag.

Hauser R.A.,University of South Florida | Grosset D.G.,Institute of Neurological science
Journal of Neuroimaging | Year: 2012

Objective: To review [ 123I]FP-CIT (Ioflupane I 123, DaTscan) SPECT imaging and its role in clinical practice. BACKGROUND: [ 123I]FP-CIT is a radiopharmaceutical that binds reversibly to striatal presynaptic dopamine transporters. Methods: We review the two principal multicenter clinical trials of [ 123I]FP-CIT SPECT imaging and provide additional, previously unreported information. Study 1 was a trial of [ 123I]FP-CIT SPECT in patients with early suspected parkinsonism that compared baseline scans to the consensus clinical diagnosis established 3 years later. Study 2 was a trial of [ 123I]FP-CIT SPECT in patients with established diagnoses of parkinsonian syndrome (PS) or essential tremor (ET). Results: In Study 1, positive percent agreement (abnormal baseline scan and clinical diagnosis of PS at 36 months [n= 71]) was 78-79%. Negative percent agreement (normal baseline scan and a clinical diagnosis of non-PS at 36 months [n= 28]) was 97%. In study 2, positive percent agreement (abnormal scan and a clinical diagnosis of PS [n= 158]) was 92-97%. Negative percent agreement (normal scan and a clinical diagnosis of ET [n= 27]) was 74-96%. Conclusion: [ 123I]FP-CIT SPECT brain imaging is used to assist in the evaluation of adult patients with suspected PS and may help differentiate ET from PS as an adjunct to other diagnostic evaluations. © 2011 by the American Society of Neuroimaging.

Gibson C.-A.,Mental Health and Behavioral Science Service | Gibson C.-A.,University of South Florida
Journal of Rehabilitation Research and Development | Year: 2012

With the large number of Veterans experiencing posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and chronic pain, the purpose of this article is to review the prevalence of PTSD and chronic pain, the theoretical models that explain the maintenance of both conditions, and the challenges faced by providers and families who care for these patients. The Department of Veterans Affairs (VA)/Department of Defense (DOD) VA/DOD Clinical Practice Guideline for Management of Post-Traumatic Stress with special attention to chronic pain is presented. Limited scientific evidence supports specific care and treatment of PTSD and chronic pain, and this challenges providers to investigate and research potential treatment options. Integrated care models designed for working with these patients are reviewed, including a focus on the techniques and strategies to address not only PTSD and chronic pain, but other conditions, including substance dependence and depression. A specific focus on headaches, back pain, and neuropathic pain follows, including treatment recommendations such as pharmacological, psychotherapeutic, and complementary approaches, given the high rates of these pain complaints for Veterans in PTSD clinical programs. Integrated care is presented as a viable solution and approach that challenges clinicians and researchers to develop innovative, scientifically based therapeutics and treatments to enhance the recovery and quality of life for Veterans with PTSD and chronic pain.

The successful identification of a forensic facial reconstruction relies upon many factors other than merely the accuracy of the reconstruction. The way in which the reconstructed head is presented can affect the perception of it, which in turn can affect the recognition rates leading to case resolution. A synthesis of relevant facial perception studies from the psychological literature is provided, followed by a short set of recommendations aimed at practitioners wishing to incorporate the best practice based on current science when presenting their work to the public. These recommendations include pose, background, lighting, and colouring/finishing. © 2013 Forensic Science Society.

Gustke K.,University of South Florida
The bone & joint journal | Year: 2013

Total hip replacement for developmental hip dysplasia is challenging. The anatomical deformities on the acetabular and femoral sides are difficult to predict. The Crowe classification is usually used to describe these cases - however, it is not a very helpful tool for pre-operative planning. Small acetabular components, acetabular augments, and modular femoral components should be available for all cases. Regardless of the Crowe classification, the surgeon must be prepared to perform a femoral osteotomy for shortening, or to correct rotation, and/or angulation.

Ogden J.C.,University of South Florida
Revista de Biologia Tropical | Year: 2010

The rapid decline of coastal ecosystems of the Wider Caribbean is entering its fifth decade. Some of the best science documenting this decline and its causes has been done by the laboratories of the Association of Marine Laboratories of the Caribbean (AMLC). Alarmed at the trends, Caribbean conservation pioneers established marine protected areas (MPAs) which spread throughout the region. Unfortunately, many have little or no protection and are now known to be too small to be effective in sustaining coastal ecosystems. Marine spatial planning (MSP) holds much promise to encompass the large geographic scales of the ecological processes and human impacts that influence coastal ecosystems and adjacent lands. The AMLC, through the scientific expertise and the national political connections of its member institutions, is well-positioned to help implement a pilot project. MSP a first step in ecosystem-based management and has had considerable success elsewhere. It holds our best chance of sustaining human use and conserving the coral reefs and associated ecosystems.

Brooks W.H.,University of South Florida
Frontiers in Immunology | Year: 2013

Polyamines are small cations with unique combinations of charge and length that give them many putative interactions in cells. Polyamines are essential since they are involved in replication, transcription, translation, and stabilization of macro-molecular complexes. However, polyamine synthesis competes with cellular methylation for S-adenosylmethionine, the methyl donor. Also, polyamine degradation can generate reactive molecules like acrolein. Therefore, polyamine levels are tightly controlled. This control may be compromised in autoimmune diseases since elevated polyamine levels are seen in autoimmune diseases. Here a hypothesis is presented explaining how polyamines can stabilize autoantigens. In addition, the hypothesis explains how polyamines can inappropriately activate enzymes involved in NETosis, a process in which chromatin is modified and extruded from cells as extracellular traps that bind pathogens during an immune response. This polyamine-induced enzymatic activity can lead to an increase in NETosis resulting in release of autoantigenic material and tissue damage. © 2013 Brooks.

Hinckley J.J.,University of South Florida
American Journal of Speech-Language Pathology | Year: 2014

Purpose: The purpose of this article was to illustrate the importance of the implementation of cognitive-communication screenings in acute stroke and to discuss the need for further research on whether and how these screenings are implemented. Cognitive-communication screenings after stroke are the subject of existing practice guidelines and are supported by accumulated evidence. Method: The author uses an autoethnographic narrative-a tool founded in phenomenology-to provide an in-depth description of the experiences of a family in which one member experienced right-hemispheric stroke. She uses systematic introspection to produce a narrative using literary techniques. Results: The narrative illustrates the experiences of one family when one of their members has a right-hemisphere stroke, and cognitive-communication impairments are never formally identified by professionals involved in the patient's care. Conclusions: The narrative is linked to the published literature and the importance of identifying and managing cognitive-communication impairments after stroke. A model of implementation science is presented as one way to consider the challenges clinicians face when attempting to implement evidence-based practices. Themodel and examples fromother fields show avenues for further research. © American Speech-Language-Hearing Association.

Richesson R.L.,University of South Florida
Journal of Diabetes Science and Technology | Year: 2011

Widespread adoption of electronic health records (EHRs) and expansion of patient registries present opportunities to improve patient care and population health and advance translational research. However, optimal integration of patient registries with EHR functions and aggregation of regional registries to support national or global analyses will require the use of standards. Currently, there are no standards for patient registries and no content standards for health care data collection or clinical research, including diabetes research. Data standards can facilitate new registry development by supporting reuse of well-defined data elements and data collection systems, and they can enable data aggregation for future research and discovery. This article introduces standardization topics relevant to diabetes patient registries, addresses issues related to the quality and use of registries and their integration with primary EHR data collection systems, and proposes strategies for implementation of data standards in diabetes research and management. © Diabetes Technology Society.

Teng M.N.,University of South Florida
Infectious Disorders - Drug Targets | Year: 2012

Over fifty years have passed since the identification of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) as an important pediatric pathogen. However, an effective vaccine is still lacking. Immunization with formalin-inactivated RSV resulted in vaccine-enhanced disease; thus, a greater focus has been placed more recently on developing live attenuated RSV vaccines. The difficulty in identifying a live attenuated vaccine candidate has been balancing appropriate attenuation with sufficient immunogenicity. With the advent of reverse genetics systems for RSV, researchers have been able to generate recombinint vaccine candidates by introducing specific mutations into the genome wild-type RSV. These systems provide a means to determine the effects of known attenuating mutations and identifying novel methods of attenuating the virus without decreasing immunogenicity. In addition, different mutations can be combined in a single genome to fine-tune the level of attenuation and immunogenicity to achieve the proper balance in a viable vaccine candidate. Among the targets for attenuation are the small RSV nonstructural (NS) proteins. The NS proteins have multiple functions during the virus life cycle, including antagonizing the antiviral effects of interferon and directly augmenting virus replication. This review will outline the progress in understanding the functions of the NS proteins and how altering these functions by reverse genetic manipulation can be a useful path toward rationally designing a safe and effective live-attenuated RSV vaccine. © 2012 Bentham Science Publishers.

Koria P.,University of South Florida
BioDrugs | Year: 2012

Growth factors are soluble secreted proteins capable of affecting a variety of cellular processes important for tissue regeneration. Consequently, the self-healing capacity of patients can be augmented by artificially enhancing one or more processes important for healing through the application of growth factors. However, their application in clinics remains limited due to lack of robust delivery systems and biomaterial carriers. Interestingly, all clinically approved therapies involving growth factors utilize some sort of a biomaterial carrier for growth factor delivery. This suggests that biomaterial delivery systems are extremely important for successful usage of growth factors in regenerative medicine. This review outlines the role of growth factors in tissue regeneration, and their application in both pre-clinical animal models of regeneration and clinical trials is discussed. Additionally, current status of biomaterial substrates and sophisticated delivery systems such as nanoparticles for delivery of exogenous growth factors and peptides in humans are reviewed. Finally, issues and possible future research directions for growth factor therapy in regenerative medicine are discussed. © 2012 Springer International Publishing AG. All rights reserved.

Massey O.T.,University of South Florida
Evaluation and Program Planning | Year: 2011

Focus groups have an established history in applied research and evaluation. The fundamental methods of the focus group technique have been well discussed, as have their potential advantages. Less guidance tends to be provided regarding the analysis of data resulting from focus groups or how to organize and defend conclusions drawn from the analysis. This article reviews the methodology of the focus group with an emphasis on thematic analysis of latent data at three levels, articulated, attributional, and emergent. The three levels are described and illustrated with respect to their value and contribution to evaluation within the framework of the group method and qualitative standards of thematic analysis. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

Ma W.-X.,University of South Florida | Fan E.,Fudan University
Computers and Mathematics with Applications | Year: 2011

A linear superposition principle of exponential traveling waves is analyzed for Hirota bilinear equations, with an aim to construct a specific sub-class of N-soliton solutions formed by linear combinations of exponential traveling waves. Applications are made for the 3+1 dimensional KP, JimboMiwa and BKP equations, thereby presenting their particular N-wave solutions. An opposite question is also raised and discussed about generating Hirota bilinear equations possessing the indicated N-wave solutions, and a few illustrative examples are presented, together with an algorithm using weights. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Kelmo F.,Federal University of Bahia | Hallock P.,University of South Florida
Ecological Indicators | Year: 2013

Benthic Foraminifera were assessed in Rose Bengal-stained sediment samples collected annually from 1995 to 2011 at four shallow bank reefs in Northern Bahia (Brazil). The assemblage was represented by 284 species and 88 genera, the most diverse genera being Quinqueloculina (46 spp.), Triloculina (24 spp.), Articulina (13 spp.), Textularia (11 spp.), and Elphidium (10 spp.). Significant differences in densities of live foraminifers in the sediments were observed among years, though not between reefs. Mean densities and diversities declined by ∼90% during the 1997-8 El Niño event compared with the two previous years, then rebounded during the strong La Niña years of 1999-2000, with rapid recovery of populations of small, heterotrophic foraminifers in the assemblage. After 2000, mean densities and diversities fluctuated, with lows following both the 2006-7 and 2009-10 weak El Niño events, but not so pronounced as during the 1997-8 event. Multivariate analysis clearly formed four separate groupings representing strong (hot, dry) and weak El Niño (dry) years, "normal" years, and strong La Niña (high rainfall) years. The FoRAM Index (FI), which is a single-metric index for water quality associated with reef accretion, provided additional insights into assemblage responses. The FI compares relative abundances of three functional groups of benthic foraminifers: characteristic reef-dwelling larger foraminifers that host algal endosymbionts, the ubiquitous heterotrophic smaller taxa, and specifically stress-tolerant heterotrophic taxa. The striking decline in overall densities during El Niño years likely reflects reduced food supply for the heterotrophic taxa, associated with higher temperatures and reduced runoff. Decline in the taxa that host algal symbionts is consistent with reports of extensive coral bleaching, likely related to photo-oxidative stress caused by higher temperatures and increased water transparency. The significant changes in assemblage structure and composition recorded during this 17-year study demonstrate the major influence of climatic variability associated with the El Niño/La Niña-Southern Oscillation. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

Schinka J.A.,University of South Florida
Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology | Year: 2012

Objective: Issues regarding the readability of self-report assessment instruments, methods for establishing the reading ability level of respondents, and guidelines for development of scales designed for marginal readers have been inconsistently addressed in the literature. A recent study by McHugh and Behar (2009) provided new findings relevant to these issues. McHugh and Behar calculated indices of readability separately for the instructions and the item sets of 105 self-report measures of anxiety and depression. Results revealed substantial variability in readability among the measures, with most measures being written at or above the mean reading grade level in the United States. These results were consistent with those reported previously by Schinka and Borum (1993, 1994) in analyses of the readability of commonly used self-report psychopathology and personality inventories. In their discussion, McHugh and Behar addressed implications of their findings for clinical assessment and for scale development. Method: I expand on their comments by addressing the failure to consider vocabulary difficulty, a major shortcoming of readability indices that examine only text complexity. I demonstrate how vocabulary difficulty influences readability and discuss additional considerations and possible solutions for addressing the gap between scale readability and the reading skill level of the self-report respondent. Results and Conclusion: The work of McHugh and Behar clearly demonstrates that the issues of reading ability that arise in collecting self-report data are neither simple nor straightforward. Comments are offered to focus attention on the problems identified by their work. These problems will require additional effort on the part of researchers and clinicians in order to obtain reliable, valid estimates of clinical status. © 2012 American Psychological Association.

Church M.J.,University of Hawaii at Manoa | Lomas M.W.,Bigelow Laboratory for Ocean Sciences | Muller-Karger F.,University of South Florida
Deep-Sea Research Part II: Topical Studies in Oceanography | Year: 2013

Ocean time-series provide vital information needed for assessing ecosystem change. This paper summarizes the historical context, major program objectives, and future research priorities for three contemporary ocean time-series programs: The Hawaii Ocean Time-series (HOT), the Bermuda Atlantic Time-series Study (BATS), and the CARIACO Ocean Time-Series. These three programs operate in physically and biogeochemically distinct regions of the world's oceans, with HOT and BATS located in the open-ocean waters of the subtropical North Pacific and North Atlantic, respectively, and CARIACO situated in the anoxic Cariaco Basin of the tropical Atlantic. All three programs sustain near-monthly shipboard occupations of their field sampling sites, with HOT and BATS beginning in 1988, and CARIACO initiated in 1996. The resulting data provide some of the only multi-disciplinary, decadal-scale determinations of time-varying ecosystem change in the global ocean. Facilitated by a scoping workshop (September 2010) sponsored by the Ocean Carbon Biogeochemistry (OCB) program, leaders of these time-series programs sought community input on existing program strengths and for future research directions. Themes that emerged from these discussions included:. 1. Shipboard time-series programs are key to informing our understanding of the connectivity between changes in ocean-climate and biogeochemistry.2. The scientific and logistical support provided by shipboard time-series programs forms the backbone for numerous research and education programs. Future studies should be encouraged that seek mechanistic understanding of ecological interactions underlying the biogeochemical dynamics at these sites.3. Detecting time-varying trends in ocean properties and processes requires consistent, high-quality measurements. Time-series must carefully document analytical procedures and, where possible, trace the accuracy of analyses to certified standards and internal reference materials.4. Leveraged implementation, testing, and validation of autonomous and remote observing technologies at time-series sites provide new insights into spatiotemporal variability underlying ecosystem changes.5. The value of existing time-series data for formulating and validating ecosystem models should be promoted.In summary, the scientific underpinnings of ocean time-series programs remain as strong and important today as when these programs were initiated. The emerging data inform our knowledge of the ocean's biogeochemistry and ecology, and improve our predictive capacity about planetary change. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

Vaquera E.,University of South Florida | Kao G.,University of Pennsylvania
Child Development | Year: 2012

This study explores the educational achievement of immigrant youth in Spain employing data from 3 waves of the Longitudinal Study of Families and Childhood (Pànel de Famílies i Infància), a representative sample of children in Catalonia first interviewed at ages 13-16 in 2006 (N = 2,710). Results suggest consistent disadvantage in achievement among first-generation students. Differences in achievement between the second and third generations are apparent in bivariate analyses, but are explained by observable characteristics in multivariate analyses. Gender-specific analyses uncover a large achievement gap between first-generation girls and their third-generation counterparts, but no equivalent gap for boys. Region-of-origin differences are modest, with the exception of Latin American adolescents who exhibit the lowest educational outcomes. The significance of perceptions about school on achievement are discussed. © 2012 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

Lisenkov S.,University of South Florida | Andriotis A.N.,Foundation for Research and Technology Hellas | Menon M.,University of Kentucky
Physical Review Letters | Year: 2012

Using first-principles calculations, we demonstrate the existence of anisotropic ferromagnetic interactions in Co embedded graphene nanoribbons (GNRs). Spin polarization of the edge states is found to alter significantly compared to the metal-free cases. Our findings can all be well-justified as the output of the interplay between the development of an induced spin polarization in the neighborhood of the Co atoms and the maintaining of the polarization picture of the Co-free GNR. Based on our results, we propose an efficient pathway for graphene-based spintronics applications. © 2012 American Physical Society.

Van Dorn R.,University of South Florida | Volavka J.,New York University | Johnson N.,U. S. Census Bureau
Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology | Year: 2012

Purpose: A general consensus exists that severe mental illness (SMI) increases violence risk. However, a recent report claimed that SMI "alone was not statistically related to future violence in bivariate or multivariate analyses." We reanalyze the data used to make this claim with a focus on causal relationships between SMI and violence, rather than the statistical prediction of violence. Methods: Data are from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC), a twowave study (N = 34,653: Wave 1: 2001-2003; Wave 2: 2004-2005). Indicators of mental disorder in the year prior to Wave 1 were used to examine violence between Waves 1 and 2. Results: Those with SMI, irrespective of substance abuse status, were significantly more likely to be violent than those with no mental or substance use disorders. This finding held in both bivariate and multivariable models. Those with comorbid mental and substance use disorders had the highest risk of violence. Historical and current conditions were also associated with violence, including childhood abuse and neglect, household antisocial behavior, binge drinking and stressful life events. Conclusions: These results, in contrast to a recently published report, show that the NESARC data are consistent with the consensus view on mental disorder and violence: there is a statistically significant, yet modest relationship between SMI (within 12 months) and violence, and a stronger relationship between SMI with substance use disorder and violence. These results also highlight the importance of premorbid conditions, and other contemporaneous clinical factors, in violent behavior. © Springer-Verlag 2011.

Johnson G.C.,National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration | Chambers D.P.,University of South Florida
Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans | Year: 2013

Ocean mass variations are important for diagnosing sea level budgets, the hydrological cycle, the global energy budget, and ocean circulation variability. Here seasonal cycles and decadal trends of ocean mass from January 2003 to December 2012, both global and regional, are analyzed using GRACE Release-05 data. The trend of global flux of mass into the ocean approaches 2 cm decade-1 in equivalent sea level rise. Regional trends are of similar magnitude, with the North Pacific, South Atlantic, and South Indian oceans generally gaining mass and other regions losing mass. These trends suggest a spin-down of the North Pacific western boundary current extension and the Antarctic Circumpolar Current in the South Atlantic and South Indian oceans. The global average seasonal cycle of ocean mass is about 1 cm in amplitude, with a maximum in early October and volume fluxes in and out of the ocean reaching 0.5 Sv (1 Sv = 1 × 106 m3 s-1) when integrated over the area analyzed here. Regional patterns of seasonal ocean mass change have typical amplitudes of 1-4 cm, and include maxima in the subtropics and minima in the subpolar regions in hemispheric winters. The subtropical mass gains and subpolar mass losses in the winter spin-up both subtropical and subpolar gyres, hence the western boundary current extensions. Seasonal variations in these currents are order 10 Sv, but since the associated depth-averaged current variations are only order 0.1 cm s-1, they would be difficult to detect using in situ oceanographic instruments. © 2013. American Geophysical Union. All Rights Reserved.

Miller E.M.,University of South Florida
American Journal of Physical Anthropology | Year: 2014

The high proportion of human infant fat is hypothesized to protect infant brains by mobilizing against growth disturbances caused by acute nutritional and pathogen stress during weaning. However, individuals who experience chronic nutritional stress have been shown to store fat rather than mobilize fat stores, although this has not been demonstrated during infancy. This study investigated the relationship between fat development, diet, and nutritional status among 239 breastfeeding Ariaal infants, a group of settled pastoralists who experience both acute and chronic nutritional stress residing in Marsabit District, Kenya. This study had three goals: 1) To investigate the pattern of fat accumulation among Ariaal infants compared with a reference population; 2) to explore the relationship between chronic nutritional stress and fat deposits; and 3) to determine the relationship between traditional weaning foods, particularly cow's milk, and infant's fat. Infants, particularly infants experiencing chronic nutritional stress, were found to accumulate fat deposits in a manner that suggests reduced oxidation of fat stores. Infant upper arm fat area significantly increases with age over the weaning period compared with reference populations, who show a decline in body fat. Chronically undernourished infants were particularly likely to have increased levels of upper arm fat compared with normal infants or acutely undernourished infants. In addition, infants who consume cow's milk are significantly fatter than those that do not. These results suggest that Ariaal infants have both physiological and cultural mechanisms for fat storage in the face of their nutritionally stressed environment. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Richardson P.,University of South Florida
Clinical journal of oncology nursing | Year: 2012

Spirituality and religiosity have been defined by several governing bodies to mean everything from purpose in life, beliefs, faith, and hope, to transcendence with a higher being. The absence of uniformity regarding the components of spirituality and religiosity has created a barrier for professional caregivers in identifying, assessing, and providing spiritual needs. The diagnosis of cancer often leads patients to contemplate their own mortality and frequently presents unique challenges to their belief system. Spirituality is a unique component of holistic care. When appropriately addressed, it may strongly influence positive patient outcomes during the cancer journey. Consequently, nurses should actively participate in and incorporate the provision of spiritual care into the treatment plan for each patient with cancer or at least be able to assess those needs and make sure they are being addressed.

Chambers D.P.,University of South Florida
Ocean Science | Year: 2011

We examine the output of an ocean model forced by ECMWF winds to study the theoretical relationship between wind-induced changes in ocean bottom pressure in the North Pacific between 1992 until 2010 and ENSO. Our analysis indicates that while there are significant fluctuations correlated with some El Niño and La Niña events, the correlation is still relatively low. Moreover, the ENSO-correlated variability explains only 50 % of the non-seasonal, low-frequency variance. There are significant residual fluctuations in both wind-stress curl and ocean bottom pressure in the region with periods of 4-years and longer. One such fluctuation began in late 2002 and has been observed by the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE). Even after accounting for possible ENSO-correlated variations, there is a significant trend in ocean bottom pressure in the region, equivalent to 0.7 ± 0.3 cm yr-1 of sea level from January 2003 until December 2008, which is confirmed with steric-corrected altimetry. Although this low-frequency fluctuation does not appear in the ocean model, we show that ECMWF winds have a significantly reduced trend that is inconsistent with satellite observations over the same time period, and so it appears that the difference is due to a forcing error in the model and not an intrinsic error. © Author(s) 2011.

Cabrera-Cancio M.R.,University of South Florida
Respiratory Care | Year: 2012

An estimated 2-3% of all hospitalized patients become critically ill. These patients are in a state of relative immune exhaustion, which cripples their response to infections. Patients are sicker, have many comorbidities, and undergo complex procedures. This clinical picture, combined with increasing technologies and improved survival, presents unique challenges and demands a high level of services and expertise over a prolonged period of time. Long-term acute care hospitals provide these services, and the migration of chronically critically ill patients to these institutions facilitates defining (and quantifying) the spectrum of disease and how to best manage them. The prevalence of multidrug-resistant organism colonization and infection upon arrival to long-term acute care hospitals is high. Admission screening, and appropriate isolation and infection control practices can prevent transmission of these organisms. The implementation of ventilator-associated pneumonia prevention protocols, blood stream infection prevention protocols, and minimizing Foley urinary catheter use can decrease hospital-acquired infection rates and keep them low. In addition, specific attention is required to environmental services and surface and equipment cleaning. A well organized infection control program and an antimicrobial stewardship program have become indispensable to achieve these goals. All of these key principles and recommendations are also relevant to the chronically ill patient in acute care hospital ICUs and step-down units. © 2012 Daedalus Enterprises.

Boeckxstaens G.E.,Catholic University of Leuven | Zaninotto G.,University of Padua | Richter J.E.,University of South Florida
The Lancet | Year: 2014

Achalasia is a rare motility disorder of the oesophagus characterised by loss ofenteric neurons leading to absence of peristalsis and impaired relaxation of the lower oesophageal sphincter. Although its cause remains largely unknown, ganglionitis resulting from an aberrant immune response triggered by a viral infection has been proposed to underlie the loss of oesophageal neurons, particularly in genetically susceptible individuals. The subsequent stasis of ingested food not only leads to symptoms of dysphagia, regurgitation, chest pain, and weight loss, but also results in an increased risk of oesophageal carcinoma. At present, pneumatic dilatation and Heller myotomy combined with an anti-refl ux procedure are the treatments of choice and have comparable success rates. Per-oral endoscopic myotomy has recently been introduced as a new minimally invasive treatment for achalasia, but there have not yet been any randomised clinical trials comparing this option with pneumatic dilatation and Heller myotomy.

Steelman Z.R.,Oklahoma State University | Hammer B.I.,Oklahoma State University | Limayem M.,University of South Florida
MIS Quarterly: Management Information Systems | Year: 2014

Online crowdsourcing markets (OCM) are becoming more popular as a source for data collection. In this paper, we examine the consistency of survey results across student samples, consumer panels, and online crowdsourcing markets (specifically Amazon's Mechanical Turk) both within the United States and outside. We conduct two studies examining the technology acceptance model (TAM) and the expectation-disconfirmation theory (EDT) to explore potential differences in demographics, psychometrics, structural model estimates, and measurement invariances. Our findings indicate that (1) U.S.-based OCM samples provide demographics much more similar to our student and consumer panel samples than the non-U.S.-based OCM samples; (2) both U.S. and non-U.S. OCM samples provide initial psychometric properties (reliability, convergent, and divergent validity) that are similar to those of both student and consumer panels; (3) non-U.S. OCM samples generally provide differences in scale means compared to those of our students, consumer panels, and U.S. OCM samples; and (4) one of the non-U.S. OCM samples refuted the highly replicated and validated TAM model in the relationship of perceived usefulness to behavioral intentions. Although our post hoc analyses isolated some cultural and demographic effects with regard to the non-U.S. samples in Study 1, they did not address the model differences found in Study 2. Specifically, the inclusion of non-U.S. OCM respondents led to statistically significant differences in parameter estimates, and hence to different statistical conclusions. Due to these unexplained differences that exist within the non-U.S. OCM samples, we caution that the inclusion of non-U.S. OCM participants may lead to different conclusions than studies with only U.S. OCM participants. We are unable to conclude whether this is due to of cultural differences, differences in the demographic profiles of non-U.S. OCM participants, or some unexplored factors within the models. Therefore, until further research is conducted to explore these differences in detail, we urge researchers utilizing OCMs with the intention to generalize to U.S. populations focus on U.S.-based participants and exercise caution in using non-U.S. participants. We further recommend that researchers should clearly describe their OCM usage and design (e.g., demographics, participant filters, etc.) procedures. Overall, we find that U.S. OCM samples produced models that lead to similar statistical conclusions as both U.S. students and U.S. consumer panels at a considerably reduced cost.

Chalmers I.,James Lind Initiative | Bracken M.B.,Yale University | Djulbegovic B.,University of South Florida | Djulbegovic B.,H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center and Research Institute | And 7 more authors.
The Lancet | Year: 2014

The increase in annual global investment in biomedical research-reaching US240 billion in 2010-has resulted in important health dividends for patients and the public. However, much research does not lead to worthwhile achievements, partly because some studies are done to improve understanding of basic mechanisms that might not have relevance for human health. Additionally, good research ideas often do not yield the anticipated results. As long as the way in which these ideas are prioritised for research is transparent and warranted, these disappointments should not be deemed wasteful; they are simply an inevitable feature of the way science works. However, some sources of waste cannot be justifi ed. In this report, we discuss how avoidable waste can be considered when research priorities are set. We have four recommendations. First, ways to improve the yield from basic research should be investigated. Second, the transparency of processes by which funders prioritise important uncertainties should be increased, making clear how they take account of the needs of potential users of research. Third, investment in additional research should always be preceded by systematic assessment of existing evidence. Fourth, sources of information about research that is in progress should be strengthened and developed and used by researchers. Research funders have primary responsibility for reductions in waste resulting from decisions about what research to do.

Vasquez C.,University of South Florida
Journal of Pragmatics | Year: 2011

Complaints have been studied from two major disciplinary perspectives. Whereas pragmatic approaches have tended to rely on data elicited via discourse completion tests (DCTs), more ethnomethodologically informed approaches have focused on naturally occurring talk in interaction. In addition, a handful of studies have examined written complaints, while fewer still have investigated complaints in CMC (computer mediated communication). In order to determine the extent to which CMC complaints display some of the defining characteristics of complaints as identified by previous research, a data set of 100 complaints (negative reviews of hotels on the website, TripAdvisor) was examined. The study found that a significant proportion of complaints tended to juxtapose overall negative evaluation with some positive appraisal, and that a similar proportion of the complaints made explicit reference to reviewer's expectations not being met. The study also found that complaints tended to occur as a speech act set. Whereas previous studies have found that complaints tended to co-occur with speech acts such as warnings or threats, in this particular context, complaints tended to co-occur more frequently with advice and recommendations. Finally, the study found that while the majority of the complaints on TripAdvisor can be considered indirect (or third party) complaints, there were nevertheless some examples that blur the direct/indirect dichotomy. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.

Van Der Vaart A.,University of South Florida
Biochimica et Biophysica Acta - General Subjects | Year: 2015

Background: Protein-DNA binding often involves dramatic conformational changes such as protein folding and DNA bending. While thermodynamic aspects of this behavior are understood, and its biological function is often known, the mechanism by which the conformational changes occur is generally unclear. By providing detailed structural and energetic data, molecular dynamics simulations have been helpful in elucidating and rationalizing protein-DNA binding. Scope of review This review will summarize recent atomistic molecular dynamics simulations of the conformational dynamics of DNA and protein-DNA binding. A brief overview of recent developments in DNA force fields is given as well. Major conclusions: Simulations have been crucial in rationalizing the intrinsic flexibility of DNA, and have been instrumental in identifying the sequence of binding events, the triggers for the conformational motion, and the mechanism of binding for a number of important DNA-binding proteins. General significance: Molecular dynamics simulations are an important tool for understanding the complex binding behavior of DNA-binding proteins. With recent advances in force fields and rapid increases in simulation time scales, simulations will become even more important for future studies. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Recent developments of molecular dynamics. © 2014, Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Vesely D.L.,University of South Florida
Anticancer Research | Year: 2012

The heart is a sophisticated endocrine gland synthesizing the atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) prohormone which contains four peptide hormones, namely atrial natriuretic peptide, vessel dilator, kaliuretic peptide and long-acting natriuretic peptide, which decrease up to 97% of human pancreatic, breast, colon, prostate, kidney and ovarian carcinomas, as well as small-cell and squamous cell lung cancer cells within 24 hours in cell culture. In vivo these four cardiac hormones eliminate up to 80% of human pancreatic adenocarcinomas, up to twothirds of human breast cancers, and up to 86% of human small-cell lung cancers in athymic mice. Their anticancer mechanism(s) target the Rat sarcoma bound guanosine triphosphate (RAS)-mitogen activated protein kinase kinase 1/2 (MEK1/2)-extracellular signal related kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) kinase cascade in cancer cells. These four cardiac hormones inhibit up to 95% of the basal activity of Ras, 98% of the phosphorylation of MEK1/2 kinases and 96% of the activation of basal activity of ERK1/2 kinases. They also completely block the activity of mitogens such as the ability of epidermal growth factor to stimulate ERK and RAS. In addition to inhibiting these mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) they also inhibit MAPK9, i.e. c-Jun-Nterminal kinase 2. These multiple kinase inhibitors are cytotoxic and cause cell death of cancer cells but not of normal cells.

Salloum A.,University of South Florida | Overstreet S.,Tulane University
Behaviour Research and Therapy | Year: 2012

This study evaluated the differential effects of the Grief and Trauma Intervention (GTI) with coping skills and trauma narrative processing (CN) and coping skills only (C). Seventy African American children (6-12 years old) were randomly assigned to GTI-CN or GTI-C. Both treatments consisted of a manualized 11-session intervention and a parent meeting. Measures of trauma exposure, posttraumatic stress symptoms, depression, traumatic grief, global distress, social support, and parent reported behavioral problems were administered at pre, post, 3 and 12 months post intervention. In general, children in both treatment groups demonstrated significant improvements in distress related symptoms and social support, which, with the exception of externalizing symptoms for GTI-C, were maintained up to 12 months post intervention. Results suggest that building coping skills without the structured trauma narrative may be a viable intervention to achieve symptom relief in children experiencing trauma-related distress. However, it may be that highly distressed children experience more symptom relief with coping skills plus narrative processing than with coping skills alone. More research on the differential effects of coping skills and trauma narration on child distress and adaptive functioning outcomes is needed. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

Women living with HIV (WLH) face challenges related to stigma, disclosure of HIV status, and negotiating safer sex. Several effective behavioral interventions, such as Healthy Relationships (HR), help WLH address these challenges and are disseminated by the USA Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's (CDC) Diffusion of Effective Behavioral Interventions project. However, many WLH living in poor urban or rural locations cannot access interventions such as HR because implementation is not feasible. Video-conferencing technology holds promise for expanding access to effective behavioral interventions for WLH. Following a systematic adaptation to the video-conferencing format, this pilot study tested the delivery of HR via video-group (VG) among WLH. The video-conferencing-based intervention, HR-VG, consisted of six, two-hour sessions led by two facilitators, and used structured activities and video-clips to build disclosure and safer sex skills. Four minority WLH received HR-VG at four different community-based intervention sites in a private room equipped with a video-phone for participating in HR-VG and a desktop computer for completing assessments via Audio Computer-Assisted Self Interview. Participants completed a baseline assessment prior to HR-VG and post-session assessment after each HR-VG session. The post-intervention assessment and video-focus group were completed following the last HR-VG session. Facilitators completed an assessment after each HR-VG session and an open-ended questionnaire following HR-VG. HR-VG was implemented in its entirety with minimal challenges. Both participants and facilitators reported feeling either "very comfortable" or "completely comfortable" with the technology and the overall intervention. Participants also reported high levels of unity and togetherness among the group. These preliminary findings suggest VG delivery of HR for WLH is both feasible and highly valued by participants. A follow-up randomized controlled trial is under way to test the feasibility and efficacy of HR-VG with a larger sample of WLH.

Criss A.H.,Syracuse University | Malmberg K.J.,University of South Florida | Shiffrin R.M.,Indiana University Bloomington
Journal of Memory and Language | Year: 2011

Dennis and Humphreys (2001) proposed that interference in recognition memory arises solely from the prior contexts of the test word: Interference does not arise from memory traces of other words (from events prior to the study list or on the study list, and regardless of similarity to the test item). We evaluate this model using output interference, a decline in accuracy as a function of the words presented during test. Output interference is consistent with models that allow interference from words other than the test word, when each test produces a memory trace, and hence a source of interference. Models positing interference solely from prior contexts of the test word itself predict no effect of items presented during test, without added assumptions. We find robust output interference effects in recognition memory. The effect remains intact after a long delay, when study-test lag is held constant, when feedback is provided, and when the test is yes/no or forced choice. These results are consistent with, and support the view that interference in recognition memory is due in part to interference from words other than the current test word. © 2011 Elsevier Inc.

Akiwumi F.A.,University of South Florida
Journal of Cleaner Production | Year: 2014

The Sustainable Development Framework (SDF) adopted by the International Council on Metals and Minerals (ICMM) represents a major step in the mineral industry's quest to respect cultural heritage and promote community development in host communities for sustainable and conflict-free mining. Using Sierra Leone, West Africa, as a case study, textual analysis of relevant state policies and laws and other pertinent documents, this paper reveals the inherent conflicts between centuries-old customary conceptions of land use and management practicesdspecifically, the landlordestranger cultural institutiondand modern, largely western, conceptions of land use by multinational mining companies and the national government. The inability of government to formulate, and implement a cultural heritage friendly land and mining policy has led to recurrent conflict and militates against sustainable community development. The mining multinational corporation, the embodiment of the powerful stranger, usurps customary land rights through state-level legal statutes and mining policy, and this has created the stranger hegemony phenomenon. The paper also argues the colonial and postcolonial state has been complicit in reconfiguring landlordestranger relationships in mining areas. The study reveals that the stranger presence in mining areas has become an entrenched problem exacerbated by power imbalances embedded in statutory laws. The findings enable an understanding of the complexities of meeting social sustainability goals on cultural heritage and community development as articulated by the ICMM. Rectifying these imbalances call for more culturally sensitive policy and legal reforms. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Hansen B.C.,University of South Florida
Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.) | Year: 2012

Nonhuman primates provide the ideal animal model for discovering and examining further the mechanisms underlying human type 2 diabetes mellitus. In all aspects studied to date the nonhuman primate has been shown to develop the same disease with the same features that develop in overweight middle-aged humans. This includes the progressive development of the known complications of diabetes, all of which are extraordinarily like those identified in humans. In addition, for the development and evaluation of new therapeutic agents, the translation of findings from nonhuman primates to application in humans has been highly predictable. Both therapeutic efficacy and identification of potential adverse responses can be effectively examined in nonhuman primates due to their great similarity to humans at the molecular, biochemical, and physiological levels. This chapter provides guidance for the development and management of a colony of monkeys with naturally occurring type 2 diabetes mellitus.

Objective: The United States Food and Drug Administration’s newest classification system for suicidality assessment anchors suicidal ideation to various combinations of passive suicidal ideation, active suicidal ideation, method, intent, and plan. This is based upon the suicidal ideation categories in the Columbia–Suicide Severity Rating Scale. Although there are 32 possible combinations of these suicidal ideation phenomena, the Food and Drug Administration’s 2012 system and the Columbia–Suicide Severity Rating Scale accommodate six combinations. We use a case study to explore the impact of possible type IIlarge percentage of the time this subject experienced suicidality. When these two timeframes were aggregated, more than half of the subject’s time spent experiencing suicidality fell into the suicidal ideation combinations not captured by the Food and Drug Administration’s classification system and the Columbia–Suicide Severity Rating Scale categories. Conclusion: This case study suggests that type II errors in the Food and Drug Administration’s classification system and in the Columbia–Suicide Severity Rating Scale categories for suicidal ideation may represent important omissions. © 2015, Matrix Medical Communications. All rights reserved.

Purpose: To compare short-term (1 year) survival of subjects treated for exudative age-related macular degeneration (AMD) with those with AMD who received no treatment. Methods: This was a case-control study. Beneficiaries of the Veterans Health Administration aged ≥55 years with a diagnosis of AMD in fiscal years 2007-2009 were included in this study. Veterans Health Administration clinical and pharmacy data sets were linked with a national Veterans Health Administration mortality registry. Anti-vascular endothelial growth factor exposure was identified through pharmacy records, coupled to procedure code for intravitreous injection and diagnosis code of exudative AMD. Control group consisted of patients with coded diagnosis of dry AMD and no pharmacy claims for case-defining medications. Cox proportional hazard model was adjusted for age, gender, number of injections, and ocular and medical comorbidities. The main outcome measure was hazard of death according to medication exposure. Results: A total of 3,210 patients received intravitreous injections for exudative AMD. There were 117,364 nonexposed patients with dry AMD. Twelve-month all-cause mortality in the exposed and control groups were 3.9% and 4.5%, respectively. When adjusted for age, gender, and ocular and medical comorbidities, the death hazard was 0.89 (95% confidence interval, 0.74-1.06). The risk of all-cause mortality was similar for patients receiving bevacizumab and ranibizumab. Conclusion: Twelve-month all-cause mortality in a population of predominately men with exudative AMD and a high prevalence of medical comorbidities was unaffected by exposure to therapeutic levels of vitreous bevacizumab and ranibizumab. Commonly used anti-vascular endothelial growth factor agents for exudative AMD do not adversely impact short-term survival in men. Copyright © 2011 Lippincott Williams &Wilkins.

Cochran J.C.,University of South Florida | Mears D.P.,Florida State University | Bales W.D.,Florida State University
Journal of Quantitative Criminology | Year: 2014

Objectives: Despite the dramatic expansion of the US correctional system in recent decades, little is known about the relative effectiveness of commonly used sanctions on recidivism. The goal of this paper is to address this research gap, and systematically examine the relative impacts on recidivism of four main types of sanctions: probation, intensive probation, jail, and prison. Methods: Data on convicted felons in Florida were analyzed and propensity score matching analyses were used to estimate relative effects of each sanction type on 3-year reconviction rates. Results: Estimated effects suggest that less severe sanctions are more likely to reduce recidivism. Conclusions: The findings raise questions about the effectiveness of tougher sanctioning policies for reducing future criminal behavior. Implications for future research, theory, and policy are also discussed. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media New York.

Sun H.,University of South Florida
Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport | Year: 2012

In this study, I explored the impact of exergaming on in-class physical activity (PA) and motivation in physical education. Elementary children participated in a 4-week exergaming unit and a 4-week fitness unit. A t test showed the children's in-class PA in the exergaming unit was significantly lower than in the fitness unit. Results also indicated that students' situational interest in exergaming was significantly higher than in the fitness unit at the beginning and end of instruction. Children's interest declined significantly in both units and at the same rate. The evidence suggests that exergames may have strong motivational power, but it is premature to claim they will increase physical activity enough for children to receive health benefits in physical education. © 2012 by the American Alliance for Health.

Carter J.D.,University of South Florida | Hudson A.P.,Wayne State University
Current Opinion in Rheumatology | Year: 2010

Purpose of review: There have been tremendous recent insights into our understanding of the epidemiology, pathophysiology, and treatment of Chlamydia-induced reactive arthritis (CiReA). Some of these advances embellish our previous understanding of CiReA, whereas others suggest that a change in the paradigm is required. Recent findings: Epidemiological data suggest that we are underdiagnosing CiReA and emerging data suggest that asymptomatic chlamydial infections might be a common cause. Although the clinical manifestations of CiReA are indistinct from the postenteric variety, there appear to be important differences in the pathophysiology of these clinically congruent entities. The hallmark difference pertains to synovial-based viable chlamydial organisms, although in an aberrant state, known as chlamydial persistence. Specific chlamydial serovars appear to be causative of CiReA. Emerging potential therapies include antitumor necrosis factor treatment and combination antibiotics. However, the data with the former are particularly scant and there are theoretical concerns with their use in this setting. Recent data regarding prolonged combination antibiotics are particularly encouraging. Summary: A history of a chlamydial infection may prove to be a poor guide for the diagnosis of CiReA and prolonged combined antimicrobial therapy could be an effective treatment strategy. © 2010 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

Hong K.,Seoul National University | Yeom J.,Seoul National University | Jang C.,Seoul National University | Hong J.,University of South Florida | Lee B.,Seoul National University
Optics Letters | Year: 2014

A novel system of optical see-through augmented reality (AR) is proposed by making use of a holographic optical element (HOE) with full-color and lens-array functions. The full-color lens-array HOE provides see-through property with three-dimensional (3D) virtual images, for it functions as a conventional lens array only for Bragg-matched lights. An HOE recording setup was built, and it recorded a 30 mm × 60 mm sized full-color lens-array HOE by using the techniques of spatial multiplexing for large-area recording and wavelength multiplexing for full-color imaging. The experimental results confirm that the suggested full-color lens-array HOE can provide the full-color 3D virtual images in the optical see-through AR system. © 2013 Optical Society of America.

Venesky M.D.,University of South Florida
Biology letters | Year: 2013

One prediction of optimal digestion theory is that organisms will increase the relative length of their digestive tracts when food resources become limited. We used theory of optimal digestion to test whether tadpoles can adjust the relative length of their intestines when challenged with the fungal pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd). The degree of tadpole mouthpart damage, a symptom of Bd infections that reduces food consumption, was associated positively with the length of tadpole intestines relative to their body size, consistent with optimal digestion theory. After controlling for mouthpart damage, tadpoles exposed to Bd had shorter intestines relative to their body size, opposite to the predictions of optimal digestion theory. One explanation of why tadpoles with higher Bd loads have shorter relative intestinal lengths is that they divert energy from maintaining intestinal and overall growth towards anti-parasite defences.

Gilbert-Barness E.,University of South Florida
Annals of Clinical and Laboratory Science | Year: 2010

Crucial morphogenetic processes during the blastogenesis period, which extends throughout the first 4 wk of development, from fertilization until the end of the gastrulation stage (days 27 to 28 postconception), can be altered and result in structural abnormalities, including patterns of multiple congenital anomalies (MCAs) arising from developmental field defects. Severe damage may cause death of the product of conception or, because of the pluripotential nature of the cells, the damage may be compensated allowing development to continue in a normal fashion. Most investigators believe that the all-or-none rule applies to the first 2 wk of development. Because the fetus is less susceptible to morphologic alterations when the developmental process of the majority of organs has been completed, the most common anomalies associated with teratogenic exposures during the fetal period are fetal growth restriction (intrauterine growth retardation) and mild errors of morphogenesis (abnormalities of phenogenesis), such as epicanthic folds, clinodactyly, and others. Thus, teratogenic exposures result in a wide variety of effects that range from infertility, prenatal onset growth restriction, structural defects, and functional CNS abnormalities to miscarriage or fetal death. © 2010 by the Association of Clinical Scientists, Inc.

Cellular mechanisms of CO2 chemoreception are discussed and debated in terms of the stimuli produced, during hypercapnic acidosis and their molecular targets: protons generated by the hydration of CO2 and dissociation of carbonic acid, which target membrane-bound proteins and lipids in brain stem neurons. The CO2 hydration reaction, however, is not the only reaction that CO2 undergoes that generates molecules capable of modifying proteins and lipids. Molecular CO2 also reacts with peroxynitrite (ONOO-), a reactive nitrogen species (RNS), which is produced from nitric oxide (NO) and superoxide (O2). The CO 2/ONOO- reaction, in turn, produces additional nitrosative and oxidative reactive intermediates. Furthermore, protons facilitate additional redox reactions that generate other reactive oxygen species (ROS). ROS/RNS generated by these redox reactions may act as additional stimuli of CO2 chemoreceptors since neurons in chemosensitive areas produce both NO and O2 -and, therefore, ONOO-. Perturbing NO, O2 - and ONOO-activities in chemosensitive areas modulates cardiorespiration. Moreover, neurons in at least one chemosensitive area, the solitary complex, are stimulated by cellular oxidation. Together, these data raise the following two questions: 1) do pH and ROS/RNS work in tandem to stimulate CO2 chemoreceptors during hypercapnic acidosis; and 2) does nitrosative stress and oxidative stress contribute to CO2 chemoreceptor dysfunction? To begin considering these two issues and their implications for central chemoreception, this minireview has the following three goals: 1) summarize the nitrosative and oxidative reactions that occur during hypercapnic acidosis and isocapnic acidosis; 2) review the evidence that redox signaling occurs in chemosensitive areas; and 3) review the evidence that neurons in the solitary complex are stimulated by cellular oxidation. Copyright © 2010 the American Physiological Society.

Cox L.,Nova Southeastern University | Larenas-Linnemann D.,Hospital Medica Sur | Lockey R.F.,University of South Florida | Passalacqua G.,University of Genoa
Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology | Year: 2010

Subcutaneous allergen immunotherapy (SCIT) is an effective treatment for allergic rhinitis, asthma and venom hypersensitivity and has the potential of producing serious life-threatening anaphylaxis. Adverse reactions are generally classified into 2 categories: local reactions, which can manifest as redness, pruritus, and swelling at the injection site, and systemic reactions (SRs). SRs can range in severity from mild rhinitis to fatal cardiopulmonary arrest. Early administration of epinephrine, which is the treatment of choice to treat anaphylaxis, may prevent the progression of an SR to a more serious life-threatening problem. Although there is little debate about using epinephrine to treat a SCIT SR, there is a lack of consensus about when it should be first used. A uniform classification system for grading SCIT SRs will be helpful in assessing more accurately when epinephrine should be administered. The primary purpose of this article is to discuss the proposed grading system for SCIT SRs. © 2010 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology.

Richter J.E.,University of South Florida
Current Opinion in Otolaryngology and Head and Neck Surgery | Year: 2013

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Although not a common disease, the last several years have had exciting breakthroughs in better defining the pathophysiology of achalasia, classifying the disease with high-resolution manometry and potentially exciting new treatments. RECENT FINDINGS: The introduction of high-resolution manometry with detailed assessment of lower esophageal sphincter function and peristalsis has made it possible to classify achalasia into three subtypes. This becomes clinically important as patients with type II achalasia do best with both pneumatic dilation and surgical myotomy, whereas type III achalasia may respond better to surgery. The first multicenter randomized controlled trial published by the European Achalasia Trial group reported similar excellent outcomes over a 2-year follow-up with both pneumatic dilation and laparoscopic myotomy in a study involving nearly 200 achalasia patients. Although longer follow-up is required, this supports the continued use of pneumatic dilation for treating achalasia. Finally, the novel endoscopic technique of peroral endoscopic myotomy is a promising new treatment option for achalasia, but it requires increased experiences and careful evaluation before widespread application. SUMMARY: These are exciting times in the diagnosis and treatment of achalasia, which will definitely improve patient treatment outcomes. However, we still await breakthroughs in the basic science arena to identify the actual cause of achalasia.Copyright © Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

Payne J.E.,University of South Florida
Energy Sources, Part B: Economics, Planning and Policy | Year: 2012

This article examines the causal dynamics between renewable energy consumption, real gross domestic product (GDP), carbon emissions, and real oil prices using the Toda-Yamamoto long-causality test procedure over the period 1949 to 2009. The results indicate that renewable energy legislation and policies since 1978 had a positive and statistically significant impact on renewable energy consumption. Though the results suggest that real GDP, carbon emissions, and real oil prices did not have a causal impact on renewable energy consumption, unexpected shocks to real GDP and carbon emissions yielded a positive impact on renewable energy consumption over time. © 2012 Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.

Downs J.A.,University of South Florida | Horner M.W.,Florida State University
Journal of Transport Geography | Year: 2012

Vehicle tracking data are often used to explore human travel behavior and activity patterns. Time geography is a useful approach for analyzing such datasets, as it provides a means for identifying the set of possible routes and stops for a vehicle between known locations, which is termed a potential path tree. This research extends the utility of the time-geographic approach by developing a method to generate probabilistic potential path trees that represent the space-time potential of a vehicle's movements. First, this research provides the mathematical formulation of the new technique, network-based time-geographic density estimation (TGDE), and demonstrates the computation using a hypothetical tracking dataset and road network. Its formulation operates as a network adaptation of classical TGDE, which has been previously employed to analyze the movements of objects travelling in continuous, Euclidean space. Second, network-based TGDE is applied in the context of analyzing vehicle tracking data collected by GPS and filtered to protect an individual's privacy. The method was used to map and quantify the vehicle's most likely routes, origins, intermediate stops, and final destinations. The results indicate network-based time-geographic density estimation provides a powerful approach for both geovisualizing and analyzing vehicle tracking data. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

Wehmschulte R.J.,Florida Institute of Technology | Wojtas L.,University of South Florida
Inorganic Chemistry | Year: 2011

The tight ion pair [EtZn(η3-C6H 6)][CHB11Cl11]•C6H6 (1•C6H6) was obtained through β-hydrogen abstraction and concomitant ethene elimination from Et2Zn with the trityl salt [Ph3C][CHB11Cl11]. This ionlike species shows catalytic activity in hydrosilylation and intramolecular hydroamination reactions. The amine adduct {CH2CHCH 2C(Ph2)CH2NH2}3ZnCB 11Cl11 (3), which features a rare transition metal-carborane σ bond, was isolated from a hydroamination experiment. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

Clem A.S.,University of South Florida
Journal of Global Infectious Diseases | Year: 2011

From a literature review of the current literature, this article provides an introduction to vaccine immunology including a primer on the components of the immune system, passive vs. active immunization, the mechanism(s) by which immunizations stimulate(s) immunity, and the types of vaccines available. Both the innate and adaptive immune subsystems are necessary to provide an effective immune response to an immunization. Further, effective immunizations must induce long-term stimulation of both the humoral and cell-mediated arms of the adaptive system by the production of effector cells and memory cells. At least seven different types of vaccines are currently in use or in development that produce this effective immunity and have contributed greatly to the prevention of infectious disease around the world.

Hou X.-D.,University of South Florida
Designs, Codes, and Cryptography | Year: 2012

We classify all self dual and anti self dual quadratic bent functions in 2n variables under the action of the orthogonal group O(2n, F2). This is done through a classification of all 2n ×2n involutory alternating matrices over F2 under the action of the orthogonal group. The sizes of the O(2n, F2)-orbits of self dual and anti self dual quadratic bent functions are determined explicitly. © Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011.

The leaf area index (LAI) of plant canopies is an important structural variable for assessing terrestrial ecosystems. This research examined the use of multitemporal Landsat TM imagery to estimate and map LAI in mixed natural forests in the southeastern USA. The performances of canonical correlation analysis (CCA) and partial least squares (PLS) regression techniques were evaluated for feature extraction to estimate forest LAI. The experimental results indicate that use of multitemporal TM imagery can improve the accuracy of estimating the forest LAI, and that CCA analysis outperforms PLS regression for feature extraction.

Johnson P.T.J.,University of Colorado at Boulder | Rohr J.R.,University of South Florida | Hoverman J.T.,University of Colorado at Boulder | Kellermanns E.,University of Colorado at Boulder | And 2 more authors.
Ecology Letters | Year: 2012

Parasite infections often lead to dramatically different outcomes among host species. Although an emerging body of ecoimmunological research proposes that hosts experience a fundamental trade-off between pathogen defences and life-history activities, this line of inquiry has rarely been extended to the most essential outcomes of host-pathogen interactions: namely, infection and disease pathology. Using a comparative experimental approach involving 13 amphibian host species and a virulent parasite, we test the hypothesis that 'pace-of-life' predicts parasite infection and host pathology. Trematode exposure increased mortality and malformations in nine host species. After accounting for evolutionary history, species that developed quickly and metamorphosed smaller ('fast-species') were particularly prone to infection and pathology. This pattern likely resulted from both weaker host defences and greater adaptation by parasites to infect common hosts. Broader integration between life history theory and disease ecology can aid in identifying both reservoir hosts and species at risk of disease-driven declines. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd/CNRS.

Ecological ordination can reveal gradients in the species composition of fossil assemblages that can be correlated with paleoenvironmental gradients. Ordinations of simulated data sets suggest that nonmetric multidimensional scaling (NMDS) generally produces less distorted results than detrended correspondence analysis (DCA). We ordinated 113 brachiopod-dominated samples from the Frasnian (Late Devonian) Brallier, Scherr, and lower Foreknobs Formations of southwest Virginia, which represent a range of siliciclastic marine paleoenvironments. A clear environmental signal in the ordination results was obscured by (apparently) opportunistic species that occurred at high abundance in multiple environments; samples dominated by these species aggregated in ordination space regardless of paleoenvironmental provenance. After the opportunist-dominated samples were removed, NMDS revealed a gradient in species composition that was highly correlated with substrate (grain size); a second, orthogonal gradient likely reflects variation in disturbance intensity or frequency within grain-size regimes. Additional environmental or ecological factors, such as oxygenation, may also be related to the gradients. These two gradients, plus the environmental factors that controlled the occurrence of opportunistic species, explain much of the variation in assemblage composition in the fauna. In general, the composition of fossil assemblages is probably influenced by multiple paleoecological and paleoenvironmental factors, but many of these can be decomposed and analyzed. © 2010 The Paleontological Society. All rights reserved.

Meade C.D.,University of South Florida
Health promotion practice | Year: 2011

To effectively attenuate cancer disparities in multiethnic, medically underserved populations, interventions must be developed collaboratively through solid community-academic partnerships and driven by community-based participatory research (CBPR). The Tampa Bay Community Cancer Network (TBCCN) has been created to identify and implement interventions to address local cancer disparities in partnership with community-based nonprofit organizations, faith-based groups, community health centers, local media, and adult literacy and education organizations. TBCCN activities and research efforts are geared toward addressing critical information and access issues related to cancer control and prevention in diverse communities in the Tampa Bay area. Such efforts include cross-cultural health promotion, screening, and awareness activities in addition to applied research projects that are rooted in communities and guided by CBPR methods. This article describes these activities as examples of partnership building to positively affect cancer disparities, promote community health, and set the stage for community-based research partnerships.

Since 1998, the Florida Department of Health (FDOH) has operated the Florida Birth Defects Registry (FBDR), a statewide, population-based, passive surveillance system. Cases are identified by collecting information from extant data sources including the statewide hospital inpatient and ambulatory discharge data sets. Additional data sources include administrative, clinical, and service-related information from the FDOH's Children's Medical Services program for children with special health care needs. Like many state birth defects programs, the FBDR faces diminishing funding and resources that may restrict the registry to hospital discharge data. We conducted an evaluation to quantify the potential under-ascertainment to the FBDR resulting from loss of specific data sources, and to determine if there would be a disproportionate loss of cases by sociodemographic and perinatal characteristics. Analyses involved a series of retrospective reconstructions of the FBDR for 1998-2007 to assess the number of cases that would have been ascertained and reported based on the hypothetical loss of 1 or more of the FBDR source data sets. The reconstructed number of cases identified for each defect category was then compared to the current FBDR (constructed using all 5 source data sets) to determine the proportion of cases that would have been missed if the data sources in question were eliminated. These scenarios were constructed overall and by selected characteristics to identify potential disparities in the proportion of cases missed. The inpatient hospital discharge data set was the primary data source for identification of birth defects in the FBDR. Elimination of this single data source would cause the FBDR to miss nearly three fourths of infants diagnosed with 1 or more of the birth defects under study. Our evaluation revealed that an FBDR constructed on hospital discharge data alone would disproportionately miss more cases born to subgroups of women, including non-Hispanic blacks, Hispanics, and those born outside the US. Despite funding and resource constraints, the FBDR continues efforts to identify data sources that may contribute to completeness of case ascertainment in an effort to serve the needs of the Florida maternal and child health population.

Kayhan V.O.,University of South Florida
International Journal of Medical Informatics | Year: 2013

Purpose: The goal of this study is to investigate positive hypothesis testing among consumers of health information when they search the Web. After demonstrating the extent of positive hypothesis testing using Experiment 1, we conduct Experiment 2 to test the effectiveness of two debiasing techniques. Methods: A total of 60 undergraduate students searched a tightly controlled online database developed by the authors to test the validity of a hypothesis. The database had four abstracts that confirmed the hypothesis and three abstracts that disconfirmed it. Results: Findings of Experiment 1 showed that majority of participants (85%) exhibited positive hypothesis testing. In Experiment 2, we found that the recommendation technique was not effective in reducing positive hypothesis testing since none of the participants assigned to this server could retrieve disconfirming evidence. Experiment 2 also showed that the incorporation technique successfully reduced positive hypothesis testing since 75% of the participants could retrieve disconfirming evidence. Conclusion: Positive hypothesis testing on the Web is an understudied topic. More studies are needed to validate the effectiveness of the debiasing techniques discussed in this study and develop new techniques. Search engine developers should consider developing new options for users so that both confirming and disconfirming evidence can be presented in search results as users test hypotheses using search engines. © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

Hauser R.A.,University of South Florida | Auinger P.,University of Rochester
Movement Disorders | Year: 2011

Two common primary efficacy outcome measures in Parkinson's disease (PD) are change in Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) scores in early PD and change in "off" time in patients with motor fluctuations. Defining the minimal clinically important change (MCIC) in these outcome measures is important to interpret the clinical relevance of changes observed in clinical trials and other situations. We analyzed data from 2 multicenter, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trials of rasagiline; TEMPO studied 404 early PD subjects, and PRESTO studied 472 levodopa-treated subjects with motor fluctuations. An anchor-based approach using clinical global impression of improvement (CGI-I) was used to determine MCIC for UPDRS scores and daily "off" time. MCIC was defined as mean change in actively treated subjects rated minimally improved on CGI-I. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves defined optimal cutoffs discriminating between changed and unchanged subjects. MCIC for improvement in total UPDRS score (parts I-III) in early PD was determined to be -3.5 points based on mean scores and -3.0 points based on ROC curves. In addition, we found an MCIC for reduction in "off" time of 1.0 hours as defined by mean reduction in "off" time in active treated subjects self-rated as minimally improved on CGI-I minus mean reduction in "off" time in placebo-treated subjects self-rated as unchanged (1.9-0.9 hours). We hypothesize that many methodological factors can influence determination of the MCIC, and a range of values is likely to emerge from multiple studies. © 2011 Movement Disorder Society.

Mahajan K.,Moffitt Cancer Center | Fang B.,Moffitt Cancer Center | Koomen J.M.,Moffitt Cancer Center | Mahajan N.P.,Moffitt Cancer Center | Mahajan N.P.,University of South Florida
Nature Structural and Molecular Biology | Year: 2012

Histone gene transcription is actively downregulated after completion of DNA synthesis to avoid overproduction. However, the precise mechanistic details of the cessation of histone mRNA synthesis are not clear. We found that histone H2B phosphorylation at Tyr37 occurs upstream of histone cluster 1, Hist1, during the late S phase. We identified WEE1 as the kinase that phosphorylates H2B at Tyr37. Loss of expression or inhibition of WEE1 kinase abrogated H2B Tyr37 phosphorylation with a concomitant increase in histone transcription in yeast and mammalian cells. H2B Tyr37 phosphorylation excluded binding of the transcriptional coactivator NPAT and RNA polymerase II and recruited the histone chaperone HIRA upstream of the Hist1 cluster. Taken together, our data show a previously unknown and evolutionarily conserved function for WEE1 kinase as an epigenetic modulator that marks chromatin with H2B Tyr37 phosphorylation, thereby inhibiting the transcription of multiple histone genes to lower the burden on the histone mRNA turnover machinery. © 2012 Nature America, Inc. All rights reserved.

Lundberg E.,University of South Florida
Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical | Year: 2011

The Schwarz function has played an elegant role in understanding and in generating new examples of exact solutions to the Laplacian growth (or 'Hele-Shaw') problem in the plane. The guiding principle in this connection is the fact that 'non-physical' singularities in the 'oil domain' of the Schwarz function are stationary, and the 'physical' singularities obey simple dynamics. We give an elementary proof that the same holds in any number of dimensions for the Schwarz potential, introduced by Khavinson and Shapiro (1989 Technical Report TRITA-MAT-1989-36 Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm). An extension is also given for the so-called elliptic growth problem by defining a generalized Schwarz potential. New exact solutions are constructed, and we solve inverse problems of describing the driving singularities of a given flow. We demonstrate, by example, how ℂn-techniques can be used to locate the singularity set of the Schwarz potential. One of our methods is to prolong available local extension theorems by constructing 'globalizing families'. © 2011 IOP Publishing Ltd.

Morgan D.,University of South Florida
Journal of Internal Medicine | Year: 2011

In the year 1999, a vaccine approach was found to reduce amyloid deposits in transgenic mice overproducing the amyloid precursor protein. This was followed closely by demonstrations that vaccines or passive immunotherapy could rescue memory deficits in these mice. Initial human clinical trials revealed apparent autoimmune reactions in a subset of patients, but also some cases of cognitive benefit and amyloid clearance. Further work with passive immunotherapy in mouse models confirmed exceptional clearing abilities of anti-amyloid antibodies even in older mice. However, in parallel with parenchymal amyloid clearance was the appearance of microhaemorrhages and increased vascular amyloid deposition. Additional clinical trials with passive immunotherapy confirmed occasional appearance of microhaemorrhage and occurrence of vasogenic oedema in some patients, particularly those with the apolipoprotein E4 genotype. Recent data with positron emission tomography demonstrates trial participants passively immunized with anti-Aß antibodies have reduced signals with amyloid binding ligands after 18 months of therapy. Several anti-Aß immunotherapies have reached phase 3 testing, and immunotherapy is likely to be the first test of the amyloid hypothesis of Alzheimer's disease. Identifying antibody variants that retain amyloid clearance with fewer adverse reactions remains a major focus of translational research in this area. © 2010 The Association for the Publication of the Journal of Internal Medicine.

Stokes J.R.,Creighton University | Casale T.B.,University of South Florida
Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology: In Practice | Year: 2015

Omalizumab is a monoclonal anti-IgE antibody that has been used to treat allergic asthma for over a decade. The use of omalizumab to treat other diseases has largely been limited to case reports until the recently reported large multicenter studies that have established omalizumab as an effective treatment option for chronic spontaneous urticaria. The utility of omalizumab to treat nonallergic asthma and allergic rhinitis and the added safety and therapeutic benefits in combination with allergen immunotherapy have been demonstrated in placebo-controlled trials. Data supporting the clinical efficacy of omalizumab in treating atopic dermatitis, physical urticarias, mast cell disorders, food allergy, and various other allergic disorders have shown promise in small clinical trials and case studies. More carefully designed, large clinical trials of high quality are needed to fully appreciate the potential of omalizumab in treating various allergic and nonallergic diseases. © 2015 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology.

Krischer J.P.,University of South Florida
Diabetologia | Year: 2013

Aims/hypothesis: This paper presents a rationale for the selection of intermediate endpoints to be used in the design of type 1 diabetes prevention clinical trials. Methods: Relatives of individuals diagnosed with type 1 diabetes were enrolled on the TrialNet Natural History Study and screened for diabetes-related autoantibodies. Those with two or more such autoantibodies were analysed with respect to increased HbA1c, decreased C-peptide following an OGTT, or abnormal OGTT values as intermediate markers of disease progression. Results: Over 2 years, a 10% increase in HbA1c, and a 20% or 30% decrease in C-peptide from baseline, or progression to abnormal OGTT, occurred with a frequency between 20% and 41%. The 3- to 5-year risk of type 1 diabetes following each intermediate endpoint was high, namely 47% to 84%. The lower the incidence of the endpoint being reached, the higher the risk of diabetes. A diabetes prevention trial using these intermediate endpoints would require a 30% to 50% smaller sample size than one using type 1 diabetes as the endpoint. Conclusions/interpretation: The use of an intermediate endpoint in diabetes prevention is based on the generally held view of disease progression from initial occurrence of autoantibodies through successive immunological and metabolic changes to manifest type 1 diabetes. Thus, these markers are suitable for randomised phase 2 trials, which can more rapidly screen promising new therapies, allowing them to be subsequently confirmed in definitive phase 3 trials. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

Abbott A.L.,University of South Florida
Journal of Public Health Management and Practice | Year: 2011

The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (PPACA) put new requirements on not-for-profit (NFP) hospitals to document provision of community benefits, to justify their tax-exempt status. Specific PPACA provisions include requirements that NFP hospitals conduct or participate in a community health needs assessment and work to address the needs identified. Consideration is given to these particular PPACA mandates and to Internal Revenue Service (IRS) actions to implement them. The background of concerns that have been expressed about whether the NFP hospitals' tax exemption should be continued and a brief history of that exemption is noted. Not-for-profit hospitals have resources that the federal government is requiring them to bring to public health improvement, during a time when the public health agencies at the federal and state level continue to experience reductions in funding. Linking of the NFP hospitals' compliance activities with the public health agency community health planning activities will help fulfill its PPACA requirements and the regulatory reporting requirements for the IRS. © 2011 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

O'Brien C.M.,University of South Florida
Ethnobotany Research and Applications | Year: 2010

Recent research indicates differences in what children know and how they learn about plants when compared to their parents and grandparents. Ethnobotanical research was conducted with students in Ajo, Arizona, U.S.A, a rural town that has undergone vast social, economic, and political changes. The interviews included free lists and an identification exercise using video clips of Sonoran Desert plants. Students have a limited knowledge of the plant domain listing an average of five plants, the majority of which were non-native. Students correctly identified an average of 4+/-2.65 out of 20 Sonoran plants. Size and integration into the market economy were limiting factors in the identification of particular plant referents. Students who reported learning about the desert from experience or a person had higher identification scores than those who named other means. The research results highlight how cultural knowledge about local plants can be applied to educational programs that promote experiential learning.

Hou X.-D.,University of South Florida
Finite Fields and their Applications | Year: 2015

Permutation polynomials over finite fields constitute an active research area in which advances are being made constantly. We survey the contributions made to this area in recent years. Emphasis is placed on significant results and novel methods. © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Rohr J.R.,University of South Florida | Palmer B.D.,University of Kentucky
Conservation Biology | Year: 2013

Climate change is believed to be causing declines of ectothermic vertebrates, but there is little evidence that climatic conditions associated with declines have exceeded critical (i.e., acutely lethal) maxima or minima, and most relevant studies are correlative, anecdotal, or short-term (hours). We conducted an 11-week factorial experiment to examine the effects of temperature (22 °C or 27 °C), moisture (wet or dry), and atrazine (an herbicide; 0, 4, 40, 400 μg/L exposure as embryos and larvae) on the survival, growth, behavior, and foraging rates of postmetamorphic streamside salamanders (Ambystoma barbouri), a species of conservation concern. The tested climatic conditions were between the critical maxima and minima of streamside salamanders; thus, this experiment quantified the long-term effects of climate change within the noncritical range of this species. Despite a suite of behavioral adaptations to warm and dry conditions (e.g., burrowing, refuge use, huddling with conspecifics, and a reduction in activity), streamside salamanders exhibited significant loss of mass and significant mortality in all but the cool and moist conditions, which were closest to the climatic conditions in which they are most active in nature. A temperature of 27 °C represented a greater mortality risk than dry conditions; death occurred rapidly at this temperature and more gradually under cool and dry conditions. Foraging decreased under dry conditions, which suggests there were opportunity costs to water conservation. Exposure to the herbicide atrazine additively decreased water-conserving behaviors, foraging efficiency, mass, and time to death. Hence, the hypothesis that moderate climate change can cause population declines is even more plausible under scenarios with multiple stressors. These results suggest that climate change within the noncritical range of species and pollution may reduce individual performance by altering metabolic demands, hydration, and foraging effort and may facilitate population declines of amphibians and perhaps other ectothermic vertebrates. © 2013 Society for Conservation Biology.

Ness G.C.,University of South Florida
Biochimica et Biophysica Acta - Molecular and Cell Biology of Lipids | Year: 2015

Feedback regulation of cholesterol biosynthesis provides a mechanism to adapt to varying cholesterol input while maintaining rather constant serum and tissue cholesterol levels. The molecular mechanisms by which this occurs have been the subject of extensive investigation. This review focuses on the physiological mechanisms by which this regulation occurs. In animals that are sensitive to dietary cholesterol such as Golden Syrian hamsters, feedback regulation occurs mainly at the level of transcription of hepatic HMG-CoA reductase (3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase). In animals like the Sprague Dawley rat that are resistant to the serum cholesterol raising action of dietary cholesterol, regulation occurs mainly at the level of translation efficiency of hepatic HMG-CoA reductase. Oxylanosterols were shown to effectively decrease translation of HMG-CoA reductase mRNA. Dietary cholesterol acts to significantly lower transcription of squalene epoxidase and lanosterol 14α demethylase favoring accumulation of the putative regulatory oxylanosterol-3β-hydroxylanosterol-8-en-32-al. Thus, decreased transcription of enzymes occurring late in the cholesterol biosynthetic pathway appears to result in decreased translation of hepatic HMG-CoA reductase mRNA. These findings indicate that pronounced physiological feedback regulation of cholesterol biosynthesis in cholesterol resistant animals occurs at the level of translational efficiency without substantial reduction in hepatic HMG-CoA reductase transcription. © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

In some inflammasomes tumor cells are generated. The internal environment of the inflammasome is conducive to the induction of malignant transformation. Epigenetic changes initiate this process. The subverted stromal connective tissue cells act to promote and sustain the process of malignant transformation. In its early stages, the premalignant cells depend on paracrine circuitries for the reception of growth factors. The ligands are derived from the connective tissue, and the receptors are expressed on the recipient premalignant cells. The initial events are not a direct attack on the proto-oncogenes, and thus it may be entirely reversible. Epigenetic processes of hypermethylation of the genes at the promoters of tumor suppressor genes (to silence them), and deacetylation of the histones aimed at the promoters of proto-oncogenes (to activate them) are on-going. A large number of short RNA sequences (interfering, micro-, short hairpin, non-coding RNAs) silence tumor suppressor genes, by neutralizing their mRNAs. In a serial sequence oncogenes undergo amplifications, point-mutations, translocations and fusions. In its earliest stage, the process is reversible by demethylation of the silenced suppressor gene promoters (to reactivate them), or re-acetylation of the histones of the oncogene promoters, thus de-activating them. The external administration of histone deacetylase inhibitors usually leads to the restoration of histone acetylation. In time, the uncorrected processes solidify into constitutive and irreversible gene mutations. Some of the pathogens inducing inflammations with consquential malignant transformation contain oncogenic gene sequences (papilloma viruses, Epstein-Barr virus, Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus, hepatitis B and C viruses, Merkel cell polyoma virus, Helicobacter pylori, enterotoxigenic Bacteroides fragilis). These induced malignancies may be multifocal. Other pathogens are devoid of any known oncogenic genomic sequences (mycoplasma vav-carcinogenesis, chlamydia MALT-lymphoma genesis). In these cases the host's inflammatory reactions induce the malignant transformation in serial sequences of gene alterations initiated by hypoxia and reactive oxygen and nitrogen species generation. Carcinogenic intrinsic inflammatory processes endogenously initiated without a pathogen are recognized. Chronic inflammatory processes signal the RNA/DNA complex. In response, the DNA may revert into its ancient primordial 'immortal' format, which the clinics recognize as 'oncogenesis'. The DNA remains the ultimate master of bioengineering in order to sustain life. A discussion on the most versatile and resistant primordial RNA/DNA complex and the pre-, proto-, and unicellular world in which they co-existed is included.

Carrion I.V.,University of South Florida
Palliative and Supportive Care | Year: 2010

Objective: This study addressed factors physicians employ in their communication of a terminal diagnosis and a hospice referral to Hispanic patients.Method: The research method used was an exploratory qualitative in-depth semi-structured interview with thematic analysis. The interviews were with ten physicians in Central Florida. The interviews were conducted in Spanish and/or English with physicians who serve terminally ill Hispanic patients.Results: The findings provide vital information on factors that impact communication of diagnosis and hospice referral. Themes emerged relating to role of family members and end-of-life decision-making. Language barriers and limited knowledge of cultural factors and beliefs impacted communication related to end-of-life decisions. Gaps in training and education for physicians were also identified.Significance of results: These results suggest that discussing end-of-life issues with the diverse category of Hispanic patients and families will be enhanced by eliminating language barriers, increased understanding of the role of family members, and knowledge of cultural factors and beliefs related to end-of-life decisions. © Cambridge University Press 2010.

Kukla R.,University of South Florida
Health, Risk and Society | Year: 2010

Public space is filled with reproductive risk warnings, from labels on bottles of alcohol and cigarette packs, to disclaimers on drugs, signs posted in front of amusement park rides, and public health campaigns and advisories aimed at modifying pregnant women's behaviour. California's Proposition 65 requires that businesses post signs warning of the presence of chemicals that cause cancer, birth defects, or other reproductive harm. In this paper I examine the history of Proposition 65, and demonstrate the gap between its intended and actual effects. I explore the practical and symbolic implications of this law for women who are or think they might be pregnant, and argues that the Proposition 65 risk warnings have ethically troubling consequences for pregnant women. The warnings imply that reproductive risks are more important than other health risks, thereby singling out pregnant women as having a unique responsibility to make choices that minimise risk for others. They locate responsibility for foetal risk management in pregnant 'consumers', construed as agents who are free to make the correct choices on behalf of their future children, rather than on those responsible for creating safe public spaces. They offer pregnant women a choice between excluding themselves from public spaces and forgoing basic services, or taking on the identity of the reckless mother willing to 'voluntarily' impose 'unnecessary risks' on her child. And despite being justified via the rhetoric of informed consumer choice, they impede and distort rather than enable rational, informed decision-making. © 2010 Taylor & Francis.

Breitbart M.,University of South Florida
Annual Review of Marine Science | Year: 2012

Over the past two decades, marine virology has progressed from a curiosity to an intensely studied topic of critical importance to oceanography. At concentrations of approximately 10 million viruses per milliliter of surface seawater, viruses are the most abundant biological entities in the oceans. The majority of these viruses are phages (viruses that infect bacteria). Through lysing their bacterial hosts, marine phages control bacterial abundance, affect community composition, and impact global biogeochemical cycles. In addition, phages influence their hosts through selection for resistance, horizontal gene transfer, and manipulation of bacterial metabolism. Recent work has also demonstrated that marine phages are extremely diverse and can carry a variety of auxiliary metabolic genes encoding critical ecological functions. This review is structured as a scientific "truth or dare," revealing several well-established "truths" about marine viruses and presenting a few "dares" for the research community to undertake in future studies. Copyright © 2012 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved.

Uversky V.N.,University of South Florida | Uversky V.N.,Russian Academy of Sciences | Dunker A.K.,Indiana University
Analytical Chemistry | Year: 2012

Intrinsically disordered proteins are highly abundant in various proteomes. They are different from ordered proteins at many levels, and their structural and functional characterization requires special experimental and computational tools. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

Stoner R.,University of California at San Diego | Chow M.L.,University of California at San Diego | Boyle M.P.,University of California at San Diego | Boyle M.P.,Allen Institute for Brain Science | And 7 more authors.
New England Journal of Medicine | Year: 2014

BACKGROUND: Autism involves early brain overgrowth and dysfunction, which is most strongly evident in the prefrontal cortex. As assessed on pathological analysis, an excess of neurons in the prefrontal cortex among children with autism signals a disturbance in prenatal development and may be concomitant with abnormal cell type and laminar development. METHODS: To systematically examine neocortical architecture during the early years after the onset of autism, we used RNA in situ hybridization with a panel of layer- and cell-type - specific molecular markers to phenotype cortical microstructure. We assayed markers for neurons and glia, along with genes that have been implicated in the risk of autism, in prefrontal, temporal, and occipital neocortical tissue from post-mortem samples obtained from children with autism and unaffected children between the ages of 2 and 15 years. RESULTS: We observed focal patches of abnormal laminar cytoarchitecture and cortical disorganization of neurons, but not glia, in prefrontal and temporal cortical tissue from 10 of 11 children with autism and from 1 of 11 unaffected children. We observed heterogeneity between cases with respect to cell types that were most abnormal in the patches and the layers that were most affected by the pathological features. No cortical layer was uniformly spared, with the clearest signs of abnormal expression in layers 4 and 5. Three-dimensional reconstruction of layer markers confirmed the focal geometry and size of patches. CONCLUSIONS: In this small, explorative study, we found focal disruption of cortical laminar architecture in the cortexes of a majority of young children with autism. Our data support a probable dysregulation of layer formation and layer-specific neuronal differentiation at prenatal developmental stages. Copyright © 2014 Massachusetts Medical Society.

Taylor-Clark T.E.,University of South Florida
Cell Calcium | Year: 2016

The cough reflex is evoked by noxious stimuli in the airways. Although this reflex is essential for health, it can be triggered chronically in inflammatory and infectious airway disease. Neuronal transient receptor potential (TRP) channels such as ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) and vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) are polymodal receptors expressed on airway nociceptive afferent nerves. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and other reactive compounds are associated with inflammation, from either NADPH oxidase or mitochondria. These reactive compounds cause activation and hyperexcitability of nociceptive afferents innervating the airways, and evidence suggests key contributions of TRPA1 and TRPV1. © 2016.

OBJECTIVES:: Previous studies have documented the benefits of bimodal hearing as compared with a cochlear implant alone, but most have focused on the importance of bottom-up, low-frequency cues. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the role of top-down processing in bimodal hearing by measuring the effect of sentence context on bimodal benefit for temporally interrupted sentences. It was hypothesized that low-frequency acoustic cues would facilitate the use of contextual information in the interrupted sentences, resulting in greater bimodal benefit for the higher context (CUNY) sentences than for the lower context (IEEE) sentences. DESIGN:: Young normal-hearing listeners were tested in simulated bimodal listening conditions in which noise band vocoded sentences were presented to one ear with or without low-pass (LP) filtered speech or LP harmonic complexes (LPHCs) presented to the contralateral ear. Speech recognition scores were measured in three listening conditions: vocoder-alone, vocoder combined with LP speech, and vocoder combined with LPHCs. Temporally interrupted versions of the CUNY and IEEE sentences were used to assess listeners’ ability to fill in missing segments of speech by using top-down linguistic processing. Sentences were square-wave gated at a rate of 5 Hz with a 50% duty cycle. Three vocoder channel conditions were tested for each type of sentence (8, 12, and 16 channels for CUNY; 12, 16, and 32 channels for IEEE) and bimodal benefit was compared for similar amounts of spectral degradation (matched-channel comparisons) and similar ranges of baseline performance. Two gain measures, percentage-point gain and normalized gain, were examined. RESULTS:: Significant effects of context on bimodal benefit were observed when LP speech was presented to the residual-hearing ear. For the matched-channel comparisons, CUNY sentences showed significantly higher normalized gains than IEEE sentences for both the 12-channel (20 points higher) and 16-channel (18 points higher) conditions. For the individual gain comparisons that used a similar range of baseline performance, CUNY sentences showed bimodal benefits that were significantly higher (7% points, or 15 points normalized gain) than those for IEEE sentences. The bimodal benefits observed here for temporally interrupted speech were considerably smaller than those observed in an earlier study that used continuous speech. Furthermore, unlike previous findings for continuous speech, no bimodal benefit was observed when LPHCs were presented to the LP ear. CONCLUSIONS:: Findings indicate that linguistic context has a significant influence on bimodal benefit for temporally interrupted speech and support the hypothesis that low-frequency acoustic information presented to the residual-hearing ear facilitates the use of top-down linguistic processing in bimodal hearing. However, bimodal benefit is reduced for temporally interrupted speech as compared with continuous speech, suggesting that listeners’ ability to restore missing speech information depends not only on top-down linguistic knowledge but also on the quality of the bottom-up sensory input. Copyright © 2016 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.

Background: Many Medicaid programmes now offer behavioural healthcare through managed care organizations. Medicaid programmes are concerned about carve-outs because the use of non-included services may rise, limiting the efficiencies anticipated with the implementation of managed care. There also exist concerns that patients with serious mental illness may receive reduced care through managed care and consequently have poorer outcomes. Objective: This study examined prescription drug utilization among Medicaid recipients with the implementation of a mental health carve-out plan in Florida. In particular, this study examined short-run changes in the utilization of antipsychotic medications among individuals diagnosed with schizophrenia or episodic mood disorders with the implementation of Prepaid Mental Health Plans (PMHPs) in Florida Medicaid. Methods: This study used Medicaid data from 38 counties in Florida that implemented the PMHP programme in 2005 and 2006. The sample was limited to individuals aged ≤64 years who were continuously enrolled in Medicaid. Individuals were required to have at least two diagnoses of schizophrenia, episodic mood disorders, delusional disorders or other nonorganic disorders (three-digit International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision [ICD-9] code of 295-298). Five different outcome measures were examined on a monthly basis for the 6 months pre- and post-PMHP implementation: penetration; adherence; Medicaid expenditures for antipsychotics; polypharmacy (multiple antipsychotic medications); and whether dosing was within guidelines. Generalized estimating equations were used to estimate associations between individual and insurance characteristics, and the outcome variables. The analyses were conducted using SAS procedure GENMOD. Empirical (robust) standard errors were calculated to account for repeated observations on the same individual. Results: There were 153 720 monthly observations for the 12 810 people in the sample. Seventy-four percent of the sample was aged between 21 and 54 years, while 65% were female, 30% White, 14% Black and 44% Hispanic. The large proportion of Hispanics stems from the introduction of the PMHP programme in Dade County (Miami). The results indicate the implementation of the PMHP was associated with increased penetration, but reduced adherence, polypharmacy and expenditures by the Medicaid agency. There was no change in the likelihood of prescriptions being written within recommended dosage ranges. Conclusion: The introduction of the PMHP was associated with short-run changes in medication utilization among individuals with serious mental illness. © 2012 Springer International Publishing AG. All rights reserved.

Benbadis S.R.,University of South Florida
Neurology | Year: 2013

The misdiagnosis of epilepsy is common and has serious consequences. A major contributor to the misdiagnosis of epilepsy is the tendency to overread normal EEGs as abnormal. In fact, the wrong diagnosis of seizures is sometimes based solely on the "abnormal" EEG. Reasons for the common overinterpretation of normal EEGs are mostly related to the lack of standards or mandatory training in EEG, and the erroneous assumption that all neurologists are trained to read EEGs. The most common overread pattern consists of benign, nonspecific, sharply contoured temporal transients. In particular, there is a common misconception that "phase reversals" are indicative of abnormality. Potential solutions include defining and ensuring EEG competency of neurologists who read EEGs, and perhaps providing a confirmatory reading by an electroencephalographer, as is done for EKGs. © 2012 American Academy of Neurology.

Tankersley M.S.,The Surgical Center | Ledford D.K.,University of South Florida
Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology: In Practice | Year: 2015

Stinging insect allergy is responsible for more than 10% of all cases of anaphylaxis. The potential culprit insects are diverse and vary with geography. The incidence of insect allergy is declining in some areas and increasing in others, possibly due to effects of climate change, introduction of species into new areas, outdoor recreational activities, and movement of human populations that brings insects into contact with a greater number of people. Flying Hymenoptera and imported fire ant stings are responsible for the majority of patients evaluated for insect anaphylaxis. The most efficient means of identifying allergy to insects is skin testing although falsely positive and negative results occur. The limitations of testing coupled with the natural temporal variability of allergic sensitivity complicate the interpretation of test results. The clinical history is of paramount importance to be certain that the test results are relevant; therefore, screening or testing before a history of a sting reaction is not advisable. Mast cell disorders are associated with severe anaphylaxis from insect stings and should be considered in affected subjects. Insect immunotherapy, using venoms for most insects and whole-body extracts for imported fire ants, is proven effective in reducing the likelihood of anaphylaxis due to subsequent stings from 40%-60% to less than 5%. Future clinical application of component testing or in vitro cellular tests, such as the basophil activation test, may improve optimal choices for immunotherapy. © 2015.

Kirby R.S.,University of South Florida
Maternal and Child Health Journal | Year: 2010

Early parenting practices are significant to public health because of their linkages to child health outcomes. This paper focuses on the current state of the science regarding conceptual frameworks that incorporate early parenting practices in epidemiologic research and evidence supporting reliability and validity of self-report measures of such practices. Guided by a provisional definition of early parenting practices, literature searches were conducted using PubMed and Sociological Abstracts. Twenty-five published studies that included parent-report measures of early parenting practices met inclusion criteria. Findings on conceptual frameworks were analyzed qualitatively, whereas evidence of reliability and validity were organized into four domains (safety, feeding and oral health, development promotion, and discipline) and summarized in tabular form. Quantitative estimates of measures of reliability and validity were extracted, where available. We found two frameworks incorporating early parenting: one a program theory and the other a predictive model. We found no reported evidence of the reliability or validity of parent-report measures of safety or feeding and oral health practices. Evidence for reliability and validity were reported with greater frequency for development promotion and discipline practices, but report of the most pertinent type of reliability estimation, test-retest reliability, was rare. Failure to examine associations of early parenting practices with any child outcomes within most studies resulted in missed opportunities to indirectly estimate validity of parenting practice measures. Stronger evidence concerning specific measurement properties of early parenting practices is important to advancing maternal- child research, surveillance, and practice. © Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2009.

The universal failure of pharmacologic interventions against Alzheimer's disease (AD) appears largely due to their inability to get into neurons and the fact that most have a single mechanism-of-action. A non-invasive, neuromodulatory approach against AD has consequently emerged: transcranial electromagnetic treatment (TEMT). In AD transgenic mice, long-term TEMT prevents and reverses both cognitive impairment and brain amyloid-β (Aβ) deposition, while TEMT even improves cognitive performance in normal mice. Three disease-modifying and inter-related mechanisms of TEMT action have been identified in the brain: 1) anti-Aβ aggregation, both intraneuronally and extracellularly; 2) mitochondrial enhancement; and 3) increased neuronal activity. Long-term TEMT appears safe in that it does not impact brain temperature or oxidative stress levels, nor does it induce any abnormal histologic/anatomic changes in the brain or peripheral tissues. Future TEMT development in both AD mice and normal mice should involve head-only treatment to discover the most efficacious set of parameters for achieving faster and even greater cognitive benefit. Given the already extensive animal work completed, translational development of TEMT could occur relatively quickly to "proof of concept" AD clinical trials. TEMT's mechanisms of action provide extraordinary therapeutic potential against other neurologic disorders/injuries, such as Parkinson's disease, traumatic brain injury, and stroke. © 2012 - IOS Press and the authors. All rights reserved.

Xue D.-X.,King Abdullah University of Science and Technology | Cairns A.J.,King Abdullah University of Science and Technology | Belmabkhout Y.,King Abdullah University of Science and Technology | Wojtas L.,University of South Florida | And 3 more authors.
Journal of the American Chemical Society | Year: 2013

A series of fcu-MOFs based on rare-earth (RE) metals and linear fluorinated/nonfluorinated, homo/heterofunctional ligands were targeted and synthesized. This particular fcu-MOF platform was selected because of its unique structural characteristics combined with the ability/potential to dictate and regulate its chemical properties (e.g., tuning of the electron-rich RE metal ions and high localized charge density, a property arising from the proximal positioning of polarizing tetrazolate moieties and fluoro-groups that decorate the exposed inner surfaces of the confined conical cavities). These features permitted a systematic gas sorption study to evaluate/elucidate the effects of distinctive parameters on CO2-MOF sorption energetics. Our study supports the importance of the synergistic effect of exposed open metal sites and proximal highly localized charge density toward materials with enhanced CO2 sorption energetics. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

Byrne R.H.,University of South Florida
Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta | Year: 2010

Comparative concentrations of carbonate and hydroxide complexes in natural solutions can be expressed in terms of reactions with bicarbonate that have no explicit pH dependence (MOHnz-n+nHCO3-↔M(CO3)nz-2n+nH2O). Stability constants for this reaction with n=1 were determined using conventional formation constant data expressed in terms of hydroxide and carbonate. Available data indicate that stability constants appropriate to seawater at 25°C expressed in the form Φ1=[MCO3z-2][MOHz-1]-1[HCO3-]-1 are on the order of 10 4.2 for a wide range of cations (M z+) with z=+1, +2 and +3. Φ 1 is sufficiently large that MCO3z-2 species appear to substantially dominate MOH z-1 species in seawater. Evaluations of comparative stepwise carbonate and hydroxide stability constant behavior leading to the formation of n=2 and n=3 complexes suggest that carbonate complexes generally dominate hydroxide complexes in seawater, even for cations whose inorganic speciation schemes in seawater are currently presumed to be strongly dominated by hydrolyzed forms (M(OH)nz-n). Calculated stability constants, Φ2=[M(CO3)2z-4][M(OH)2z-2]-1[HCO3-]-2 and Φ3=[M(CO3)3z-6][M(OH)3z-3]-1[HCO3-]-3, indicate that the importance of carbonate complexation is sufficiently large that carbonate and hydroxide complexes would be generally comparable even if calculated Φ 2 and Φ 3 values are overestimated by two or more orders of magnitude. Inclusion of mixed ligand species in carbonate-hydroxide speciation models allows cation complexation intensities (M T/[M z+]) to be expressed in the following form: MT/[Mz+]=(1+R1)×β1*[H+]-1+(1+2R21/2+R2)×β2*[H+]-2+(1+3R31/3+3R32/3+R3)×β3*[H+]-3+C, where M T represents the concentration of total dissolved metal exclusive of organic complexes and R1=[MCO3z-2][MOHz-1]-1=Φ1[HCO3-],R2=[M(CO3)2z-4][M(OH)2z-2]-1=Φ2[HCO3-]2,R3=[M(CO3)3z-6][M(OH)3z-3]-1=Φ3[HCO3-]3,βn*=[M(OH)nz-n][H+]n[Mz+]-1, and C is a constant term (independent of pH) that accounts for formation of chloride, fluoride and sulfate complexation. The terms for mixed ligand complexation in this equation demonstrate that carbonate-containing species, MCO 3OH z-3, MCO3(OH)2z-4 and, to a lesser extent, M(CO3)2OHz-5 should be quite significant relative to M(OH)2z-2 and M(OH)3z-3 even when R 2=0.01 and R 3=0.001. The results in this work indicate that the general importance of carbonate complexation in environmental solutions is substantially underestimated. Further studies should be devoted to experimental examination of the carbonate complexation of strongly hydrolyzed cations. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

In this paper, I examine recent phenomenological research on both depressive and manic episodes, with the intention of showing how phenomenologically oriented studies can help us overcome the apparently paradoxical nature of mixed states. First, I argue that some of the symptoms included in the diagnostic criteria for depressive and manic episodes in the DSM-5 are not actually essential features of these episodes. Second, I reconsider the category of major depressive disorder (MDD) from the perspective of phenomenological psychopathology, arguing that severe depressive episodes should not be characterized by any particular moods (such as sadness, hopelessness, or guilt), and should instead be characterized by a diminished capacity for finding ourselves situated in and attuned to the world at all. In other words, the affective dimension of depression should be characterized as a change in the way we have moods, not as a change from one kind of mood to another. Third, I turn to mania, arguing that manic episodes, taken as the opposite of depressive episodes, should be characterized not by any particular moods (such as euphoria, grandiosity, or even irritability), but should instead be characterized by an enhanced or heightened capacity for finding ourselves situated in and attuned to the world. In other words, the affective dimension of mania, like the affective dimension of depression, should be understood as a change in the way we have moods, not as a change from one kind of mood to another. Fourth, I return to the phenomenon of mixed states and argue that the affective dimension of depression and mania, when conceived along the phenomenological lines I set forth in the previous sections, dissolves the paradox of mixed states by showing that the essential characteristics of depression and mania cannot and do not coincide. Many cases of mixed states are diagnosed because moods that we take to be essential features of either depression or mania arise within the context of what is considered to be the opposite kind of episode (e.g. dysphoria, typically associated with depression, often arises in what is otherwise considered a manic state). However, if we conceive of the affective dimension of depression as a decrease in the degree to which one is situated in and attune to the world through moods, and the affective dimension of mania as an increase in the degree to which one is situated in and attuned to the world through moods, then the particular mood one finds oneself in is simply irrelevant to the diagnosis of either depression or mania. As a result, the manifestation of any particular moods in what otherwise seems to be a pure manic or depressive episode does not constitute a mixed state.

Giunta B.,University of South Florida
Molecular neurodegeneration | Year: 2014

Given the increased life expectancy of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected individuals treated with combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) and the ongoing inflammation observed in the brains of these patients, it is likely that premature neurodegeneration as measured by phospho-tau (p-tau) or increased total tau (t-tau) protein may become an increasing problem. This review examines the seven human studies that have occurred over the past 14 years measuring p-tau and/or t-tau in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) or via post-mortem brain immunohistochemistry. Although not all studies are in agreement as to the changes in p-and t-tau in HIV infected patients, HIV persists in the brain despite cART. Thus is it is suggested that those maintained on long-term cART may develop tau pathology beyond the extent seen in the studies reviewed herein and overtime may then reach the threshold for clinical manifestation.

Philpot R.M.,University of South Florida
Neurochemical Research | Year: 2015

Over the past several decades, research in both humans and animals has established the existence of persistent cognitive deficits resulting from exposure to chemotherapeutic agents. Nevertheless, there has been very little research addressing the treatment of chemotherapy-induced cognitive deficits and there is currently no approved treatment for this condition, often referred to as ‘chemo-brain.’ Several drugs that enhance cholinergic function and/or increase nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) activity have been demonstrated to improve cognitive performance and/or reverse cognitive deficits in animals, findings that have led to the use of these compounds to treat the cognitive deficits present in a variety of disorders including attention deficit disorder, Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease and schizophrenia. Although nAChR agonists have not been assessed for their efficacy in treating chemotherapy-induced cognitive deficits, these drugs have been shown to produce measureable increases in performance on several behavioral tasks known to be disrupted by exposure to chemotherapeutic agents. While the processes underlying chemotherapy-induced cognitive deficits may differ from those underlying other disorders, there appears to be a broad spectrum of application for the use of nAChR agonists to improve cognitive function. Therefore, studies examining the use of these drugs in the treatment of chemotherapy-induced cognitive deficits should be conducted as they may be of benefit for the treatment of ‘chemo-brain.’ © 2015, Springer Science+Business Media New York.

Batzill M.,University of South Florida
Surface Science Reports | Year: 2012

Graphene, a single atomic layer of sp 2 hybridized carbon, exhibits a zero-band gap with linear band dispersion at the Fermi-level, forming a Dirac-cone at the K-points of its Brillouin zone. In this review, we focus on basic materials science issues of this intriguing material. The scope of this work is further narrowed by concentrating on graphene grown at transition metal surfaces, mostly under vacuum conditions, and neglecting other graphene synthesis approaches, namely growth on SiC or by graphene oxide reduction. Thus one large section of this review focuses on metal/graphene interfaces. We summarize recent surface science studies on the structure, interaction, and the growth of graphene on various metals. Metal supported graphene is a recurring theme throughout this review as it provides model-systems for studying adsorption and graphene modifications on well-defined, large area samples, and thus is ideal for employing surface science techniques. Other aspects of graphene are also reviewed. Approaches for creating and characterizing graphene nanostructures, in particular graphene nanoribbons, are discussed. Graphene nanoribbons play an important role for potential electronic applications because the lateral electron confinement in the ribbons opens a band-gap in graphene. Materials issues of nanoribbons, like formation of well-defined edges are introduced. Atomic-scale defect-structures in graphene are another topic. The known defect structures in graphene are categorized and atomic scale characterization of these defects by scanning tunneling microscopy (stocktickerSTM) and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (TEM) is illustrated. Important for applications of graphene is our ability of modifying its properties. Therefore, studies of substitutional doping of graphene with nitrogen or boron, hydrogenation or fluorination of graphene, and the adsorption of molecules with strong electron affinity are included in this review. This review is restricted to a summary of surface science studies on well-ordered systems. Other important graphene research areas such as transport measurements on pure and modified graphene are not included. The goal of this review is to give a concise overview of the materials science of graphene from the surface science perspective. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Background In this study, the culture-gene co-evolutionary theory of mental disorders was used to test the hypothesis that major depression was less prevalent in China-to-US immigrants who migrated to the US as adults than in US-born adult Chinese Americans. Methods Data from the Collaborative Psychiatric Epidemiology Surveys (CPES) were extracted for secondary data analyses on the rates of major depression disorder (MDD) and major depressive episode (MDE) in the two groups. Results Findings showed that for life time MDD, the rates for China-to-US immigrant and US-born Chinese were 5.3% and 7.9% for men and 8.5% and 33.1% for women. For 12-month MDD, the corresponding rates were 2.2% and 3.4% for men, and 4.7% and 12.6% for women. For life time MDE, the corresponding rates were 6.8% and 8.8% for men; for women the rates were 8.5% and 33.1%. For 12-month MDE, the rates were 2.2% and 4.4% for men; the rates were 4.7% and 12.6% for women. Controlling for age, education level, income, BMI, marital status, and income-to-needs ratio, China-to-US immigrant women remained less likely to have life time major depression than US-born Chinese American women. Limitations While the study has the strength of utilizing nationally representative datasets, the approach is limited as the data sources lack the capacity to investigate how the strength of connection with the collectivist culture might be related to major depression in the immigrant group. © 2014 Published by Elsevier B.V.

Slyper A.H.,University of South Florida
Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology and Metabolism | Year: 2013

There is compelling evidence that carbohydrate quality has important influences on cardiovascular disease, the metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes, and obesity. Cohort and interventional studies indicate that dietary fiber is an important determinant of satiation, satiety, and weight gain, and also protects against cardiovascular disease. Cohort studies have shown that vegetables and fruits protect against coronary heart disease, whereas whole grains provide protection against cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, and weight gain. Dietary glycemia within the range eaten by most of the population seems not to have a significant influence on body weight, although it may influence waist circumference. There is strong evidence from interventional trials that dietary glycemia does influence insulin resistance and diabetes control. Moreover, replacing saturated fat with high-glycemic carbohydrate may increase cardiovascular risk. Soft drink consumption is a proven cause of weight gain, which may relate to the lack of satiation provided by these drinks. In large amounts, dietary fructose leads to greater adverse metabolic changes than equivalent amounts of glucose, although the extent to which fructose per se is contributing to many of the metabolic changes found in the obese, as distinct from the calories it provides, is still a matter of debate.

Njoh A.J.,University of South Florida
Journal of Urban Planning and Development | Year: 2012

The study explores the relationship between transportation and development in the East Africa and Indian Ocean (EAIO) region. A positive link between development, defined in terms of gross national income per capita (GNI/cap), and transportation, operationalized in terms of the different major forms of transport infrastructure in the study region, is hypothesized. Multiple regression involving natural logarithms and concomitant statistics is employed to test the hypothesis. The resultant model is positive and statistically significant at the 95% level. Thus, the hypothesized relationship is confirmed. Two seemingly counterintuitive results, namely the not-statistically-significant negative association between railways and development, and the statistically significant link between dirt roads and development, are noted. Two plausible explanations are proffered for this unexpected finding. One is that dirt roads constitute a hindrance, rather than a facilitator, to development during the rainy season when they are impassable. The other is that railways in the area suffer from neglect and are not harmonized enough to maximize their utility. On account of the revelation that transportation, as a whole, is positively linked to development, and the fact that the functioning of other sectors depends largely on transportation, it is recommended that transport infrastructure and facilities be prioritized as an investment target in the EAIO region. © 2012 American Society of Civil Engineers.

Denson A.C.,University of South Florida | Mahipal A.,H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center and Research Institute
Cancer Control | Year: 2014

Background: Despite the fact that cancer disproportionately affects the elderly, most participants of clinical cancer trials are relatively young. This misrepresentation greatly affects the oncology treatment of the elderly population (> 65 years of age). Few studies have attempted to identify the problems related to discrepancy based on age for clinical trial participation. Methods: A literature review was performed to identify barriers and solutions to enrollment of elderly persons for clinical cancer trials. Results: Physician-related barriers include perception about treatment tolerance, drug metabolism, a lack of evidence for efficacy, and age bias. Lack of autonomy, concerns about quality of life and toxicities, accessibility to clinical trials, and logistical and financial difficulties are common patient-related barriers. Trial-related barriers include eligibility criteria based on performance status, organ dysfunction, and the presence of comorbidities. Solutions, such as improved communication, and coordinating logistical challenges may help overcome some of these challenges. Studies designed for the geriatric population could modify the perception and behavior of health care professionals and improve patient participation in clinical trials. Conclusions: Implementing some of these solutions and increased research may help overcome shortfalls in elderly enrollment, thus allowing for more effective treatment of older patients.

Balducci L.,University of South Florida
Cancer Control | Year: 2014

Background: Data relating to cancer treatment in the older patient population are limited because older individuals have been under-represented in clinical trials. The goal of this review was to establish which factors hinder the participation of older individuals to clinical trials and to examine possible solutions. Methods: The literature relating to cancer treatment in the older patient population was reviewed. Results: The benefit of systemic cancer treatment may decrease with age, and risks may be increased due to reduced life expectancy and reduced tolerance of stress in the older population. Therefore, a multipronged approach is recommended for clinical studies in these patients, including phase 2 studies limited to persons 70 years of age and older, stratification by life expectancy and predicted treatment tolerance in phase 3 studies, and registration studies to establish predictive variables for treatment-related toxicity in older individuals. Conclusions: A combination of prospective and registration studies may supply adequate information to study cancer treatments in the older patient population.

Mahajan K.,University of South Florida
Oncogene | Year: 2015

Genome integrity is vital to cellular homeostasis and its forfeiture is linked to deleterious consequences—cancer, immunodeficiency, genetic disorders and premature aging. The human ubiquitin ligase Pso4/Prp19 has emerged as a critical component of multiple DNA damage response (DDR) signaling networks. It not only senses DNA damage, binds double-stranded DNA in a sequence-independent manner, facilitates processing of damaged DNA, promotes DNA end joining, regulates replication protein A (RPA2) phosphorylation and ubiquitination at damaged DNA, but also regulates RNA splicing and mitotic spindle formation in its integral capacity as a scaffold for a multimeric core complex. Accordingly, by virtue of its regulatory and structural interactions with key proteins critical for genome integrity—DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair, DNA interstrand crosslink repair, repair of stalled replication forks and DNA end joining—it fills a unique niche in restoring genomic integrity after multiple types of DNA damage and thus has a vital role in maintaining chromatin integrity and cellular functions. These properties may underlie its ability to thwart replicative senescence and, not surprisingly, have been linked to the self-renewal and colony-forming ability of murine hematopoietic stem cells. This review highlights recent advances in hPso4 research that provides a fascinating glimpse into the pleiotropic activities of a ubiquitously expressed multifunctional E3 ubiquitin ligase.Oncogene advance online publication, 14 September 2015; doi:10.1038/onc.2015.321. © 2015 Macmillan Publishers Limited

Nunes M.C.D.N.,University of South Florida
Postharvest Biology and Technology | Year: 2015

Color charts and rating scales have been developed for several fresh fruits and vegetables (FFVs) but limited information is available regarding the correlation between subjective evaluations and physicochemical attributes. The objective of this work was to correlate subjective quality data with quantitative analytical data collected for several fruits exposed to different environmental conditions. Avocados, blueberries, peppers, strawberries and tomatoes were exposed to a range of different temperatures and humidity conditions for varied periods of time, and quality evaluated using both rating scales and physicochemical analysis. The strength of the relationship between variables was measured using the Pearson correlation coefficient (r) and the coefficient of determination (r2) and, the significance of the relationship was expressed by probability levels (p=0.05). Overall, there was a significant correlation between most of the subjective quality attributes evaluated and the physicochemical analysis performed. Subjective color was significantly correlated with hue angle for all fruits evaluated except for blueberries for which subjective color had a stronger correlation with L* values. Correlations between subjective color and anthocyanins, ascorbic acid or chlorophyll contents were also significant. Shriveling or stem freshness was strongly correlated with weight loss whereas subjective firmness was significantly correlated with instrumental texture. Results from this work showed that subjective quality evaluations using rating scales can be a reliable and simple method to estimate changes in color, softening, water loss, and ultimately changes in specific chemical components when FFVs are exposed to different environmental conditions. A color chart is proposed for the visual evaluation of strawberry quality. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.

Elibero A.,University of South Florida
Nicotine & tobacco research : official journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco | Year: 2011

Recent studies have examined the effects of physical activity on craving to smoke and smoking withdrawal. The current study was designed to compare and contrast the effects of 2 different forms of physical activity on general and cue-elicited craving to smoke. Following 1-hr nicotine abstinence, 76 daily smokers were randomly assigned to engage in a 30-min bout of cardiovascular exercise (CE; brisk walk on a treadmill), Hatha yoga (HY), or a nonactivity control condition. Participants completed measures of craving and mood, and a smoking cue reactivity assessment, before, immediately following, and approximately 20 min after the physical activity or control conditions. Compared with the control condition, participants in each of the physical activity groups reported a decrease in craving to smoke, an increase in positive affect, and a decrease in negative affect. In addition, craving in response to smoking cues was specifically reduced among those who engaged in CE, whereas those who engaged in HY reported a general decrease in cravings. This study provides further support for the use of exercise bouts for attenuating cigarette cravings during temporary nicotine abstinence. Results also suggest that CE can attenuate cravings in response to smoking cues. There are several areas for further research that may improve integration of exercise within smoking cessation treatment.

Chen T.-Y.,University of South Florida | Janke M.C.,East Carolina University
Supportive Care in Cancer | Year: 2014

Purpose: Cancer symptoms and the side effects of its treatment can increase the risk of falling among older adults with cancer. This study aimed to identify predictors of falling and recurrent falls among community-dwelling older adults with cancer over a 2-year period. Methods: Data from the Health and Retirement Study were used (N =1,630) in this study. The sample had a mean age of 75 years and was mostly female (53%) and white (89%). Descriptive analyses, correlation analyses, and logistic regressions were used to analyze the data. Results: The results showed that functional limitations (OR=1.13, 95% CI=1.03-1.24), the full-tandem stance (OR=1.48, 95% CI=1.01-2.16), and self-reported difficulties with balance (OR=1.50, 95% CI=1.23-1.83) at time 1 were significant predictors of falling at time 2. Only difficulties with self-reported balance (OR=1.84, 95% CI=1.44-2.36) at time 1 were found to be a predictor of recurrent falls at time 2. Conclusions: The consequences of falling can complicate the course of cancer treatment. Measures of functional limitations and balance have the potential to be quick and useful clinical tools to detect falling among seniors with cancer living in communities. © Springer-Verlag 2013.

Andres B.,University of South Florida | Myers T.S.,Southern Methodist University
Earth and Environmental Science Transactions of the Royal Society of Edinburgh | Year: 2013

The state of Texas has one of the greatest records of pterosaurs in the world, surpassing all other US states and most countries in the number of occurrences. Uniquely, this record extends over the entire 150+ million history of the Pterosauria. A review of this pterosaur record confirms at least 30 pterosaurs known from 13 occurrences, including five valid species. The holotypes of two of these species have been described before and are diagnosed and erected here as the new species Radiodactylus langstoni, gen. et sp. nov., named in honour of Dr. Wann Langston Jr, the father of Texas pterosaurology, and Alamodactylus byrdi, gen. et sp. nov.. Phylogenetic analysis of all Texas pterosaurs that can be coded for more than one character confirms that these species are distinct from others and occupy phylogenetic positions close to their original classifications. Radiodactylus langstoni is recovered as a non-azhdarchid azhdarchoid, Quetzalcoatlus northropi as an azhdarchid, Alamodactylus byrdi as a non-pteranodontoid pteranodontian, Aetodactylus as a pteranodontoid, and Coloborhynchus wadleighi as an ornithocheirid. The presence of eudimorphodontid, dsungaripterid, as well as other azhdarchid and pteranodontoid pterosaurs, is also confirmed in Texas. © 2013 The Royal Society of Edinburgh.

Allen T.D.,University of South Florida | Finkelstein L.M.,Northern Illinois University
Journal of Occupational Health Psychology | Year: 2014

Based on cross-sectional data from the 2008 National Study of the Changing Workforce, this study investigates relationships between gender, age, and work-family conflict across 6 family life stages. Participants were 690 married/partnered employees who worked 35 or more hours a week. Results indicated a small but negative relationship between age and work-family conflict. Work-family conflict was also associated with family stage, with the least amount of conflict occurring during the empty nest stage and the most occurring when the youngest child in the home was 5 years of age or younger. Gender differences were also observed. Specifically, men reported more work interference with family than did women when the youngest child in the home was a teen. Women overall reported more family interference with work than did men. Results concerning age and gender revealed a different pattern demonstrating that family stage is not simply a proxy for age. Age had a main effect on work-to-family conflict that was monotonic in nature and on family to-work conflict that was linear in nature. In conclusion, the results indicate gender, age, and family stage each uniquely relate to work-family conflict. © 2014 American Psychological Association.

Potts G.F.,University of South Florida
International Journal of Psychophysiology | Year: 2011

The error-related negativity (ERN) is thought to index a neural behavior monitoring system with its source in anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). While ACC is involved in a wide variety of cognitive and emotional tasks, there is debate as to what aspects of ACC function are indexed by the ERN. In one model the ERN indexes purely cognitive function, responding to mismatch between intended and executed actions. Another model posits that the ERN is more emotionally driven, elicited when an action is inconsistent with motivational goals. If the ERN indexes mismatch between intended and executed actions, then it should be insensitive to motivational valence, e.g. reward or punishment; in contrast if the ERN indexes the evaluation of responses relative to goals, then it might respond differentially under differing motivational valence. This study used a flanker task motivated by potential reward and potential punishment on different trials and also examined the N2 and P3 to the imperative stimulus, the response Pe, and the FRN and P3 to the outcome feedback to assess the impact of motivation valence on other stages of information processing in this choice reaction time task. Participants were slower on punishment motivated trials and both the N2 and ERN were larger on punishment motivated trials, indicating that loss aversion has an impact on multiple stages of information processing including behavior monitoring. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

The study reported in this paper is premised on a belief in citizen participation (CP) as a viable cost-saving strategy for public infrastructure provisioning in rural human settlements in particular, and in the development process in general, in Africa. The prowess of CP is widely acknowledged in the development literature. However, there is a dearth of knowledge on how to go about promoting CP especially in rural human settlements. The study contributes to efforts to reverse this situation by highlighting the activities of major institutional actors involved in CP initiatives in public infrastructure development in rural Cameroon. One international non-governmental organization (NGO), Helvetas, and four government rural councils based in the Northwest Region of Cameroon constitute the empirical referent for the study. It is revealed that the NGO served as the main source of funds, technical and organizational expertise, while the councils coordinated and oversaw the CP activities designed to manage and maintain the public infrastructure projects. It is also shown that exogenous factors (e.g., interference by national authorities) and endogenous problems (e.g., scarcity of skilled labour) conspired to thwart the efforts of the councils. Furthermore, the tendency on the part of national authorities to appropriate locally-realized projects was identified as a critical barrier to CP. The paper concludes that the willingness of citizens to contribute in-kind or financially to any given self-help infrastructure project is contingent upon the extent to which they perceive the project as veritably theirs. The Cameroonian experience holds potentially valuable lessons for CP efforts in rural infrastructure development in other developing countries. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

Fuchs V.J.,Yale University | Mihelcic J.R.,University of South Florida | Gierke J.S.,Michigan Technological University
Water Research | Year: 2011

Life cycle assessment (LCA) is used to compare the environmental impacts of vertical flow constructed wetlands (VFCW) and horizontal flow constructed wetlands (HFCW). The LCAs include greenhouse gas (N 2O, CO 2 and CH 4) emissions. Baseline constructed wetland designs are compared to different treatment performance scenarios and to conventional wastewater treatment at the materials acquisition, assembly and operation life stages. The LCAs suggest that constructed wetlands have less environmental impact, in terms of resource consumption and greenhouse gas emissions. The VFCW is a less impactful configuration for removing total nitrogen from domestic wastewater. Both wetland designs have negligible impacts on respiratory organics, radiation and ozone. Gaseous emissions, often not included in wastewater LCAs because of lack of data or lack of agreement on impacts, have the largest impact on climate change. Nitrous oxide accounts for the increase in impact on respiratory inorganic, and the combined acidification/eutrophication category. The LCAs were used to assess the importance of nitrogen removal and recycling, and the potential for optimizing nitrogen removal in constructed wetlands. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

Uversky V.N.,University of South Florida | Uversky V.N.,Russian Academy of Sciences
FEBS Letters | Year: 2013

Many functional proteins do not have well-folded structures in their substantial parts, representing hybrids that possess both ordered and disordered regions. Disorder is unevenly distributed within these hybrid proteins and is typically more common at protein termini. Disordered tails are engaged in a wide range of functions, some of which are unique for termini and cannot be found in other disordered parts of a protein. This review covers some of the key functions of disordered protein termini and emphasizes that these tails are not simple flexible protrusions but are evolved to serve. © 2013 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Kim M.K.,University of South Florida
Optics Express | Year: 2013

Full-color, three-dimensional images of objects under incoherent illumination are obtained by a digital holography technique. Based on selfinterference of two beam-split copies of the object's optical field with differential curvatures, the apparatus consists of a beam-splitter, a few mirrors and lenses, a piezo-actuator, and a color camera. No lasers or other special illuminations are used for recording or reconstruction. Color holographic images of daylight-illuminated outdoor scenes and a halogen lamp-illuminated toy figure are obtained. From a recorded hologram, images can be calculated, or numerically focused, at any distances for viewing. © 2013 Optical Society of America.

Smith C.A.S.,University of South Florida
Journal of Immigrant and Minority Health | Year: 2012

Studies show that cultural beliefs influence disease conceptualization, adaption, and coping strategies of chronic diseases. This study investigated the type 2 diabetes cultural belief model of English-speaking Afro- Caribbean women in southwest Florida. A 53 item cultural consensus beliefs questionnaire was designed and administered to 30 Afro-Caribbean women diabetics. Cultural consensus analysis found that these women shared a single cultural belief model about type 2 diabetes, .72 ± .081 SD. Women with higher cultural knowledge scores (r s = -.41730, P = .0218) were significantly younger at type 2 diabetes diagnosis than women with lower scores. In qualitative interviews, women described ongoing struggles to modify their traditional Caribbean diet and believed in the efficaciousness of traditional Caribbean medicine and prayer to treat type 2 diabetes. These findings suggest that health practitioners treating English-speaking Afro-Caribbean diabetics should offer culturally appropriate nutritional guidance and inquire about their use of traditional Caribbean medicines. © Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011.

Zakaria M.A.,University of South Florida | Levy B.S.,Health Policy
Obstetrics and Gynecology | Year: 2012

OBJECTIVE: To present tactics for optimizing outpatient vaginal hysterectomy and describe perioperative outcomes in a large consecutive case series. METHODS: This is a descriptive study and review of clinical outcomes in 1,071 patients selected to undergo vaginal hysterectomy for benign indications from 2000 to 2010. The setting is a single-surgeon private practice in a community hospital. Outcome measures include length of hospital stay, estimated blood loss, operative time, uterine weight, and perioperative complications, including hospital readmissions and emergency room visits. RESULTS: One thousand seventy-one of 1,162 cases (92%, 95% confidence interval [CI] 90.5-93.7) were total vaginal hysterectomies, of which 1,029 (96%, 95% CI 94.9-97.3) were discharged the same day after surgery. The median operative time was 34 minutes (range 17-210 minutes), and estimated blood loss was 45 mL (range 5-800 mL). The median patient age was 46 years (range 27-86 years), and median uterine weight was 160 g (range 25-1,380 g). One hundred ninety-three patients (18%, 95% CI 15.8-20.5) were nulliparous and 218 (20%, 95% CI 18-22.9) had prior pelvic surgery. Five patients (0.5%, 95% CI 0.2-1.1) required readmission or emergency room evaluation within the first 30 days. CONCLUSION: Vaginal hysterectomy can be successfully adopted as a same-day discharge procedure. In this population, regardless of previous pelvic surgery or nulliparity, good perioperative outcomes have been achieved. © 2012 by The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists.

Walsh N.,University of South Florida | Sarria J.E.,H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center and Research Institute
American Journal of Kidney Diseases | Year: 2012

Chronic pain frequently is associated with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease and is a significant cause of morbidity. The classic approach to treat pain in patients with this disease starts with nonpharmacologic therapy and progresses to high-dose opioid therapy and more invasive procedures, including surgery. We present the case of a 43-year-old white woman presenting in our clinic with poorly controlled chronic left flank and epigastric pain secondary to autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease despite high-dose opioids and multiple cyst decompression procedures. After temporarily successful management with celiac plexus neurolysis and intercostal nerve radiofrequency ablations for years, the next more permanent step was dorsal column neurostimulation, affording excellent analgesia with significantly improved quality of life to this day. © 2012 National Kidney Foundation, Inc.

Poor N.D.,University of South Florida
Water, Air, and Soil Pollution | Year: 2010

For more than a decade, Lakeland, FL, has invested in restoring its urban Lake Hollingsworth from a hypereutrophic state to its natural eutrophic state. The lake bottom was dredged of nearly 2 million m 3 of accumulated organic sediments, and treatment wetlands, storm water curb inlet strainers, and a storm water baffle box were installed within the lake's catchment area to reduce the loading of dirt, leaves, and trash to the lake. After dredging ceased, the lake was dosed one time with alum to improve water clarity and reduce phosphorus recycling from its sediments. Water quality surrogates for algal biomass- Secchi disk transparency and water column total nitrogen, total phosphorus, and chlorophyll-α concentrations- were reviewed to assess Lakeland's progress towards its goal. In the years since dredging has stopped, algal biomass concentration in Lake Hollingsworth has significantly declined. Even with these improvements, however, the lake still remains hypereutrophic. © 2009 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

Persoiu A.,University of South Florida | Pazdur A.,Silesian University of Technology
Cryosphere | Year: 2011

The paleoclimatic significance of the perennial ice deposit in Scǎrişoara Ice Cave has been remarked on since the early 20th century, but a lack of understanding of the processes involved in the genesis, age and long-term dynamics and volume fluctuations of ice hampered all attempts to extract valuable data on past climate and vegetation changes. In this paper, we present a model of ice genesis and dynamics, based on stable isotopes, ice level monitoring (modern and archived) and radiocarbon dating of organic matter found in the ice. Ice in this cave mostly consists of layers of lake ice, produced as liquid water freezes from top to bottom in mid-autumn, and floor ice, produced as inflow water in winter freezes on top of the lake ice. This mechanism was also acting in the past, during the Medieval Warm Period and the Little Ice Age. The ice block is not stable in shape and volume, being continuously modified by ablation on top and sides, basal melting and lateral flow. Radiocarbon dating shows that the ice block is older than 1000 years, but ice flow and differential basal melting suggesting that the ice could be much older. © Author(s) 2011.

Gwede C.K.,University of South Florida
Health promotion practice | Year: 2010

Interventions involving community-academic partnerships must be driven by a participatory approach that is informed by a comprehensive understanding of the perspectives of communities or focus populations. Often research agendas of academics are different from perceived priority needs of community members. Successful and sustainable interventions are made possible with initial open dialogue among all collaborators so that roles are clearly defined and concerns are addressed. This article describes approaches used in the development of a participatory assessment of health and social issues as defined by community and academic partners, current findings, and lessons learned. The assessment is one initial activity of the Tampa Bay Community Cancer Network (TBCCN) to guide network directions through 2010. The TBCCN is one of 25 programs nationwide addressing cancer disparities through sustainable community-based participatory research, outreach, and screening activities.

Reid J.A.,University of South Florida
Child Maltreatment | Year: 2011

Due to inaccessibility of child victims of commercial sexual exploitation, the majority of emergent research on the problem lacks theoretical framing or sufficient data for quantitative analysis. Drawing from Agnew's general strain theory, this study utilized structural equation modeling to explore: whether caregiver strain is linked to child maltreatment, if experiencing maltreatment is associated with risk-inflating behaviors or sexual denigration of self/others, and if these behavioral and psychosocial dysfunctions are related to vulnerability to commercial sexual exploitation. The proposed model was tested with data from174 predominately African American women, 12% of whom indicated involvement in prostitution while a minor. Findings revealed child maltreatment worsened with increased caregiver strain. Experiencing child maltreatment was linked to running away, initiating substance use at earlier ages, and higher levels of sexual denigration of self/others. Sexual denigration of self/others was significantly related to the likelihood of prostitution as a minor. The network of variables in the model accounted for 34% of the variance in prostitution as a minor. © The Author(s) 2011.

Ciociola A.A.,Alcon | Cohen L.B.,Mount Sinai School of Medicine | Kulkarni P.,University of South Florida
American Journal of Gastroenterology | Year: 2014

Objectives: This article provides an overview of FDA's regulatory processes for drug development and approval, and the estimated costs associated with the development of a drug, and also examines the issues and challenges facing the FDA in the near future. Methods: A literature search was performed using MEDLINE to summarize the current FDA drug approval processes and future directions. MEDLINE was further utilized to search for all cost analysis studies performed to evaluate the pharmaceutical industry R&D productivity and drug development cost estimates. Results: While the drug approval process remains at high risk and spans over multiple years, the FDA drug review and approval process has improved, with the median approval time for new molecular drugs been reduced from 19 months to 10 months. The overall cost to development of a drug remains quite high and has been estimated to range from $868M to $1,241M USD. Several new laws have been enacted, including the FDA Safety and Innovation Act (FDASIA) of 2013, which is designed to improve the drug approval process and enhance access to new medicines. Conclusions: The FDA's improved processes for drug approval and post-market surveillance have achieved the goal of providing patients with timely access to effective drugs while minimizing the risk of drug-related harm. The FDA drug approval process is not without controversy, as a number of well-known gastroenterology drugs have been withdrawn from the US market over the past few years. With the approval of the new FDASIA law, the FDA will continue to improve their processes and, working together with the ACG through the FDA-Related Matters Committee, continue to develop safe and effective drugs for our patients. © 2014 by the American College of Gastroenterology.

Guglin M.,University of South Florida
Current Heart Failure Reports | Year: 2012

The mainstay of treatment for acute decompensated heart failure (ADHF) is intravenous (IV) diuretic therapy either as a bolus or via continuous infusion. Despite being available for decades, few randomized trials exist to guide dosing and administration of these drugs. In 2011, the Diuretic Optimization Strategies Evaluation (DOSE) trial used a prospective, randomized design to compare bolus versus continuous infusion of IV furosemide, as well as high-dose versus low-dose therapy. The study found no difference in the primary end point for continuous versus bolus infusion. High-dose diuretics were more effective than low dose without clinically important negative effects on renal function. Although limited by patient selection criteria and protocol design, the study challenges long-held beliefs that continuous infusion is more effective than bolus dosing. The study also challenges the notion that high-dose diuretics carry clinically important renal toxicity risks for patients. © Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012.

Lynch M.J.,University of South Florida
Crime, Law and Social Change | Year: 2015

Criminology has returned to a stage of development where class is no longer seen as a relevant theoretical or empirical concern. This state of classless criminology reflects the decline in radical scholarship over the past two decades and the absence of radical/Marxist critiques of criminology. Despite the neglect of class by criminologists, class remains an important construct for understanding the main issues of concern within criminology: crime, the construction of law, and justice. This article reviews the neglect of class analysis in contemporary criminology, and draws examples of the ways in which class remains an important consideration in the contemporary world where the world economy of capitalism dominates economic, social and political relations globally. In reviewing the neglect of class, examples are provided of contemporary areas of criminological research where class based theory and empirical work could alter what we know about crime. While orthodox criminology has long neglected class, new forms of critical criminology that emerged since 1990 have also promoted the neglect of class analysis. © 2015, Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.

Ledford D.K.,James A Haley VA Hospital | Lockey R.F.,University of South Florida
Current Opinion in Allergy and Clinical Immunology | Year: 2013

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This article summarizes the more common comorbidities which, in the opinion of the authors and supported by the medical literature, frequently affect asthma management. Optimal asthma control requires accurate diagnosis, implementation of effective therapy, and evaluation of coexisting conditions. Comorbidities refer to either coexisting conditions or interacting conditions, with the latter having a more significant influence on the management of asthma. This review provides the authors' clinical perspective of the more common comorbidities and relevant literature reviewed primarily from the past 4-5 years. RECENT FINDINGS: Optimizing rhinitis and rhinosinusitis management and addressing allergic sensitivity and allergen exposure are achievable measures for the most common asthma comorbidity. Psychological dysfunction and paradoxical vocal cord dysfunction are frequently associated with poor asthma control. The effects of obesity are inconsistent in the literature but obesity likely affects asthma symptoms and possibly its pathogenesis. Treatment of asymptomatic gastroesophageal reflux does not improve asthma. SUMMARY: Asthma is a common disease and other conditions frequently occur concomitantly in individuals with asthma. Asthma is usually very treatable and comorbidities should be considered and addressed or the asthma diagnosis questioned if treatment effects are not optimal. Evidence-based medicine is lacking as most asthma studies exclude comorbidities; additional studies are needed. Copyright © 2013 Lippincott Williams &Wilkins.

Harriger J.A.,Pepperdine University | Thompson J.K.,University of South Florida
International Review of Psychiatry | Year: 2012

Over the past several decades, the prevalence of overweight and obesity in children has increased considerably. While it has been widely documented that childhood obesity is related to a variety of negative health consequences, and numerous campaigns have focused on increasing physical activity and healthy food choices in children, less research has focused on the negative psychological consequences of childhood obesity, namely body image disturbance. This article examines research on body image disturbance in overweight/obese children, comorbidity of psychological disorders and childhood overweight/obesity, and factors that contribute to body image disturbance in overweight and obese youths. Additionally, the authors present research pertaining to treatment and prevention of body image disturbance in overweight/obese youths and discuss potential future directions for research, prevention and advocacy. © 2012 Institute of Psychiatry.

The status of research on human trafficking has been characterized as methodologically inadequate and lacking sufficient theoretical framework necessary for solution development. This review of sex trafficking in North America examined prior research regarding victim vulnerabilities through the theoretical lens of life course theory endeavoring to uncover life course dynamics resulting in exploitation in sex trafficking distinguishable by victim type. Shared and distinct life course dynamics emerged based on victim origin and route, gender, and age of onset that corresponded to the key components of Sampson and Laub's age-graded theory of informal social control. Indicators of harmful informal social control processes during childhood and adolescence were common across internationally and domestically trafficked boys and girls, with a desire for acceptance and love commonly exacerbating initial entrapment. Limited social capital typified victims experiencing initial exploitation during young adulthood, with internationally trafficked victims uniquely isolated due to citizenship status and language or cultural barriers. Through the application of life course theory, a more complete understanding of the dynamics affecting vulnerability to exploitation in sex trafficking can be gained, providing enhanced information regarding plausible strategies for prevention and intervention. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

Currier G.W.,University of South Florida
Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease | Year: 2015

Emergency psychiatry (EP) is an integral component of comprehensive hospital-based emergency care. EP developed and grew into a medical subspecialty in response to deinstitutionalization and other large-scale forces, resulting in large numbers of psychiatric patients presenting to emergency departments. The Affordable Care Act (ACA) of 2010 contains several features and provisions that are likely to impact the practice of EP. This article reviews and examines the impact of the ACA on psychiatric emergency care to date and anticipated in the near future. Copyright © 2015 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.

Alsharif K.,University of South Florida
Land Use Policy | Year: 2010

This study investigated the construction related stormwater pollution violations cases and penalties in Minnesota from 2001 to 2007. The major type of construction stormwater violations was related to the lack of best management practices (BMPs). Twenty-one percent of these violations were committed by public agencies. Forty-six percent of the total number of cases lacked a stormwater construction permit. The increase in the number of these violations coincided with the housing boom in the early-2000s and the change of enforcement of construction sites from five or more acres to one or more acres. Implementing these new expanded rules caused an increase in the responsibility of the enforcing agency of the State. Hence, the agency had to develop creative methods to enforce the laws by involving local government agencies more directly. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Unnever J.D.,University of South Florida
Justice Quarterly | Year: 2015

This paper tests core tenets of the theory of African-American offending proposed by Unnever and Gabbidon. Their theory posits that African-Americans have a common worldview on matters of race that is related to their offending. However, Unnever and Gabbidon further hypothesize that immigrant blacks do not fully embrace the worldview shared by US-born blacks. Using a 2008 national Gallup poll, we examine whether US-born blacks share a common worldview and whether foreign-born blacks differ in their opinions on key issues including: criminal injustices, the state of American race relations, attitudes towards immigration and illegal immigrants, and the perception of mobility within American society. The results partially confirm their two key hypotheses; there are no entrenched differences in the public opinions of US-born blacks on race-related matters while immigrant blacks do not wholly endorse their worldview. We discuss the implications of these two findings in relation to how scholars conceptualize offending among blacks. © 2013 Academy of Criminal Justice Sciences.

Mitchell O.,University of South Florida | Caudy M.S.,George Mason University
Justice Quarterly | Year: 2015

The War on Drugs popularized a set of policies and practices that dramatically increased the number of drug arrests, particularly for low-level drug offenses. The War’s tactics have affected Americans of every race; however, minorities have been most dramatically affected. There are several explanations for the observed racial disparity in drug arrests, but relatively little research directly tests these explanations. In this study, we test three common explanations of racial disparities in drug arrest rates. We find that racial disparities in drug arrests cannot be explained by differences in drug offending, nondrug offending, or residing in the kinds of neighborhoods likely to have heavy police emphasis on drug offending. Our findings are most consistent with explanations focusing on racial bias in drug sanctions. © 2013, © 2013 Academy of Criminal Justice Sciences.

Benbadis S.R.,University of South Florida
Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics | Year: 2015

For many years, EEG has been synonymous with 'routine' EEG, a short recording without video. With digital technology, there are now many ways to perform EEG recordings. Variable attributes of EEG recordings include: inpatient versus outpatient, prolonged versus short, with video versus without, and with provocation/activation versus without. Each method has advantages and disadvantages, and, in particular, inpatient versus outpatient studies have major cost differences. In some situations EEG-video monitoring can be performed in the ambulatory/home rather than the inpatient setting. © 2015 Informa Uk, Ltd.

Hu C.,University of South Florida
Geophysical Research Letters | Year: 2011

Oil tracking in the Gulf of Mexico in response to the Deepwater Horizon accident requires timely and accurate observations of major circulation patterns such as the Loop Current and LC eddies. When the eastern GOM becomes nearly isothermal at the surface and the use of sea surface temperature imagery is limited, MODIS ocean color data can be used instead. However, frequent and extensive sun glint prevents such an application when glint reflectance, L g, is >0.01 sr -1. Here, an empirical approach is developed to remove sun glint and clouds based on band ratios between the Rayleigh-corrected reflectance (R rc) at 469, 555, 645, 859, and 1240-nm. To minimize the effect of residual errors due to variable aerosols and imperfect glint correction, a color index (CI) is derived to represent the color patterns. Comparison between results from adjacent days with different glint and aerosol patterns suggests that the approach is able to derive consistent color patterns under severe sun glint (L g < 0.15 sr -1). Tests of the approach over the Tropical Atlantic, East China Sea, and ocean waters off South Africa further validate the approach's general applicability. The color index (CI) also shows significant correlation with MODIS band-ratio Chl (<1 mg m -3) for each case examined. The simple design of the approach makes it straightforward to implement for other subtropical and tropical regions when a qualitative MODIS CI is desired to infer circulation patterns and to trace eddies under severe sun glint. Copyright © 2011 by the American Geophysical Union.

Jennings W.G.,University of South Florida | Piquero A.R.,University of Texas at Dallas | Reingle J.M.,University of Florida
Aggression and Violent Behavior | Year: 2012

Theoretical and empirical research investigating victimization and offending has largely been either 'victim-focused' or 'offender-focused.' This approach ignores the potential theoretical and empirical overlap that may exist among victims and offenders, otherwise referred to as 'victim-offenders.' This paper provides a comprehensive review of the research that has examined the relationship between victimization and offending. The review identified 37 studies, spanning over five decades (1958-2011), that have assessed the victim-offender overlap. The empirical evidence gleaned from these studies with regard to the victim-offender overlap is robust as 31 studies found considerable support for the overlap and six additional studies found mixed/limited support. The evidence is also remarkably consistent across a diversity of analytical and statistical techniques and across historical, contemporary, cross-cultural, and international assessments of the victim-offender overlap. In addition, this overlap is identifiable among dating/intimate partners and mental health populations. Conclusions and directions for future research are also discussed. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

Ahmadi Adl A.,University of South Florida
Journal of biomolecular structure & dynamics | Year: 2012

Protein structural class prediction is one of the challenging problems in bioinformatics. Previous methods directly based on the similarity of amino acid (AA) sequences have been shown to be insufficient for low-similarity protein data-sets. To improve the prediction accuracy for such low-similarity proteins, different methods have been recently proposed that explore the novel feature sets based on predicted secondary structure propensities. In this paper, we focus on protein structural class prediction using combinations of the novel features including secondary structure propensities as well as functional domain (FD) features extracted from the InterPro signature database. Our comprehensive experimental results based on several benchmark data-sets have shown that the integration of new FD features substantially improves the accuracy of structural class prediction for low-similarity proteins as they capture meaningful relationships among AA residues that are far away in protein sequence. The proposed prediction method has also been tested to predict structural classes for partially disordered proteins with the reasonable prediction accuracy, which is a more difficult problem comparing to structural class prediction for commonly used benchmark data-sets and has never been done before to the best of our knowledge. In addition, to avoid overfitting with a large number of features, feature selection is applied to select discriminating features that contribute to achieve high prediction accuracy. The selected features have been shown to achieve stable prediction performance across different benchmark data-sets.

Ballow M.,Childrens Hospital of Buffalo | Ballow M.,University of South Florida
Annals of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology | Year: 2013

Background An increasing body of evidence suggests that the optimal dose for IgG replacement therapy is the dose that keeps the patient as free from infection as possible by either intravenous or subcutaneous delivery. Objective To review the current evidence on optimizing IgG therapy in patients with primary immunodeficiency disease (PIDD). Methods Surveys conducted among physicians who treat patients with PIDD indicate that most practitioners follow existing data and guidelines on the use and dosage of immunoglobulin therapy. On the basis of the current guidelines, most use intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) therapy at a starting dose of 400 mg/kg every 4 weeks to treat a number of primary PIDDs with humoral immune deficiencies. However, for the optimal treatment of PIDDs, therapy needs to be tailored. Results Among the issues is the assessment of IgG trough levels or steady-state levels with subcutaneous immunoglobulin (SCIG) therapy needed to reduce or prevent infection in patients with PIDD. Increasing evidence suggests that optimization of treatment can be based on identifying the dosage of IVIG or SCIG for each patient needed to reduce infection. Conclusion More studies are needed to better clarify the optimal dose, IgG trough level, or IgG steady-state level necessary to reduce infection and optimize treatment for patients with PIDD treated with IVIG or SCIG. © 2013 American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Ballow M.,University of South Florida
Current Opinion in Allergy and Clinical Immunology | Year: 2014

Many of the mechanisms proposed for the immune-modulating effects of IVIG demonstrate the complexity of immune effector functions in disease processes. Although controversy exists on the role of the FcγRIIB receptor and the importance of the sialylated Fc domain in human autoimmune disorders, probably no one single mechanism is responsible for the effects of IVIG in autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. The potential role of the prostaglandin E pathway may offer alternative treatments. © 2014 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

Tzekov R.,The Roskamp Institute | Tzekov R.,University of South Florida | Mullan M.,The Roskamp Institute
Survey of Ophthalmology | Year: 2014

Alzheimer disease (AD) is a progressive, age-related debilitating condition that is a growing public health problem in the developed world. Visual system abnormalities in AD were recognized in the early 1970s, but were initially considered to be of strictly cortical origin. Studies in the past 20years reveal that all parts of the visual system may be affected, including the optic nerve and the retina. Some aspects of this involvement are still not well understood and are the subjects of intensive research. We summarize and focus on findings that may be of more practical interest to the ophthalmologist. © 2014 Elsevier Inc.

Kleindienst S.,University of Georgia | Kleindienst S.,University of Tubingen | Paul J.H.,University of South Florida | Joye S.B.,University of Georgia
Nature Reviews Microbiology | Year: 2015

Dispersants are globally and routinely applied as an emergency response to oil spills in marine ecosystems with the goal of chemically enhancing the dissolution of oil into water, which is assumed to stimulate microbially mediated oil biodegradation. However, little is known about how dispersants affect the composition of microbial communities or their biodegradation activities. The published findings are controversial, probably owing to variations in laboratory methods, the selected model organisms and the chemistry of different dispersant-oil mixtures. Here, we argue that an in-depth assessment of the impacts of dispersants on microorganisms is needed to evaluate the planning and use of dispersants during future responses to oil spills.

Hauser R.A.,University of South Florida
Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics | Year: 2012

Levodopa (LD) remains the most effective medication to treat Parkinson's disease (PD). However, most patients develop motor fluctuations and dyskinesias with long-term LD use. It is thought that these response complications are due, at least in part, to LD's short half-life. Thus, there is great interest in long-acting LD preparations that might be able to provide robust antiparkinsonian benefit through the day and potentially avoid the development of motor fluctuations and dyskinesias. IPX066 is an investigational extended-release carbidopa-levodopa (CD-LD) formulation. It is designed to achieve rapid absorption and onset of clinical benefit, similar to CD-LD immediate release, and to provide more sustained therapeutic LD levels and longer duration of clinical benefit. In Phase III clinical trials, IPX066 was demonstrated to be efficacious in early PD compared with placebo, and in moderate-to-advanced PD, it provided more sustained clinical benefit with fewer dose administrations than CD-LD immediate release, as reported in published abstracts. © 2012 Expert Reviews Ltd.

Mhaskar R.,University of South Florida
Cochrane database of systematic reviews (Online) | Year: 2012

Bisphosphonates are specific inhibitors of osteoclastic activity and used in the treatment of patients with multiple myeloma (MM). While bisphosphonates are shown to be effective in reducing vertebral fractures and pain, their role in improving overall survival (OS) remains unclear. This is an update of a Cochrane review first published in 2002 and previously updated in 2010. To assess the evidence related to benefits and harms associated with use of various types of bisphosphonates (aminobisphosphonates versus nonamino bisphosphonates) in the management of patients with MM. Our primary objective was to determine whether adding bisphosphonates to standard therapy in MM improves OS and progression-free survival (PFS), and decreases skeletal-related morbidity. Our secondary objectives were to determine the effects of bisphosphonates on pain, quality of life, incidence of hypercalcemia, incidence of bisphosphonate-related gastrointestinal toxicities, osteonecrosis of jaw and hypocalcemia. We searched MEDLINE, LILACS, EMBASE (December 2009 to October 2011) and the Cochrane Controlled Trials Register (all years, latest Issue September 2011) to identify all randomized trials in MM up to October 2011 using a combination of text and MeSH terms. We also handsearched relevant meeting proceedings (December 2009 to October 2011). Any randomized controlled trial (RCT) assessing the role of bisphosphonates and observational studies or case reports examining bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaw in patients with MM were eligible for inclusion. Two review authors extracted the data. Data were pooled and reported as hazard ratio (HR) or risk ratio (RR) under a random-effects model. Statistical heterogeneity was explored using metaregression. In this update, we included 2 studies (2464 patients) that were not part of our last Cochrane review published in 2010. In this review we included 16 RCTs comparing bisphosphonates with either placebo or no treatment and 4 RCTs with a different bisphosphonate as a comparator. The 20 included RCTs enrolled 6692 patients. Overall methodological quality of reporting was moderate. Thirty per cent (6/20) of trials reported the method of generating the randomization sequence. Forty per cent (8/20) of trials had adequate allocation concealment. Withdrawals and dropouts were described in 60% (12/20) of trials. Pooled results showed no direct effect of bisphosphonates on OS compared with placebo or no treatment (HR 0.96, 95% CI 0.82 to 1.13; P = 0.64). However, there was a statistically significant heterogeneity among the included RCTs (I(2) = 55%, P = 0.01) for OS. To explain this heterogeneity we performed a metaregression assessing the relationship between bisphosphonate potency and improvement in OS, which found indicating an OS benefit with zoledronate (P = 0.058). This provided a further rationale for performing network meta-analyses of the various types of bisphosphonates that were not compared head to head in RCTs. Results from network meta-analyses showed superior OS with zoledronate compared with etidronate (HR 0.43, 95% CI 0.16 to 0.86) and placebo (HR 0.61, 95% CI 0.28 to 0.98). However, there was no difference between zoledronate and other bisphosphonates. Pooled analysis did not demonstrate a beneficial effect of bisphosphonates compared with placebo or no treatment in improving PFS (HR 0.70, 95% CI 0.41 to 1.19; P = 0.18) There was no heterogeneity among trials reporting PFS estimates (I(2) = 35%, P = 0.20).Pooled analysis demonstrated a beneficial effect of bisphosphonates compared with placebo or no treatment on prevention of pathological vertebral fractures (RR 0.74, 95% CI 0.62 to 0.89; I(2) = 7%), skeletal-related events (SRE) (RR 0.80, 95% CI 0.72 to 0.89; I(2) = 2%) and amelioration of pain (RR 0.75, 95% CI 0.60 to 0.95; I(2) = 63%).

Sheehan D.V.,University of South Florida
Innovations in Clinical Neuroscience | Year: 2014

Objective: The author of the widely used suicidality scale, the Columbia–Suicide Severity Rating Scale, has repeatedly made the claim that asking the question, “Do you think you would be better off dead?” in suicidality assessment delivers false positive results. This case study investigates the value of this question as an immediate antecedent to impulsive suicidality and as a correlate of functional impairment. Method: One subject with daily suicidality and frequent impulsive suicidality rated five passive suicidal ideation phenomena and impulsive suicidality daily on a 0 to 4 Likert scale and rated weekly functional impairment scores for 13 weeks on a 0 to 10 Discan metric. Results: Each of the five passive suicidal ideation phenomena studied frequently occurred at a different severity level, and the five phenomena did not move in synchrony. Most passive suicidal ideation phenomena were very low on dates of impulsive suicidality. Thoughts of being better off dead were a frequent antecedent to impulsive suicidality and were related to an increase in functional impairment. Conclusion: The relationship to both functional impairment and impulsive suicidality suggest that it is potentially dangerous to ignore thoughts of being better off dead in suicidality assessment. © 2015, Matrix Medical Communications. All rights reserved.

Ma W.-X.,University of South Florida
AIP Conference Proceedings | Year: 2013

We will discuss how to generate integrable couplings from zero curvature equations associated with matrix spectral problems. The key elements are matrix loop algebras consisting of block matrices with blocks of the same size or different sizes. Hamiltonian structures are furnished by applying the variational identity defined over semi-direct sums of Lie algebras. Illustrative examples include integrable couplings of the AKNS hierarchy by using the irreducible representations V2 and V3 of the special linear Lie algebra sl(2,R). © 2013 AIP Publishing LLC.

Taylor-Clark T.,University of South Florida
Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology | Year: 2014

Persons with allergies present with symptoms that often are the result of alterations in the nervous system. Neuronally based symptoms depend on the organ in which the allergic reaction occurs but can include red itchy eyes, sneezing, nasal congestion, rhinorrhea, coughing, bronchoconstriction, airway mucus secretion, dysphagia, altered gastrointestinal motility, and itchy swollen skin. These symptoms occur because mediators released during an allergic reaction can interact with sensory nerves, change processing in the central nervous system, and alter transmission in sympathetic, parasympathetic, and enteric autonomic nerves. In addition, evidence supports the idea that in some subjects this neuromodulation is, for reasons poorly understood, upregulated such that the same degree of nerve stimulus causes a larger effect than seen in healthy subjects. There are distinctions in the mechanisms and nerve types involved in allergen-induced neuromodulation among different organ systems, but general principles have emerged. The products of activated mast cells, other inflammatory cells, and resident cells can overtly stimulate nerve endings, cause long-lasting changes in neuronal excitability, increase synaptic efficacy, and also change gene expression in nerves, resulting in phenotypically altered neurons. A better understanding of these processes might lead to novel therapeutic strategies aimed at limiting the suffering of those with allergies. © 2014 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology.

Ma W.-X.,University of South Florida
Journal of Physics: Conference Series | Year: 2013

A class of bilinear differential operators is introduced through assigning appropriate signs and used to create bilinear differential equations which generalize Hirota bilinear equations. The resulting bilinear differential equations are characterized by a special kind of Bell polynomials and the linear superposition principle is applied to the construction of their linear subspaces of solutions. Illustrative examples are made by an algorithm using weights of dependent variables. © Published under licence by IOP Publishing Ltd.

Kim M.K.,University of South Florida
Applied Optics | Year: 2013

An adaptive optical system based on incoherent digital holography is described. Theoretical and experimental studies show that wavefront sensing and compensation can be achieved by numerical processing of digital holograms of incoherent objects and a guide star, thereby dispensing with the hardware components of conventional adaptive optics systems, such as lenslet arrays and deformable mirrors. The incoherent digital holographic adaptive optics (IDHAO) process is seen to be robust and effective under various ranges of parameters, such as aberration type and strength. Furthermore, low and noisy image signals can be extracted by IDHAO to yield high-quality images with good contrast and resolution, both for point-like and continuous extended objects, illuminated with common incoherent light. Potential applications in astronomical and other imaging systems appear plausible. © 2012 Optical Society of America.

Gregor S.,Australian National University | Hevner A.R.,University of South Florida
MIS Quarterly: Management Information Systems | Year: 2013

Design science research (DSR) has staked its rightful ground as an important and legitimate Information Systems (IS) research paradigm. We contend that DSR has yet to attain its full potential impact on the development and use of information systems due to gaps in the understanding and application of DSR concepts and methods. This essay aims to help researchers (1) appreciate the levels of artifact abstractions that may be DSR contributions, (2) identify appropriate ways of consuming and producing knowledge when they are preparing journal articles or other scholarly works, (3) understand and position the knowledge contributions of their research projects, and (4) structure a DSR article so that it emphasizes significant contributions to the knowledge base. Our focal contribution is the DSR knowledge contribution framework with two dimensions based on the existing state of knowledge in both the problem and solution domains for the research opportunity under study. In addition, we propose a DSR communication schema with similarities to more conventional publication patterns, but which substitutes the description of the DSR artifact in place of a traditional results section. We evaluate the DSR contribution framework and the DSR communication schema via examinations of DSR exemplar publications.

Ghansah T.,University of South Florida
OncoImmunology | Year: 2012

Myeloid derived suppressor cells (MDSC) suppress anti-tumor immune responses. Our recent publication provides evidence that SHIP-1 plays a prominent role in pancreatic tumor development by regulating MDSC. Therefore, SHIP-1 may be a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of MDSC-related hematological malignancies and solid tumors. © 2012 Landes Bioscience.

Mack W.P.,University of South Florida
Facial Plastic Surgery Clinics of North America | Year: 2010

Thorough preoperative evaluation with meticulous surgical planning to achieve facial aesthetic balance between the forehead, eyelids, and midface is imperative to avoid or decrease potential functional and/or cosmetic complications in cosmetic periocular surgery. Before performing surgery, the physician should be aware of the patient's history of dry eyes, previous facial trauma, previous injection of Botox Cosmetic, history of previous laser-assisted in situ keratomileusis, and past facial surgery. A full evaluation should be performed on the upper eyelid/brow region to assess for the presence of brow ptosis, brow/eyelid asymmetry, dermatochalasis/pseudodermatochalasis, eyelid ptosis, and deep superior sulcus. On the lower eyelid/cheek examination, special attention should be directed to the diagnosis of underlying negative vector, dry eyes, prominent eyes, lower lid retraction, ectropion, lateral canthal dystopia, lower eyelid laxity, scleral show, and lagophthalmos, with a rejuvenation goal that focuses on obtaining a youthful fullness through repositioning and reinforcing efforts to avoid the negative effects of hollowness. Intraoperative and postoperative medical and surgical management of cosmetic periocular surgery complications focus on decreasing the risk of postoperative ptosis, lagophthalmos, lid retraction, and lid asymmetry, with special attention to limiting the risk of visual loss secondary to orbital hemorrhage. © 2010 Elsevier Inc.

Trimble J.S.,University of South Florida
Dermatologic surgery : official publication for American Society for Dermatologic Surgery [et al.] | Year: 2013

Rapid immunostaining in Mohs micrographic surgery (MMS) has been extensively reviewed in the recent literature. Despite the recent attention, there is relatively little information on how frequently these techniques are actually utilized and the current attitudes of the Mohs community towards immunohistochemical (IHC) stains. We attempted to obtain information on the utilization and attitudes towards the use of rapid immunostaining in Mohs through a survey of fellowship-trained Mohs surgeons. A twenty-five question survey was sent to members of the American College of Mohs Surgery (ACMS) through various methods including SurveyMonkey(®) , email, fax, and Metrofax(®) . A total of 378 surveys were completed. These responses represent a cross-section of fellowship-trained members of the ACMS. The vast majority of respondents felt as though IHC stains could be used reliably in Mohs. A subset of responses indicated that the most common reasons for not using IHC stains are time consumption, lack of education, and startup and/or maintenance costs. An increase in immunostain usage over 10 years ago appears to correlate with the activity in the literature. There may be an underutilization of IHC staining in fellowship programs, as indicated by respondents' opinions. © 2012 by the American Society for Dermatologic Surgery, Inc. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Ni H.-M.,University of Kansas Medical Center | Du K.,University of Kansas Medical Center | You M.,University of South Florida | Ding W.-X.,University of Kansas Medical Center
American Journal of Pathology | Year: 2013

Autophagy is a lysosomal degradation process that degrades long-lived cellular proteins and damaged organelles as a critical cell survival mechanism in response to stress. We recently reported that acute ethanol induces autophagy, which then reduces ethanol-induced liver injury. However, the mechanisms by which ethanol induces autophagy are not known. In the present study, ethanol treatment significantly increased both mRNA and protein levels of various essential autophagy-related genes in primary cultured mouse hepatocytes and in mouse liver. Both nuclear translocation of FoxO3a and expression of FoxO3a target genes were increased in ethanol-treated primary hepatocytes and mouse liver. Overexpression of a dominant negative form of FoxO3a inhibited ethanol-induced autophagy-related gene expression and enhanced ethanol-induced cell death in primary hepatocytes, which suggests that FoxO3a is a key factor in regulating ethanol-induced autophagy and cell survival. Resveratrol, a well-known SIRT1 agonist, further enhanced ethanol-induced expression of autophagy-related genes, likely via increased deacetylation of FoxO3a. Moreover, acute ethanol-treated Foxo3a-/- mice exhibited decreased autophagy-related gene expression, but enhanced steatosis and liver injury, compared with wild-type mice. FoxO3a thus plays a critical role in ethanol-induced autophagy in mouse liver. Modulating the FoxO3a autophagy pathway may offer novel therapeutic approaches for treating alcoholic liver pathogenesis. © 2013 American Society for Investigative Pathology.

Ponomareva I.,University of South Florida | Tagantsev A.K.,Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne | Bellaiche L.,University of Arkansas
Physical Review B - Condensed Matter and Materials Physics | Year: 2012

A first-principles-based effective Hamiltonian technique is developed to study flexoelectricity in (Ba 0.5Sr 0.5)TiO 3 thin films of different thicknesses in their paraelectric phase. The magnitude as well as sign of individual components of the flexoelectric tensor are reported, which provides answers to existing controversies. The use of this numerical tool also allows us to show that flexoelectric coefficients depend strongly on the film's thickness and temperature. Such dependence is explained using the relationship between the flexoelectric coefficients and the dielectric susceptibility. © 2012 American Physical Society.

Daniel E.,University of South Florida
Complementary Therapies in Clinical Practice | Year: 2016

Numerous patients experience anxiety before minor medical procedures [1]. Because patients' experiences are highly individualized, their distress may range from mild to moderate. For a decade, music-based complementary therapy has received increased attention because of the therapeutic and healing environment it creates for patients undergoing invasive procedures [13]. The purpose of this structured literature review is to assess the current evidence regarding the effectiveness of music as an intervention that decreases anxiety for patients undergoing minor medical procedures in outpatient healthcare settings. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.

Huang Y.,University of South Florida
The international journal of biostatistics | Year: 2012

Longitudinal data arise frequently in medical studies and it is a common practice to analyze such complex data with nonlinear mixed-effects (NLME) models, which enable us to account for between-subject and within-subject variations. To partially explain the variations, time-dependent covariates are usually introduced to these models. Some covariates, however, may be often measured with substantial errors and missing observations. It is often the case that model random error is assumed to be distributed normally, but the normality assumption may not always give robust and reliable results, particularly if the data exhibit skewness. In the literature, there has been considerable interest in accommodating either skewed response or covariate measured with error and missing data in such models, but there has been relatively little study concerning all these features simultaneously. This article is to address simultaneous impact of skewness in response and measurement error and missing data in covariate by jointly modeling the response and covariate processes under a framework of Bayesian semiparametric nonlinear mixed-effects models. In particular, we aim at exploring how mixed-effects joint models based on one-compartment model with one phase time-varying decay rate and two-compartment model with two phase time-varying decay rates contribute to modeling results and inference. The method is illustrated by an AIDS data example to compare potential models with different distributional specifications and various scenarios. The findings from this study suggest that the one-compartment model with a skew-normal distribution may provide more reasonable results if the data exhibit skewness in response and/or have measurement error and missing observations in covariates.

Byrne R.H.,University of South Florida
Environmental Science and Technology | Year: 2014

Human additions of carbon dioxide to the atmosphere are creating a cascade of chemical consequences that will eventually extend to the bottom of all the world's oceans. Among the bestdocumented seawater effects are a worldwide increase in openocean acidity and large-scale declines in calcium carbonate saturation states. The susceptibility of some young, fast-growing calcareous organisms to adverse impacts highlights the potential for biological and economic consequences. Many important aspects of seawater CO2 chemistry can be only indirectly observed at present, and important but difficult-to-observe changes can include shifts in the speciation and possibly bioavailability of some life-essential elements. Innovation and invention are urgently needed to develop the in situ instrumentation required to document this era of rapid ocean evolution. © 2014 American Chemical Society.

Miller A.C.,U.S. National Institutes of Health | Ziad-Miller A.,New York Law School | Elamin E.M.,University of South Florida
Chest | Year: 2014

How one defines death may vary. It is important for clinicians to recognize those aspects of a patient's religious beliefs that may directly infl uence medical care and how such practices may interface with local laws governing the determination of death. Debate continues about the validity and certainty of brain death criteria within Islamic traditions. A search of PubMed, Scopus, EMBASE, Web of Science, PsycNet, Sociological Abstracts, DIALOGUE ProQuest, Lexus Nexus, Google, and applicable religious texts was conducted to address the question of whether brain death is accepted as true death among Islamic scholars and clinicians and to discuss how divergent opinions may affect clinical care. The results of the literature review inform this discussion. Brain death has been acknowledged as representing true death by many Muslim scholars and medical organizations, including the Islamic Fiqh Academies of the Organization of the Islamic Conference and the Muslim World League, the Islamic Medical Association of North America, and other faith-based medical organizations as well as legal rulings by multiple Islamic nations. However, consensus in the Muslim world is not unanimous, and a sizable minority accepts death by cardiopulmonary criteria only. © 2014 AMERICAN COLLEGE OF CHEST PHYSICIANS.

Grose C.J.,Macquarie University | Grose C.J.,University of South Florida
Earth and Planetary Science Letters | Year: 2012

A new analysis of plate cooling models indicates that the properties of oceanic lithosphere may need to be reevaluated, or that additional phenomena beyond the conditions of simple mineral physics plate models are important. Thermal models with constant and variable mineral physics properties are formally analyzed for fits against recently filtered databases for heat flow and topography. Formalisms are developed for the evaluation of the effective properties of oceanic lithosphere and the treatment of temperature-dependent thermal conductivity and thermal expansivity as both variable and freely adjustable parameters in fitting analysis. Excellent fits to depth and heat flow are resolved for a wide range of models. Good fitting parameterizations reproduce conventional estimates of net surface heat flux (~31.5±1.0TW) while the apparent thermal diffusivity is higher (~1.1±0.1mm 2s -1) and apparent thermal expansivity is lower (~2.4×10 -5K -1) than previous reference models. Two preferred reference models, R1 and RT1, are resolved, which are consistent with evidence of mantle temperature and plate thickness, and do not require adjustments to experimental heat transport properties. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

Ousey G.C.,College of William and Mary | Unnever J.D.,University of South Florida
Criminology | Year: 2012

Scholars often have used the group threat thesis to explain why punitiveness varies across placesThis research regularly has found that punitiveness is harsher in places with a larger minority populationYet researchers only have had a rudimentary grasp of why this is the caseMoreover, most prior research has focused only on the United States, giving us little knowledge of whether the group threat thesis is a viable explanation of cross-national differences in punitivenessIn the current study, we postulate that the relative size of the out-group population affects punitiveness indirectly, via its impact on individual intolerance toward ethnic out-groupsWe test this thesis cross-nationally with data from individuals residing in 27 European countriesOur findings are consistent with the argument that greater racial/ethnic diversity at the country level affects individuals' attitudes toward minority out-groups, which in turn increases their support for severely punishing criminal offenders. © 2012 American Society of Criminology.

Himes C.L.,Syracuse University | Reynolds S.L.,University of South Florida
Journal of the American Geriatrics Society | Year: 2012

Objectives To examine the effect of obesity on the propensity of older adults to fall, sustain a fall-related injury, and develop disability in activities of daily living (ADLs) after a fall. Design Longitudinal population-based survey. Setting Five waves of the Health and Retirement Study (HRS), 1998-2006. Participants Ten thousand seven hundred fifty-five respondents aged 65 and older in 31,602 person-intervals. Measurements Falls within any 2-year interval (9,621 falls). Injuries requiring medical attention (3,130 injuries). Increased ADL disability after a fall within any 2-year interval (2,162 events). Underweight and three classes of obesity (body mass index (BMI) 30.0-34.9 kg/m 2, Class 1) 35.0-39.9 kg/m 2, Class 2; ≥40.0 kg/m 2, Class 3), calculated from self-reported height and weight. Self-reported presence of lower body limitation, pain, dizziness, or vision problems. Self-reported doctor's diagnosis of diabetes mellitus, stroke, or arthritis. Results Compared with normal-weight respondents, the odds ratios (OR) for risk of falling were 1.12 (95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.01-1.24) for obesity Class 1, 1.26 (95% CI = 1.05-1.51) for obesity Class 2, and 1.50 (95% CI = 1.21-1.86) for obesity Class 3. Conditional on falling, only obesity Class 3 was related to a lower propensity for a fall-related injury (OR = 0.62, 95% CI = 0.44-0.87). Obesity Classes 1 and 2 were associated with a higher risk of greater ADL disability after a fall than normal-weight respondents (OR = 1.17, 95% CI = 1.02-1.34; OR = 1.39, 95% CI = 1.10-1.75, respectively). Being underweight was not related to risk of falling or to reported injury or greater ADL limitation after a fall. The presence of measured health problems and chronic conditions was associated with greater risk of falling and, of those who fell, greater ADL limitation but not serious injury. Conclusion Obesity appears to be associated with greater risk of falling in older adults, as well as a higher risk of greater ADL disability after a fall. Obesity (BMI ≥ 40 kg/m 2) may reduce the risk of injury from a fall. Further investigation of the mechanisms of obesity on falls and related health outcomes is warranted. © 2011, The American Geriatrics Society.

Cohen A.A.,Universite de Sherbrooke | Martin L.B.,University of South Florida | Wingfield J.C.,University of California at Davis | McWilliams S.R.,University of Rhode Island | And 2 more authors.
Trends in Ecology and Evolution | Year: 2012

Ecological and evolutionary physiology has traditionally focused on one aspect of physiology at a time. Here, we discuss the implications of considering physiological regulatory networks (PRNs) as integrated wholes, a perspective that reveals novel roles for physiology in organismal ecology and evolution. For example, evolutionary response to changes in resource abundance might be constrained by the role of dietary micronutrients in immune response regulation, given a particular pathogen environment. Because many physiological components impact more than one process, organismal homeostasis is maintained, individual fitness is determined and evolutionary change is constrained (or facilitated) by interactions within PRNs. We discuss how PRN structure and its system-level properties could determine both individual performance and patterns of physiological evolution. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

Midha V.,University of Texas-Pan American | Bhattacherjee A.,University of South Florida
Decision Support Systems | Year: 2012

We have proposed a two-dimensional taxonomy of open source project governance, namely participation management and responsibility management. We have then formulated four hypotheses by linking the two dimensions to software maintenance time. These hypotheses were tested using maintenance data from 352 open source software projects. This study contributes to open source software maintenance literature by demonstrating the effects of the two governance dimensions on open source software maintenance outcomes. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Vesely D.L.,University of South Florida
Endocrine-Related Cancer | Year: 2013

Four cardiac hormones, namely atrial natriuretic peptide, vessel dilator, kaliuretic peptide, and long-acting natriuretic peptide, reduce up to 97% of all cancer cells in vitro. These four cardiac hormones eliminate up to 86% of human small-cell lung carcinomas, two-thirds of human breast cancers, and up to 80% of human pancreatic adenocarcinomas growing in athymic mice. Their anticancer mechanisms of action, after binding to specific receptors on cancer cells, include targeting the rat sarcoma-bound GTP (RAS) (95% inhibition)-mitogen- activated protein kinase kinase 1/2 (MEK 1/2) (98% inhibition)-extracellular signal-related kinase 1/2 (ERK 1/2) (96% inhibition) cascade in cancer cells. They also inhibit MAPK9, i.e. c-Jun N-terminal kinase 2. They are dual inhibitors of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and its VEGFR2 receptor (up to 89%). One of the downstream targets of VEGF is b-catenin, which they reduce up to 88%. The WNT pathway is inhibited up to 68% and secreted frizzled-related protein 3 decreased up to 84% by the four cardiac hormones. AKT, a serine/threonine protein kinase, is reduced up to 64% by the cardiac hormones. STAT3, a final 'switch' that activates gene expression that leads to malignancy, is decreased by up to 88% by the cardiac hormones. STAT3 is specifically decreased as they do not affect STAT1. There is a cross-talk between the RAS-MEK 1/2-ERK 1/2 kinase cascade, VEGF, b-catenin, WNT, JNK, and STAT pathways and each of these pathways is inhibited by the cardiac hormones. Copyright © 2013 Society for Endocrinology.

Lajeunesse M.J.,University of South Florida
Ecology | Year: 2011

A common effect size metric used to quantify the outcome of experiments for ecological meta-analysis is the response ratio (RR): the log proportional change in the means of a treatment and control group. Estimates of the variance of RR are also important for meta-analysis because they serve as weights when effect sizes are averaged and compared. The variance of an effect size is typically a function of sampling error; however, it can also be influenced by study design. Here, I derive new variances and covariances for RR for several often-encountered experimental designs: when the treatment and control means are correlated; when multiple treatments have a common control; when means are based on repeated measures; and when the study has a correlated factorial design, or is multivariate. These developments are useful for improving the quality of data extracted from studies for metaanalysis and help address some of the common challenges meta-analysts face when quantifying a diversity of experimental designs with the response ratio. © 2011 by the Ecological Society of America.

Lancet J.E.,University of South Florida | Lancet J.E.,Moffitt Cancer Center
Best Practice and Research: Clinical Haematology | Year: 2013

A number of new agents in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) have held much promise in recent years, but most have failed to change the therapeutic landscape. Indeed, with the exception of gemtuzumab ozogamicin (which was subsequently voluntarily withdrawn from the commercial market), no new agent has been approved for acute myeloid leukemia (AML) beyond the 7 + 3 regimen, which was has been in use for over 40 years. This review touches upon the potential reasons for these failures and explores the newer therapeutic approaches being pursued in AML. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Marfo K.,University of South Florida
Child Development Perspectives | Year: 2011

Institutionalization of an African child development field is a necessary aspect of strategies for strengthening the continent's contributions to a global knowledge base. A disciplinary structure advances inquiry as it facilitates professionalization and provides space to formulate the canons and conventions that will guide knowledge production and the preparation and socialization of future researchers. Using the term disciplinary development to denote the process of bringing such a field about, this article outlines a pathway to disciplinary development, emphasizing important lessons that must be learned from internal challenges to knowledge production in African universities, Euro-American psychology's disciplinary development history, and the movement to institutionalize psychology in non-Western countries. The issues addressed have relevance to other non-Western societies. © 2011 The Author. Child Development Perspectives © 2011 The Society for Research in Child Development.

Marfo K.,University of South Florida
Child Development Perspectives | Year: 2011

The Madrasa Resource Centers in East Africa have adapted features of Euro-American theory and practice into a service delivery system responding to local cultural and socioeconomic realities. After 25years of implementation in predominantly Muslim communities with high poverty and low literacy rates, the program could serve as a model for other parts of the continent with similar population profiles. This article examines some of the program's key features and discusses the prospects that the program's integration of research into service delivery holds for developmental research in the region. It proposes that university partnerships with such programs could yield productive inquiry with benefits to local universities, community-based programs, and developmental science. © 2011 The Authors. Child Development Perspectives © 2011 The Society for Research in Child Development.

Kee Y.,University of South Florida | D'Andrea A.D.,Dana-Farber Cancer Institute
Journal of Clinical Investigation | Year: 2012

Fanconi anemia (FA) is a rare genetic disorder associated with a high frequency of hematological abnormalities and congenital anomalies. Based on multilateral efforts from basic scientists and clinicians, significant advances in our knowledge of FA have been made in recent years. Here we review the clinical features, the diagnostic criteria, and the current and future therapies of FA and describe the current understanding of the molecular basis of the disease.

Rains M.C.,University of South Florida
Wetlands | Year: 2011

Among the most prevalent wetland and deepwater habitats in Alaska are ponds, many of which are subarctic ponds occurring as moraine, ice-scour, or dead-ice depressions. Many are closed-basin depressions, where surface-water inflows and outflows are negligible. The objective of this study was to quantify the water sources and hydrodynamics of these subarctic ponds, particularly with respect to the role they play in groundwater recharge. There are two types of ponds on the study site. Perchedprecipitation ponds have inflows by melt water and direct precipitation, outflows by evapotranspiration and groundwater recharge, and are seasonally inundated because surface water is perched above the water table and infiltration through the low-permeability surficial deposits to the water table is slow. Flow-through ponds have inflows by melt water, direct precipitation, and groundwater discharge, outflows by evapotranspiration and groundwater recharge, and are perennially inundated because of groundwater throughflow. Both are groundwater recharge focal points. This is particularly true for perched-precipitation ponds, where net groundwater recharge rates were 215% larger than in flow-through ponds, and 332% larger than in the broader landscape. Most of the additional groundwater recharge occurs immediately following breakup, as aeoliantransported snow trapped in the depressions melts which results in enhanced groundwater recharge rates. © Society of Wetland Scientists 2011.

Rabson D.A.,University of South Florida
Progress in Surface Science | Year: 2012

It has long been known that quasicrystal surfaces show low sliding friction and adhesion, features that have led to practical applications, notably in cookware. Several mechanisms have been proposed for how quasiperiodicity might result in low friction and low adhesion. These include mechanical characteristics (stiffness and hardness), electronic properties, phonon propagation, surface topography at atomic length scales, and relatively irrational spacings between the atoms of the two sliding surfaces ("superlubricity"). Recent work by Park et al. finds an eightfold anisotropy in the coefficient of sliding friction between a decagonal quasicrystal surface and a passivated probe. This giant anisotropy epitomizes in a single experiment the difference between periodicity and aperiodicity, yet theoretical explanations of the effect remain controversial. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Gustke K.,University of South Florida
Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery - Series B | Year: 2012

Smart trials are total knee tibial trial liners with load bearing and alignment sensors that will graphically show quantitative compartment load-bearing forces and component track patterns. These values will demonstrate asymmetrical ligament balancing and misalignments with the medial retinaculum temporarily closed. Currently surgeons use feel and visual estimation of imbalance to assess soft-tissue balancing and tracking with the medial retinaculum open, which results in lower medial compartment loads and a wider anteroposterior tibial tracking pattern. The sensor trial will aid the total knee replacement surgeon in performing soft-tissue balancing by providing quantitative visual feedback of changes in forces while performing the releases incrementally. Initial experience using a smart tibial trial is presented. ©2012 British Editorial Society of Bone and Joint Surgery.

Cactoblastis cactorum Berg (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), the cactus moth, is a well-known biological control agent of prickly pear cactus (Cactaceae: Opuntia Miller). The arrival of the moth in Florida and its subsequent spread through the southeastern United States poses a threat to opuntioid diversity in North America. Of particular concern are the ecological and economic impacts the moth could have in the southwestern United States and Mexico, where both native and cultivated Opuntia species are important resources. It is unknown which species would best support larval development if the moth were to spread further westward in North America. This study aimed to determine if ovipositing females demonstrate preferences for any of 14 common opuntioids native to or naturalized in Mexico and the southwestern United States; which of these opuntioids best support larval development; and if oviposition preference correlates with larval performance, as predicted by simple adaptive models. Results from a field experiment showed that female moths preferred O. engelmannii Salm-Dyck ex Engelmann variety linguiformis (Griffiths) Parfitt and Pinkava and O. engelmannii variety engelmannii for oviposition. A generalized linear model showed number of cladodes and degree of spininess to be significant predictors of oviposition activity. Results from a no-choice larval survival experiment showed Consolea rubescens (Salm-Dyck ex de Candolle.) Lemaire and O. streptacantha Lemaire to be the best hosts. Epidermal toughness was a significant predictor of most larval fitness parameters. In general, oviposition preference was not correlated with larval performance. A lack of co-evolutionary history between C. cactorum and North American opuntioid species may help explain this disconnect. © 2010 Entomological Society of America

Camporesi E.M.,University of South Florida
Undersea and Hyperbaric Medicine | Year: 2014

Several side effects and complications from hyperaric oxygen (HBO 2) therapy have been described, with varying degrees of seriousness. By far, the two most frequent and benign side effects comprise middle ear barotrauma, which has been noted in up to 2% of treated patients, and can be prevented or minimized by teaching autoinflation techniques, or by inserting tympanostomy tubes. Another frequent complaint is claustrophobia, both during multiplace and monoplace chamber compression, requiring reassurance, coaching and, at times, sedation. Other more rare, but more severe side effects derive from oxygen (O2) toxicity, from the multiple exposures required for chronic treatments, especially progressive myopia, usually transient and reversible after stopping HBO2 sessions, or pulmonary dyspnea, with cough and inspiratory pain. More serious O2-induced seizures happen rarely, at higher O2 pressures, and often during acute treatments in acidotic patients (carbon monoxide poisoning). Copyright © 2014 Undersea & Hyperbaric Medical Society, Inc.

Menchise A.,University of South Florida
Fetal and Pediatric Pathology | Year: 2011

Myocarditis in the pediatric population is commonly caused by viral pathogens, notably entero virus and adeno virus. Respiratory syncytial virus, although widespread among this population, is rarely associated with myocarditis. The incidence of myocarditis is unknown due to the variability of clinical presentation and diagnostic limitations. Data regarding prognosis is lacking in children. Patients should be monitored in a pediatric intensive care unit secondary to the risk of hemodynamic compromise. We present the case of fulminant myocarditis in a seven-month old female in the setting of respiratory syncytial virus bronchiolitis. © 2011 Informa Healthcare USA, Inc.

Alman A.C.,University of South Florida | Maahs D.M.,University of Colorado at Denver | Rewers M.J.,University of Colorado at Denver | Snell-Bergeon J.K.,University of Colorado at Denver
Diabetes Care | Year: 2014

OBJECTIVE In 2010, the American Heart Association defined seven metrics (smoking, BMI, physical activity, diet, total cholesterol, blood pressure, and fasting plasma glucose) for ideal cardiovascular health (ICH). Subsequent studies have shown that the prevalence of achieving these metrics is very low in the general population. Adults with type 1 diabetes are at increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD), but no studies to date have been published on the prevalence of ICH in this population. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Data for this analysis were collected as part of the prospective Coronary Artery Calcification in Type 1 Diabetes study. This analysis involved 546 subjects with type 1 diabetes and 631 subjects without diabetes who had complete information for calculating the ICH metrics. RESULTS Overall, the prevalence of ICH was low in this population, with none meeting the ideal criteria for all sevenmetrics. The prevalence of ideal physical activity (10.0%) and diet (1.1%) were particularly low. ICH was significantly associated with both decreased prevalence (odds ratio [OR] 0.70; 95% CI 0.62-0.80) and progression (OR 0.77; 95% CI 0.66-0.90) of coronary artery calcification (CAC). CONCLUSIONS ICH is significantly associated with decreased prevalence and progression of CAC; however, prevalence of ICH metrics was low in adults both with and without type 1 diabetes. Efforts to increase the prevalence of ICH could have a significant impact on reducing the burden of CVD. © 2014 by the American Diabetes Association.

Shenefelt P.D.,University of South Florida
Journal of Drugs in Dermatology | Year: 2010

Patient stress and anxiety are common preoperatively and during dermatologic procedures and surgeries. Stress and anxiety can occasionally interfere with performance of procedures or surgery and can induce hemodynamic instability, such as elevated blood pressure or syncope, as well as producing considerable discomfort for some patients. Detection of excess stress and anxiety in patients can allow the opportunity for corrective or palliative measures. Slower breathing, biofeedback, progressive muscular relaxation, guided imagery, hypnosis, meditation and music can help calm and rebalance the patient's autonomic nervous system and immune functioning. Handheld miniaturized heart rate variability biofeedback devices are now available. The relaxation response can easily be taught. Guided imagery can be recorded or live. Live rapid induction hypnosis followed by deepening and then self-guided imagery requires no experience on the part of the patient but does require training and experience on the part of a provider. Recorded hypnosis inductions may also be used. Meditation generally requires more prior experience and training, but is useful when the patient already is skilled in it. Live, guided meditation or meditation recordings may be used. Relaxing recorded music from speakers or headphones or live performance music may also be employed to ease discomfort and improve the patient's attitude for dermatologic procedures and surgeries. Copyright © 2010 Journal of Drugs in Dermatology.

Kabir A.,Florida International University | Furton K.G.,Florida International University | Malik A.,University of South Florida
TrAC - Trends in Analytical Chemistry | Year: 2013

Sol-gel column technology with its inherent ability to provide surface-bonded hybrid organic-inorganic polymer coatings and monolithic beds has gained remarkable popularity in analytical microextraction, thanks to chemical stability and diversity of the extracting phase it offers in solvent-free sample preparation. Because of this and other advantages, over the last two decades sol-gel technology has been a vehicle of innovation for micro/nano sample preparation in analytical chemistry. A diverse array of novel advanced sol-gel material systems with unique selectivity, enhanced extraction sensitivity and higher thermal, mechanical and solvent stability have already emerged. The commercial availability of a growing number of inorganic/organically modified sol-gel precursors and sol-gel active organic polymers, coupled with the ability to form surface-bonded organic-inorganic coatings/monolithic beds with controllable porosity and tunable selectivity have firmly placed sol-gel technology in the forefront of analytical sample preparation and related research. The sol-gel derived advanced material systems have been shown to be highly effective in solvent free/solvent minimized sample preparation for a wide variety of analytes with biological, environmental, food, pharmaceutical, bio-analytical, and forensic significance. The current review discusses the basic principles of sol-gel technology, use of major inorganic/organically-modified sol-gel precursors and sol-gel active polymers to create sol-gel hybrid material systems. It highlights their physico chemical attributes favorable for micro/nano-sample preparation. Special emphasis is given to innovations in sol-gel extraction media, and to the novelty and the diversity of the formats of sol-gel materials used in sample preparation. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

Siddiqui F.,Ohio State University | Gwede C.K.,University of South Florida
Seminars in Radiation Oncology | Year: 2012

Approximately two-thirds of head and neck cancer (HNC) patients present with locoregionally advanced stage (III and IV) disease. This requires multimodality therapy, including surgery, radiation, and/or chemotherapy. Despite recent advances in treatments for HNC, the treatment paradigms in the elderly population have not been well defined. These patients may not be considered candidates for aggressive multimodality management due to multiple comorbidities, general debility, and concerns regarding poor treatment tolerance and toxicities. The aim of this review is to highlight some of the pertinent issues in dealing with the increasing elderly HNC population, the increasing complexity and toxicities associated with combined modality treatments, and how comorbidity and age are considered during treatment selection decisions. The challenges being faced regarding potential interactions of older age and comorbidity, and their impact on prognosis and quality of life are reviewed, with a special emphasis on radiation therapy or combined modality therapy. Possible solutions to help delineate further areas of study addressing key questions in management of elderly HNC patients are discussed. © 2012 Elsevier Inc.

Extermann M.,University of South Florida
Seminars in Radiation Oncology | Year: 2012

Older cancer patients-which make the majority of cancer patients-present with a highly heterogeneous health status. Therefore, a careful assessment of the individual's condition is important in the planning of their oncologic care. In this article, a two-step approach is recommended: a short screening test of every patient presenting for treatment, and a multidisciplinary evaluation for patients screening at risk. Several screening tools that have been tested are described, and their relative performance is reviewed: the abbreviated Comprehensive Geriatric Assessment, the G8, the Senior Adult Oncology Program 2 questionnaire, the Triage Risk Screening Tool, the Vulnerable Elders Survey 13 tool, the Groeningen Frailty Index, and the Onco-Geriatric Screening Tool. Indeed, regular multidisciplinary meetings are key to optimal management of elderly patients, as they modify treatment plans in 1/4 to 1/2 of patients. A practical way of implementing a multidisciplinary consultation is reviewed, and future directions are discussed. © 2012 Elsevier Inc.

Ashraf N.,University of South Florida | Hoffe S.,H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center and Research Institute | Kim R.,H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center and Research Institute
Oncologist | Year: 2013

Gastric cancer is among the leading causes of cancer death worldwide. Surgery is the only curative modality, but mortality remains high because a significant number of patients have recurrence after complete surgical resection. Chemotherapy, radiation, and chemoradiotherapy have all been studied in an attempt to reduce the risk for relapse and improve survival. There is no globally accepted standard of care for resectable gastric cancer, and treatment strategies vary across the world. Postoperative chemoradiation with 5-fluorouracil/leucovorin is most commonly practiced in the United States; however, recent clinical trials from Asia have shown benefit of adjuvant chemotherapy alone and have questioned the role of radiation. In this review, we examine the current literature on adjuvant treatment of gastric cancer and discuss the roles of radiation and chemotherapy, particularly in light of these new data and their applicability to the Western population. We highlight some of the ongoing and planned clinical trials in resectable gastric cancer and identify future directions as well as areas where further research is needed. © AlphaMed Press 2013.

Khusnutdinov N.,University of South Florida
Physical Review D - Particles, Fields, Gravitation and Cosmology | Year: 2014

We consider the total energy loss and spectral density of uniformly moving electrically charged particles in the spacetime of a wormhole with an infinitely short throat. We show that the total energy loss E∼e2vγa2/b3, where γ is relativistic factor, a is the radius of the wormhole's throat, and b is the impact factor. The spectrum of the energy for particles radially moving through the wormhole's throat is E∼e2vγ/a. The spectral density of the total energy has a maximum at frequency ωm∼vγ/b and at ωm∼vγ/a for radial motion. © 2014 American Physical Society.

Miao Z.,University of South Florida
IEEE Transactions on Energy Conversion | Year: 2012

Interaction between doubly fed induction generator (DFIG) Type 3 wind generators and series-compensated networks can lead to subsynchronous resonance (SSR) oscillationsa phenomenon observed in the real world. In this paper, impedance-based Nyquist stability criterion is applied to analyze the SSR phenomena. Impedance models of a DFIG along with its rotor-side converter (RSC) and grid-side converter, and a series-compensated network are derived in terms of space vectors. The DFIG impedance and the network impedance are analyzed to show the impact of wind speed, compensation level, and RSC current controller gain on SSR stability. Nyquist maps are also used to demonstrate the impact on SSR stability. Simulation studies are carried out to show SSR controller interaction. This paper successfully demonstrates that the interaction between the electric network and the converter controller is a leading cause of the SSR phenomena recently observed in wind generation grid integration. © 1986-2012 IEEE.

Morris K.L.,University of South Florida
Psychology & health | Year: 2014

The terror management health model (TMHM) suggests that when thoughts of death are accessible people become increasingly motivated to bolster their self-esteem relative to their health, because doing so offers psychological protection against mortality concerns. Two studies examined sun protection intentions as a function of mortality reminders and an appearance-based intervention. In Study 1, participants given a sun protection message that primed mortality and shown a UV-filtered photo of their face reported greater intentions to use sun protection on their face, and took more sunscreen samples than participants shown a regular photo of their face. In Study 2, reminders of mortality increased participants' intentions to use facial sun protection when the UV photo was specifically framed as revealing appearance consequences of tanning, compared to when the photo was framed as revealing health consequences or when no photo was shown. These findings extend the TMHM, and provide preliminary evidence that appearance-based tanning interventions have a greater influence on sun protection intentions under conditions that prime thoughts of death. We discuss implications of the findings, and highlight the need for additional research examining the applicability to long-term tanning behaviour.

Kim M.K.,University of South Florida
Optics Letters | Year: 2012

Adaptive optics in astronomical and other imaging systems allows compensation of aberrations introduced by random variations of the refractive index in the imaging path. I propose what I believe is a new type of adaptive optics system that dispenses with the hardware lenslet arrays and deformable mirrors of conventional systems. Theoretical and experimental studies show that wavefront sensing and compensation can be achieved by numerical processing of digital holograms of the incoherent object and a guide star. The incoherent digital holographic adaptive optics is seen to be particularly robust and efficient, with envisioned applications in astronomical imaging, as well as fluorescence microscopy and remote sensing. © 2012 Optical Society of America.

Uversky V.N.,University of South Florida | Uversky V.N.,Indiana University | Uversky V.N.,Russian Academy of Sciences
Chemical Reviews | Year: 2011

A polypeptide chain of a protein contains all the information required to achieve functional conformation in a given environment. Although this principle is generally correct for many foldable proteins, the information contained in some proteins is not complete enough to guarantee the formation of a functionally active structure. Such proteins cannot fold spontaneously and require the help of molecular chaperones. Molecular chaperones evolve to protect proteins from misfolding and aggregation regardless of their classification as inducible or constitutively expressed. Maintenance of proper protein homeostasis, or proteostasis, represents a vital task for any living cell. Proteostasis is a complex mechanism for general control and regulation of the transcription, translation, folding, trafficking, processing, assembly/disassembly, localization, and degradation of millions of proteins inside the cell.

Agarwal A.,University of South Florida | Colak S.,Cukurova University | Erenguc S.,University of Florida
Computers and Operations Research | Year: 2010

A variety of metaheuristic approaches have emerged in recent years for solving the resource-constrained project scheduling problem (RCPSP), a well-known NP-hard problem in scheduling. In this paper, we propose a Neurogenetic approach which is a hybrid of genetic algorithms (GA) and neural-network (NN) approaches. In this hybrid approach the search process relies on GA iterations for global search and on NN iterations for local search. The GA and NN search iterations are interleaved in a manner that allows NN to pick the best solution thus far from the GA pool and perform an intensification search in the solution's local neighborhood. Similarly, good solutions obtained by NN search are included in the GA population for further search using the GA iterations. Although both GA and NN approaches, independently give good solutions, we found that the hybrid approach gives better solutions than either approach independently for the same number of shared iterations. We demonstrate the effectiveness of this approach empirically on the standard benchmark problems of size J30, J60, J90 and J120 from PSPLIB. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Ma W.-X.,University of South Florida
Physics Letters, Section A: General, Atomic and Solid State Physics | Year: 2011

By combining two pieces of bi-directional Wronskian solutions, molecule solutions in Wronskian form are presented for the finite, semi-infinite and infinite bilinear 2D Toda molecule equations. In the cases of finite and semi-infinite lattices, separated-variable boundary conditions are imposed. The Jacobi identities for determinants are the key tool employed in the solution formulations. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Venables N.C.,Florida State University | Hall J.R.,University of South Florida | Patrick C.J.,Florida State University
Psychological Medicine | Year: 2014

Background. The triarchic model of psychopathy characterizes the disorder in terms of three distinguishable phenotypic facets: disinhibition, meanness and boldness. The present study sought to (1) inform current debates regarding the role of boldness in the definition of psychopathy and (2) clarify boundaries between psychopathy and antisocial personality disorder (ASPD). Method. This study evaluated the degree to which facets of the triarchic model are represented in the most widely used clinical inventory for psychopathy, the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R), in comparison with ASPD as defined by DSM-IV criteria. Adult male offenders from two distinct correctional settings (n = 157 and 169) were investigated to ensure replicability of findings across samples exhibiting high base rates of psychopathy and antisocial behavior. Results. We found evidence for convergent and discriminant validity of the three triarchic facets in predicting symptomatic components of psychopathy as assessed by the PCL-R. Additionally, and crucially vis-à-vis current debates in the field, we found that boldness contributed incrementally (over and above disinhibition and meanness) to prediction of PCL-R psychopathy, in particular its interpersonal style component, but not ASPD. Conclusions. The three distinct facets of the triarchic model of psychopathy are represented clearly and distinctly in the PCL-R, with boldness through its interpersonal facet, but not in DSM-defined ASPD. Our findings suggest that boldness is central to diagnostic conceptions of psychopathy and distinguishes psychopathy from the more prevalent diagnosis of ASPD. Copyright © Cambridge University Press 2013.

Mortimer J.A.,University of South Florida
Current Alzheimer Research | Year: 2012

The Nun Study was the first cohort study to enroll and follow a large, well-defined population that included demented and non-demented participants, all of whom agreed to donate their brains for research. The inclusion of systematic neuropathologic analysis in this study has resulted in a greater understanding of the role of Alzheimer and vascular pathology in the expression of memory deficits and dementia and has provided data showing that biomarkers for the pathology may be evident many decades earlier in adult life. Findings related to neuropathology in this study have included the following: (1) Although clinical outcomes were strongly correlated with Alzheimer neuropathology, about one-third of the participants fulfilling criteria for neuropathologic Alzheimer's disease (AD) were not demented at the time of death. (2) Brain infarcts by themselves had little effect on cognitive status, but played an important role in increasing the risk of dementia associated with Alzheimer pathology. (3) Hippocampal volume was strongly correlated with Braak neurofibrillary stage even in participants with normal cognitive function. (4) A linguistic characteristic of essays written in early adult life, idea density, had a strong association with not only clinical outcomes in late life, but the severity of Alzheimer neuropathology as well. (5) The effect of apolipoprotein E-e4 on dementia was mediated through Alzheimer, but not vascular pathology. © 2012 Bentham Science Publishers.

Craig B.M.,University of South Florida | Pickard A.S.,University of Illinois at Chicago | Lubetkin E.I.,City College of New York
Journal of Clinical Epidemiology | Year: 2014

Objectives The EuroQol Group recently released youth (Y) and 5-level (5L) versions of its 3-level EQ-5D instrument (3L) that measures health-related quality of life. In this study, we (1) compare 3L, Y, and 5L responses among US adults and (2) assess construct validity. Study Design and Setting Using a nationally representative sample of US adults (N = 2,619), we collected 3L, Y, and 5L responses in random order and estimated their associations and their relationship with a 0 to 100 numerical visual analog scale. Results The prevalence of US adults in the best possible EQ-5D state (i.e., 11111) was lower for the Y (38%) and 5L (35%) than for the 3L (44%), capturing more health problems. However, the prevalence of extreme responses in pain/discomfort and anxiety/depression decreased substantially between the 3L and 5L (from 44% to 17% and from 29% to 13%, respectively). Conclusion Compared with the 3L, the Y and 5L versions describe population health as having more, yet milder, health problems. Although the 5L may have advantages in patient populations in which extreme problems are more prevalent, population studies or studies that follow patients from childhood may consider using the Y. © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Ettel 3rd. G.,University of South Florida
The Permanente journal | Year: 2012

To improve understanding about how high school students use electronic tools to obtain health information and how this information affects their behavior. Using a cross-sectional design, we administered an anonymous survey to high school students in grades 9 through 12 at a single private Catholic high school, inquiring about their use of electronic tools to obtain health information, topics of interest, sources used to obtain information, and modifications in their behavior based on that information. Descriptive statistics and multivariate analysis of variance were used to compare trends across grade levels. Of 705 students enrolled, 24.7% were either absent or chose not to participate in the survey. Of the remaining 531 students, 497 completed the surveys, for a response rate of 70.5% (497 of 705) and a participation rate of 93.6% (497 of 531). All students were comfortable using the Internet, and >90% used it at home and in school. Access to broadband applications averaged 95% at home and 80% at school. A significant proportion (0.66; p < 0.0001) of students reported that they trusted the information found online, and 22% (not significant) modified their behavior on the basis of the information they found. Forty-two percent searched for general health information, and 43% investigated specific medical conditions or disease states. Topics related to skin were researched significantly more than nutrition, birth control, and sexually transmitted diseases. Although a significant number of students (p < 0.05) reported conducting e-mail conversations related to health topics with their teachers, <5% had e-mail communications with physicians. These data indicate that most high school students used the Internet and broadband applications at school and at home as resources for health care information. A significant number of students trusted the online information, and at nearly one-quarter subsequently modified their behavior. Students conducted e-mail conversations with teachers about health-related topics, but few students used this tool to communicate with their physicians. This information raises questions about design and implementation of strategies to provide adolescents access to appropriate health care information, including that provided by physicians.

Ho M.J.,University of South Florida
Journal of managed care pharmacy : JMCP | Year: 2012

Educational interventions have long been used as a means of influencing prescribing behavior. Various techniques including educational mailings, academic detailing, prescriber feedback with or without disclosing patient-identifying data, and supplemental patient information have been used to promote appropriate prescribing habits, reduce costs, and optimize patient care. While the effects of educational intervention programs are widely reported, little information is available regarding the effectiveness of various mailed intervention techniques. To review the effectiveness of mailed intervention programs and identify factors that may promote successful outcomes. A literature search was conducted via PubMed for reports of mailed intervention programs published through May 2012. Specific search terms included "drug utilization review," "drug utilization," "Medicaid," "prescribing feedback," "mailed physician intervention," and "mailed physician communications." Identified publications that met the following criteria were selected for inclusion: (a) evaluated printed educational materials disseminated via postal mail, (b) occurred in an outpatient setting, and (c) measured intervention impact on prescribing patterns, health care utilization, or economic outcomes. Publications that met all 3 criteria were abstracted for intervention strategy, follow-up period, data source, intervention target, prescriber acceptance of intervention, and effect on prescribing patterns, health care utilization, and economic outcomes. A total of 40 published reports regarding 39 unique interventions met inclusion criteria. The majority (34/39 [87.2%]) of studies were conducted in state or federally funded programs; only 5 programs involved private insurers. All programs used follow-up periods of ≤12 months after final intervention mailing. A total of 26 of the 39 unique interventions reported a positive impact on at least 1 target outcome. Programs that included a second recipient such as pharmacists (n = 4) reported a greater impact as compared with interventions mailed to prescribers alone. Programs that provided patient-identifying data had a higher success rate than those that supplied prescriber feedback and/or educational materials (21/25 [84.0%] vs. 5/14 [35.7%]); it should be noted that 2 of the 5 successful programs that provided nonpatient-identifying materials also used academic detailing. Programs that sent education material and/or prescriber feedback pertaining to multiple medication classes or disease states had minimal impact on prescribing patterns (n = 4). However, targeting 1 specific disease or medication supported by appropriate evidence resulted in favorable change in a short period of time. Additionally, providing recommendations that were supported by widely accepted clinical guidelines or literature were also associated with a high rate of success. A subset of programs that sought to evaluate health care utilization (n=5) and economic impact (n = 9) observed little change in measured outcomes. Evaluation of prescriber response forms conducted by 7 programs revealed that changes in therapy occurred in approximately 50% of patients with prescribers who intended to accept intervention recommendations. Though the degree of heterogeneity between articles prevents provision of definite results, it appears that a well-constructed mailed intervention program has the potential to evoke significant changes in prescribing patterns. Prescribers appear to be receptive to mailed interventions; however, there are limited data to determine the association between acceptance and actual prescribing change. Future research should focus on identifying barriers that may prohibit acceptance of recommendations from translating into changes in therapy. Additionally, future projects should include longer assessment periods to determine the duration of impact following final intervention mailing and potential effect on health care and economic outcomes.

Henning R.J.,University of South Florida
Future Cardiology | Year: 2011

Myocardial infarction is the leading cause of death among people in industrialized nations. Although the heart has some ability to regenerate after infarction, myocardial restoration is inadequate. Consequently, investigators are currently exploring the use of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs), skeletal myoblasts and adult bone marrow stem cells to limit infarct size. hESCs are pluripotent cells that can regenerate myocardium in infarcted hearts, attenuate heart remodeling and contribute to left ventricle (LV) systolic force development. Since hESCs can form heart teratomas, investigators are differentiating hESCs toward cardiac progenitor cells prior to transplantation into hearts. Large quantities of hESCs cardiac progenitor cells, however, must be generated, immune rejection must be prevented and grafts must survive over the long term to significantly improve myocardial performance. Transplanted autologous skeletal myoblasts can survive in infarcted myocardium in small numbers, proliferate, differentiate into skeletal myofibers and increase the LV ejection fraction. These cells, however, do not form electromechanical connections with host cardiomyocytes. Consequently, electrical re-entry can occur and cause cardiac arrhythmias. Autologous bone marrow mononuclear cells contain hematopoietic and mesenchymal stem cells. In several meta-analyses, patients with coronary disease who received autologous bone marrow cells by intracoronary injection show significant 3.7% (range: 1.9-5.4%) increases in LV ejection fraction, decreases in LV end-systolic volume of -4.8 ml (range: -1.4 to -8.2 ml) and reductions in infarct size of 5.5% (-1.9 to -9.1%), without experiencing arrhythmias. Bone marrow cells appear to release biologically active factors that limit myocardial damage. Unfortunately, bone marrow cells from patients with chronic diseases propagate poorly and can die prematurely. Substantial challenges must be addressed and resolved to advance the use of stem cells in cardiac repair including identifying the optimal stem cell(s) that permit transplantation without requirements for host immune suppression; timing of stem cell transplantation that maximizes chemoattraction of stem cells to infarcts; and determining the optimal technique for injecting stem cells for cardiac repair. Techniques must be developed to enhance survival and propagation of stem cells in the myocardium. These studies will require close cooperation and interaction of scientists and clinicians. Cell-based cardiac repair in the 21st century will offer new hope for millions of patients worldwide with myocardial infarctions who, otherwise, would suffer from the relentless progression of heart disease to heart failure and death. © 2011 Future Medicine Ltd.

Robinson E.H.,University of South Florida
International Journal on Semantic Web and Information Systems | Year: 2011

The agentivity of social entities has posed problems for ontologies of social phenomena, especially in the Descriptive Ontology for Linguistic and Cognitive Engineering (DOLCE) designed for use in the semantic web. This article elucidates a theory by which physical and social objects can take action, but that also recognizes the different ways in which they act. It introduces the "carry" relationship, through which social actions can occur when a physical action is taken in the correct circumstances. For example, the physical action of a wave of a hand may carry the social action of saying hello when entering a room. This article shows how a system can simultaneously and in a noncontradictory manner handle statements and queries in which both nonphysical social agents and physical agents take action by the carry relationship and the use of representatives. A revision of DOLCE's taxonomic structure of perdurants is also proposed. This revision divides perdurants into physical and nonphysical varieties at the same ontological level at which endurants are so divided. Copyright © 2011, IGI Global.

Uversky V.N.,University of South Florida | Uversky V.N.,Russian Academy of Sciences
Protein Science | Year: 2013

The abundant existence of proteins and regions that possess specific functions without being uniquely folded into unique 3D structures has become accepted by a significant number of protein scientists. Sequences of these intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) and IDP regions (IDPRs) are characterized by a number of specific features, such as low overall hydrophobicity and high net charge which makes these proteins predictable. IDPs/IDPRs possess large hydrodynamic volumes, low contents of ordered secondary structure, and are characterized by high structural heterogeneity. They are very flexible, but some may undergo disorder to order transitions in the presence of natural ligands. The degree of these structural rearrangements varies over a very wide range. IDPs/IDPRs are tightly controlled under the normal conditions and have numerous specific functions that complement functions of ordered proteins and domains. When lacking proper control, they have multiple roles in pathogenesis of various human diseases. Gaining structural and functional information about these proteins is a challenge, since they do not typically "freeze" while their "pictures are taken." However, despite or perhaps because of the experimental challenges, these fuzzy objects with fuzzy structures and fuzzy functions are among the most interesting targets for modern protein research. This review briefly summarizes some of the recent advances in this exciting field and considers some of the basic lessons learned from the analysis of physics, chemistry, and biology of IDPs. © 2013 The Protein Society.

Mahajan K.,Moffitt Cancer Center | Mahajan N.P.,Moffitt Cancer Center | Mahajan N.P.,University of South Florida
Trends in Genetics | Year: 2013

The cell cycle requires cells to duplicate their chromatin, DNA, and histones, while retaining a subset of epigenetic marks, in a highly coordinated manner. The WEE1 kinase was identified as an important regulator during S phase, preventing entry into mitosis until DNA replication has been completed. Interestingly, WEE1 has also emerged as a key player in regulating histone synthesis. It phosphorylates histone H2B at tyrosine 37 in the nucleosomes found upstream of the histone gene cluster, and this suppresses histone transcription in late S phase. These observations highlight a dual role for WEE1 as both a mitotic gatekeeper and a surveyor of chromatin synthesis, providing a direct link between epigenetics and cell-cycle progression. Importantly, this link has implications for the design of novel epigenetic inhibitors targeting cancers that display elevated expression of this kinase. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

Borum R.,University of South Florida
Behavioral Sciences and the Law | Year: 2014

Research on the psychology of terrorism has argued against the idea that most terrorist behavior is caused by mental illness or by a terrorist personality. This article suggests an alternative line of inquiry - an individual psychology of terrorism that explores how otherwise normal mental states and processes, built on characteristic attitudes, dispositions, inclinations, and intentions, might affect a person's propensity for involvement with violent extremist groups and actions. It uses the concepts of "mindset" - a relatively enduring set of attitudes, dispositions, and inclinations - and worldview as the basis of a psychological "climate," within which various vulnerabilities and propensities shape ideas and behaviors in ways that can increase the person's risk or likelihood of involvement in violent extremism. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Monreal J.,University of South Florida
Annals of Physics | Year: 2015

A new system of general Navier-Stokes-like equations is proposed to model electromagnetic flow utilizing analogues of hydrodynamic conservation equations. Such equations are intended to provide a different perspective and, potentially, a better understanding of electromagnetic mass, energy and momentum behaviour. Under such a new framework additional insights into electromagnetism could be gained. To that end, we propose a system of momentum and mass-energy conservation equations coupled through both momentum density and velocity vectors. © 2015 Elsevier Inc.

Kilfoil P.J.,University of Louisville | Tipparaju S.M.,University of South Florida | Barski O.A.,University of Louisville | Bhatnagar A.,University of Louisville
Circulation Research | Year: 2013

Recent research suggests that in addition to their role as soluble electron carriers, pyridine nucleotides [NAD(P)(H)] also regulate ion transport mechanisms. This mode of regulation seems to have been conserved through evolution. Several bacterial ion-transporting proteins or their auxiliary subunits possess nucleotide-binding domains. In eukaryotes, the Kv1 and Kv4 channels interact with pyridine nucleotide-binding β-subunits that belong to the aldo-keto reductase superfamily. Binding of NADP to Kvβ removes N-type inactivation of Kv currents, whereas NADPH stabilizes channel inactivation. Pyridine nucleotides also regulate Slo channels by interacting with their cytosolic regulator of potassium conductance domains that show high sequence homology to the bacterial TrkA family of K transporters. These nucleotides also have been shown to modify the activity of the plasma membrane KATP channels, the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator, the transient receptor potential M2 channel, and the intracellular ryanodine receptor calcium release channels. In addition, pyridine nucleotides also modulate the voltage-gated sodium channel by supporting the activity of its ancillary subunit-the glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase-like protein. Moreover, the NADP metabolite, NAADP, regulates intracellular calcium homeostasis via the 2-pore channel, ryanodine receptor, or transient receptor potential M2 channels. Regulation of ion channels by pyridine nucleotides may be required for integrating cell ion transport to energetics and for sensing oxygen levels or metabolite availability. This mechanism also may be an important component of hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction, memory, and circadian rhythms, and disruption of this regulatory axis may be linked to dysregulation of calcium homeostasis and cardiac arrhythmias. © 2012 American Heart Association, Inc.

Kim M.K.,University of South Florida
SPIE Reviews | Year: 2010

Digital holography is an emerging field of new paradigm in general imaging applications. We present a review of a subset of the research and development activities in digital holography, with emphasis on microscopy techniques and applications. First, the basic results from the general theory of holography, based on the scalar diffraction theory, are summarized, and a general description of the digital holographic microscopy process is given, including quantitative phase microscopy. Several numerical diffraction methods are described and compared, and a number of representative configurations used in digital holography are described, including off-axis Fresnel, Fourier, image plane, in-line, Gabor, and phase-shifting digital holographies. Then we survey numerical techniques that give rise to unique capabilities of digital holography, including suppression of dc and twin image terms, pixel resolution control, optical phase unwrapping, aberration compensation, and others. A survey is also given of representative application areas, including biomedical microscopy, particle field holography, micrometrology, and holographic tomography, as well as some of the special techniques, such as holography of total internal reflection, optical scanning holography, digital interference holography, and heterodyne holography. The review is intended for students and new researchers interested in developing new techniques and exploring new applications of digital holography. © 2010 Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers.

Unnever J.D.,University of South Florida | Cullen F.T.,University of Cincinnati
Criminology | Year: 2010

This article tests cross-nationally the minority group threat thesis that public sentiments toward repressive crime-control policies reflect conflicted racial and ethnic relations. Using multiple data sets representing France, Belgium, the Netherlands, East and West Germany, Italy, Luxembourg, Denmark, Great Britain, Greece, Spain, Finland, Sweden, Austria, Canada, Ireland, and Portugal, we examine whether racial and ethnic intolerance-animus, resentments, or negative sentiments toward minorities-predicts greater support for the death penalty. Our results reveal that the respondents were significantly more likely to express support for capital punishment if they were racially or ethnically intolerant while controlling for other covariates of public opinion. These findings indicate that the link between support for capital punishment and racial and ethnic animus may occur universally in countries with conflicted racial and ethnic relations. © 2010 American Society of Criminology.

Chakraborty J.,University of South Florida
International Journal of Environmental Health Research | Year: 2012

Recent environmental justice studies have emphasized the growing need to analyze the health impacts of disproportionate exposure to multiple pollution sources and incorporate geostatistical techniques that are suitable for analyzing spatial data. These objectives are addressed in a case study that evaluates spatial and social inequities in potential cancer risk from inhalation exposure to hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) from four types of emission sources in the Tampa Bay Metropolitan Statistical Area, Florida. This study utilizes modeled estimates of lifetime cancer risk from the 1999 National-Scale Air Toxics Assessment and socio-demographic data from the 2000 US Census. Statistical analyses are based on conventional multiple regression and locally derived spatial regression models that account for residual autocorrelation. Race, ethnicity, and home ownership are found to be significant predictors of cancer risk from ambient exposure to all four HAP source categories, after controlling for other relevant explanatory factors and spatial dependence in the data. © 2012 Taylor & Francis.

Although the comorbidity between borderline personality disorder (BPD) and substance abuse is well established, there are few longitudinal studies that have examined its developmental origins or whether the comorbidity is due to common genetic or environmental risk factors. To fill this gap, we used a large sample of female adolescent twins (N = 1,280) to examine the developmental course, reciprocal influences, and the genetic and environmental factors underlying the co-occurrence of BPD traits and substance use from age 14 to 18. Rank-order stability was moderate to high for both BPD traits (r = .58) and substance use (r = .51), whereas mean levels of substance use increased substantially from age 14 to 18 (d = 0.77) and BPD traits showed a small decline (d = -0.21). BPD traits and substance use exhibited concurrent and prospective associations; however, the longitudinal associations dropped to nonsignificance after accounting for the temporal stability of each trait. Twin analyses revealed that shared environmental factors accounted for the association between BPD traits and substance use at age 14, but genetic factors accounted for the association at age 18. These results indicate that, at least in adolescence, the comorbidity between BPD traits and substance use is a consequence of common risk factors rather than due to one being a casual antecedent of the other.

Sears B.F.,University of South Florida
Proceedings. Biological sciences / The Royal Society | Year: 2013

Anti-parasite behaviour can reduce parasitic infections, but little is known about how such behaviours affect infection location within the host's body and whether parasite distribution ultimately affects tolerance of infection. To assess these questions, we exposed both anaesthetized (no behaviour) and non-anaesthetized Hyla femoralis tadpoles to plagiorchiid cercariae (larval trematodes), and quantified resistance, tolerance (relationship between mass change and infection intensity) and encystment location. Non-anaesthetized tadpoles had significantly more infections in their tail region than anaesthetized tadpoles, which had the majority of their infections in the head. This pattern indicates that parasites preferred to infect the head, but that hosts shunted infections to the tail when possible. Furthermore, there was a significant effect of encystment location on tolerance, with head-infected tadpoles having poorer tolerance to infection than tail-infected tadpoles. Variance partitioning suggests that, among infected tadpoles, behaviour contributed more to tolerance than resistance. These results suggest that, in addition to using behaviour to resist parasites, H. femoralis tadpoles also use behaviour to enhance infection tolerance by deflecting infections posteriorly, away from their vital sensory organs. These findings highlight the need to assess how widespread and important behaviour is to the tolerance of infections.

Purnell D.,University of South Florida
Journal of Loss and Trauma | Year: 2013

This article is a performative personal narrative inspired by the writing of Eve Sedgwick (1998) and Stacy Holman Jones (2011) using a Halibun style of writing (a method of writing employed by the Japanese poet Basho that combines prose and haiku poetry to describe life experiences in a poetic manner) as a way of enhancing events that have led the author to give up a familial relationship. The article examines a failed relationship between father and son. The author discovers that not all familial relationships are healthy and that not all investigations lead to a positive conclusion. It is the process that is most healing. Rather than experiencing reconciliation, the reader is left with the understanding that it is acceptable to let go of a relationship-even a familial one-that stifles, which then allows a refocusing of energy on those relationships that lift us and allow us to breathe. Using breathing as a metaphor, the narrative reveals the difficulty of allowing ourselves the ability to let go of a failed relationship. © 2013 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.

Chan H.C.O.,City University of Hong Kong | Frei A.,University of South Florida
Homicide Studies | Year: 2013

Limited information exists regarding the criminal phenomenon of female sexual homicide. Using FBI's Supplemental Homicide Report (SHR) data spanning 32 years (1976-2007), 204 female sexual homicide offender cases (27 juveniles and 177 adult offenders) were examined. The offender and victim racial distributions were relatively equal. Similar to their male counterparts, female sexual murderers were more likely to target victims from the opposite gender, 75% of their victims were males. The majority of female sexual homicide offenders' (SHO) victims were adults (78%) and someone with whom they shared a relationship (81%). Findings show that female SHOs killed intra-racially. Unlike most male sexual murderers, female offenders predominantly used firearms in their sex killings. The choice of murder weapon was primarily determined by the victim gender and age based on the differential of offender-victim physical strength. Interestingly, no intimate partner was murdered using personal weapons for two possibilities: physical strength differential and perhaps to avoid personalization of the killing process. Limitations of the data and future research directions are discussed. © 2013 SAGE Publications.

Duan H.,CAS Nanjing Institute of Geography and Limnology | Ma R.,CAS Nanjing Institute of Geography and Limnology | Hu C.,University of South Florida
Remote Sensing of Environment | Year: 2012

Using reflectance data and water sample data from 75 stations in several eutrophic lakes of East China (Lake Taihu, Lake Gehu, Lake Dongjiu) between 23 April and 3 May 2010, we evaluated several recently proposed remote sensing algorithms to estimate chlorophyll-a concentrations (Chla, 1.0-42μg/L) and phycocyanin pigment concentrations (PC, 0.1-7.7μg/L). These lakes experience phytoplankton blooms of the cyanobacteria Microcystis aeruginosa every year due to eutrophication. It was found that after local tuning of the algorithm parameterizations, most algorithms yielded acceptable results for Chla retrievals while accurate PC retrievals were more challenging due to changing species composition (PC:Chla ratios) and low PC concentrations. For the data ranges in the study region, the best Chla algorithm yielded RMSE rel (Relative Root Mean Square Error) of ~46% (R 2=0.92, n=75) and the best PC algorithm yielded RMSE rel of ~83% (R 2=0.88, n=75). Based on these observations, it is recommended that local tuning of algorithm parameters should be performed for remote sensing applications, and future efforts should emphasize on application of the algorithms to satellite data. © 2012 Elsevier Inc.

Green S.E.,University of South Florida
Journal of Loss and Trauma | Year: 2013

This study explores eldercare in families of disabled children. Qualitative analysis of interviews with eight mothers simultaneously caring for elders and children with extended care needs suggests that (a) elders who need care may have previously been a critical source of support; (b) resources needed for one type of care may be depleted by the other; (c) family members may feel mothers are too burdened to care for elders; (d) the skills acquired in the process of parenting children with disabilities can transfer to eldercare; and (e) bonds between children with disabilities and elders may help mothers cope with convergent caregiving. © 2013 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.

Vesely D.L.,University of South Florida
Anticancer Research | Year: 2014

Four peptides synthesized in the heart, namely atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP), vessel dilator, kaliuretic peptide and long-acting natriuretic peptide (LANP), reduce cancer cells in vitro by up to 97%. These four cardiac hormones, in vivo, eliminate up to 86% of human small-cell lung carcinomas, two-thirds of human breast carcinomas, and up to 80% of human pancreatic adenocarcinomas growing in athymic mice. Their anticancer mechanisms of action, after binding to specific receptors on cancer cells, include targeting the Rat sarcoma-bound guanosine triphosphate (RAS) (95% inhibition)-mitogen activated protein kinase kinase 1/2 (MEK-1/2) (98% inhibition)-extracellular signalrelated kinases 1/2 (ERK-1/2) (96% inhibition) cascade in cancer cells. They also inhibit MAPK9, i.e. c-JUN-N-terminal kinase 2. They are dual inhibitors of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and its VEGFR2 receptor (up to 89%). One of their downstream targets of VEGF is β-Catenin, which they reduce up to 88%. The Wingless-related integration site (WNT) pathway is inhibited by up to 68% and WNT secreted-Frizzled related protein-3 was reduced by up to 84% by the four peptide hormones. A serine/threonine-protein kinase, AKT, derived from "AK" mouse strain with thymomas (T), is reduced by up to 64% by the peptide hormones. Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3), a final "switch" that activates gene expression patterns that lead to malignancy, is decreased by up to 88% by these peptide hormones; STAT3 is specifically reduced as they do not affect STAT1. There is cross-talk between the RAS-MEK-1/2-ERK- 1/2 kinase cascade, VEGF, β-catenin, WNT, JNK and STAT pathways and each of these pathways is inhibited by the cardiac peptides. These peptides have been demonstrated to enter the nucleus of cancer cells where they inhibit the protooncogenes c-FOS (up to 82%) and c-JUN (up to 61%). Conclusion: The cardiac peptides inhibit multiple targets and cross-talk between the targets within cancer cells.

Leiber M.J.,University of South Florida
Crime and Delinquency | Year: 2013

A detailed examination was conducted of the factors associated with pre- and postadjudication secure detention, including secure detention as a dispositional sentence and the effects of secure detention on decision making that further contribute to cumulative disadvantage for African Americans. The research was based on interpretations of the symbolic threat thesis, with emphasis on the stereotyping of African Americans as threatening, delinquent, and/or in need of confinement, to study decision making in one juvenile court jurisdiction. The results reveal that legal factors were most often predictors of each type of secure detention and decision making at other stages, but so too was race individually and in combination with legal and extralegal considerations and indirectly through secure detention. The relationships, however, did not always result in disadvantageous outcomes. © The Author(s) 2013.

Miller L.W.,University of South Florida
Circulation | Year: 2011

There is a real need for better therapeutic options for patients with advanced HF to reduce the very impaired quality of life of these patients and the significant personal and economic impact of recurrent hospitalizations. A substantial number of patients could benefit from this therapy who are not currently being referred or considered for LVAD therapy for the variety of reasons detailed above, but primarily because of a lack of familiarity by physicians with current outcomes with LVAD therapy and risk factors for mortality in these patients. Significant expansion of this therapy seems to be both needed and warranted, but it must be supported by randomized trials. © 2011 American Heart Association, Inc.

Batzill M.,University of South Florida
Energy and Environmental Science | Year: 2011

Many metal oxide photocatalysts exhibit strong variations in their photocatalytic activities as a function of their crystallographic surface orientation. In this Perspective possible fundamental reasons for the surface dependent photocatalytic properties are discussed. The majority of the data imply that the differing surface activities for photo-oxidation and -reduction reactions are mainly a consequence of electron and hole diffusion towards different surfaces. This is either due to directional charge carrier diffusion as a result of bulk anisotropies or it is a consequence of differing band bending (or flat band potentials) at the interface of the photocatalyst with its environment. Although the fundamental reason for the surface electronic structure must lie in the surface structure, no correlation between surface chemical properties and photochemical properties has yet been unambiguously determined. The importance of surface charge separation and charge trapping at the surface leads to new concepts for engineering surface properties with potentially increased photocatalytic activity. Consequently, enhancement can be achieved by synthesizing photocatalyst powders that expose surfaces with 'naturally' higher photoactivity; or in a proposed approach by modifying surfaces selectively with special surface phases or monolayer heterostructures that enhance charge separation at the surface. In addition, special surface phases with a narrowed band gap may enable visible light activity of otherwise only UV active bulk materials. © 2011 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

Desmarais S.L.,University of South Florida | Don Read J.,Simon Fraser University
Law and Human Behavior | Year: 2011

Surveys typically characterize lay knowledge of eyewitness factors as low and highly variable. However, there are notable differences across methodologies, samples, and individual factors. To examine these differences systematically, we took a meta-analytic approach to reviewing the findings of 23 surveys assessing lay knowledge of eyewitness issues. Our analyses examined the beliefs of 4,669 respondents. Overall, respondents correctly agreed with survey items approximately two-thirds of the time. Results revealed significant differences in performance as a function of variable type, question format, and over time. We found few differences as a function of sample type, publication status, or jurisdiction. Although performance varied, a majority of lay respondents achieved "correct" consensus for as many as 11 of the 16 items included in this review. © 2010 American Psychology-Law Society/Division 41 of the American Psychological Association.

Dagne G.A.,University of South Florida
Journal of Biopharmaceutical Statistics | Year: 2015

Piecewise growth models are very flexible methods for assessing distinct phases of development or progression in longitudinal data. As an extension of these models, this paper presents piecewise growth mixture Tobit models (PGMTMs) for describing phasic changes of individual trajectories over time where the longitudinal data has a mixture of subpopulations and where left censoring due to a lower limit of detection (LOD) is also observed. There has been relatively little work done simultaneously modeling heterogeneous growth trajectories, segmented phases of progression, and left-censoring with skewed responses. The proposed methods are illustrated using real data from an AIDS clinical study. Analysis results suggested two classes of viral load growth trajectories: Class 1 started with a decline in viral load after treatment but rebound after change-point; Class 2 had a decrease the same as the Class 1 and continued a slower decrease over time. Copyright © 2015 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

Sun H.,University of South Florida
Journal of Sport and Health Science | Year: 2013

The present study was built upon a previous study on the new generation video game, exergame, in elementary school physical education (PE). The purpose of the study was to examine the effect of exergames on elementary children's in-class physical activity (PA) intensity levels and perceived situational interest over time. The results indicated that students' situational interest dropped dramatically over two semesters, but their PA intensity increased over time. The results showed that boys and girls were equally active in the exergaming lessons, but boys perceived their gaming experiences more enjoyable than girls did. The findings suggest that exergames may be a possible means to enhance PA in PE. However, whether exergaming is a sustainable way to motivate children in PA is questionable. © 2012 Shanghai University of Sport.

Kamp S.-M.,Saarland University | Donchin E.,University of South Florida
Psychophysiology | Year: 2015

We investigated the relationship between, and functional significance of, P300, novelty P3, and the pupil dilation response (PDR). Subjects categorized stimuli including (a) words of a frequent category, (b) words of an infrequent category (14%), and (c) pictures of the frequent category ("novels" 14%). The P300 and novelty P3 were uncorrelated with the PDR and differed in their response to experimental manipulation. Therefore, although the three physiological responses often co-occur, they appear to each manifest a distinct function: The PDR may be more closely linked to aspects of behavioral responding than the event-related potentials. Within participants, P300 and PDR latencies accounted for unique portions of the reaction time variance, and amplitudes of all three responses were larger for stimuli recalled on a subsequent test, compared to not recalled. We discuss the possibility that all three responses reflect norepinephric input from the locus coeruleus. © 2014 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

Ma W.-X.,University of South Florida
Reports on Mathematical Physics | Year: 2013

A class of bilinear differential operators is introduced by assigning specific signs to derivatives. The corresponding bilinear differential equations, containing Hirota bilinear equations as particular examples, are characterized by Bell polynomials. Resonant solutions of exponential waves are analyzed via recognizing the superposition principle using Bell polynomials. Two illustrative examples are computed by an algorithm adopting weights of dependent variables. © 2013 Polish Scientific Publishers.

Teo T.S.H.,National University of Singapore | Bhattacherjee A.,University of South Florida
Information and Management | Year: 2014

We developed a nomological network of antecedents and outcomes of knowledge transfer and utilization in IT outsourcing relationships, and tested it using a survey of 146 IT outsourcing partnerships in Singapore. Our findings showed that the characteristics of outsourcing clients, vendors, and knowledge transferred played important roles in facilitating knowledge transfer; the transferred knowledge in conjunction with the knowledge integration mechanisms affected knowledge utilization in client-firms, and that this generated significant operational and strategic performance gains in IT operations. Our findings can aid practitioners determine how to use outsourcing to improve knowledge management in their organization. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

The major goals of forest governance arrangements are sustainable forest management (SFM), poverty alleviation, and enhancement of forest biodiversity. However, in recent years, climate change mitigation, through reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD. +. 11The "+" signifies that climate change mitigation can also be attained by enhancing forest conservation and restoration.) has emerged as one of the most important aspects of forest governance arrangements. This is due to the fact that REDD. + has the potential to provide a framework for mitigating greenhouse gas emissions from deforestation and forest degradation while addressing rural poverty and conserving forest biodiversity at the same time. In other words, the REDD. + scheme provides co-benefits beyond its main goal of reducing greenhouse gas emissions. Therefore, REDD. + is seen by many forest governance experts as a scheme that has the potential to slow down deforestation in a country like Cameroon, which arguably, has the highest rate of deforestation in the Congo Basin. However, this will depend on the effectiveness of Cameroon's REDD. + policy strategy, its efficiency in meeting its objectives at the lowest cost, and its ability to equitably distribute costs and benefits associated with the scheme. This paper assesses the effectiveness of REDD. + policy design in Cameroon within the context of the climate change regime. The paper employs the policy design approach to analyze four components of Cameroon's REDD. + policy design framework - governance and institutional arrangement; emissions baseline; leakage and scale; and technical issues. An economic-based assessment of the forest transition curve and the environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) reveals limitations that could render the REDD. + scheme cost ineffective for Cameroon. The paper suggests that Cameroon would have to focus on strengthening its existing governance structures and nurturing its forest related international agreements, if it is to design a REDD. + policy strategy that is consistent with the "nested" climate change regime approach. © 2014 Elsevier B.V..

Ma W.,University of South Florida
Journal of Mathematical Physics | Year: 2013

We present a spectral problem, based on the three-dimensional real special orthogonal Lie algebra so (3,R), and construct a hierarchy of commuting bi-Hamiltonian soliton equations by zero curvature equations associated with the spectral problem. An illustrative example of soliton equations is computed, together with its associated bi-Hamiltonian structure. © 2013 AIP Publishing LLC.

Baksh K.,Donald am Comprehensive Melanoma Research Center | Baksh K.,University of South Florida | Weber J.,Donald am Comprehensive Melanoma Research Center
Seminars in Oncology | Year: 2015

Over the last two decades, our understanding of the molecular basis of immunity has revealed the complexity of regulatory pathways involved in immune responses to cancer. A significant body of data support the critical importance of immune checkpoints in the control of the adaptive immune response to malignancy, and suggest that inhibitors of those checkpoints might have significant utility in treating cancer. This has been borne out by the recent US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approvals of two different antibodies, one against cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen-4 (CTLA-4) and one against programmed death-1 (PD-1). Here, we provide a comprehensive review of the literature regarding the preclinical justification for the use of CTLA-4 and PD-1 blockade as monotherapy, and as combination therapy in the treatment of cancer. The animal data strongly supported the use of these drugs in patients, and in many cases suggested strategies that directly led to successful registration trials. In contrast, many of the toxicities, and some of the unusual response patterns seen in patients with these drugs, were not predicted by the preclinical work that we cite, highlighting the importance of early-phase trials with patients to inform future drug development. In addition, we review herein the preclinical data surrounding emerging immune checkpoint proteins, including BTLA, VISTA, CD160, LAG3, TIM3, and CD244 as potential targets for inhibition. The current comprehensive review of the literature regarding CTLA-4 and PD-1, as well as a number of novel checkpoint proteins demonstrates a strong preclinical basis for the use of these antibodies singly and in combination to overcome checkpoint inhibition in the treatment of cancer. We also suggest that the use of these antibodies may augment the efficacy of other activating immune antibodies, cytokines, radiation, and adoptive cell therapy in human cancer. © 2015 Elsevier Inc.

Gustke K.,University of South Florida
Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery - Series B | Year: 2012

The use of short stems has become more popular with the increased interest in less invasive approaches for total hip arthroplasty. The curved broaches and stem can be inserted along a curved track to avoid the abductor attachments. Short stems have the potential of being more bone conserving by allowing for higher neck retention, maintenance of the medial greater trochanter, and preferential stress transfer to the proximal femur. An initial experience with 500 new short stems (Fitmore, Zimmer Orthopedics) stems used for total hip arthroplasty is reported. No stems have been revised for aseptic loosening. ©2012 British Editorial Society of Bone and Joint Surgery.

Objectives: This study assessed whether pretreatment quality-of-life (QoL) scores could predict the presence of pancreatic malignancy and survival. Methods: Patients with pancreatic lesions completed the SF-36, containing 8 domains: physical functioning, role-physical, role-emotional, bodily pain, vitality, mental health, social functioning, and general health. Data obtained included age, sex, resectability, additional antineoplastic therapy, stage, pathology, and survival. Patients were categorized by pathology (benign vs malignant), stage (local, regional, or distant), resectability (resected vs not), survival (<1 vs >1 year), and their pretreatment QoL scores. Results: Of the 323 patients assessed, 210 had malignancies. In 6 of the 8 domains, patients with malignancies had lower median QoL scores compared with patients with benign lesions. Of the patients with malignancies, patients surviving at 1 year or less had lower pretreatment scores in all domains. Stage, resection, adjuvant therapy, and vitality score were independent predictors of survival. Conclusions: Patients with pancreatic malignancies had lower QoL scores than patients with benign pancreatic disease. Patients with malignancies surviving at 1 year or less had lower scores, even after controlling for stage. This suggests that pretreatment QoL scores are associated with pancreatic malignancy and survival. Copyright © 2011 by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

Chakraborty B.,New York University | Jonoska N.,University of South Florida | Seeman N.C.,New York University
Chemical Science | Year: 2012

A transducer consists of an input/output alphabet, a finite set of states, and a transition function. From an input symbol applied to a given state, the transition function determines the next state, and an output symbol. Using DNA, we have constructed a transducer that divides a number by 3. The input consists of a series of individually addressable 2-state DNA nanomechanical devices that control the orientations of a group of flat 6-helix DNA motifs; these motifs have edge domains tailed in sticky ends corresponding to the numbers 0 and 1. Three-domain DNA molecules (TX tiles) act as computational tiles that correspond to the transitions that the transducer can undergo. The output domain of these TX tiles contains sticky ends that also correspond to 0 or 1. Two different DNA tiles can chelate these output domains: a 5 nm gold nanoparticle is attached to the chelating tile that binds to 0-domains and a 10 nm gold nanoparticle is attached to the chelating tile that binds to 1-domains. The answer to the division is represented by the series of gold nanoparticles, which can be interpreted as a binary number. The answers of the computation are read out by examination of the transducer complexes under a transmission electron microscope. The start or end points of the output sequence can be indicated by the presence of a 15 nm gold nanoparticle. This work demonstrates two previously unreported features integrated in a single framework: a system that combines DNA algorithmic self-assembly with DNA nanomechanical devices that control that input, and the arrangement of non-DNA species, here metallic nanoparticles, through DNA algorithmic self-assembly. The nanomechanical devices are controlled by single-stranded DNA strands, allowing multiple input sequences to be applied to the rest of the system, thus guiding the algorithmic self-assembly to a variety of outputs. © 2012 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

Kim M.K.,University of South Florida
Journal of the Optical Society of Korea | Year: 2010

Digital holography (DH) is a potentially disruptive new technology for many areas of imaging science, especially in microscopy and metrology. DH offers a number of significant advantages such as the ability to acquire holograms rapidly, availability of complete amplitude and phase information of the optical field, and versatility of the interferometric and image processing techniques. This article provides a review of the digital holography, with an emphasis on its applications in biomedical microscopy. The quantitative phase microscopy by DH is described including some of the special techniques such as optical phase unwrapping and holography of total internal reflection. Tomographic imaging by digital interference holography (DIH) and related methods is described, as well as its applications in ophthalmic imaging and in biometry. Holographic manipulation and monitoring of cells and cellular components is another exciting new area of research. We discuss some of the current issues, trends, and potentials.

Mieczkowski T.,University of South Florida
Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine | Year: 2010

The purpose of this article is to compare the differential rate of detection of illicit drugs when using two distinct sample types, hair and urine specimens. The specimens were collected from persons who applied for employment as a truck driver, or were collected from randomly selected currently employed truck drivers. The data is examined for job applicants and employees to determine if any differences in outcomes are associated with employment status or specimen type. The data is also assessed for specific patterns associated with particular drugs and their assay outcomes. Overall, it was determined that drug positive cases are relatively rare. Job applicants are more likely to test positive for an illicit drug than a currently employed driver. Applicants are more frequently positive for a drug by a factor of 3 for both urinalysis and hair analysis when compared to currently employed drivers. Approximately 2% of applicants were urine positive and 9% hair positive for an illegal drug. Considering employed truck drivers 0.6% were drug positive by urinalysis and 3% when using hair analysis. It is concluded that hair assays detect more drug use than urinalysis. It is also concluded that when urine and hair assay outcomes are non-concordant the typical case is a positive hair analysis with a negative urinalysis. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

Hoy R.S.,University of South Florida
Physical Review E - Statistical, Nonlinear, and Soft Matter Physics | Year: 2015

We examine the structure and dynamics of small isolated N-particle clusters interacting via short-ranged Morse potentials. "Ideally prepared ensembles" obtained via exact enumeration studies of sticky hard-sphere packings serve as reference states allowing us to identify key statistical-geometrical properties and to quantitatively characterize how nonequilibrium ensembles prepared by thermal quenches at different rates T differ from their equilibrium counterparts. Studies of equilibrium dynamics show nontrivial temperature dependence: nonexponential relaxation indicates both glassy dynamics and differing stabilities of degenerate clusters with different structures. Our results should be useful for extending recent experimental studies of small colloidal clusters to examine both equilibrium relaxation dynamics at fixed T and a variety of nonequilibrium phenomena. © 2015 American Physical Society.

Gustke K.A.,Florida Orthopaedic Institute | Gustke K.A.,University of South Florida
Bone and Joint Journal | Year: 2014

Total knee replacement (TKR) smart tibial trials have load-bearing sensors which will show quantitative compartment pressure values and femoral-tibial tracking patterns. Without smart trials, surgeons rely on feel and visual estimation of imbalance to determine if the knee is optimally balanced. Corrective soft-tissue releases are performed with minimal feedback as to what and how much should be released. The smart tibial trials demonstrate graphically where and how much imbalance is present, so that incremental releases can be performed. The smart tibial trials now also incorporate accelerometers which demonstrate the axial alignment. This now allows the surgeon the option to perform a slight recut of the tibia or femur to provide soft-tissue balance without performing soft-tissue releases. Using a smart tibial trial to assist with soft-tissue releases or bone re-cuts, improved patient outcomes have been demonstrated at one year in a multicentre study of 135 patients (135 knees). © 2014 The British Editorial Society of Bone and Joint Surgery.

Obeid N.M.,Ford Motor Company | Velanovich V.,University of South Florida
Annals of Surgery | Year: 2013

BACKGROUND: Controversy exists on the use of mesh in the repair of paraesophageal hernias (PEH). This debate centers around the type of mesh used, its value in preventing recurrence, its short- and long-term complications, and the consequences of those complications compared with primary repair. Decision analysis is a method to account for the important aspects of a clinical decision. The purpose of this study was to determine whether or not the addition of mesh would be superior in PEH repair. METHODS: A decision analysis model of the choice between primary repair and mesh repair of a PEH was constructed. The essential features of the decision were the rate of perioperative complications, PEH recurrence rate, reoperation rate after recurrence, rate of symptomatic recurrence, and type of outcome after reoperation. The literature was reviewed to obtain data for the decision analysis and the average rates used in the baseline analysis. A utility score was used as the outcome measure, with a perfect outcome receiving a score of 100 and death 0. Sensitivity analysis was used to determine if changing the rates of recurrence or reoperation changed the dominant treatment. RESULTS: Using the baseline analysis, mesh repair was slightly superior to primary repair (utility score 99.59 vs 99.12, respectively). However, if recurrence rates were similar, primary repair would be slightly superior; whereas if reoperation rates were similar, mesh repair would be superior. Using sensitivity analysis, there are combinations of recurrence rates and reoperation rates that would make one repair superior to the other. However, these differences are relatively small. CONCLUSIONS: Depending on what the decision-maker accepts as the recurrence and reoperation rates for these types of repair, either mesh or primary repair may be the treatment of choice. However, the differences between the two are small, and, perhaps, clinically inconsequential. Copyright © 2013 by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

Richesson R.L.,University of South Florida | Nadkarni P.,Yale University
Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association | Year: 2011

Case report forms (CRFs) are used for structured-data collection in clinical research studies. Existing CRFrelated standards encompass structural features of forms and data items, content standards, and specifications for using terminologies. This paper reviews existing standards and discusses their current limitations. Because clinical research is highly protocolspecific, forms-development processes are more easily standardized than is CRF content. Tools that support retrieval and reuse of existing items will enable standards adoption in clinical research applications. Such tools will depend upon formal relationships between items and terminological standards. Future standards adoption will depend upon standardized approaches for bridging generic structural standards and domain-specific content standards. Clinical research informatics can help define tools requirements in terms of workflow support for research activities, reconcile the perspectives of varied clinical research stakeholders, and coordinate standards efforts toward interoperability across healthcare and research data collection.

Borlongan C.V.,University of South Florida
Leukemia | Year: 2011

Mobilizing bone cells to the head, astutely referred to as bonehead therapeutic approach, represents a major discipline of regenerative medicine. The last decade has witnessed mounting evidence supporting the capacity of bone marrow (BM)-derived cells to mobilize from BM to peripheral blood (PB), eventually finding their way to the injured brain. This homing action is exemplified in BM stem cell mobilization following ischemic brain injury. Here, I review accumulating laboratory studies implicating the role of therapeutic mobilization of transplanted BM stem cells for brain plasticity and remodeling in stroke. © 2011 Macmillan Publishers Limited All rights reserved.

Haynie D.T.,University of South Florida
Proteins: Structure, Function and Bioinformatics | Year: 2014

Numerous proteins have been identified as constituents of the adhesome, the totality of molecular components in the supramolecular assemblies known as focal adhesions, fibrillar adhesions and other kinds of adhesive contact. The transmembrane receptor proteins called integrins are pivotal adhesome members, providing a physical link between the extracellular matrix (ECM) and the actin cytoskeleton. Tensins are ever more widely investigated intracellular adhesome constituents. Involved in cell attachment and migration, cytoskeleton reorganization, signal transduction and other processes relevant to cancer research, tensins have recently been linked to functional properties of deleted in liver cancer 1 (DLC1) and a mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK), to cell migration in breast cancer, and to metastasis suppression in the kidney. Tensins are close relatives of phosphatase homolog/tensin homolog (PTEN), an extensively studied tumor suppressor. Such findings are recasting the earlier vision of tensin (TNS) as an actin-filament (F-actin) capping protein in a different light. This critical review aims to summarize current knowledge on tensins and thus to highlight key points concerning the expression, structure, function, and evolution of the various members of the TNS brotherhood. Insight is sought by comparisons with homologous proteins. Some historical points are added for perspective. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Hall C.,University of South Florida
Ethics, Policy and Environment | Year: 2013

Convinced of the importance of framing, many environmentalists have begun emphasizing positive visions of a happy and healthy green future rather than gloomy pictures of deprivation and sacrifice. 'Gloom and doom' discourses foster despair and resistance, they worry, instead of hope and motivation to change. While positive visions are crucial, though, it is ineffective to deny that living more sustainably will involve any loss. Since people value many incompatible things, living more sustainably will inevitably entail both sacrifice and reward. Environmentalists must help articulate new possibilities of a greener future without dismissing the value of what must be given up. © 2013 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.

Richter J.E.,University of South Florida
Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology | Year: 2013

Even skilled surgeons will have complications after antireflux surgery. Fortunately, the mortality is low (<1%) with laparoscopic surgery, immediate postoperative morbidity is uncommon (5%-20%), and conversion to an open operation is <2.5%. Common late postoperative complications include gas-bloat syndrome (up to 85%), dysphagia (10%-50%), diarrhea (18%-33%), and recurrent heartburn (10%-62%). Most of these complications improve during the 3-6 months after surgery. Dietary modifications, pharmacologic therapies, and esophageal dilation may be helpful. Failures after antireflux surgery usually occur within the first 2 years after the initial operation. They fall into 5 patterns: herniation of the fundoplication into the chest, slipped fundoplication, tight fundoplication, paraesophageal hernia, and malposition of the fundoplication. Reoperation rates range from 0%-15% and should be performed by experienced foregut surgeons. © 2013 AGA Institute.

Novitzky D.,University of South Florida | Cooper D.K.C.,University of Pittsburgh
Journal of Endocrinology | Year: 2014

Acute critically ill patients experience a rapid decline in plasma free thyroid hormone levels (free triiodothyronine (FT3) and free levothyroxine (FT4)), with a marked elevation of reverse T3, recognized as the euthyroid sick syndrome (ESS) or low-T3 syndrome. The ESS is also often associated with depressed myocardial function, sometimes referred to as the 'stunned myocardium'. Its clinical effects may vary from minimal hemodynamic impairment to cardiogenic shock. Medical management may range from aspirin alone to placement of a left ventricular assist device. With adequate supportive therapy, recovery usually occurs within days or weeks. The effect of T3/T4 therapy has been studied in three conditions in which the ESS and myocardial functional depression have been documented - i) transient regional myocardial ischemia and reperfusion, ii) transient global myocardial ischemia in patients undergoing cardiac surgery on cardiopulmonary bypass, and iii) transient inadequate global myocardial perfusion in brain-dead potential organ donors. Under all three conditions, myocardial ischemia leads to rapid loss of high-energy phosphates, accumulation of myocardial tissue lactate, and probably loss of homeostasis of cytosolic calcium, which may further increase cell injury. There is an inability to generate ATP through the Krebs cycle, which reduces the high-energy phosphate pool essential for all cell ATPases. Under all three conditions, following administration of T3/T4, the myocardial dysfunction was rapidly reversed. We, therefore, cautiously advocate the use of thyroid hormonal therapy to any patient with the ESS and/or a stunned myocardium. © 2014 Society for Endocrinology.