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Columbia, SC, United States

The University of South Carolina is a public, co-educational research university located in Columbia, South Carolina, United States, with seven satellite campuses. Its campus covers over 359 acres in downtown Columbia not far from the South Carolina State House. The University is categorized by the Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching as having "very high research activity" and curricular community engagement. It has been ranked as an "up-and-coming" university by U.S. News & World Report, and its undergraduate and graduate International Business programs have ranked among the top three programs in the nation for over a decade. It also houses the largest collection of Robert Burns and Scottish literature materials outside of Scotland, and the largest Ernest Hemingway collection in the world.Founded in 1801 as South Carolina College, South Carolina is the flagship institution of the University of South Carolina System and offers more than 350 programs of study leading to bachelor's, master's, and doctoral degrees from fourteen degree-granting colleges and schools. The University of South Carolina System has an enrollment of approximately 47,724 students, with 32,848 on the main Columbia campus as of fall 2013. USC also has several thousand future students in feeder programs at surrounding technical colleges. Professional schools on the Columbia campus include social work, business, engineering, law, medicine, and pharmacy. Wikipedia.

Turner-McGrievy G.,University of South Carolina
Journal of medical Internet research | Year: 2011

Previous interventions have shown promising results using theory-based podcasts to deliver a behavioral weight-loss intervention. The objective of our study was to examine whether a combination of podcasting, mobile support communication, and mobile diet monitoring can assist people in weight loss. In this 6-month, minimal contact intervention, overweight (n = 96, body mass index 32.6 kg/m(2)) adults were recruited through television advertisements and email listservs and randomly assigned to Podcast-only or Podcast+Mobile groups. Both groups received 2 podcasts per week for 3 months and 2 minipodcasts per week for months 3-6. In addition to the podcasts, the Podcast+Mobile group was also instructed to use a diet and physical activity monitoring application (app) on their mobile device and to interact with study counselors and other participants on Twitter. Weight loss did not differ by group at 6 months: mean -2.7% (SD 5.6%) Podcast+Mobile, n = 47; mean -2.7% (SD 5.1%) Podcast, n = 49; P = .98. Days/week of reported diet monitoring did not differ between Podcast+Mobile (mean 2.3, SD 1.9 days/week) and Podcast groups (mean 1.9, SD 1.7 days/week; P = .28) but method of monitoring did differ. Podcast+Mobile participants were 3.5 times more likely than the Podcast group to use an app to monitor diet (P = .01), whereas the majority of Podcast participants reported using the Web (14/41, 34%) or paper (12/41, 29%). There were more downloads per episode in the Podcast+Mobile group (1.4/person) than in the Podcast group (1.1/person; P < .001). The number of podcasts participants reported downloading over the 6-month period was significantly moderately correlated with weight loss in both the Podcast+Mobile (r = -.46, P = .001) and the Podcast (r = -.53, P < .001) groups. Podcast+Mobile participants felt more user control at 3 months (P = .02), but not at 6 months, and there was a trend (P = .06) toward greater elaboration among Podcast+Mobile participants. There were significant differences in reported source of social support between groups. More Podcast participants relied on friends (11/40, 28% vs 4/40, 10%; P = .045) whereas Podcast+Mobile participants relied on online sources (10/40, 25% vs 0/40; P = .001). Results confirm and extend previous findings showing a minimally intensive weight-loss intervention can be delivered via podcast, but prompting and mobile communication via Twitter and monitoring app without feedback did not enhance weight loss. Clinicaltrials.gov NCT01139255; http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01139255 (Archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation.org/625OjhiDy).

Moore W.S.,University of South Carolina
Annual Review of Marine Science | Year: 2010

The exchange of groundwater between land and sea is a major component of the hydrological cycle. This exchange, called submarine groundwater discharge (SGD), is comprised of terrestrial water mixed with sea water that has infiltrated coastal aquifers. The composition of SGD differs from that predicted by simple mixing because biogeochemical reactions in the aquifer modify its chemistry. To emphasize the importance of mixing and chemical reaction, these coastal aquifers are called subterranean estuaries. Geologists recognize this mixing zone as a site of carbonate diagenesis and dolomite formation. Biologists have recognized that terrestrial inputs of nutrients to the coastal ocean may occur through subterranean processes. Further evidence of SGD comes from the distribution of chemical tracers in the coastal ocean. These tracers originate within coastal aquifers and reach the ocean through SGD. Tracer studies reveal that SGD provides globally important fluxes of nutrients, carbon, and metals to coastal waters. © 2010 by Annual Reviews.

Hypertensive patients with clinical blood pressure (BP) uncontrolled on ≥3 antihypertensive medications (ie, apparent treatment-resistant hypertension [aTRH]) comprise ≈28% to 30% of all uncontrolled patients in the United States. However, the proportion receiving these medications in optimal doses is unknown; aTRH is used because treatment adherence and measurement artifacts were not available in electronic record data from our >200 community-based clinics Outpatient Quality Improvement Network. This study sought to define the proportion of uncontrolled hypertensives with aTRH on optimal regimens and clinical factors associated with optimal therapy. During 2007-2010, 468 877 hypertensive patients met inclusion criteria. BP <140/<90 mm Hg defined control. Multivariable logistic regression was used to assess variables independently associated with optimal therapy (prescription of diuretic and ≥2 other BP medications at ≥50% of maximum recommended hypertension doses). Among 468 877 hypertensives, 147 635 (31.5%) were uncontrolled; among uncontrolled hypertensives, 44 684 were prescribed ≥3 BP medications (30.3%), of whom 22 189 (15.0%) were prescribed optimal therapy. Clinical factors independently associated with optimal BP therapy included black race (odds ratio, 1.40 [95% confidence interval, 1.32-1.49]), chronic kidney disease (1.31 [1.25-1.38]), diabetes mellitus (1.30 [1.24-1.37]), and coronary heart disease risk equivalent status (1.29 [1.14-1.46]). Clinicians more often prescribe optimal therapy for aTRH when cardiovascular risk is greater and treatment goals lower. Approximately 1 in 7 of all uncontrolled hypertensives and 1 in 2 with uncontrolled aTRH are prescribed ≥3 BP medications in optimal regimens. Prescribing more optimal pharmacotherapy for uncontrolled hypertensives including aTRH, confirmed with out-of-office BP, could improve hypertension control.

A thermo-responsive poly{γ-2-[2-(2-methoxyethoxy)ethoxy]ethoxy-ε-caprolactone}-b-poly(γ-octyloxy-ε-caprolactone) (PMEEECL-b-POCTCL) diblock copolymer was synthesized by ring-opening polymerization using tin octanoate (Sn(Oct)(2)) catalyst and a fluorescent dansyl initiator. The PMEEECL-b-POCTCL had a lower critical solution temperature (LCST) of 38 °C, and it was employed to prepare thermally responsive micelles. Nile Red and Doxorubicin (DOX) were loaded into the micelles, and the micellar stability and drug carrying ability were investigated. The size and the morphology of the cargo-loaded micelles were determined by DLS, AFM, and TEM. The Nile-Red-loaded polymeric micelles were found to be stable in the presence of both fetal bovine serum and bovine serum albumin over a 72 h period and displayed thermo-responsive in vitro drug release. The blank micelles showed a low cytotoxicity. As comparison, the micelles loaded with DOX showed a much higher in vitro cytotoxicity against MCF-7 human breast cancer cell line when the incubation temperature was elevated above the LCST. Confocal laser scanning microscopy was used to study the cellular uptake and showed that the DOX-loaded micelles were internalized into the cells via an endocytosis pathway.

Hughes A.L.,University of South Carolina
Heredity | Year: 2012

Recent evidence suggests the frequent occurrence of a simple non-Darwinian (but non-Lamarckian) model for the evolution of adaptive phenotypic traits, here entitled the plasticity-relaxation-mutation (PRM) mechanism. This mechanism involves ancestral phenotypic plasticity followed by specialization in one alternative environment and thus the permanent expression of one alternative phenotype. Once this specialization occurs, purifying selection on the molecular basis of other phenotypes is relaxed. Finally, mutations that permanently eliminate the pathways leading to alternative phenotypes can be fixed by genetic drift. Although the generality of the PRM mechanism is at present unknown, I discuss evidence for its widespread occurrence, including the prevalence of exaptations in evolution, evidence that phenotypic plasticity has preceded adaptation in a number of taxa and evidence that adaptive traits have resulted from loss of alternative developmental pathways. The PRM mechanism can easily explain cases of explosive adaptive radiation, as well as recently reported cases of apparent adaptive evolution over ecological time. © 2012 Macmillan Publishers Limited All rights reserved.

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