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Ceske Budejovice, Czech Republic

University of South Bohemia in České Budějovice is a public university located in the city of České Budějovice with remote locations in cities of Tábor, Vodňany, Nové Hrady). Wikipedia.

Kalac P.,University of South Bohemia
Food Chemistry | Year: 2011

Silage has been the prevailing type of preserved forage for cattle feeding in many countries. Carry-over of some components from silage to cow's milk has been thus of concern. Silage is a richer source of available provitamins A, other carotenoids and tocopherols than hay due to higher losses of these compounds during forage field-drying and hay storage. Ensiled grasses and legume forages contain higher levels of carotenoids and tocopherols than maize silage. Numerous terpenes are carried-over to milk and cheeses from grazed multifloral pastures or from hay, while silages are a poorer source of these flavour-affecting compounds. Data on alcohols, acids, esters, aldehydes and ketones in silage and especially information on their carry-over to milk are insufficient. Milk can gain a bad smell from a stable atmosphere if silage, particularly of poor quality, is fed. Red clover silage feeding can cause considerable levels of estrogenic equol in milk. Deoxynivalenol and zearalenone are the main mycotoxins formed in silage. Their content is reduced by the activity of both some lactic acid bacteria in silage and rumen microflora. The excretion of the mycotoxins in milk is generally low. Silages can be a pool of the undesirable bacteria Bacillus cereus, Clostridium tyrobutyricum and Listeria monocytogenes. Milk contamination with these bacteria can be decreased by the prevention of silage deacidification following air access, and by improving the dairy farm environment, cow hygiene and by sanitary milk harvesting. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

Sobotka R.,University of South Bohemia
Photosynthesis Research | Year: 2014

Chlorophyll (Chl) is an essential component of the photosynthetic apparatus. Embedded into Chl-binding proteins, Chl molecules play a central role in light harvesting and charge separation within the photosystems. It is critical for the photosynthetic cell to not only ensure the synthesis of a sufficient amount of new Chl-binding proteins but also avoids any misbalance between apoprotein synthesis and the formation of potentially phototoxic Chl molecules. According to the available data, Chl-binding proteins are translated on membrane bound ribosomes and their integration into the membrane is provided by the SecYEG/Alb3 translocon machinery. It appears that the insertion of Chl molecules into growing polypeptide is a prerequisite for the correct folding and finishing of Chl-binding protein synthesis. Although the Chl biosynthetic pathway is fairly well-described on the level of enzymatic steps, a link between Chl biosynthesis and the synthesis of apoproteins remains elusive. In this review, I summarize the current knowledge about this issue putting emphasis on protein-protein interactions. I present a model of the Chl biosynthetic pathway organized into a multi-enzymatic complex and physically attached to the SecYEG/Alb3 translocon. Localization of this hypothetical large biosynthetic centre in the cyanobacterial cell is also discussed as well as regulatory mechanisms coordinating the rate of Chl and apoprotein synthesis. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.

MarouSek J.,University of South Bohemia
Industrial Crops and Products | Year: 2013

The removal of hardly fermentable ballast from the maize silage was investigated on a commercial scale to reduce the retention times, volumes of fermentors and associated heating requirements. The technology consisted of the under-hot-water maceration followed by decantation and the double-screw-press to separate the most labile pools of carbon from the ballast organic matter. This procedure minimized the inhibitor formations in the subsequent steam-explosion followed by enzymatic hydrolysis. The hydrolysis products were squeezed out from the lignocellulose ballast by the rotary dewatering press, fused with liquids previously obtained and anaerobically fermented providing 316.7m3CH4VSt-1 in 200h. The rigid briquettes from the ballast at the rotary dewatering press were charcoaled (27.506MJkg-1). All the technology was designed to run on the waste heat from the flue gases (490°C) at the cogeneration unit linked to the 1MWep biogas station. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

The review follows a previous report (Kalač & Svoboda, 2000), focused on cadmium, mercury and lead. Numerous papers on the topic, published during the last decade, rendered a lot of new information on 15 reviewed metals and metalloids and limited information on a further 14 elements and lanthanides. Usual reported contents for most of species grown in unpolluted sites are 20-150 (Al), 0.5-5 (As), 2-4 (Ba), 1-5 (Cd), <0.5 (Co), 0.5-5 (Cr), 20-100 (Cu), 50-300 (Fe), <0.5-5 (Hg), 10-60 (Mn), traces-15 (Ni), <5 (Pb), <2 (Se), <0.1 (Sb) and 25-200 (Zn) mg kg-1 dry matter. These values can be considerably, even by order of magnitude, increased in mushrooms picked in polluted areas. Moreover, some species have accumulating and even hyperaccumulating ability for various elements. The possibility to evaluate toxicological risk or nutritional asset has been thus limited. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Kalac P.,University of South Bohemia
Food Chemistry | Year: 2014

This review continues a previous one (Kalač & Krausová, 2005). Dietary polyamines spermidine and spermine participate in an array of physiological roles with both favourable and injurious effects on human health. Dieticians thus need plausible information on their content in various foods. The data on the polyamine contents in raw food materials increased considerably during the reviewed period, while information on their changes during processing and storage have yet been fragmentary and inconsistent. Spermidine and spermine originate mainly from raw materials. Their high contents are typical particularly for inner organs and meat of warm-blooded animals, soybean and fermented soybean products and some mushroom species. Generally, polyamine contents range widely within the individual food items. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

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