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Saleem M.,Directorate General Extension Livestock and Dairy Development | Rahim I.,University of South Asia of Pakistan | Rueff H.,University of Bern | Rueff H.,University of Oxford | And 5 more authors.
Tropical Animal Health and Production | Year: 2012

This study evaluates the effect of management on the undocumented Achai cattle reproductive performance in transhumant farming systems (TFS) and in sedentary farming systems (SFS) in northwestern Pakistan. Data were collected from 172 households in TFS and 270 households in SFS to analyze the effect of farming systems, parity, and calving season on key reproductive traits. The results show that farming systems significantly affect pubertal age, while parity has no significant effect on any of the key traits. The calving season significantly affects the postpartum anoestrus interval in TFS only. More than 50% of the cows in both systems have postpartum anoestrus intervals and calving intervals within the recommended values for cows in tropical countries. Achai cows have high first-service conception rates (70% and 71% for TFS and SFS, respectively) and require a relatively small number of services per conception (1.53 ± 0.06 and 1.48 ± 0.05 SE for TFS and SFS, respectively). This local breed thus warrants conservation under both farming systems. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media B.V. Source


Saeed A.,University of South Asia of Pakistan | Raana T.,Government of Pakistan | Saeed A.M.,Kinnaird College for Women | Humayun A.,SheikhKhalifa Bin Zayed Al Nahyan Medical College
Nutrition Journal | Year: 2016

Background: In Pakistan, incidence of antenatal depression ranges from 18 to 80 %, which goes undiagnosed, resulting in maternal and neonatal implications. The current study aimed to examine the association of antenatal depression with maternal dietary intake and neonatal outcome. Methods: A hospital-based, prospective cohort study was conducted on 94 middle class antenatal attendees coming to a tertiary care hospital in Lahore, Pakistan at the beginning of second trimester. Participants fulfilling eligibility were enrolled consecutively after taking written informed consent. Exposure group was identified by Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) and cohort members were followed till after delivery. Maternal dietary intake was assessed by 24-h Recall and Food Frequency Checklist, while neonatal outcome was identified through patient files before discharge. Data on potential confounders was collected. Loss to follow up was 13 % (82/94). Data was collected from April-September 2013. Results for 82 participants were analyzed using SPSS version 21. Results: EPDS screened 35/82 (43 %) eligible antenatal attendees as depressed, out of which 16/35 (20 %) were severely depressed and 19/35 (23 %) were moderately depressed. Incidence of poor maternal dietary intake was more in females with antenatal depression. Antenatal depression increased the risk of poor Healthy Eating Index (RR = 2.58, C.I 1.60-5.23, AR = 62 %), carbohydrate <175 gm (RR = 1.188, CI 0.836-1.688, AR = 15 %), protein <71 gm (RR = 1.343, CI 1.059-1.703, AR = 26 %) and fat <55 gm (RR = 2.954, CI 1.612-5.416, AR = 67 %) Incidence of neonatal outcomes included, Fetal Growth Retardation (RR = 2.70, C.I 0.69-3.70, AR = 60 %), preterm birth (RR = 1.60, C.I 0.72-2.45, AR = 54 %), low Apgar score (RR = 2.70, C.I 0.69-3.70, AR = 60 %) and Low Birth Weight (RR = 0.56, C.I 0.93-1.39, AR = -44 %). Conclusion: Antenatal women with depression developed poor dietary intake and had increased incidence of Fetal Growth Retardation, preterm birth and low Apgar score, but not of Low Birth Weight. © 2016 The Author(s). Source


Waqas M.K.,Islamia University of Bahawalpur | Akhtar N.,Islamia University of Bahawalpur | Shah P.A.,University of Punjab | Danish M.Z.,University of Punjab | And 3 more authors.
Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences | Year: 2016

The aim of current research was to develop a water-in-oil emulsion containing grape seed extract for application in cosmeceuticals. Finally grinded dried grape seeds powder was extracted with hydro alcoholic mixture. Emulsions consisting of different concentrations of cetyl dimethicone (Abile EM90), the nonionic emulsifier, liquid paraffin as oily phase and water as aqueous phase were developed. Color, odor, pH, viscosity, liquefaction, phase separation, centrifugation and thermal stability of the formulated emulsions were observed at various storage temperatures i.e. 8±0.5°C, 25±0.5°C, 40±0.5°C and 40°C±0.5°C with 70% RH. The stable formulation consist of 16% mineral oil, 4% of ABIL EM 90®, 4% grape seeds extract, 1% rose oil and 75% distilled water. All the results derived from this study showed good stability over the three months study period which indicates w/o emulsion can be used as carrier of 4% grape seeds extract to enhance desired effects when applied topically. Source


Masood K.,Institute of Nuclear Medicine and Oncology | Zafar J.,COMSATS Institute of Information Technology | Zafar J.,University of South Asia of Pakistan | Zafar H.,National University of Ireland
IEEE Transactions on Plasma Science | Year: 2012

A directly heated line source emitter with beam power (>50 KW/cm 2) is developed. The emitter assembly design parameters and beam characteristics are analyzed using a highly uniform magnetically confined region. Circular cross-sectional tungsten cathodes of diameters 0.9 mm and 1.5 mm were used, and their results are compared. The developed emitter configuration ensures low angular divergence, millisecond evaporation time for large samples, operational reproducibility, and beam stability. The emitter source has been tested by experimentally developing extremely homogeneous magnetic field in large cylindrical region of more than one-half of the coil's diameter. © 2012 IEEE. Source


Shahab M.B.,The University of Lahore | Wahla M.A.,University of South Asia of Pakistan | Mushtaq M.T.,The University of Lahore
2015 38th International Conference on Telecommunications and Signal Processing, TSP 2015 | Year: 2015

This paper proposes a downlink resource scheduling technique for maximized throughput with reduced Block Error Ratio and improved fairness among different users across the cellular region. Resources are allocated to users on the basis of Channel Quality Indicator feedback values in a way that the data rates are increased without compromising on Block Error Ratio and fairness. Channel Quality Indicator feedback values provide critical information about the channel, which enables the scheduler to perform radio resource management functions in the downlink. Simulations are performed on a link level simulator for different scenarios. Results of simulations have been demonstrated, thoroughly explained and compared with the existing scheduling techniques designed for high data rates with and without fairness. © 2015 IEEE. Source

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