University of Sothern California

University of Sothern California

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Zhou S.,Tianjin Medical University | Liang D.,University of Sothern California
Chinese Journal of Microbiology and Immunology (China) | Year: 2014

Objective: To investigate whether toll like receptor (TLR) signaling pathways can increase the expression of IL-17R in neuralglial cells, and if they can whether the increased IL-17R is functional. Methods: Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) was induced in B6 mice by immunization with an emulsion of myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein 35-55 (MOG35-55) in complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA). The expression of Il17ra and Il17rc in the brains and spinal cords of mice with EAE were detected by real-time PCR. Luxol fast blue (LFB) staining was performed to the spinal cord sections to detect tissue demyelination. Immunohistological staining against IL-17RA and CD3 were undertook to visualize IL-17RA+ and CD3+ cells. Same approaches were also applied to immunized Rag1-/- mice to figure out whether T cells infiltration is necessary for increasing IL-17RA expression in the central nervous system (CNS). Then B6 mice were immunized with incomplete Freund's adjuvant (IFA) plus different TLRs agonists to measure the expression of Il17ra in the brains and spinal cords by qPCR. The purified astrocytes, microglia and oligodendrocytes isolated from neonatal mice brains were cultured in vitro for two weeks, and then treated with different TLRs agonists. The expression of Il17ra at mRNA and protein levels in the cells were determined by qPCR and Western blot respectively. The astrocytes were treated with IL-17A and LPS individually or in the combination to detect the level of CCL2, CXCL8 and IP-10 in the supernatant by ELISA. Results: B6 mice with induced EAE showed significantly increased Il17ra expressions in the brain and spinal cord, which was also detected in immunized Rag1-/- mice. Although no spinal cord demyelization and CD3 cells infiltration were detected in Rag1-/- mice, significantly increased number of IL-17RA positive cells could still be visualized. In vivo TLRs agonist participated immunization and in vitro treatment of purified neuroglial cells demonstrated that TLRs agonists could directly evoke IL-17RA expression in the CNS or cultured astrocytes, microglia and oligodendrocytes with high efficiency. Both IL-17A and LPS could stimulate astrocytes to secrete CCL2, CXCL8 and IP-10, however, a combined use of IL-17A and LPS further augmented the production of these chemokines to a large extend. Conclusion: Taken together, we concluded that TLRs agonists could directly stimulate neuroglial cells to express IL-17RA which functionally respond to IL-17A by secreting chemokines. Copyright © 2014 by the Chinese Medical Association.


Yao Y.,University of Sothern California | Liu H.,University of Sothern California | Wu W.,University of Sothern California
Journal of visualized experiments : JoVE | Year: 2015

High contrast gratings are designed and fabricated and its application is proposed in a parallel spectrum splitting dispersive element that can improve the solar conversion efficiency of a concentrated photovoltaic system. The proposed system will also lower the solar cell cost in the concentrated photovoltaic system by replacing the expensive tandem solar cells with the cost-effective single junction solar cells. The structures and the parameters of high contrast gratings for the dispersive elements were numerically optimized. The large-area fabrication of high contrast gratings was experimentally demonstrated using nanoimprint lithography and dry etching. The quality of grating material and the performance of the fabricated device were both experimentally characterized. By analyzing the measurement results, the possible side effects from the fabrication processes are discussed and several methods that have the potential to improve the fabrication processes are proposed, which can help to increase the optical efficiency of the fabricated devices.


Alexandru-Abrams D.,University of California at Irvine | Jadus M.R.,University of California at Irvine | Hsu F.P.,University of California at Irvine | Stathopoulos A.,Les Cliniques du Sud Luxembourg | And 2 more authors.
Anti-Cancer Agents in Medicinal Chemistry | Year: 2014

Glioblastoma Multiforme (GMB) is the most aggressive primary brain tumor with poor survival rates and universal recurrence despite aggressive treatments. Recent research suggested that GBM has multiple glioma cell populations, some of which are organized in a stem cell hierarchical order with different stages of differention. Evidence indicated that recurrence is due to a development or persistance of a subpopulation of these tumor cells which are inherently resistant to treatment and these were defined as the glioma stem-like cells (GSC). It is hypothesized that GSC become highly malignant by accumulating mutations in oncogenic pathways. These cells present with specific surface markers which helps identify them. Targeting the surface markers as well as the signaling pathways of GSCs has been an ongoing research effort. This review focuses on summarizing the current treatment modalities used to glioblastoma treatments, evaluating their efficacy in controlling and eradicatig the GSCs, discussing the machanisms involved in GSC tumor proliferation and resistance to treatments in addition to proposing potential avenues to target GSCs in order to provide a potential cure for this cancer. © 2014 Bentham Science Publishers.


PubMed | University of Sothern California
Type: | Journal: Journal of visualized experiments : JoVE | Year: 2015

High contrast gratings are designed and fabricated and its application is proposed in a parallel spectrum splitting dispersive element that can improve the solar conversion efficiency of a concentrated photovoltaic system. The proposed system will also lower the solar cell cost in the concentrated photovoltaic system by replacing the expensive tandem solar cells with the cost-effective single junction solar cells. The structures and the parameters of high contrast gratings for the dispersive elements were numerically optimized. The large-area fabrication of high contrast gratings was experimentally demonstrated using nanoimprint lithography and dry etching. The quality of grating material and the performance of the fabricated device were both experimentally characterized. By analyzing the measurement results, the possible side effects from the fabrication processes are discussed and several methods that have the potential to improve the fabrication processes are proposed, which can help to increase the optical efficiency of the fabricated devices.

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