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Alexandru-Abrams D.,University of California at Irvine | Jadus M.R.,University of California at Irvine | Hsu F.P.,University of California at Irvine | Stathopoulos A.,Les Cliniques du Sud Luxembourg | And 2 more authors.
Anti-Cancer Agents in Medicinal Chemistry | Year: 2014

Glioblastoma Multiforme (GMB) is the most aggressive primary brain tumor with poor survival rates and universal recurrence despite aggressive treatments. Recent research suggested that GBM has multiple glioma cell populations, some of which are organized in a stem cell hierarchical order with different stages of differention. Evidence indicated that recurrence is due to a development or persistance of a subpopulation of these tumor cells which are inherently resistant to treatment and these were defined as the glioma stem-like cells (GSC). It is hypothesized that GSC become highly malignant by accumulating mutations in oncogenic pathways. These cells present with specific surface markers which helps identify them. Targeting the surface markers as well as the signaling pathways of GSCs has been an ongoing research effort. This review focuses on summarizing the current treatment modalities used to glioblastoma treatments, evaluating their efficacy in controlling and eradicatig the GSCs, discussing the machanisms involved in GSC tumor proliferation and resistance to treatments in addition to proposing potential avenues to target GSCs in order to provide a potential cure for this cancer. © 2014 Bentham Science Publishers. Source

Yao Y.,University of Sothern California | Liu H.,University of Sothern California | Wu W.,University of Sothern California
Journal of visualized experiments : JoVE | Year: 2015

High contrast gratings are designed and fabricated and its application is proposed in a parallel spectrum splitting dispersive element that can improve the solar conversion efficiency of a concentrated photovoltaic system. The proposed system will also lower the solar cell cost in the concentrated photovoltaic system by replacing the expensive tandem solar cells with the cost-effective single junction solar cells. The structures and the parameters of high contrast gratings for the dispersive elements were numerically optimized. The large-area fabrication of high contrast gratings was experimentally demonstrated using nanoimprint lithography and dry etching. The quality of grating material and the performance of the fabricated device were both experimentally characterized. By analyzing the measurement results, the possible side effects from the fabrication processes are discussed and several methods that have the potential to improve the fabrication processes are proposed, which can help to increase the optical efficiency of the fabricated devices. Source

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