Sorocaba, Brazil

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Christianini A.V.,University of Campinas | Christianini A.V.,University of Sorocaba | Christianini A.V.,Federal University of São Carlos | Oliveira P.S.,University of Campinas
Journal of Ecology | Year: 2010

A substantial portion of the crop of fruiting trees falls beneath parent plants as a result of dispersal failure. Such diaspores are considered as waste because the likelihood of plant recruitment is usually very small close to parent trees. However, many animals may rescue fallen diaspores and provide them with another chance of dispersal and establishment. We investigated the effectiveness of two broad types of seed dispersal vectors for the regeneration of Xylopia aromatica in the Brazilian cerrado savanna: birds that remove diaspores from plant canopies and ants that harvest diaspores on the ground under the parent plant (as rescuers) or from bird feces (as secondary dispersers). Birds removed a mean of 32% of the crop from plant canopies, but removal was independent of crop size. A large part of the crop (mean of 25%) landed beneath parent plants or was dropped after manipulation by vertebrate frugivores as viable diaspores. Ants from at least five genera removed most fallen diaspores (up to 83%) within 24 h. Ants influenced the fate of a large amount of the crop, and for some trees ants removed as many diaspores as birds. Large ants rescued some diaspores to distances beyond the parent plant crown, but birds may remove diaspores 40-fold farther. However, seedlings of X. aromatica were only found close to nests of large ants, probably due to diaspore rescuing and/or directed secondary dispersal by certain ant groups following primary dispersal by birds. Although an unknown percentage of seeds was lost to granivorous ants, diaspore removal by ants potentially enhances the likelihood of plant recruitment due to distance-related benefits and directed dispersal to ant nests, while birds play a premier role in long-distance seed dispersal and metapopulation dynamics. Synthesis. Birds and ants provide complementary seed dispersal at different spatial scales to X. aromatica. Since ants remove most fallen diaspores beneath parent plants, the use of diaspore removal rates from plant canopy as a surrogate of plant fitness may be misleading. By acting as secondary dispersers, ants may also provide a fine-tuned dispersal following long-distance dispersal by birds (i.e. diplochory). © 2010 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2010 British Ecological Society.

Seabra A.B.,Federal University of São Paulo | Pasquoto T.,Federal University of São Carlos | Ferrarini A.C.F.,Federal University of São Paulo | Santos M.D.C.,Federal University of São Paulo | And 2 more authors.
Chemical Research in Toxicology | Year: 2014

Iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles have been proposed for an increasing number of biomedical applications, such as drug delivery. To this end, toxicological studies of their potent effects in biological media must be better evaluated. The aim of this study was to synthesize, characterize, and examine the potential in vitro cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of thiolated (SH) and S-nitrosated (S-NO) iron oxide superparamagnetic nanoparticles toward healthy and cancer cell lines. Fe3O4 nanoparticles were synthesized by coprecipitation techniques and coated with small thiol-containing molecules, such as mercaptosuccinic acid (MSA) or meso-2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA). The physical-chemical, morphological, and magnetic properties of thiol-coating Fe3O4 nanoparticles were characterized by different techniques. The thiol groups on the surface of the nanoparticles were nitrosated, leading to the formation of S-nitroso-MSA- or S-nitroso-DMSA-Fe 3O4 nanoparticles. The cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of thiolated and S-nitrosated nanoparticles were more deeply evaluated in healthy (3T3, human lymphocytes cells, and chinese hamster ovary cells) and cancer cell lines (MCF-7). The results demonstrated that thiol-coating iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles have few toxic effects in cells, whereas S-nitrosated-coated particles did cause toxic effects. Moreover, due to the superaramagnetic behavior of S-nitroso-Fe3O4 nanoparticles, those particles can be guided to the target site upon the application of an external magnetic field, leading to local toxic effects in the tumor cells. Taken together, the results suggest the promise of S-nitroso-magnetic nanoparticles in cancer treatment. © 2014 American Chemical Society.

Balcao V.M.,University of Sorocaba | Balcao V.M.,University of Minho | Vila M.M.D.C.,University of Sorocaba
Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews | Year: 2015

Within the context of biomedicine and pharmaceutical sciences, the issue of (therapeutic) protein stabilization assumes particular relevance. Stabilization of protein and protein-like molecules translates into preservation of both structure and functionality during storage and/or targeting, and such stabilization is mostly attained through establishment of a thermodynamic equilibrium with the (micro)environment. The basic thermodynamic principles that govern protein structural transitions and the interactions of the protein molecule with its (micro)environment are, therefore, tackled in a systematic fashion. Highlights are given to the major classes of (bio)therapeutic molecules, viz. enzymes, recombinant proteins, (macro)peptides, (monoclonal) antibodies and bacteriophages. Modification of the microenvironment of the biomolecule via multipoint covalent attachment onto a solid surface followed by hydrophilic polymer co-immobilization, or physical containment within nanocarriers, are some of the (latest) strategies discussed aiming at full structural and functional stabilization of said biomolecules. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.

Cruz B.B.,University of Sorocaba | Miranda L.E.,U.S. Geological Survey | Cetra M.,University of Sorocaba
Ecology of Freshwater Fish | Year: 2013

We hypothesised and tested a hierarchical organisation model where riparian landcover would influence bank composition and light availability, which in turn would influence instream environments and control fish assemblages. The study was conducted during the dry season in 11 headwater tributaries of the Sorocaba River in the upper Paraná River Basin, south-eastern Brazil. We focused on seven environmental factors each represented by one or multiple environmental variables and seven fish functional traits each represented by two or more classes. Multivariate direct gradient analyses suggested that riparian zone landcover can be considered a higher level causal factor in a network of relations that control instream characteristics and fish assemblages. Our results provide a framework for a hierarchical conceptual model that identifies singular and collective influences of variables from different scales on each other and ultimately on different aspects related to stream fish functional composition. This conceptual model is focused on the relationships between riparian landcover and instream variables as causal factors on the organisation of stream fish assemblages. Our results can also be viewed as a model for headwater stream management in that landcover can be manipulated to influence factors such as bank composition, substrates and water quality, whereas fish assemblage composition can be used as indicators to monitor the success of such efforts. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

Spencer F.A.,McMaster University | Lopes L.C.,University of Sorocaba | Kennedy S.A.,McMaster University | Guyatt G.,McMaster University
BMJ Open | Year: 2014

Objectives: To provide a comprehensive comparison of patent foramen ovale (PFO) closure versus medical therapy in patients with cryptogenic stroke or transient ischaemic attack (TIA) and demonstrated PFO. Design: Systematic review with complete case metaanalysis and sensitivity analyses. Data sources included MEDLINE and EMBASE from 1980 up to May 2013. All randomised controlled trials (RCTs) comparing treatment with percutaneous catheter-based closure of PFO to anticoagulant or antiplatelet therapy in patients with cryptogenic stroke or TIA and echocardiographically confirmed PFO or atrial septal defect (ASD) were eligible. Participants: 1967 participants with prior stroke or TIA and echocardiographically confirmed PFO or ASD. Primary outcome measures: The primary outcome of interest was recurrence of ischaemic stroke. We utilised data from complete cases only for the primary endpoint and combined data from trials to estimate the pooled risk ratio (RR) and associated 95% CIs calculated using random effects models. Results: We identified 284 potentially eligible articles of which three RCTs including 2303 patients proved eligible and 1967 patients had complete data. Of the 1026 patients randomised to PFO closure and followed to study conclusion 22 experienced non-fatal ischaemic strokes, as did 34 of 941 patients randomised to medical therapy (risk ratio (RR) 0.61, 95% CI 0.34 to 1.07; heterogeneity: p=0.34, I2=8%, confidence in estimates low due to risk of bias and imprecision). Analyses for ischaemic stroke restricted to 'per-protocol' patients or patients with concomitant atrial septal aneurysm did not substantially change the observed RRs. Complication rates associated with either PFO closure or medical therapy were low. Conclusions: Pooled data from three RCTs provides insufficient support that PFO closure is preferable to medical therapy for secondary prevention of cryptogenic stroke in patients with PFO.

Sekercioglu N.,McMaster University | Spencer F.A.,McMaster University | Lopes L.C.,University of Sorocaba | Guyatt G.H.,McMaster University
Clinical Cardiology | Year: 2014

Although multivessel coronary artery disease has been associated with poor health outcomes in patients with acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI), the optimal approach to revascularization remains uncertain. The objective of this review was to determine the benefits and harms of culprit vessel only vs immediate complete percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in patients with acute STEMI. We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Cochrane Register of Controlled Trials, and the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL) for randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Teams of 2 reviewers, independently and in duplicate, screened titles and abstracts, completed full-text reviews, and abstracted data. We calculated pooled risk ratios (RRs) and associated 95% confidence intervals (CIs) using random-effect models for nonfatal myocardial infarction (MI), revascularization, cardiovascular mortality, all-causemortality, and adverse events, and used the GRADE approach to rate confidence in estimates of effect. Of 341 patients randomized to complete revascularization and followed to study conclusion, 31 experienced revascularization, as did 80 of 324 randomized to culprit vessel only revascularization (RR: 0.35, 95% CI: 0.24-0.53). Ten patients in the complete revascularization group and 28 patients in the culprit vessel only revascularization group experienced nonfatal MI (RR: 0.35, 95% CI: 0.17-0.72). All-cause mortality and cardiac deaths did not differ between groups (RR: 0.69, 95% CI: 0.40-1.21 for all-cause mortality; RR: 0.48, 95% CI: 0.22-1.04 for cardiac deaths). Pooled data from 3 RCTs suggest that immediate complete revascularization probably reduces revascularization in patients with acute STEMI; although results suggest possible benefits on MI and death, confidence in estimates is low. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Petruci J.F.D.S.,São Paulo State University | Pereira E.A.,University of Sorocaba | Cardoso A.A.,São Paulo State University
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry | Year: 2013

The use of chemical preservative compounds is common in the food products industry. Caramel color is the most usual additive used in beverages, desserts, and breads worldwide. During its fabrication process, 2- and 4-methylimidazole (MeI), highly carcinogenic compounds, are generated. In these cases, the development of reliable analytical methods for the monitoring of undesirable compounds is necessary. The primary procedure for the analysis of 2- and 4-MeI is using LC- or GC-MS techniques. These procedures are time-consuming and require large amounts of organic solvents and several pretreatment steps. This prevents the routine use of this procedure. This paper describes a rapid, efficient, and simple method using capillary electrophoresis (CE) for the separation and determination of 2- and 4-MeI in caramel colors. The analyses were performed using a 75 μm i.d. uncoated fused-silica capillary with an effective length of 40 cm and a running electrolyte consisting of 160 mmol L-1 phosphate plus 30% acetonitrile. The pH was adjusted to 2.5 with triethylamine. The analytes were separated within 6 min at a voltage of 20 kV. Method validation revealed good repeatability of both migration time (<0.8% RSD) and peak area (<2% RSD). Analytical curves for 2- and 4-MeI were linear in the 0.4-40 mg L-1 concentration interval. Detection limits were 0.16 mg L-1 for 4-MeI and 0.22 mg L-1 for 2-MeI. The extraction recoveries were satisfactory. The developed method showed many advantages when compared to the previously used method. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

De Macedo E.I.,University of Sorocaba | Lopes L.C.,University of Sorocaba | Barberato-Filho S.,University of Sorocaba
Revista de Saude Publica | Year: 2011

OBJECTIVE: To analyze judicial requests for medications that are covered by the pharmaceutical assistance components of the Sistema Único de Saúde (SUS - Brazilian Unified Health System). METHODS: We analyzed 81 judicial requests for medications in the State of São Paulo between 2005 and 2009. The details of these cases were obtained electronically from the Court of Justice of the State of São Paulo. Directives that regulate pharmaceutical assistance were consulted to identify judicially requested medications that are covered by the SUS. To assess the level of evidence supporting the use of these medications to treat the clinical indications described, we consulted the Thomson Micromedex ® database. RESULTS: The number of individual medications requested in each case ranged from 1 to 7; in total, 77 different pharmaceuticals agents were identified. Of the medications requested, 14.3% should have been available through SUS primary care, 19.5% were classified under the exceptionally dispensed medications component of the SUS, and 66.2% were not on any official list. Medications of the exceptionally dispensed medications component showed better clinical evidence when indicated for the treatment of medical conditions covered by the Clinical Protocols and Therapeutic Guidelines of Brazil's Ministry of Health. CONCLUSIONS: The judicial process has been used to ensure access to medications that are covered by the SUS and to request access to those that are not covered. Our assessment of the level of available evidence reinforces the need for technical analysis in the decision-making process in cases of judicially requested medications.

Sakabe D.,University of Sorocaba | Del Fiol F.D.S.,University of Sorocaba
American Journal of Infection Control | Year: 2016

Infections are the leading cause of morbidity and mortality among burn-injury patients. Even in the absence of documented infection, antibiotics are often given to burn-injury patients at the beginning of treatment, an empirical measure in response to signs and symptoms of infection. The choice of antimicrobial therapy for these patients should be based on technical criteria, based on laboratory findings, at the risk of further increasing antimicrobial resistance levels. © 2016 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc.

Sousa A.M.,State University of Norte Fluminense | Waldman W.R.,University of Sorocaba
Journal of Chemical Education | Year: 2014

A simple, easy-to-conduct student activity explored the antimicrobial property of spices and their use in food preservation. Samples of a typical Brazilian dessert were prepared with spices, under different conditions, and the appearance of microorganisms on the surface of the desserts was visually monitored as a function of time. The studied spices controlled the formation of microorganisms. This student activity had a strong visual impact on the students and encouraged them to repeat the experiment at home with other spices or seasonings. © 2013 The American Chemical Society and Division of Chemical Education, Inc.

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