Cuernavaca, Mexico
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Moussadek R.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Moussadek R.,University of Sol | Mrabet R.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Zante P.,Montpellier SupAgro | And 6 more authors.
Canadian Journal of Soil Science | Year: 2011

Soil erosion research on Mediterranean Vertisols under no tillage systems (NT) is still scarce. A rainfall simulator was used on Vertisols to compare water runoff and soil loss in a conventional tillage system (CT), NT system with crop residues removed (NT0), and NT with 50% of crop residues returned to the soil surface (NT50). Runoff and soil loss rates were more than 50% lower under NT50 compared with NT0 and CT. Wet aggregate stability (MWD), soil organic matter (SOM) and soil bulk density (Da) were significantly higher under NT than under CT. A multiple regression analysis showed that when the soil was dry, Da explained 84 and 96% of the variation in water runoff and soil loss, respectively. Under wet soil conditions, MWD explained 47 and 69% of variation in water runoff and soil loss, respectively. Consequently, although NT systems improved soil quality (MWD, SOM) compared with the CT system, returning 50% of crop residues at the soil surface was mandatory under NT to protect these Vertisols against water erosion.

Dolci P.C.,University of Sol | Macada A.C.G.,Grande Rio University | Grant G.G.,Carleton University
Journal of Enterprise Information Management | Year: 2014

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to analyze some Brazilian companies’ use of the information technology portfolio management (ITPM) technique as an aid to their information technology (IT) investments management. Design/methodology/approach – It was carried out in five case studies in different Brazilian companies from several economic sectors which were using ITPM or were in the initial implementation phase. Eight interviews were conducted. The persons interviewed were high-level executives working in the IT department in the studied companies. Findings – Different levels of ITPM use was found with respect to IT investment management (planning, control and evaluation). It was observed, in the analyzed cases, that ITPM is used most frequently in IT investment planning, which is the process most discussed and used in analyzed companies. The ITPM technique is used more frequently in Company 2 than in the other cases because the organization of the IT area in the company is structured according to ITPM dimensions. Research limitations/implications – The ITPM technique has received little attention in IT research and research in this area identifying the use and applicability of ITPM in companies is still very limited in the information systems literature. Originality/value – The paper presents IT investment management in different Brazilian companies and how ITPM was used to help companies in this process compose by planning, control and evaluation. © Emerald Group Publishing Limited.

Edmond Ghanem M.,Catholic University of Leuven | Han R.-M.,Catholic University of Leuven | Classen B.,University of Kiel | Quetin-Leclerq J.,Catholic University of Leuven | And 5 more authors.
Journal of Plant Physiology | Year: 2010

Mucilage is thought to play a role in salinity tolerance in certain halophytic species by regulating water ascent and ion transport. The localization and composition of mucilage in the halophyte Kosteletzkya virginica was therefore investigated. Plants were grown in a hydroponic system in the presence or absence of 100 mM NaCl and regularly harvested for growth parameter assessment and mucilage analysis with the gas liquid chromatography method. NaCl treatment stimulated shoot growth and biomass accumulation, had little effect on shoot and root water content, and reduced leaf water potential (Ψw), osmotic potential (Ψs) as well as stomatal conductance (gs). Mucilage increased in shoot, stems and roots in response to salt stress. Furthermore, changes were also observed in neutral monosaccharide components. Levels of rhamnose and uronic acid increased with salinity. Staining with a 0.5% alcian blue solution revealed the presence of mucopolyssacharides in xylem vessels and salt-induced mucilaginous precipitates on the leaf abaxial surface. Determination of ion concentrations showed that a significant increase of Na+ and a decrease of K+ and Ca2+ simultaneously occurred in tissues and in mucilage under salt stress. Considering the high proportion of rhamnose and uronic acid in stem mucilage, we suggest that the pectic polysaccharide could be involved in Na+ fixation, though only a minor fraction of accumulated sodium appeared to be firmly bound to mucilage. © 2009 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

Kone A.W.,University dAbobo Adjame | Edoukou E.F.,University dAbobo Adjame | Tondoh J.E.,University of Sol | Gonnety J.T.,Sudan University of Science and Technology | And 2 more authors.
Biology and Fertility of Soils | Year: 2012

In tropical savannas where soils are generally sandy and nutrient poor, organic farming associated with enhanced soil biological activity may result in increased nutrient availability. Therefore, legumes have been introduced in the humid savanna zone of Côte d'Ivoire, owing to their ability to fix atmospheric N and to continually supply soil with great quantity of organic materials in relatively short time. The main objective of this study was to assess the influence of two legume (Cajanus cajan and Lablab purpureus) cultivations on earthworm communities and P and N availability. Trials were carried out under farmers' field conditions; C. cajan was planted on savanna soils (trial 1) while L. purpureus was established on new Chromolaena odorata-dominated fallow soils (trial 2). Native vegetations were considered as controls. Changes in soil properties (earthworm abundance and diversity, microbial biomass carbon (MBC), and plant available P and N) were assessed using the biosequential sampling. After 1 year, both the legume stands showed a significantly higher density of earthworms, compared with the respective controls. This trend was linked to an increase in the abundance of the detritivores Dichogaster baeri Sciacchitano 1952 and Dichogaster saliens Beddard 1893, and the polyhumic Stuhlmannia zielae Omodeo 1963. Equally, legume had beneficial impacts on the average number of earthworm species, the Shannon-Weaver index of diversity and MBC in savanna (trial 1). Available P and ammonium significantly increased under both legume cultivations and were significantly and concurrently linked to litter quality and earthworm activities as shown by multiple regressions. As a result, legumes could improve nutrient availability in the sandy soils of central Côte d'Ivoire by positively affecting soil biological activity and this could bring farmers to cultivate crops on savanna lands. © 2011 Springer-Verlag.

Shutcha M.N.,University of Lubumbashi | Mubemba M.M.,SOL REPUBLIC | Faucon M.-P.,Free University of Colombia | Luhembwe M.N.,University of Lubumbashi | And 3 more authors.
International Journal of Phytoremediation | Year: 2010

This study evaluates the feasibility of using the grass species Rendlia altera, Monocymbium ceresiiforme, Cynodon dactylon, and amendments (compost and lime) for the phytostabilisation of soils contaminated by Cu in the province of Katanga (Democratic Republic of Congo). Species were grown on control and Cu-contaminated plots (artificially contaminated with 2,500 mg kg-1 Cu) unamended (NA), amended with 4.5 kg compost m-2 or 0.2 kg lime m-2. R. altera was also grown on contaminated plots amended with 22.5 kg compost m-2 or 1 kg lime m-2. Plant survival, growth, and reproduction were monitored for two years. Cu-concentration in leaves of R. altera and M. ceresiiforme were analysed. pH and extractable Cu (0.01 M CaCl2) in soil were analysed in April 2007 and 2008. Results showed that R. altera seems to be the best candidate because of its highest survival on NA, followed by M. ceresiiforme, while liming was necessary to ensure survival of C. dactylon. Lime increased plant reproduction and reduced Cu accumulation in leaves compared to compost. However, higher survival and number of spikes of R. altera obtained in experiment 2 with 22.5 kg compost m-2 suggest that lime x compost interactions should be investigated in further studies. © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

PubMed | University of Sol, CNRS Georesources lab, Annaba University, Skikda University and 2 more.
Type: | Journal: Waste management (New York, N.Y.) | Year: 2016

During the lifespan of a Municipal Solid Waste landfill, its leachate drainage system may get clogged. Then, as a consequence of rainfall, leachate generation and possibly leachate injection, the moisture content in the landfill increases to the point that a leachate mound could be created. Therefore, pumping the leachate becomes a necessary solution. This paper presents an original analysis of leachate pumping and injection in an instrumented well. The water table level around the well is monitored by nine piezometers which allow the leachate flow behaviour to be captured. A numerical model based on Richards equation and an exponential relationship between saturated hydraulic conductivity and depth is used to analyze the landfill response to pumping and injection. Decreasing permeability with depth appears to have a major influence on the behaviour of the leachate flow. It could have a drastic negative impact on the pumping efficiency with a maximum quasi-stationary pumping rate limited to approximately 1m

Kambou D.,University of Liège | Xanthoulis D.,University of Liège | Ouattara K.,Institute Of Lenvironnement Et Of Recherches Agricoles Saria | Degre A.,University of Sol
Biotechnology, Agronomy and Society and Environment | Year: 2014

Water efficiency and productivity indicators are used in many scientific disciplines, usually to account for water losses that occur during its use, or products generated per unit of water consumed. The interpretation of these indicators is very diverse in the literature. However, the majority of definitions consider water efficiency as a measure of the effectiveness of irrigation, and view water productivity as a measure of the effectiveness of the physiological processes of both biomass production and crop yield formation, linked to the actual consumption of water by the crops. Thus, the consensus seems to be for water application efficiency (Ea) to be considered as the ratio of actual evapotranspiration to the water applied and productivity as the ratio of yield to actual evapotranspiration. The point of divergence relates fundamentally to the understanding of the constituent expressions of productivity (PE, product/"water consumed") and efficiency of water application (Ea, "water consumed"/"applied water"). Indeed, the term "water consumed" is referred to variously by several authors as "actual evapotranspiration", "gross irrigation plus rainfall", "evapotranspiration plus water lost at the plot but beneficial to other users", etc. Furthermore, while providing more details on the concepts of efficiency and water productivity, this review shows that the factors affecting these indicators have not yet been sufficiently elucidated. Thus, one of the axes of investigation could be to model the application efficiency of water firstly, according to water management practices and secondly, in terms of productivity levels in relation to the crop establishment period.

PubMed | University of Sol
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology | Year: 2016

594 Background: The presence of bone metastases (BMe) alters the balance of bone remodeling and, consequently, levels of bone turnover markers (BTM). Increased levels of these biomarkers are related to the risk of skeletal-related events (SREs), disease progression and death. Treatment with bisphosphonates reduces the number of SREs through osteoclastic activity inhibition. The aim of this study was to determine the correlation between BTM, bone metastasis development and SREs in patients (pts) with breast cancer (BC) and BMe.Observational, prospective, multicenter study.pts with BC and BMe; no previous treatment that could interfere with bone metabolism in the last 6 months (mo) prior to inclusion. Urinary aminoterminal telopeptide of collagen I (NTX, Osteomark NTx Urine, Wampole Laboratories, USA), urinary alpha-alpha-isomer of carboxyterminal telopeptide of collagen I (-CTX, ALPHA Crosslaps EIA, ids, UK) and serum bone alkaline phosphatase (BALP, OSTASE BAP, ids, UK) were determined at baseline (V0) and every 3 mo. Pts were treated with zoledronic acid (ZA) at inclusion and every 3-4 weeks.Data of BTM at 9 mo of treatment (V3) are presented; 212 patients were analyzed: mean age: 61 years; RE+: 80%; RP+: 66%; HER 2+:17%; previous SRE: 19%. At V0, 54%, 46% and 85% pts presented elevated levels of NTX, -CTX and BALP, respectively. A significant decrease was observed in BTM at V3 vs V0, showing normal levels of NTX, -CTX and BALP levels in 87, 91 and 48% of pts, respectively (p <0.05). Pts with lowered BTM levels showed fewer SREs (not statistically significant). A significant association was observed between elevated levels of BALP and disease progression throughout follow-up.ZA significantly reduced BTM levels during the first 9 mo of treatment. BALP was significantly associated with disease progression. A tendency to present fewer SREs was observed in the population with lower BTM levels. Longer follow-up is needed to confirm these outcomes.

Chipeng F.K.,Free University of Colombia | Chipeng F.K.,University of Lubumbashi | Hermans C.,Free University of Colombia | Colinet G.,University of Sol | And 4 more authors.
Plant and Soil | Year: 2010

Cu tolerance and accumulation have been studied in Haumaniastrum katangense, a cuprophyte from Katanga (DR Congo), previously described as a copper hyperaccumulator. Nicotiana plumbaginifolia, a well-known non-tolerant and non-accumulator species, was used as a control. The germination rate of H. katangense was enhanced by copper and fungicide addition, suggesting that fungal pathogens, which restrain germination in normal conditions, are limiting. In hydroponic culture in the Hoagland medium, H. katangense did not grow well, in contrast to N. plumbaginifolia. Better growth was achieved by adding fungicide or higher copper concentrations. The maximal non-effective concentration (NEC) was 12 μM CuSO4 for H. katangense grown in hydroponics, i.e. 24 times greater than Cu concentration in the Hoagland medium. By comparison, copper concentrations greater than 0.5 μM had a negative effect on the growth of N. plumbaginifolia. EC50 (50% effective concentration) in hydroponics was 40 μM CuSO4 for H. katangense and 6 μM CuSO4 for N. plumbaginifolia. EC100 (100% effective concentration) was 100 μM CuSO4 for H. katangense and 15 μM CuSO4 for N. plumbaginifolia. In soil, growth was also stimulated by Cu addition up to 300 mg kg-1 CuSO4. Surplus copper was also required for cultivating H. katangense in sterile conditions, suggesting that Cu excess may be necessary for needs other than pathogen defence. Cu accumulation in the shoot has been measured for N. plumbaginifolia and H. katangense at their respective NEC. Cu allocation in the two species showed a similar response to increasing Cu concentrations, i.e. root/shoot concentration ratio well above 1. In conclusion, H. katangense is highly tolerant to copper and has elevated copper requirement even in the absence of biotic interactions. Its accumulation pattern is typical of an excluder species. © Springer Science + Business Media B.V. 2009.

PubMed | University of Sol
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Health affairs (Project Hope) | Year: 2012

The link between federal housing policy and public health has been understood since the nineteenth century, when housing activists first sought to abolish slums and create healthful environments. This article describes how the Obama administration-building on these efforts and those that followed, including the Great Society programs of President Lyndon Johnson-has adopted a cross-sector approach that takes health considerations into account when formulating housing and community development policy. The federal Department of Housing and Urban Development fully embraces this health in all policies approach. Nonetheless, the administrations strategy faces challenges, including fiscal and political ones. Some of these challenges may be overcome by conducting quality research on how housing and community development policies affect health outcomes, and by developing a federal budget strategy that takes into account how investments in one sector contribute to cost savings in another.

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