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Mohammadi F.,University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences
The American journal of sports medicine | Year: 2010

BACKGROUND: The high incidence of ankle sprains that occur later in matches suggests that fatigue may contribute to altered neuromuscular control of the ankle. Moreover, deficits in ankle joint position sense (JPS) were seen in patients with a history of recurrent ankle sprains. It has been hypothesized that ankle sprains may be related to altered ankle JPS as a consequence of fatigue. PURPOSE: To evaluate if fatiguing contractions of evertor muscles alter the ankle JPS. STUDY DESIGN: Controlled laboratory study. METHODS: Thirty-six soccer players (age, 24.7 +/- 1.3 years; height, 183.7 +/- 8.2 cm; weight, 78.9 +/- 7.9 kg) were recruited. Subjects were asked to recognize 2 positions (15 degrees of inversion and maximal active inversion minus 5 degrees ) for 2 conditions: normal and fatigue. Muscular fatigue was induced in evertor muscles of the dominant leg by using isometric contractions. The average of the absolute and variable errors of 3 trials were recorded for both fatigue and nonfatigue conditions. A matched control group of 36 soccer players (age, 23.9 +/- 0.9 years; height, 181.2 +/- 6.9 cm; weight, 77.8 +/- 6.5 kg) was asked to recognize the same positions, before a soccer match and after 45 minutes of playing, and their same scores were recorded. Finally, results of the 2 groups were compared. RESULTS: There was significant decrease in subjects' ability to recognize passive and active repositioning of their ankle after a fatigue protocol (P <.001). Passive and active JPS were reduced after playing (P <.001). There was no significant difference between 2 groups in the results of JPS before and after the intervention (P > .1). CONCLUSION: The acuity of the ankle JPS is reduced subsequent to a fatigue protocol and after a soccer match. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Evaluation of athletes' ankle JPS before returning to physical activity may prevent further injuries. Source

Afshar R.,University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences
Saudi journal of kidney diseases and transplantation : an official publication of the Saudi Center for Organ Transplantation, Saudi Arabia | Year: 2012

Public awareness of organ donation fundamentally affects the organ transplantation programs. This study was performed to assess the attitude and willingness of high school adolescents regarding organ donation. The study population consisted of 416 high school girls who were studying in four grades of three educational courses. Data were collected by a questionnaire and included demographic variables and attitude and willingness, which were assessed based on the Likert scale. The SPSS v.16 was used for data analysis. The mean age of the study subjects was 16.26 ± 1.06 years, 31% studied in grade-1, 27% in grade-2 (25% natural sciences, 27% mathematics and 48% humanities), 26% in grade-3 (30% natural sciences, 34% mathematics and 36% humanities) and 16% in pre-university stage (32% natural sciences, 42% mathematics and 26% humanities). The students had a highly positive attitude toward organ donation (mean score 4.2 ± 0.54). The greatest willingness for organ donation was concerning the kidney (88%) and heart (84%), followed by the liver (83.4%), pancreas (79.6%), cornea (67.8%) and skin (51%). Willingness for deceased as well as living organ donation was indicated by 92% and 47%, respectively, of the participants. Organ donation was considered acceptable only to relatives by 5% of the participants when the donors were deceased donors and by 16% of the participants when the donors were living donors; donation to all needy persons from deceased donors was accepted by 87% of the participants and from living donors by 31%. The purpose of donation was stated as lending help to others by 89% and progression of science by 40.2% of the participants. Willingness for organ donation from a deceased relative was declared by 63% of the students. There was significant positive correlation between willingness for organ donation and attitude (P <0.001). In addition, attitude and willingness had positive correlation with educational levels, age and educational courses. Our study suggests that Iranian adolescents have a great attitude and willingness toward organ donation, which reflects favorable knowledge of transplantation. Further research on public awareness in both genders and various age ranges is needed. Source

Shafti S.S.,University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences
Journal of Affective Disorders | Year: 2010

Objective: Among the available mood stabilizers, it appears that lithium may share an important role for treatment of acute mania. In a study from Sep. 2007 to Apr. 2008 at Razi Psychiatric Hospital we evaluated the efficiency of olanzapine vs. lithium. Methods: Forty (40) female inpatients meeting DSM-IV-TR criteria for acute mania were entered into a 3-week parallel group, double-blind study for random assignment to olanzapine or lithium carbonate in a 1:1 ratio. Primary outcome measurements were the changes in Manic State Rating Scale (MSRS) at baseline and weekly intervals up to the third week. Similarly, overall illness severity was rated using the Clinical Global Impression-Severity of illness scale (CGI-S) at baseline and at the end of the third week. Analysis of the data was accomplished by means of split-plot (mixed) and repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) and t test. Results: While both olanzapine and lithium were found to be significantly helpful in the improvement of manic symptoms (p < 0.05), lithium was considerably more successful by the end of the third week (p < 0.0002 and p < 0.003, for frequency and intensity of the symptoms). CGI-S also showed important improvements with both olanzapine and lithium (p < 0.043 and p < 0.015 for olanzapine and lithium). Conclusion: Though both olanzapine and lithium were effective in the improvement of manic symptoms, lithium was more beneficial. © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Source

Dolatian M.,University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences
Global journal of health science | Year: 2013

Preterm delivery is still the primary cause of mortality and morbidity in infants, which shows a problematic condition in the care of pregnant women all over the world. This review study describes prevalence and psycho - socio-demographic as well as obstetrical risk factors related to live preterm delivery (PTD) in the recent decade in Iran. A narrative review was performed in Persian and international databases including PubMed, SID, Google Scholar, Iran Medex, Magiran and Irandoc from 2001 to 2010 with following keywords: preterm delivery and pregnancy outcomes with (prevalence, socioeconomic condition, structural determinant, Intermediary determinants, Psychosocial factor, Behavioral factor and Maternal circumstance, Health system). All of article was reviewed then categorized based on WHO model. Totally 52 article were reviewed and 35 articles were selected, of which 26 were cross-sectional or longitudinal, 9 were analytical (cohort or case-control). The prevalence rates of preterm delivery in different cities of Iran were reported between 5.6% in Quom to 39.4% in Kerman. The most common social factors in structural determinant were educational level of mother, and in intermediary determinants were Psychosocial factor (maternal anxiety and stress during pregnancy), Behavioral factor and Maternal circumstance (violation and trauma) and in Health system, lack of prenatal care. The prevalence rate of preterm delivery is a matter of concern. Since many psycho-social factors may affect on the condition and its high rate in poor communities might reveals a causal relationship among biological and psychosocial factors, performing etiological investigations is recommended. Source

Farzad M.,University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences
Hand surgery : an international journal devoted to hand and upper limb surgery and related research : journal of the Asia-Pacific Federation of Societies for Surgery of the Hand | Year: 2014

The rehabilitation program after flexor tendon repair of zone II laceration varies. We designed a Prospective Randomized Controlled Trial of controlled passive mobilization (modified Kleinert) vs. Place and active hold exercises after zone 2-flexor tendon repair by two-strand suture (Modified kessler). Sixty-four fingers in 54 patients with zone 2 flexor tendon modified Kessler repairs were enrolled in a prospective randomized controlled trial comparing place and active hold exercises to controlled passive mobilization (modified Kleinert). The primary outcome measure was total active motion eight weeks after repair as measured by an independent and blinded therapist. Patients treated with place and active hold exercises had significantly greater total active motion (146) eight weeks after surgery than patients treated with controlled passive mobilization (114) (modified Klinert). There were no ruptures in either group. Place and hold achieves greater motion than controlled passive mobilization after a two-strand repair for zone 2 flexor tendon repairs. Source

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