Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-IP | Phase: HEALTH-2009-2.1.1-1 | Award Amount: 16.03M | Year: 2010
Mutations in about 400 different genes have been associated with Cognitive Disorders (CD), such as mental retardation, autism, neurodegenerative disorders, and psychiatric disorders. Whereas CD impose a major medical and socio-economical problem, there are no systematic studies that aim to provide insight into common mechanisms in CD. We propose a systems biology approach to gain insight into common mechanisms leading to cognitive impairment: (1) Identification of genes involved in cognitive disorders. Despite considerable progress in the identification of genes underlying CD, the majority of causative genes in CD remain unidentified. Therefore, our first objective is to identify new genes causative of CD by implementing high-throughput strategies. (2) Elucidation of molecular networks that are commonly disrupted in CD. Recent genetic and neurobiological research revealed evidence for a number of molecular and cellular pathways that are shared by the various genetic CDs. Prominent examples are Rho GTPase-related genes and genes that regulate chromatin structure/function (epigenetics) associated with mental retardation and autism. Our second objective is to systematically explore this concept by elucidation of molecular networks using functional genomics strategies in genetic models that are the cornerstone of neuroscience, such as mouse and fruit fly. (3) Identify genetic modifiers and small compounds that modulate the disease phenotype. Our third objective is to resolve the molecular underpinnings of the large degree of clinical variability that is typical for all types of CD, even among patients carrying identical gene mutations. Genetic modifier screens in cultured primary neurons as well as in available Drosophila models for CD will be used to reveal phenotypically relevant genetic interactions and molecular networks. Moreover, drug screens shall be conducted in fly and cellular models for CD, which will lead to pharmacological rescue of mouse models.
Lotfi Y.,University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences
Ear and Hearing | Year: 2017
OBJECTIVES:: Vestibular dysfunction in childhood can have a major effect on a child’s developmental process. Balance function has been reported to be poorer in children with attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) than in their typically developing peers. Due to contradictory available evidence and the paucity of research on vestibular function specifically in children with combined ADHD (cADHD), we designed this aged-matched study to assess vestibular function in children with cADHD. DESIGN:: We enrolled 30 typically developing children (15 boys and 15 girls; mean age, 9 years 6 months; range, 7 to 12 years) and 33 children (19 boys and 14 girls; mean age, 9 years 0 months; range, 7 to 12 years) with cADHD diagnosed by our research psychiatrist. Typically developing controls were used to obtain normative data on vestibular testing and to examine the impact of age on the vestibular response parameters, and these results were compared with those of the cADHD group. All children underwent the sinusoidal harmonic acceleration subtype of the rotary chair test (0.01, 0.02, 0.08, 0.16, and 0.32 Hz) and the cervical vestibular-evoked myogenic potential (cVEMP) test. RESULTS:: At all five frequencies in the sinusoidal harmonic acceleration test, there was no significant correlation between age and any of the following rotary chair response parameters in typically developing children: vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) gain, phase, asymmetry, and fixation index. Furthermore, there was no significant correlation between age and any of the following cVEMP parameters for the right and left ears of control group: p1 and n1 latency, amplitude, threshold, and amplitude ratio. Significantly higher VOR gains were observed for children with cADHD at frequencies of 0.01 (p = 0.001), 0.08 (p < 0.001), 0.16 (p = 0.001), and 0.32 (p = 0.003) Hz, when compared with the control group. Furthermore, fixation abilities were significantly lower in the cADHD group than in the control group at 0.16 (p < 0.001) and 0.32 (p < 0.001) Hz. cVEMP parameters showed no significant differences between the two groups. CONCLUSIONS:: Our results showed higher VOR gains and poorer fixation abilities in children with cADHD compared with typically developing children. Cerebellar dysfunction in patients with ADHD has been well documented in the literature, and our findings of cVEMP and rotary chair tests for these children showed impaired vestibular function in these children, based on increased VOR gain values and decreased fixation capabilities. Because VOR gain is mediated through the inferior olive and controlled by the cerebellum, our results suggest that central inhibition of vestibular function may be deficient in children with cADHD, resulting in higher VOR gains. Also, there is general agreement that failure of fixation suppression indicates a central lesion. The lesion can originate from the parietal–occipital cortex, the pons, or the cerebellum. However, failure of fixation suppression is most prominent in lesions involving the midline cerebellum that could be counted for children with cADHD. We believe that this contribution is theoretically and practically relevant as high VOR gains and decreased suppression capabilities may result in symptoms of reading and writing difficulties, learning disabilities, vertigo, and motion sickness in these children. Therefore, assessment of vestibular function in children with cADHD at a young age must be considered when developing rehabilitation protocols for these children. Copyright © 2017 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.
Norouzy A.,University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences
Blood Pressure Monitoring | Year: 2017
INTRODUCTION: It is believed that Ramadan fasting regulates blood pressure, heart rate, and other cardiovascular risk factors. This study aimed to investigate the effect of Ramadan fasting on ambulatory blood pressure in hypertensive patients. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This prospective, observational study was carried out in two groups: one group included hypertensive patients treated with two antihypertensive agents (n=6) and the other group included healthy individuals (n=12). We performed 24-h blood pressure monitoring at four time points: before Ramadan, during the first and last 10 days of Ramadan, and 1 month after Ramadan. All hypertensive patients followed their twice-daily treatment regimen. Mean 24-h blood pressure (as well as mean blood pressure values during awake and sleep periods), body weight, and waist circumference were measured in the two groups. RESULTS: There were no significant differences in the trends of systolic and diastolic blood pressure between the hypertensive and nonhypertensive groups during Ramadan and 1 month after it. However, the trends of variations in heart rate and body weight were not significantly different in the two groups (P<0.001 and P=0.016, respectively). There was a significant increase in heart rate during the first period of Ramadan in hypertensive patients (P=0.018), whereas it improved during the post-Ramadan period in comparison with the second period of measurements (P=0.019). Furthermore, there was a significant decline in heart rate during the post-Ramadan measurement compared with that before Ramadan in the nonhypertensive group (P=0.008).In addition, there was a significant weight gain in the third period in comparison with the previous period in the hypertensive group (73.1±11 vs. 72.2±12; P=0.011). CONCLUSION: This finding indicates that Ramadan fasting might be nonthreatening for patients with essential hypertension if the treatment regimen is complied with. Copyright © 2017 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.
Shafti S.S.,University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences
Journal of Affective Disorders | Year: 2010
Objective: Among the available mood stabilizers, it appears that lithium may share an important role for treatment of acute mania. In a study from Sep. 2007 to Apr. 2008 at Razi Psychiatric Hospital we evaluated the efficiency of olanzapine vs. lithium. Methods: Forty (40) female inpatients meeting DSM-IV-TR criteria for acute mania were entered into a 3-week parallel group, double-blind study for random assignment to olanzapine or lithium carbonate in a 1:1 ratio. Primary outcome measurements were the changes in Manic State Rating Scale (MSRS) at baseline and weekly intervals up to the third week. Similarly, overall illness severity was rated using the Clinical Global Impression-Severity of illness scale (CGI-S) at baseline and at the end of the third week. Analysis of the data was accomplished by means of split-plot (mixed) and repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) and t test. Results: While both olanzapine and lithium were found to be significantly helpful in the improvement of manic symptoms (p < 0.05), lithium was considerably more successful by the end of the third week (p < 0.0002 and p < 0.003, for frequency and intensity of the symptoms). CGI-S also showed important improvements with both olanzapine and lithium (p < 0.043 and p < 0.015 for olanzapine and lithium). Conclusion: Though both olanzapine and lithium were effective in the improvement of manic symptoms, lithium was more beneficial. © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Afshar R.,University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences
Saudi journal of kidney diseases and transplantation : an official publication of the Saudi Center for Organ Transplantation, Saudi Arabia | Year: 2012
Public awareness of organ donation fundamentally affects the organ transplantation programs. This study was performed to assess the attitude and willingness of high school adolescents regarding organ donation. The study population consisted of 416 high school girls who were studying in four grades of three educational courses. Data were collected by a questionnaire and included demographic variables and attitude and willingness, which were assessed based on the Likert scale. The SPSS v.16 was used for data analysis. The mean age of the study subjects was 16.26 ± 1.06 years, 31% studied in grade-1, 27% in grade-2 (25% natural sciences, 27% mathematics and 48% humanities), 26% in grade-3 (30% natural sciences, 34% mathematics and 36% humanities) and 16% in pre-university stage (32% natural sciences, 42% mathematics and 26% humanities). The students had a highly positive attitude toward organ donation (mean score 4.2 ± 0.54). The greatest willingness for organ donation was concerning the kidney (88%) and heart (84%), followed by the liver (83.4%), pancreas (79.6%), cornea (67.8%) and skin (51%). Willingness for deceased as well as living organ donation was indicated by 92% and 47%, respectively, of the participants. Organ donation was considered acceptable only to relatives by 5% of the participants when the donors were deceased donors and by 16% of the participants when the donors were living donors; donation to all needy persons from deceased donors was accepted by 87% of the participants and from living donors by 31%. The purpose of donation was stated as lending help to others by 89% and progression of science by 40.2% of the participants. Willingness for organ donation from a deceased relative was declared by 63% of the students. There was significant positive correlation between willingness for organ donation and attitude (P <0.001). In addition, attitude and willingness had positive correlation with educational levels, age and educational courses. Our study suggests that Iranian adolescents have a great attitude and willingness toward organ donation, which reflects favorable knowledge of transplantation. Further research on public awareness in both genders and various age ranges is needed.
Dolatian M.,University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences
Global journal of health science | Year: 2013
Preterm delivery is still the primary cause of mortality and morbidity in infants, which shows a problematic condition in the care of pregnant women all over the world. This review study describes prevalence and psycho - socio-demographic as well as obstetrical risk factors related to live preterm delivery (PTD) in the recent decade in Iran. A narrative review was performed in Persian and international databases including PubMed, SID, Google Scholar, Iran Medex, Magiran and Irandoc from 2001 to 2010 with following keywords: preterm delivery and pregnancy outcomes with (prevalence, socioeconomic condition, structural determinant, Intermediary determinants, Psychosocial factor, Behavioral factor and Maternal circumstance, Health system). All of article was reviewed then categorized based on WHO model. Totally 52 article were reviewed and 35 articles were selected, of which 26 were cross-sectional or longitudinal, 9 were analytical (cohort or case-control). The prevalence rates of preterm delivery in different cities of Iran were reported between 5.6% in Quom to 39.4% in Kerman. The most common social factors in structural determinant were educational level of mother, and in intermediary determinants were Psychosocial factor (maternal anxiety and stress during pregnancy), Behavioral factor and Maternal circumstance (violation and trauma) and in Health system, lack of prenatal care. The prevalence rate of preterm delivery is a matter of concern. Since many psycho-social factors may affect on the condition and its high rate in poor communities might reveals a causal relationship among biological and psychosocial factors, performing etiological investigations is recommended.
Khankeh H.,University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences
Prehospital and disaster medicine | Year: 2013
Planned and organized long-term rehabilitation services should be provided to victims of a disaster for social integration, economic self-sufficiency, and psychological health. There are few studies on recovery and rehabilitation issues in disaster situations. This study explores the disaster-related rehabilitation process. This study was based on qualitative analysis. Participants included 18 individuals (eight male and ten female) with experience providing or receiving disaster health care or services. Participants were selected using purposeful sampling. Data were collected through in-depth and semi-structured interviews. All interviews were transcribed and content analysis was performed based on qualitative content analysis. The study explored three main concepts of recovery and rehabilitation after a disaster: 1) needs for health recovery; 2) intent to delegate responsibility; and 3) desire for a wide scope of social support. The participants of this study indicated that to provide comprehensive recovery services, important basic needs should be considered, including the need for physical rehabilitation, social rehabilitation, and livelihood health; the need for continuity of mental health care; and the need for family re-unification services. Providing social activation can help reintegrate affected people into the community. Effective rehabilitation care for disaster victims requires a clear definition of the rehabilitation process at different levels of the community. Involving a wide set of those most likely to be affected by the process provides a comprehensive, continuous, culturally sensitive, and family-centered plan.
Mohammadi F.,University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences
The American journal of sports medicine | Year: 2010
BACKGROUND: The high incidence of ankle sprains that occur later in matches suggests that fatigue may contribute to altered neuromuscular control of the ankle. Moreover, deficits in ankle joint position sense (JPS) were seen in patients with a history of recurrent ankle sprains. It has been hypothesized that ankle sprains may be related to altered ankle JPS as a consequence of fatigue. PURPOSE: To evaluate if fatiguing contractions of evertor muscles alter the ankle JPS. STUDY DESIGN: Controlled laboratory study. METHODS: Thirty-six soccer players (age, 24.7 +/- 1.3 years; height, 183.7 +/- 8.2 cm; weight, 78.9 +/- 7.9 kg) were recruited. Subjects were asked to recognize 2 positions (15 degrees of inversion and maximal active inversion minus 5 degrees ) for 2 conditions: normal and fatigue. Muscular fatigue was induced in evertor muscles of the dominant leg by using isometric contractions. The average of the absolute and variable errors of 3 trials were recorded for both fatigue and nonfatigue conditions. A matched control group of 36 soccer players (age, 23.9 +/- 0.9 years; height, 181.2 +/- 6.9 cm; weight, 77.8 +/- 6.5 kg) was asked to recognize the same positions, before a soccer match and after 45 minutes of playing, and their same scores were recorded. Finally, results of the 2 groups were compared. RESULTS: There was significant decrease in subjects' ability to recognize passive and active repositioning of their ankle after a fatigue protocol (P <.001). Passive and active JPS were reduced after playing (P <.001). There was no significant difference between 2 groups in the results of JPS before and after the intervention (P > .1). CONCLUSION: The acuity of the ankle JPS is reduced subsequent to a fatigue protocol and after a soccer match. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Evaluation of athletes' ankle JPS before returning to physical activity may prevent further injuries.
Arazpour M.,University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences
Spinal Cord | Year: 2015
Study design:This is a systematic literature review.Objectives:Different types of orthoses have been developed to enable and facilitate ambulation in individuals with paraplegia. However, their effect on energy consumption while ambulating is not clear. The objective of this review was to compare the energy expenditure required to walk with these devices.Methods:Using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) method, and based on selected keywords and their composition according to the Population Intervention Comparison Outcome (PICO) method, a search was performed in Science Direct, Google Scholar, Scopus, Web of Knowledge and PubMed databases. The searches were restricted to papers published in the English language and were conducted during February 2014; the last access to the database was on 25 February 2014. A total of 24 articles were chosen for final evaluation.Results:Hybrid orthoses reduce energy consumption compared with mechanical orthoses when used for walking by paraplegic patients. The isocentric reciprocating gait orthosis has been shown to be more effective than other reciprocating orthoses in reducing energy consumption. Energy consumption when walking with powered orthoses (PO) and hybrid orthoses was also reduced compared with when walking with conventional orthoses.Conclusions:The hybrid orthoses and PO could be effective alternatives in rehabilitation for spinal cord injury patients to help improve the energy consumption.Spinal Cord advance online publication, 20 January 2015; doi:10.1038/sc.2014.227. © 2015 International Spinal Cord Society
Banan M.,University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences
Annals of Hematology | Year: 2013
Hydroxyurea (HU) is a drug that induces fetal hemoglobin production. As a result, HU is widely used to treat β-thalassemia (β-thal) patients. However, the response of these patients to HU varies. Some β-thal patients respond favorably to treatment while others do not respond at all. HU has a number of side-effects and therefore its targeted prescription is beneficial. Hence, identifying the genetic determinants which lead to the differential HU response is important. This review summarizes recent findings which have shed light on this topic. Special emphasis is given to the mechanisms and genetic loci which may govern these differences. These findings have helped identify several single nucleotide polymorphisms which associate with the response to HU in both β-thal and sickle cell disease patients. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.