Osman B.H.,Hohai University |
Osman B.H.,University of Sinnar |
Wu E.,Hohai University |
Ji B.,Hohai University |
Abdulhameed S.S.,Hohai University
International Journal of Concrete Structures and Materials | Year: 2017
Strengthening reinforced concrete (RC) beams with openings by using aramid fiber reinforcement polymers (AFRP) on the beams’ surfaces offers a useful solution for upgrading concrete structures to carry heavy loads. This paper presents a repairing technique of the AFRP sheets that effectively strengthens RC beams, controls both the failure modes and the stress distribution around the beam chords and enhances the serviceability (deflection produced under working loads be sufficiently small and cracking be controlled) of pre-cracked RC beams with openings. To investigate the possible damage that was caused by the service load and to simulate the structure behavior in the site, a comprehensive experimental study was performed. Two un-strengthened control beams, four beams that were pre-cracked before the application of the AFRP sheets and one beam that was strengthened without pre-cracking were tested. Cracking was first induced, followed by repair using various orientations of AFRP sheets, and then the beams were tested to failure. This load was kept constant during the strengthening process. The results show that both the preexisting damage level and the FRP orientation have a significant effect on strengthening effectiveness and failure mode. All of the strengthened specimens exhibited higher capacities with capacity enhancements ranging from 21.8 to 66.4%, and the crack width reduced by 25.6–82.7% at failure load compared to the control beam. Finally, the authors present a comparison between the experimental results and the predictions using the ACI 440.2R-08 guidelines. © 2017, The Author(s).
Mergani A.,Taif University |
Khamis A.H.,Sudan University of Science and Technology |
Haboor A.B.,University of Gezira |
Hashim E.,University of Sinnar |
And 5 more authors.
International Journal of Genetics and Molecular Biology | Year: 2010
Up to 500 millions are affected by malaria parasite each year and only 1% of them develop severe clinical forms of the disease. No full satisfactory explanation for the fact that only small proportion of malaria infected individuals develops severe clinical phenotypes while others don't. The aims of the present study is to assess the role of TNF-α - 308 G>A in predisposing to cerebral malaria in children in Central Sudan. 109 children admitted with cerebral malaria (CM) were enrolled in this study (Mean age 6.1± 3.3 years old). The onset of cerebral malaria in the study subjects started in the first two years of life with no gender effect and the highest incidence of the disease was at the age group (4 - 6 years old). The allele frequencies in control group (n= 109) were 0.91 for TNFα -308G (TNF1) and 0.09 for TNFα - 308A (TNF2) and the allele frequencies in 93 CM subjects were 0.95 for TNFα -308G (TNF1) and 0.05 for TNFα -308A (TNF2). The distribution of TNFα -308 genotypes in normal group was consistent with the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. No TNF2 homozygote was observed among CM subjects. However, the distribution of TNFα -308 genotypes and alleles did not differ significantly between CM patients and controls (P = 0.271). These data suggest that TNF2 is not associated with predisposition to CM in Central Sudanese children. Further studies for confirmation of this finding in other regions of Sudan are required. © 2010 Academic Journals.
Mergani A.,Taif University |
Khamis A.H.,University of Dammam |
Fatih Hashim E.L.,University of Sinnar |
Gumma M.,Singa Hospital |
And 3 more authors.
Journal of Vector Borne Diseases | Year: 2015
Background & objectives: Cerebral malaria is considered a leading cause of neuro-disability in sub-Saharan Africa among children and about 25% of survivors have long-term neurological and cognitive deficits or epilepsy. Their development was reported to be associated with protracted seizures, deep and prolonged coma. The study was aimed to determine the discharge pattern and to identify potential and informative predictors of neurological sequelae at discharge, complicating childhood cerebral malaria in central Sudan. Methods: A cross-sectional prospective study was carried out during malaria transmission seasons from 2000 to 2004 in Wad Medani, Sinnar and Singa hospitals, central Sudan. Children suspected of having cerebral malaria were examined and diagnosed by a Pediatrician for clinical, laboratory findings and any neurological complications. Univariate and multiple regression model analysis were performed to evaluate the association of clinical and laboratory findings with occurrence of neurological complications using the SPSS. Results: Out of 940 examined children, only 409 were diagnosed with cerebral malaria with a mean age of 6.1 ± 3.3 yr. The mortality rate associated with the study was 14.2% (58) and 18.2% (64) of survivors (351) had neurological sequelae. Abnormal posture, either decerebration or decortication, focal convulsion and coma duration of >48 h were significant predictors for surviving from cerebral malaria with a neurological sequelae in children from central Sudan by Univariate analysis. Multiple logistic regression model fitting these variables, revealed 39.6% sensitivity for prediction of childhood cerebral malaria survivors with neurological sequelae (R2 = 0.396; p=0.001). Interpretation & conclusion: Neurological sequelae are common due to childhood cerebral malaria in central Sudan. Their prediction at admission, clinical presentation and laboratory findings may guide clinical intervention and proper management that may decrease morbidity and improve CM consequences. © 2015, Malaria Research Center. All rights reserved.
Ishag I.A.,University of Sinnar |
Reissmann M.,Humboldt University of Berlin |
Peters K.J.,Humboldt University of Berlin |
Musa L.M.-A.,University of Khartoum |
Ahmed M.-K.A,University of Khartoum
South African Journal of Animal Sciences | Year: 2010
The objective of this study was to sequence the growth hormone (GH) gene in Sudanese camel breeds (Kenani, Lahwee, Rashaidi, Anafi, Bishari and Kabbashi) searching for single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and contribute to the phenotypic characterization of the multitude of camel ecotypes in Sudan. This will also afford the chance of investigating the possibility of the presence of correlations between body measurements and SNPs of GH gene. A length of 1732 bp, spanning the region between -44 bp upstream of the first exon and +37 bp downstream of the last exon was sequenced in two animals from each breed. The sequence comparison of Sudanese camel GH sequences with the GenBank sequence identified one single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP). The SNP was detected in the non coding region (intron 1) in position AJ575419:g.419C>T. A PCR-RFLP method was used to genotype 181 animals representing the six tested Sudanese breeds for detected SNP. The Bishari and Anafi breeds that are classified as riding camels had slightly higher T allele frequencies (0.57 and 0.48, respectively) than those of the other four breeds which are classified as pack camels. The effect of genotype with regard to the SNP g.419C>T on those traits was not significant. © South African Society for Animal Science.
Mudawi H.M.Y.,University of Khartoum |
Khogalie A.A.,University of Sinnar |
El Tahir M.A.,University of Khartoum |
Mohamed H.M.E.,University of Khartoum
Arab Journal of Gastroenterology | Year: 2012
Background and study aims: This is a prospective, descriptive, hospital-based study to evaluate the appropriateness and diagnostic yield of upper gastrointestinal (GI) tract endoscopy referrals to Soba University Hospital endoscopy unit using the American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy guidelines for appropriate use of endoscopy. Patients and methods: All patients referred to Soba University Hospital for upper GI endoscopy during the study period were enrolled in the study after giving an informed consent. Statistical analysis was done using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) program to calculate frequencies and the X2 test; P value was taken as significant at a level of less than 0.05. Results: Overall, 220 patients were prospectively enrolled in the study, of which 126 (57%) were males, with a mean age of 46.5 ± 17.9. years. A total of 190 patients (86%) were appropriately referred and the overall diagnostic yield was 46.8%. Those with appropriate referral had a higher diagnostic yield (50%) when compared to those with inappropriate referral (23%). Conclusion: The diagnostic yield of upper GI endoscopy was higher when patients were referred appropriately indicating that detection of relevant finding is greatly enhanced by the utilisation of standard guidelines. © 2012 Arab Journal of Gastroenterology.
Kheir S.E.O.,University of Sinnar |
El Owni O.A.O.,University of Khartoum |
Abdalla M.O.M.,University of Khartoum
Pakistan Journal of Nutrition | Year: 2011
This study was carried out to compare white cheese (Gibna Bayda) made with partially purified Solanum dubium extract and rennet chemically, microbiologically and organoleptically, in addition to evaluating weight loss. Three batches of white cheese were made in duplicate, in two of which partially purified Solanum dubium fruit extract was used as coagulant, while in the third batch rennet was used as a coagulant. Results indicated that type of coagulant had no significant effect on weight loss, titratable acidity, protein, salt and ash contents of white cheese. However, there was a significant effect on total solids, fat, soluble protein, tyrosine and tryptophan contents. The interaction between the storage period and type of coagulant did not significantly affect all chemical components of cheese except tyrosine. Storage period had a significant effect on titratable acidity, total solids, protein and ash contents of whey. Total viable bacteria, streptococci and lactobacilli counts (cfu/gm) were significantly affected by storage period, and as the storage period increased their count decreased. No significant differences were observed in sensory characteristics in terms of colour, flavour, texture and saltiness between the two cheeses. © Asian Network for Scientific Information, 2011.
Abdalla M.O.M.,University of Khartoum |
Kheir S.E.O.,University of Sinnar |
El Owni O.A.O.,University of Khartoum
Advance Journal of Food Science and Technology | Year: 2011
Solanum dubium fruits were collected and used as a plant source for extracting milk coagulating enzymes. The enzyme was extracted by four methods and the activity of each extract was determined. Solanum dubium fruits were kept at 4 and 37°C for five months, while aqueous extracts of the Solanum dubium fruits were kept at 4 and 37°C for three months. The crude extract of Solanum dubium fruit was precipitated by ammonium sulphate using different concentrations (0-90%). Partial characterization of the milk coagulant was carried out. The results showed that maximum milk-activity (p<0.001) was obtained from Solanum dubium fruit extracted with freeze-drying. The milk-clotting activity significantly decreased (p<0.001) from 3.65 U/mL when Solanum dubium was extracted with 1% NaCl in distilled water to 1.74 when Solanum dubium was extracted with 5% NaCl. The loss in activity of Solanum dubium fruits stored in liquid and solid forms increased significantly (p<0.05) at room temperature compared to refrigerator storage. The saturation with ammonium sulphate (60%) gave higher milk-clotting activity (5.03 mg/mL) and protein content. The partially purified Solanum dubium fruit extract had the highest activity at 70°C and pH 10. Twenty five milliliters (25 mL/50 L milk) of a partially purified Solanum dubium fruit extract was recommended for cheese making. © Maxwell Scientific Organization, 2011.
Balail N.G.,University of Sinnar
Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences | Year: 2014
This study was carried out to evaluate the nutritive value of cowpea seeds. Also to minimize the presence of some anti nutritional factors such as tannin and trypsin inhibitors. It is aimed to determined the best method by which we can reduce the anti nutritional factors. Samples of raw, decorticated and decorticated roasted cowpea seeds were subjected to proximate analysis. The results show that for dry matter (93.63, 94.33 and 95.9), for crude protein(29.18, 31.80 and 29.73), for ash (4.60, 4.0 and 5.52) for fiber (6.22, 3.75 and 4.32) for ether extract (2.30, 2.50 and 1.60) for nitrogen free extract (51.33, 52.28 and 54.73), respectively for raw, decorticated and decorticated roasted seeds. Tannin content percentages were determined using method. The results were (0.76, 0.02 and 0.005), respectively. Trypsin inhibitors were determined using enzymatic method the results were (1.68, 0.74 and 1.36), respectively for raw, decorticated and decorticated roasted cowpea seeds. It is concluded that chemical composition was varied between the treatments. Decorticated seeds gives high level of protein followed by the others. De cortication significantly reduced tannin content by 85%. Roasting significantly decreased trypsin inhibitors by 65%. Processing of cowpea seeds either mechanically or by heat, significantly improve their nutritional value. © 2014 Asian Network for Scientific Information.