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Chengdu, China

Sichuan University is one of the national key comprehensive universities, located in Chengdu, the capital city of Sichuan Province, China, with a long history and many predecessors, of which the earliest one was founded in 1740 with the origin in BCE 141. It was transformed to be a modern university in 1920s and the name National Sichuan University was adopted in 1931.Sichuan University is one of the national universities directly under the Ministry of Education . It is also one of the State 211 Project and 985 Project universities enjoying privileged construction in the Ninth Five-Year Plan period. It is ranked No. 8 among the Chinese universities according to the 2010 Academic Ranking of World Universities.The president of the university is Professor Xie Heping, an academician of the Chinese Academy of Engineering. Wikipedia.

Zhang H.,Universite de Sherbrooke | Xia H.,University of Sichuan | Zhao Y.,Universite de Sherbrooke
Journal of Materials Chemistry | Year: 2012

A new optically triggered shape memory composite material was prepared and investigated. Poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL)-surface functionalized AuNPs were loaded in a thermosensitive shape-memory polymer (SMP) matrix of biodegradable, branched oligo(ε-caprolactone) (bOCL) cross-linked with hexamethylene diisocyanate (HMDI), referred to as XbOCL. By making use of a localized photothermal effect arising from the SPR absorption of AuNPs, we are able to demonstrate an optically triggered and spatially selective shape recovery process, with a stretched AuNP-loaded XbOCL film undergoing stepwise contraction and lifting of a load. Since the shape recovery process can be halted at any time by turning off the light exposure, multiple intermediate shapes can readily be obtained. These are appealing features that cannot be obtained from thermally activated SMPs based on a bulk thermal effect. Moreover, the magnitude of the photoinduced temperature increase of the material can be controlled by adjusting the laser power, it is also possible to use the same AuNP-loaded composite material for applications with different environmental temperatures below T transition, since the thermal transition at T > T transition can be optically induced by a laser from different environmental temperatures. © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2011.

Huo D.-M.,University of Sichuan
Zeitschrift fur Naturforschung - Section A Journal of Physical Sciences | Year: 2015

We present nonequilibrium Green function calculations for electronic transport through a laterally coupled carbon-nanotube quantum-dot system. In this system, a one-dimensional double carbon nanotube quantum dot attached to polarised electrodes forms a main channel for electronic tunnelling. Each carbon nanotube quantum dot in the main channel couples to a dangling carbon nanotube quantum dot. Then, the conductance spectrum is calculated. The insulating band and resonance peak in this spectrum, due to Fano antiresonance and Kondo resonance, are discussed. The intradot electron's Coulomb interaction effect on the insulating band is also investigated. By controlling the coupling coefficient between the quantum dots, we can realise mutual transformation between Kondo resonance and Fano antiresonance at the Fermi level. The spin-orbit coupling and magnetic field's influence on the Kondo resonance peak are discussed in detail. Finally, spin magnetic moment and orbital magnetic moment of electrons in the quantum dot by applying parallel magnetic field are also predicted.

The purpose of the study is to investigate the expression of epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) in normal pregnancy and severe preeclampsia placenta and to explore the underlying mechanism of the relationship between the altered ENaC expression and onset of preeclampsia. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Western blot were used to check epithelial sodium channel subunits expression in mRNA and protein level in first term and full term placental tissue. ENaCα specific RNAi were used to knockdown ENaC expression and cell invasion and migration assay were used to check whether reduced expression of ENaC can compromise trophoblast cell function. The result showed that ENaCα was highly expressed in first term placental trophoblast cells; while EnaCβ was highly expressed in full term placenta. Knockdown ENaCα expression by using small interfering RNA reduced the invasive and migration abilities of HTR-8/SVneo cell. Real time-PCR and Western blot analysis showed that the expression levels of ENaCβ were also significantly lower in severe preeclampsia compared with normal pregnancy. It is concluded that the ENaC played an important role in trophoblast cell invasion and migration. Reduced expression and activity of epithelial sodium channel in trophoblast cells may be involved in the pathogenesis of preeclampsia.

Partridge S.R.,University of Sydney | Zong Z.,University of Sydney | Zong Z.,University of Sichuan | Iredell J.R.,University of Sydney
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy | Year: 2011

CTX-M-15 now appears to be the dominant extended-spectrum β-lactamase worldwide, and a number of different factors may contribute to this success. These include associations between bla CTX-M-15 and particular plasmids (IncF) and/or strains, such as Escherichia coli ST131, as well as the genetic contexts in which this gene is found. We previously identified bla CTX-M-15 as the dominant ESBL gene in the western Sydney area, Australia, and found that it was carried mainly on IncF or IncI1 plasmids. Here, we have mapped the multiresistance regions of the 11 conjugative plasmids with one or more IncF replicons obtained from that survey and conducted a limited comparison of plasmid backbones. Two plasmids with only an IncFII replicon appear to be very similar to the published plasmids pC15-1a and pEK516. The remaining nine plasmids, with multiple IncF replicons, have multiresistance regions related to those of pC15-1a and pEK516, but eight contain additional modules previously found in resistance plasmids from different geographic locations that carry a variety of different resistance genes. Differences between the multiresistance regions are largely due to IS26-mediated deletions, insertions, and/or rearrangements, which can explain the observed variable associations between bla CTX-M-15 and certain other resistance genes. We found no evidence of independent movement of bla CTX-M-15 or of a large multiresistance region between different plasmid backbones. Instead, homologous recombination between common components, such as IS26 and Tn2, appeared to be more important in creating new multiresistance regions, and this may be coupled with recombination in plasmid backbones to reassort multiple IncF replicons as well as components of multiresistance regions. Copyright © 2011, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

Qin D.-Y.,University of Sichuan
Anti-Cancer Drugs | Year: 2016

T-lymphocytes genetically engineered with the chimeric antigen receptor (CAR-T) have shown great therapeutic potential in cancer treatment. A variety of preclinical researches and clinical trials of CAR-T therapy have been carried out to lay the foundation for future clinical application. In these researches, several gene-transfer methods were used to deliver CARs or other genes into T-lymphocytes, equipping CAR-modified T cells with a property of recognizing and attacking antigen-expressing tumor cells in a major histocompatibility complex-independent manner. Here, we summarize the gene-transfer vectors commonly used in the generation of CAR-T cell, including retrovirus vectors, lentivirus vectors, the transposon/transposase system, the plasmid-based system, and the messenger RNA electroporation system. The following aspects were compared in parallel: efficiency of gene transfer, the integration methods in the modified T cells, foreground of scale-up production, and application and development in clinical trials. These aspects should be taken into account to generate the optimal CAR-gene vector that may be suitable for future clinical application. Copyright © 2016 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.

Docetaxel-based chemotherapy has been recommended for advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). However, treatment failure often occurs because of acquired drug resistance. In this study, a docetaxel-resistant NPC cell line CNE-2R was established with increasing doses of docetaxel for more than 6 months. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and ESI-Q-TOF–MS were used to compare the differential expression of docetaxel-resistance-associated proteins between human NPC CNE-2 cells and docetaxel-resistant CNE-2R cells. As a result, 24 differentially expressed proteins were identified, including 11 proteins with increased expression and 13 proteins with decreased expression. These proteins function in diverse biological processes such as metabolism, signal transduction, calcium ion binding, immune response, proteolysis, and so on. Among these, α-enolase (ENO1), significantly upregulated in CNE-2R, was selected for detailed analysis. Inhibition of ENO1 by shRNA restored CNE-2R cells’ sensitivity to docetaxel. Moreover, overexpression of ENO1 could facilitate the development of acquired resistance of docetaxel in CNE-2 cells. Western blot and reverse-transcription PCR data of clinical samples confirmed that α-enolase was upregulated in docetaxel-resistant human NPC tissues. Finding such proteins might improve interpretation of the molecular mechanisms leading to the acquisition of docetaxel chemoresistance. Copyright © 2016 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.

Li J.,Sichuan University | Shao L.,Sichuan University | Yuan L.,University of Sichuan | Wang Y.,Sichuan University
Materials and Design | Year: 2014

Poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA)/reduced graphite oxide (rGO) nanocomposites were synthesized by solvothermal reduction of graphite oxide (GO) in the presence of PVA. The solvent, the mixed dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO)-dimethylformamide (DMF), could act not only as a reducing agent but also as a good stabilizer, which achieved effectively reduction of GO in the PVA matrix and avoided the agglomeration of rGO during reduction. A 53.0% increase in tensile strength and 52.6% improvement of Young's modulus were achieved by addition of 3. wt% of rGO. Furthermore, a significant improvement of thermal stability was observed for the PVA/rGO nanocomposites. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

Ran Q.-C.,Sichuan University | Ran Q.-C.,University of Sichuan | Gu Y.,Sichuan University
Journal of Polymer Science, Part A: Polymer Chemistry | Year: 2011

Polymerization reactions of a new aldehyde-functional benzoxazine (4HBA-a) were investigated in detail. The curing behavior of 4HBA-a was studied by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) methods. The results indicate that the disappearance of the aldehyde group from 4HBA-a and the ring-opening reaction of 4HBA-a occur simultaneously. Gases evolved during the curing process of 4HBA-a were analyzed by thermogravimetric analyzer interfaced with FTIR spectra. The elimination of CO 2 is attributed to the oxidation and decarboxylation of the aldehyde groups. In addition, the crosslink sites of the aldehyde groups in the polymer structure are confirmed by model reactions. A possible reactive position should be sited in ortho position of phenol rather than ortho and/or para positions of N-phenyl ring. Finally, the crosslinked structures of polymerized 4HBA-a have been proposed. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Yuan C.,University of Sichuan
Asian Journal of Chemistry | Year: 2015

TLC experiments were performed to resolve the enantiomers for four neutral aliphatic DL-α-amino acids, DL-alanine, DL-valine, DLleucine and DL-isoleucine on silica gel plates using teicoplanin as chiral selector with same developing solvent n-butanol-methanol-water (5:0.5:1.2, v/v). The effects of constitute of developing solvents, the ratio of mobile phase, concentration of chiral selector and temperature on the enantioseparation had been studied. To our best of knowledge, this is the first report on thin layer chromatographic chiral resolution using teicoplanin as the chiral selector.

Liu Y.H.,University of Sichuan
Sichuan da xue xue bao. Yi xue ban = Journal of Sichuan University. Medical science edition | Year: 2013

To investigate the change of the levels of fasting plasma endotoxin (ET) and assess its correlated factors in individuals with different glucose tolerances and body mass indices. The levels of fasting plasma ET were assayed by the endpoint chromogenic limulus amebocyte lysate method in subjects with type 2 diabetes (T2DM), impaired glucose regulation (IGR) and normal glucose tolerance (NGT). The height, body mass, waist, hips, systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure were measured with the conventional methods; body mass index (BMI) and waist hip ratio (WHR) were calculated. All groups were divided into obesity (BMI>or=25 kg/m2) and non-obesity (BMI<25 kg/m2) subgroups. The levels of fasting blood glucose (FBG), 2 hours plasma glucose (2 hPG), fasting insulin (FINS), postprandial insulin (PINS), hemoglobin Alc (HbAlc), blood lipids, free fatty acids (FFA), serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) were also analyzed, and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) was calculated. The relationship of the levels of plasma ET with age, BMI, WHR, blood pressure, FBG, 2 hPG, FINS, PINS, HOMA-IR, HbA1c, blood lipids, FFA, AST and ALT were also analyzed. (1) The levels of plasma ET in T2DM group (n=37) was significantly higher than that in NGT group (n=37) [7. 1 (3. 7-11. 8) EU/mL vs. 4. 5 (2.2-6.3) EU/mL, P<0.05]. The levels of plasma ET in IGR group (n=23) C5.0 (2.4-10.3) EU/mLU was lower than that in T2DM group and higher than NGT group but the differences were not significant (P>0. 05). (2) The levels of plasma ET in the obesity T2DM subgroup was higher than that in the non-obesity T2DM subgroup but the differences were not significant [7. 3 (3. 8-13. 3) EU/mL vs. 7.0 (3. 6-10. 4) EU/mL, P>0. 05]. There was a remarkable difference in the levels of plasma ET between obesity and non-obesity subgroup of IGR (6.8 (2.9-13.2) EU/mL vs. 2.7 (1.6-5. 5) EU/mL, P<0. 05), similarly between obesity and non-obesity subgroup of NGT (6.2 (3. 4-12. 7) EU/mL vs. 2. 8 (1. 8-4. 9) EU/mL, P<0. 05). (3) Multiple linear regression analysis demonstrated that ET wasn' t the important factor influencing FBG and 2 hPG. But BMI and FBG were the important factors influencing ET. 2 hPG and WHR weren't the important factors influencing ET. With the increase in glucose metabolic abnormalities and BMI, the levels of plasma ET are gradually increased. ET isn't the important factor influencing FBG and 2 hPG. BMI and FBG are the important factors in influencing ET.

Cheng X.W.,University of Sichuan
Sichuan da xue xue bao. Yi xue ban = Journal of Sichuan University. Medical science edition | Year: 2013

To observe stress distributions around the acetabular prosthesis and the bones of a patient who underwent total hip arthroplasty (THA). Finite element analysis (FEA) was performed with an osteoarthritis patient who underwent THA for her secondary hip high dislocations: Scenario A--deepened acetabulum at the true acetabulum with a small 44 mm cup; Scenario B--structural bone graft at lateral acetabular with a 48 mm cup; Scenario C--place tantalum metal acetabular reconstruction at the lateral acetabular with a 48 mm cup; Scenario D--the normal side of the hip. According to the Wasielewski methods, acetabular was divided into four zones, in the same way on the lining surface. Ten points were taken in each zone for measuring the Von Mises stress values. Scenario A generated significantly greater stress values in the bones in zone one than the other three scenarios. Significantly greater stress was also found in the inner surface of polyethylene over all of the four zones under scenario A compared with those of the scenario B and C, especially in zone one and two. The cup initial micro-mobility for scenario A was 49. 18 microm, 19 times of that of scenario B and 8 times of that of scenario C. (1) Deepened acetabulum with small cup can cause stress concentration in the acetabular bones and liner, leading to large cup initial micro-mobility. (2) Acetabular lateral structural bone grafting and placement of tantalum metal reconstruction have better biomechanical properties, which can enable the use of bigger cups.

Kelby T.S.,University of Cambridge | Wang M.,University of Sichuan | Huck W.T.S.,University of Cambridge
Advanced Functional Materials | Year: 2011

Microscale, quasi-2D Au-polymer brush composite objects are fabricated by a versatile, controllable process based on microcontact printing followed by brush growth and etching of the substrate. These objects fold into 3D microstructures in response to a stimulus: crosslinked poly(glycidyl methacrylate) (PGMA) brushes fold on immersion in MeOH, and poly(methacryloxyethyl trimethylammonium chloride) (PMETAC) brushes fold on addition of salt. Microcages and microcontainers are fabricated. A multistep microcontact printing process is also used to create sheets of Au-PGMA bilayer lines linked by a PGMA film, which fold into cylindrical tubes. The bending of these objects can be predicted, and hence predefined during the synthesis process by controlling the parameters of the gold layer, and of the polymer brush. 2D objects that fold into 3D microstructures in response to a stimulus are fabricated by a simple, repeatable process based on microcontact printing, poly-mer brush growth, and etching. Using a simple bilayer model, the bending of these objects can be predicted as a function of the substrate thickness, and hence the bending can be controlled by the fabrication parameters. © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

Zhao Y.,University of Sichuan | Butler E.B.,University of South Alabama | Tan M.,University of South Alabama
Cell Death and Disease | Year: 2013

The metabolic properties of cancer cells diverge significantly from those of normal cells. Energy production in cancer cells is abnormally dependent on aerobic glycolysis. In addition to the dependency on glycolysis, cancer cells have other atypical metabolic characteristics such as increased fatty acid synthesis and increased rates of glutamine metabolism. Emerging evidence shows that many features characteristic to cancer cells, such as dysregulated Warburg-like glucose metabolism, fatty acid synthesis and glutaminolysis are linked to therapeutic resistance in cancer treatment. Therefore, targeting cellular metabolism may improve the response to cancer therapeutics and the combination of chemotherapeutic drugs with cellular metabolism inhibitors may represent a promising strategy to overcome drug resistance in cancer therapy. Recently, several review articles have summarized the anticancer targets in the metabolic pathways and metabolic inhibitor-induced cell death pathways, however, the dysregulated metabolism in therapeutic resistance, which is a highly clinical relevant area in cancer metabolism research, has not been specifically addressed. From this unique angle, this review article will discuss the relationship between dysregulated cellular metabolism and cancer drug resistance and how targeting of metabolic enzymes, such as glucose transporters, hexokinase, pyruvate kinase M2, lactate dehydrogenase A, pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase, fatty acid synthase and glutaminase can enhance the efficacy of common therapeutic agents or overcome resistance to chemotherapy or radiotherapy. © 2013 Macmillan Publishers Limited.

Su Y.,University of Sichuan | Lv Y.,Sichuan University
RSC Advances | Year: 2014

Due to the high surface area, excellent conductivity, high mechanical strength, and good biocompatibility, graphene has become a growing area of interest since it was first discovered in 2004. Despite these important achievements in the design of fluorescent, colorimetric and electrochemical sensors, the merging of graphene and chemiluminescence (CL) or electrochemiluminescence (ECL), especially CL is still in its infancy. In this review, according to the roles that graphene and its derivatives play in various CL or ECL systems, we discuss the new CL and ECL sensors in particular, in the last two years. Furthermore, we discuss some future prospects and critical challenges in this field. Additionally, possible solutions to overcome these challenges are presented. © 2014 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

Wang C.W.,University of Sichuan
Zhongguo zhen jiu = Chinese acupuncture & moxibustion | Year: 2010

OBJECTIVE To probe into a better therapeutic method for functional constipation. METHODS: Ninety-five cases of functional constipation were randomly divided into deep puncture at ST 25 group (48 cases), shallow puncture at ST 25 group (24 cases) and medication group (23 cases). In deep puncture at ST 25 group, Tianshu (ST 25) was punctured deeply to the peritoneum, with electric stimulation. In shallow puncture at ST 25 group, Tianshu (ST 25) was punctured shallowly, 5 mm beneath the skin, with electric stimulation. In medication group, Duphalac was administered orally. These cases were treated continuously for 4 weeks in 3 groups and followed up for 6 months. It was to observe the numbers of person who had defecation 4 times a week, difference in weekly defecation frequency and the difference in the Cleveland Clinic Score (CCS). RESULTS: In deep puncture at ST 25 group, the frequency of weekly defecation and the numbers of person who had defecation 4 times a week increased and CCS decreased, which were similar to the efficacy in shallow puncture at ST 25 group (all P > 0.05). But the efficacy of both ST 25 groups was superior to that in medication group (both P < 0.05). In comparison, the deep puncture at ST 25 group acted more quickly than either shallow puncture at ST 25 group or medication group and its efficacy remained much longer. CONCLUSION: The deep puncture at ST 25 with electric stimulation presents similar efficacy on functional constipation as shallow puncture at ST 25, but it acts more quickly than shallow puncture at ST 25, both of them are more advantageous than medication and the long-term efficacy is better.

Long B.,University of Sichuan | Long B.,Jefferson Lab
Physical Review C - Nuclear Physics | Year: 2013

It is argued that the fine tuning due to the unnaturally large, generalized effective range in the 1S0 channel of NN scattering must be incorporated in order for one to obtain satisfactory convergence for chiral effective field theory. Without the proposition of perturbative one-pion exchange, an effective field theory with the spin-0, isospin-1 dibaryon is developed to account for this fine tuning and is demonstrated up to O(Q1), where the leading irreducible two-pion exchange arises. The approach shown in the paper results in rapid convergence of the 1S0 partial-wave amplitude, though at the cost of an additional parameter at each order. © 2013 American Physical Society.

Mo S.-T.,University of Sichuan
Guangdianzi Jiguang/Journal of Optoelectronics Laser | Year: 2010

The principle how CCD camera causes vertical blooming is investigated, and a technique based on vertical driving timing is presented. Based on the control principle of CCD vertical driving timing, a special driving timing with a vertical shift timing inserted between two frames, which can transfer the remaining charge, is used for clearing the vertical blooming of the high-intensity-pixel. The driving timing is tested on a CCD demo board of ICX205, and the testing results show that the vertical blooming is deleted. This method has been applied to intelligent traffic monitoring.

Fu C.,University of Sichuan
Zhongguo Zhong yao za zhi = Zhongguo zhongyao zazhi = China journal of Chinese materia medica | Year: 2012

To develop a method for determining artemisinin in rat plasma in vivo. HPLC-MS was adopted. Estazolam was selected as an internal standard (I.S.). The sample and I.S. were extracted using methyl tertbutyl ether and measured at m/z of 305 and 296, respectively. Within the linear range of 5-500 microg x L(-1), the ratio of artemisinin's peak area and I.S. peak area and the concentration showed good linearity, thus the minimum concentration was set to be 5 mictrog x L(-1). The methodology proved that the method is so suitable for determining the drug concentration in rat blood that it can be used for studying pharmacokinetics in animals.

Yin Y.,University of Sichuan
Physical Review B - Condensed Matter and Materials Physics | Year: 2014

We present a theoretical analysis of low-frequency dynamics of a single-channel mesoscopic capacitor, which is composed by a quantum dot connected to an electron reservoir via a single quantum channel. At low frequencies, it is known that the Wigner-Smith delay time τW plays a dominant role and it can be interpreted as the time delay between the current leaving the dot and the current entering the dot. At higher frequencies, we find that another characteristic time τS can also be important. It describes the deformation of the leaving current to the entering one and hence can be referred as the deformation time. At sufficient low temperatures, the deformation time τS can be approximated from the second-order derivative of τW with respect to the energy via a simple relation τW′′/τS3=24/2. As the temperature increases, this relation breaks down and one has instead τW′′/τS3→0 in the high-temperature limit. We further show that the deformation time τS can have a pronounced influence on the quantum inductance Lq of the mesoscopic capacitor, leading to features different from the ones of the quantum capacitance. The most striking one is that Lq can change its sign as the temperature increases: It can go from positive values at low temperatures to large negative values at high temperatures. The above results demonstrate the importance of the deformation time τS on the ac conductance of the mesoscopic capacitor. © 2014 American Physical Society.

Li Y.,University of Sichuan | Li Y.,University of Illinois at Urbana - Champaign | Rauchfuss T.B.,University of Illinois at Urbana - Champaign
Chemical Reviews | Year: 2016

Virtually all organosulfur compounds react with Fe(0) carbonyls to give the title complexes. These reactions are reviewed in light of major advances over the past few decades, spurred by interest in Fe2(μ-SR)2(CO)x centers at the active sites of the [FeFe]-hydrogenase enzymes. The most useful synthetic route to Fe2(μ-SR)2(CO)6 involves the reaction of thiols with Fe2(CO)9 and Fe3(CO)12. Such reactions can proceed via mono-, di-, and triiron intermediates. The reactivity of Fe(0) carbonyls toward thiols is highly chemoselective, and the resulting dithiolato complexes are fairly rugged. Thus, many complexes tolerate further synthetic elaboration directed at the organic substituents. A second major route involves alkylation of Fe2(μ-S2)(CO)6, Fe2(μ-SH)2(CO)6, and Li2Fe2(μ-S)2(CO)6. This approach is especially useful for azadithiolates Fe2[(μ-SCH2)2NR](CO)6. Elaborate complexes arise via addition of the FeSH group to electrophilic alkenes, alkynes, and carbonyls. Although the first example of Fe2(μ-SR)2(CO)6 was prepared from ferrous reagents, ferrous compounds are infrequently used, although the Fe(II)(SR)2 + Fe(0) condensation reaction is promising. Almost invariably low-yielding, the reaction of Fe3(CO)12, S8, and a variety of unsaturated substrates results in C-H activation, affording otherwise inaccessible derivatives. Thiones and related C< - 'S-containing reagents are highly reactive toward Fe(0), often giving complexes derived from substituted methanedithiolates and C-H activation. © 2016 American Chemical Society.

Liao H.,Shanghai JiaoTong University | Liao H.,University of Manchester | Xu Z.,University of Sichuan
Journal of Intelligent and Fuzzy Systems | Year: 2014

This paper investigates one of the outranking based methods, PROMETHEE (Preference Ranking Organization Method for Enrichment Evaluation), for multi-criteria decision making, and extends it into intuitionistic fuzzy circumstance. Our enhancement of the PROMETHEE with intuitionistic fuzzy set, named IF-PROMETHEE, takes not only intuitionistic fuzzy preferences, but also intuitionistic fuzzy weights into account. Two practical examples are carried out to illustrate the applicability and efficiency of our proposed method in solving multi-criteria decision making problems. The first example concerning the evaluation of alternative energy exploitation projects shows that IF-PROMETHEE can depict more comprehensive preference information than PROMETHEE and F-PROMETHEE. The second example further illustrates the application of IF-PROMETHEE. © 2014-IOS Press and the authors. All rights reserved.

Liao H.,Shanghai JiaoTong University | Liao H.,University of Manchester | Xu Z.,University of Sichuan | Zeng X.-J.,University of Manchester
Information Sciences | Year: 2014

The hesitant fuzzy linguistic term sets (HFLTSs), which can be used to represent an expert's hesitant preferences when assessing a linguistic variable, increase the flexibility of eliciting and representing linguistic information. The HFLTSs have attracted a lot of attention recently due to their distinguished power and efficiency in representing uncertainty and vagueness within the process of decision making. To enhance and extend the applicability of HFLTSs, this paper investigates and develops different types of distance and similarity measures for HFLTSs. The paper first proposes a family of distance and similarity measures between two HFLTSs. Then a variety of weighted or ordered weighted distance and similarity measures between two collections of HFLTSs are proposed and analyzed for discrete and continuous cases respectively. After that, the application of these measures to multi-criteria decision making problems is given. Based on the proposed distance and similarity measures, the satisfaction degrees for different alternatives are established and are then used to rank alternatives in multi-criteria decision making. Finally a practical example concerning the evaluation of the quality of movies is given to illustrate the applicability and advantage of the proposed approach and the differences between the proposed distance and similarity measures. © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Xu J.-Z.,Sichuan University | Chen C.,University of Sichuan | Wang Y.,Sichuan University | Tang H.,Sichuan University | And 2 more authors.
Macromolecules | Year: 2011

Combined effects of graphene nanosheets (GNSs) and shear flow on the crystallization behavior of isotactic polypropylene (iPP) were investigated by in-situ synchrotron wide-angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD) and small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) techniques. For crystallization under quiescent condition (at 145 °C), the half-crystallization time (t1/2) of nanocomposites containing 0.05 and 0.1 wt % GNSs was reduced to at least 50% compared to that of neat iPP, indicating the high nucleation ability of GNSs. The crystallization rate of iPP was directly proportional to the GNS content. Under a relatively weak shear flow (at a rate of 20 s-1 for 5 s duration) and a low degree of supercooling, the neat iPP exhibited an isotropic structure due to the relaxation of row nuclei. However, visible antisotropic crystals appeared in sheared iPP/GNSs nanocomposites, indicating that GNSs induced a network structure hindering the mobility of iPP chains and allowing the survival of oriented row nuclei for a long period of time. The presence of GNSs clearly enhanced the effects of shear-induced nucleation as well as orientation of iPP crystals. Two kinds of nucleating origins coexisted in the sheared nanocomposite melt: heterogeneous nucleating sites initiated by GNSs and homogeneous nucleating sites (row nuclei) induced by shear. The difference of t 1/2 of nanocomposites with and without shear was significantly larger than that of neat iPP. The presence of GNSs and shear flow exhibited a synergistic interaction on promoting crystallization kinetics of iPP, although the effect of GNS concentration was not apparent. From WAXD results of isothermal and nonisothermal crystallization of sheared iPP, it was found that the appearance of β-crystals depended on the preservation of row nuclei, where the α-crystals were predominant in the iPP/GNSs nanocomposites, indicating that GNSs could directly induce α-crystals of iPP. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

Yang Y.,University of Sichuan
Zhongguo xiu fu chong jian wai ke za zhi = Zhongguo xiufu chongjian waike zazhi = Chinese journal of reparative and reconstructive surgery | Year: 2010

The use of autologous platelet-rich gel (APG) is a relatively new technology and a promising treatment method for infections, which is currently being used by a variety of surgical specialties. The mechanism of antibacterial effect of APG is not yet fully discovered. Subsequent evidence suggests that platelets have multiple functional attributes in antimicrobial host defense (including the capacity to generate antimicrobial oxygen metabolites and the antimicrobial peptides) and interact directly with microorganisms, contribute to clearance of pathogens from the blood. To investigate the bacteriostasis of APG against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa in vitro. Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) and platelet-poor plasma (PPP) were obtained from whole blood of 17 healthy donors. APG was prepared by mixing PRP with bovine thrombin in a 10% calcium gluconate solution or bovine thrombin in a 10% calcium gluconate solution and apocynin (APG-APO). Antibacterial effects of APG, PRP, and APG-APO on Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were evaluated by bacteriostasis assay. The culture results showed apparent decrease in the number of Staphylococcus aureus for both APG and APG-APO, which was maximal at first 4 hours and lasted to 24 hours and 8 hours, respectively; showing significant difference (P < 0.05) when compared APG with PRP and PPP, however no significant difference at first 8 hours (P > 0.05) and significant difference at 12 and 24 hours (P < 0.05) when compared APG with APG-APO; showing significant difference at first 4 hours (P < 0.05), no significant difference at 6, 8, 12, and 24 hours when compared APG-APO with PRP and PPP (P > 0.05). The bacteriostasis rates of APG and APG-APO were 27.36%-52.97% and 18.82%-51.52% against Escherichia coli, respectively; showing no significant difference (P > 0.05) when compared with PRP. The bacteriostasis rates of APG and APG-APO were less than 35% against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, showing no significant difference (P > 0.05) when compared with PRP; the bacteriostasis rates of PRP were less than 15% against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. APG may have potential bacteriostatic effect against Staphylococcus aureus by platelet mediating. Either APG or APG-APO has no obvious bacteriostatic effect against Escherichia coli or Pseudomonas aeruginosa. PRP has no antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli or Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

Yu Q.,University of Sichuan
Jixie Qiangdu/Journal of Mechanical Strength | Year: 2013

Cyclic creep and fatigue interaction can be regarded as the process of creep and fatigue superposition in this paper. The law of strain and time can be shown by Fatigue-creep strain curve. The Static creep and fatigue-creep equation can be derived by an experiment result of curve Static creep and fatigue creep superposition in terms of normalized time life. The formula of fatigue-creep strain energy density increment in a cycle can be derived by the analysis of Hystersis loop under stress by cyclic creep and fatigue interaction. It can be pointed out that fatigue-creep strain energy density increment is a comprehensive damage variable, and it equals the total of Fatigue strain energy density increment and that of creep. Referred to the study on fatigue loading, the formula of the crack growth rate under cyclic creep and fatigue interaction loading based on stain energy density increment can be derived. It is supported by experiment data, crack growth rate under stress with trapezoidal waveform of 316L steel at 400°C.

Chen N.,University of Sichuan
Cochrane database of systematic reviews (Online) | Year: 2013

Vascular dementia is a common disorder without definitive treatments. Cerebrolysin seems to be a promising intervention based on its potential neurotrophic and pro-cognitive effects, but studies of its efficacy have yielded inconsistent results. To assess the efficacy and safety of Cerebrolysin for vascular dementia. We searched ALOIS - the Cochrane Dementia and Cognitive Improvement Group's Specialized Register on 4 November 2012 using the terms: Cerebrolysin, Cere, FPF1070, FPF-1070. ALOIS contains records of clinical trials identified from monthly searches of a number of major healthcare databases, numerous trial registries and grey literature sources. All randomized controlled trials of Cerebrolysin for treating vascular dementia without language restriction. Two authors independently selected trials and evaluated the methodological quality, then extracted and analysed data from the included trials. Six randomized controlled trials with a total of 597 participants were eligible. The meta-analyses revealed a beneficial effect of Cerebrolysin on general cognitive function measured by mini-mental state examination (MMSE) (weighted mean difference (WMD) 1.10; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.37 to 1.82) or Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale Cognitive Subpart, extended version (ADAS-cog+) (WMD -4.01; 95% CI -5.36 to -2.66). It also improved patients' global clinical function evaluated by the response rates (relative risk (RR) 2.71, 95% CI 1.83 to 4.00). Only non-serious adverse events were observed in the included trials, and there was no significant difference in occurrence of non-serious side effects between groups (RR 0.97, 95% CI 0.49 to 1.94). Cerebrolysin may have positive effects on cognitive function and global function in elderly patients with vascular dementia of mild to moderate severity, but there is still insufficient evidence to recommend Cerebrolysin as a routine treatment for vascular dementia due to the limited number of included trials, wide variety of treatment durations and short-term follow-up in most of the trials.

Kang Y.J.,University of Sichuan | Kang Y.J.,University of Louisville
Pharmacology and Therapeutics | Year: 2011

High blood copper (Cu) and homocysteine (Hcy) concentrations have been independently reported as risk factors for cardiovascular diseases. When they are simultaneously measured, a concomitant increase in both parameters in association with vascular dysfunction has been observed. Cu chelator penicillamine can significantly diminish the inhibitory effect of Hcy on endothelial function, which has led to the interpretation that Cu mediates the deleterious effect of Hcy. However, Cu itself has been shown to be beneficial to the cardiovascular system. In particular, Cu promotion of angiogenesis has been well documented. Cu stimulates endothelial cell proliferation and differentiation and promotes microtubule formation in cultured saphenous veins. High levels of Hcy do not affect the process of microtubule formation, but the combination of Cu and Hcy leads to a significant inhibitory effect. Under other conditions, Cu does not affect, but Hcy inhibits, the endothelium-dependent relaxation of blood vessels and the combination of both augments the inhibition. Why does Cu produce adverse effects when it co-exists with Hcy? Cu forms complexes with Hcy and the Cu-Hcy complexes possess a deleterious potential due to their redox properties. Cu chelation can remove Cu from the Cu-Hcy complexes, but leaves behind high levels of Hcy and produces Cu deficiency. An alternative approach should focus on the reduction of Hcy, but maintenance of Cu, making detrimental Cu beneficial. A comprehensive understanding of Cu speciation and a development of selective modulation of Cu coordination to Cu-binding molecules to avoid Cu-Hcy complex formation would effectively improve the condition of cardiovascular disease. © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Yang J.,University of Sichuan
The Cochrane database of systematic reviews | Year: 2013

Gastric cancer is difficult to cure once it progresses to an advanced or late stage. Although some chemotherapies or bio-therapies have made progress in the remission of this disease, the mortality from gastric cancer remains high. A variety of Chinese medicinal herbs have been used to treat gastric cancer. To assess the effectiveness of Chinese medicinal herbs in the short-term remission of advanced or late gastric cancer. We searched the The Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, EMBASE, AHMED (Allied and Complementary Medicine Database) and CBM (Chinese Biomedical Database) from the first year of the databases to June 2011. We handsearched a number of journals. All randomised clinical trials of Chinese herbs for advanced or late gastric cancer were included. Two authors independently extracted the data, which were analysed using RevMan 5.1 software (RevMan 2011). For dichotomous data, we estimated the relative risk. For continuous data, we calculated the weighted mean difference. Eighty-five trials with 6857 advanced or late gastric cancer patients were identified for inclusion, most were of low quality and used traditional Chinese medicinal herbs (TCMHs) plus chemotherapy compared with the same chemotherapy alone (65 trials). Apart from 23 trials of four different kinds of TCMHs, we could not pool the results because no more than two used the same intervention or outcomes.TCMHs with or without chemotherapy, in 57 trials, showed statistically significant differences for the improvement of mortality in nine trials, quality of life in 16 trials, rate of remission in 11 trials, and leukopenia in five trials. The pooled results from the four injected TCMHs, Huachansu, Aidi, Fufangkushen, and Shenqifuzheng showed statistically significant differences for the improvement of leukopenia, but no significant difference in the rate of short-term remission. This review did not provide assured evidence concerning the effectiveness of TCMHs in improving quality of life or rate of remission, alleviating the toxicity or side effects of chemotherapy, or reducing short-term mortality. Limited, weak evidence showed that Huachansu, Aidi, Fufangkushen, and Shenqifuzheng improved leukopenia when used together with chemotherapy; and Huachansu, Aidi, and Fufangkushen were of benefit for adverse events in the digestive system caused by chemotherapy. These TCMHs did not improve the rate of short-term remissions. Large, well designed clinical trials are required urgently before any definite conclusions can be drawn about the value of TCMHs for advanced or late stage gastric cancer.

Jian F.,University of Sichuan
The Cochrane database of systematic reviews | Year: 2013

Initial arch wires are the first arch wires to be inserted into the fixed appliance at the beginning of orthodontic treatment and are used mainly for the alignment of teeth by correcting crowding and rotations. With a number of different types of orthodontic arch wires available for initial tooth alignment, it is important to understand which wire is most efficient, as well as which wires cause the least amount of root resorption and pain during the initial aligning stage of treatment. This is an update of the review 'Initial arch wires for alignment of crooked teeth with fixed orthodontic braces' first published in the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2010, Issue 4. To assess the effects of initial arch wires for alignment of teeth with fixed orthodontic braces in relation to alignment speed, root resorption and pain intensity. We searched the following electronic databases: the Cochrane Oral Health Group's Trials Register (to 2 August 2012), CENTRAL (The Cochrane Library 2012, Issue 7), MEDLINE via OVID (1950 to 2 August 2012) and EMBASE via OVID (1980 to 2 August 2012). We also searched the reference lists of relevant articles. There was no restriction with regard to publication status or language of publication. We contacted all authors of included studies to identify additional studies. We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of initial arch wires to align teeth with fixed orthodontic braces. Only studies involving participants with upper and/or lower full arch fixed orthodontic appliances were included. Two review authors were responsible for study selection, validity assessment and data extraction. All disagreements were resolved by discussion amongst the review team. Corresponding authors of included studies were contacted to obtain missing information. Nine RCTs with 571 participants were included in this review. All trials were at high risk of bias and a number of methodological limitations were identified. All trials had at least one potentially confounding factor (such as bracket type, slot size, ligation method, extraction of teeth) which is likely to have influenced the outcome and was not controlled in the trial. None of the trials reported the important adverse outcome of root resorption.Three groups of comparisons were made.(1) Multistrand stainless steel initial arch wires compared to superelastic nickel titanium (NiTi) initial arch wires. There were four trials in this group, with different comparisons and outcomes reported at different times. No meta-analysis was possible. There is insufficient evidence from these trials to determine whether or not there is a difference in either rate of alignment or pain between stainless steel and NiTi initial arch wires.(2) Conventional (stabilised) NiTi initial arch wires compared to superelastic NiTi initial arch wires. There were two trials in this group, one reporting the outcome of alignment over 6 months and the other reporting pain over 1 week. There is insufficient evidence from these trials to determine whether or not there is any difference between conventional (stabilised) and superelastic NiTi initial arch wires with regard to either alignment or pain.(3) Single-strand superelastic NiTi initial arch wires compared to other NiTi (coaxial, copper NiTi (CuNiTi) or thermoelastic) initial arch wires. The three trials in this comparison each compared a different product against single-strand superelastic NiTi. There is very weak unreliable evidence, based on one very small study (n = 24) at high risk of bias, that coaxial superelastic NiTi may produce greater tooth movement over 12 weeks, but no information on associated pain or root resorption. This result should be interpreted with caution until further research evidence is available. There is insufficient evidence to determine whether or not there is a difference between either thermoelastic or CuNiTi and superelastic NiTi initial arch wires. There is no reliable evidence from the trials included in this review that any specific initial arch wire material is better or worse than another with regard to speed of alignment or pain. There is no evidence at all about the effect of initial arch wire materials on the important adverse effect of root resorption. Further well-designed and conducted, adequately-powered, RCTs are required to determine whether the performance of initial arch wire materials as demonstrated in the laboratory, makes a clinically important difference to the alignment of teeth in the initial stage of orthodontic treatment in patients.

Zhuang J.,University of Sichuan
The Cochrane database of systematic reviews | Year: 2013

The prevalence of depression in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is high; one study has shown it to be four times that of women without PCOS. Therefore, systematic evaluation of the effectiveness and safety of antidepressants for women with PCOS is important. To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of antidepressants in treating depression and other symptoms in women with PCOS. We searched the following databases from inception to June 2012: the Cochrane Menstrual Disorders and Subfertility Group Trials Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO and Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure, the metaRegister of Controlled Trials (controlled-trials.com), the National Institute of Health Clinical Trials register (clinicaltrials.gov) and the World Health Organization International Trials Registry Platform search portal (www.who.int/trialsearch/Default.aspx). Only randomised controlled trials (RCTs) studying the effectiveness and safety of antidepressants for women with PCOS were included in this review. The methodological quality of the trials was assessed independently by two review authors, in parallel with data extraction. The risk of bias in the included study was assessed in six domains: 1. sequence generation; 2. allocation concealment; 3. blinding of participants, personnel and outcome assessors; 4. completeness of outcome data; 5. selective outcome reporting; 6. other potential sources of bias. We found no studies reporting any of our primary review outcomes (depression and allied mood disorder scores, quality of life and adverse events). Only one study with 16 women was eligible for inclusion. This study compared sibutramine versus fluoxetine in women with PCOS, and reported only endocrine and metabolic outcomes. It was unclear whether the participants had psychological problems at baseline. No significant difference was found between the groups for any of the measured outcomes. There is no evidence on the effectiveness and safety of antidepressants in treating depression and other symptoms in women with PCOS.

The fabrication and drug delivery of novel polypseudorotaxane micelles with small molecule coumarin derivative as hydrophobic segment were reported. 7-Carboxymethoxy coumarin was immobilized on the terminal hydroxyl groups of poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG). The modified PEG chains were threaded in α-cyclodextrins (α-CDs) to form polypseudorotaxanes. The polypseudorotaxanes self-assembled into supramolecular micelles driven by hydrophobic interaction and polypseudorotaxane crystallization. Anti-tumor drug doxorubicin (DOX) was trapped in the micelles. The structure, morphology, drug release profile and cytotoxicity of the micelles were investigated. The in vitro anti-tumor studies including cellular uptake and inhibition efficiency were performed on mice cancer cell lines of TC1 lung cancer cells and B16 melanoma cells. The results revealed that the 7-carboxymethoxy coumarin modified PEG could thread into the cavity of α-CDs to form necklace-like polypseudorotaxanes. The polypseudorotaxanes self-assembled into spherical micelles with the mean size of 30 nanometers, and the size was increased to about 80 nanometers after the drug was loaded. The drug loading content of the micelles was decreased with increasing the chain length of PEG. The sustaining release of DOX could last for 32 hours. The polypseudorotaxane micelles were non-toxic to both TC1 and B16 cells. The IC50 of the DOX loaded polypseudorotaxane micelles with PEG2k was lower than that of micelles with PEG4k or PEG6k both in TC1 and B16 cells.

Flaherty J.H.,Geriatric Research | Flaherty J.H.,Saint Louis University | Gonzales J.P.,University of Maryland, Baltimore | Dong B.,University of Sichuan
Journal of the American Geriatrics Society | Year: 2011

Objectives: To examine evidence of the efficacy of antipsychotics in the treatment of delirium in older hospitalized adults. Design Systematic literature review. Setting Hospital. Participants Older adults with delirium. Measurements The MEDLINE (January 1980-December 2010) and Cochrane Databases were searched using the keywords "delirium" and "antipsychotics." References of review articles were reviewed to identify additional studies. Study selection criteria included prospective design, more than 10 participants (in treatment arms), mean age 60 and older, standardized criteria for diagnosing delirium, and validated delirium rating scales for reporting outcomes. Results Thirteen articles met selection criteria: six single-agent and seven comparison studies. Of these, eight (62%) had fewer than 25 participants in treatment arms, 10 (77%) recruited participants from psychiatry referrals, and eight (62%) did not clearly describe their screening methods. All single-agent studies were open-label studies. Of the comparison studies, five (71%) used randomization, but only one of these (a placebo-controlled study) used adequate allocation concealment methods, and only one other study (comparing two antipsychotics) described a double-blind method in detail. In the only placebo-controlled study (which was stopped early), no statistically significant differences in mean delirium severity scores were found at individual time points (Days 2, 3, 4, 7, 10). The other 12 studies reported improvements in delirium severity or resolution of delirium based on cutoff scores of the scales, but it is not clear from any of these studies what the natural course of delirium would have been without use of antipsychotics. Conclusion Because of severe methodological limitations, the studies in this review do not support the use of antipsychotics in the treatment of delirium in older hospitalized adults. Additional well-designed randomized placebo-controlled trials are needed. © 2011, Copyright the Authors.

Shi Z.,University of Sichuan
The Cochrane database of systematic reviews | Year: 2013

Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is defined as pneumonia developing in persons who have received mechanical ventilation for at least 48 hours. VAP is a potentially serious complication in these patients who are already critically ill. Oral hygiene care (OHC), using either a mouthrinse, gel, toothbrush, or combination, together with aspiration of secretions may reduce the risk of VAP in these patients. To assess the effects of OHC on the incidence of VAP in critically ill patients receiving mechanical ventilation in intensive care units (ICUs) in hospitals. We searched the Cochrane Oral Health Group's Trials Register (to 14 January 2013), CENTRAL (The Cochrane Library 2012, Issue 12), MEDLINE (OVID) (1946 to 14 January 2013), EMBASE (OVID) (1980 to 14 January 2013), LILACS (BIREME) (1982 to 14 January 2013), CINAHL (EBSCO) (1980 to 14 January 2013), Chinese Biomedical Literature Database (1978 to 14 January 2013), China National Knowledge Infrastructure (1994 to 14 January 2013), Wan Fang Database (January 1984 to 14 January 2013), OpenGrey and ClinicalTrials.gov (to 14 January 2013). There were no restrictions regarding language or date of publication. We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) evaluating the effects of OHC (mouthrinse, swab, toothbrush or combination) in critically ill patients receiving mechanical ventilation. Two review authors independently assessed all search results, extracted data and undertook risk of bias. We contacted study authors for additional information. Trials with similar interventions and outcomes were pooled reporting odds ratios (OR) for dichotomous outcomes and mean differences (MD) for continuous outcomes using random-effects models unless there were fewer than four studies. Thirty-five RCTs (5374 participants) were included. Five trials (14%) were assessed at low risk of bias, 17 studies (49%) were at high risk of bias, and 13 studies (37%) were assessed at unclear risk of bias in at least one domain. There were four main comparisons: chlorhexidine (CHX mouthrinse or gel) versus placebo/usual care, toothbrushing versus no toothbrushing, powered versus manual toothbrushing and comparisons of oral care solutions.There is moderate quality evidence from 17 RCTs (2402 participants, two at high, 11 at unclear and four at low risk of bias) that CHX mouthrinse or gel, as part of OHC, compared to placebo or usual care is associated with a reduction in VAP (OR 0.60, 95% confidence intervals (CI) 0.47 to 0.77, P < 0.001, I(2) = 21%). This is equivalent to a number needed to treat (NNT) of 15 (95% CI 10 to 34) indicating that for every 15 ventilated patients in intensive care receiving OHC including chlorhexidine, one outcome of VAP will be prevented. There is no evidence of a difference between CHX and placebo/usual care in the outcomes of mortality (OR 1.10, 95% CI 0.87 to 1.38, P = 0.44, I(2) = 2%, 15 RCTs, moderate quality evidence), duration of mechanical ventilation (MD 0.09, 95% CI -0.84 to 1.01 days, P = 0.85, I(2) = 24%, six RCTs, moderate quality evidence), or duration of ICU stay (MD -0.21, 95% CI -1.48 to 1.89 days, P = 0.81, I(2) = 9%, six RCTs, moderate quality evidence). There was insufficient evidence to determine whether there is a difference between CHX and placebo/usual care in the outcomes of duration of use of systemic antibiotics, oral health indices, microbiological cultures, caregivers preferences or cost. Only three studies reported any adverse effects, and these were mild with similar frequency in CHX and control groups.From three trials of children aged from 0 to 15 years (342 participants, moderate quality evidence) there is no evidence of a difference between OHC with CHX and placebo for the outcomes of VAP (OR 1.07, 95% CI 0.65 to 1.77, P = 0.79, I(2) = 0%), or mortality (OR 0.73, 95% CI 0.41 to 1.30, P = 0.28, I(2) = 0%), and insufficient evidence to determine the effect on the outcomes of duration of ventilation, duration of ICU stay, use of systemic antibiotics, plaque index, microbiological cultures or adverse effects, in children.Based on four RCTs (828 participants, low quality evidence) there is no evidence of a difference between OHC including toothbrushing (± CHX) compared to OHC without toothbrushing (± CHX) for the outcome of VAP (OR 0.69, 95% CI 0.36 to 1.29, P = 0.24 , I(2) = 64%) and no evidence of a difference for mortality (OR 0.85, 95% CI 0.62 to 1.16, P = 0.31, I(2) = 0%, four RCTs, moderate quality evidence). There is insufficient evidence to determine whether there is a difference due to toothbrushing for the outcomes of duration of mechanical ventilation, duration of ICU stay, use of systemic antibiotics, oral health indices, microbiological cultures, adverse effects, caregivers preferences or cost.Only one trial compared use of a powered toothbrush with a manual toothbrush providing insufficient evidence to determine the effect on any of the outcomes of this review.A range of other oral care solutions were compared. There is some weak evidence that povidone iodine mouthrinse is more effective than saline in reducing VAP (OR 0.35, 95% CI 0.19 to 0.65, P = 0.0009, I(2) = 53%) (two studies, 206 participants, high risk of bias). Due to the variation in comparisons and outcomes among the trials in this group there is insufficient evidence concerning the effects of other oral care solutions on the outcomes of this review. Effective OHC is important for ventilated patients in intensive care. OHC that includes either chlorhexidine mouthwash or gel is associated with a 40% reduction in the odds of developing ventilator-associated pneumonia in critically ill adults. However, there is no evidence of a difference in the outcomes of mortality, duration of mechanical ventilation or duration of ICU stay. There is no evidence that OHC including both CHX and toothbrushing is different from OHC with CHX alone, and some weak evidence to suggest that povidone iodine mouthrinse is more effective than saline in reducing VAP. There is insufficient evidence to determine whether powered toothbrushing or other oral care solutions are effective in reducing VAP.

Chen X.,University of Sichuan
The Cochrane database of systematic reviews | Year: 2013

The most commonly used types of phototherapy for treating psoriasis are narrow-band ultraviolet B (NB-UVB); broad-band ultraviolet B (BB-UVB), which includes selective (delivering radiation with a wavelength range of 305 to 325 nm) and conventional BB-UVB (280 to 320 nm); and psoralen ultraviolet A photochemotherapy (oral or bath PUVA). There is substantial controversy regarding their efficacy when compared with each other. To assess the effects of narrow-band ultraviolet B phototherapy versus broad-band ultraviolet B or psoralen ultraviolet A photochemotherapy for psoriasis. We searched the following databases up to August 2013: the Cochrane Skin Group Specialised Register, CENTRAL in The Cochrane Library (2013, Issue 7), MEDLINE (from 1946), and EMBASE (from 1974). We searched the following databases up to November 2012: CNKI (from 1974) and CBM (from 1978). We also searched trials registers and the OpenGrey database. We included all randomised controlled trials (RCTs) that compared NB-UVB phototherapy with BB-UVB or PUVA for treating psoriasis, which included chronic plaque psoriasis (CPP), guttate psoriasis (GP), and palmoplantar psoriasis (PPP). Two review authors independently conducted the study selection, 'Risk of bias' assessment, and data extraction. We included 13 RCTs, with a total of 662 participants. We report the results of intention-to-treat analyses (ITT) here. Our primary outcomes of interest were as follows: Participant-rated global improvement, Percentage of participants reaching Psoriasis Area and Severity Index (PASI) 75 (which meant equal to or more than 75% reduction in PASI score), Withdrawal due to side-effects, and Clearance rate.In one RCT of NB-UVB compared with oral PUVA in participants with CPP, the difference in PASI 75 was not statistically significant (risk ratio (RR) 0.91, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.63 to 1.32; N = 51; low quality). In three other RCTs of CPP, the clearance rates were inconsistent because in one, there was no difference between the groups (RR 1.01, 95% CI 0.91 to 1.12; N = 54), and in the other two, the clearance rates were statistically significantly in favour of oral PUVA: RR 0.66, 95% CI 0.47 to 0.93; N = 93 and RR 0.75, 95% CI 0.59 to 0.96; N = 100, respectively. Pooled data from these three studies indicated that withdrawals due to adverse events were not significantly different between either group (RR 0.71, 95% CI 0.20 to 2.54; N = 247; low quality).The evidence from the comparison of NB-UVB with bath PUVA in terms of clearance rate for CPP was also inconsistent: Pooled data from two left-right body comparison RCTs found no significant difference between the NB-UVB and bath PUVA groups (RR 1.79, 95% CI 0.46 to 6.91; N = 92; low quality), while a parallel RCT favoured bath PUVA (RR 0.18, 95% CI 0.05 to 0.71; N = 36; low quality).In participants with PPP, one RCT found there were no significant differences between NB-UVB treated sides and topical PUVA treated sides in terms of clearance rate (RR 0.09, 95% CI 0.01 to 1.56; N = 50; low quality).Two RCTs found NB-UVB plus retinoid (re-NB-UVB) and PUVA plus retinoid (re-PUVA) had similar effects for treating people with CPP or GP in terms of clearance rate (RR 0.93, 95% CI 0.79 to 1.10; N = 90; low quality).One RCT in people with CPP found no significant differences between NB-UVB and selective BB-UVB in terms of clearance rate (RR 1.40, 95% CI 0.92 to 2.13; N = 100; low quality) and withdrawals due to adverse events (RR 3.00, 95% CI 0.32 to 27.87; N = 100; low quality).No studies reported our primary outcomes for NB-UVB compared with conventional BB-UVB. Current evidence is very heterogeneous and needs to be interpreted with caution. The clearance rate between oral PUVA and NB-UVB is inconsistent among the included studies. Evidence regarding NB-UVB versus bath PUVA is also inconsistent. Re-NB-UVB and re-PUVA are similarly effective for treating people with CPP or GP. In practice, NB-UVB may be more convenient to use since exogenous photosensitiser is not required before phototherapy.NB-UVB is considered ineffective for PPP in clinical practice, and a small RCT did not detect a statistically significant difference between NB-UVB and topical PUVA for clearing PPP. NB-UVB seemed to be similar to selective BB-UVB for clearing CPP.Larger prospective studies are needed to confirm the long-term safety of NB-UVB.

Hao Z.,University of Sichuan
The Cochrane database of systematic reviews | Year: 2013

It had been assumed that suppressing the undamaged contralesional motor cortex by repetitive low-frequency transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) or increasing the excitability of the damaged hemisphere cortex by high-frequency rTMS will promote function recovery after stroke. To assess the efficacy and safety of rTMS for improving function in people with stroke. We searched the Cochrane Stroke Group Trials Register (April 2012), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library 2012, Issue 4), the Chinese Stroke Trials Register (April 2012), MEDLINE (1950 to May 2012), EMBASE (1980 to May 2012), Science Citation Index (1981 to April 2012), Conference Proceedings Citation Index-Science (1990 to April 2012), CINAHL (1982 to May 2012), AMED (1985 to May 2012), PEDro (April 2012), REHABDATA (April 2012) and CIRRIE Database of International Rehabilitation Research (April 2012). In addition, we searched five Chinese databases, ongoing trials registers and relevant reference lists. We included randomised controlled trials comparing rTMS therapy with sham therapy or no therapy. We excluded trials that reported only laboratory parameters. Two review authors independently selected trials, assessed trial quality and extracted the data. We resolved disagreements by discussion. We included 19 trials involving a total of 588 participants in this review. Two heterogenous trials with a total of 183 participants showed that rTMS treatment was not associated with a significant increase in the Barthel Index score (mean difference (MD) 15.92, 95% CI -2.11 to 33.95). Four trials with a total of 73 participants were not found to have a statistically significant effect on motor function (standardised mean difference (SMD) 0.51, 95% CI -0.99 to 2.01). Subgroup analyses of different stimulation frequencies or duration of illness also showed no significant difference. Few mild adverse events were observed in the rTMS groups, with the most common events being transient or mild headaches (2.4%, 8/327) and local discomfort at the site of the stimulation. Current evidence does not support the routine use of rTMS for the treatment of stroke. Further trials with larger sample sizes are needed to determine a suitable rTMS protocol and the long-term functional outcome.

Wang F.P.,University of Sichuan
The Alkaloids. Chemistry and biology | Year: 2010

The diterpenoid alkaloids, with an intriguing chemistry and numerous varied bioactivities, constitute the largest and most complicated group of terpenoid alkaloids. Among them, the C19-diterpenoid alkaloids have attracted extensive and lasting attention from researchers. This chapter with 1075 references systematically summarizes the past 30 years of studies on the C19-diterpenoid alkaloids, covering the classification and distribution, biogenesis and biosynthesis, applications in the phytochemotaxonomy of Chinese Aconitum L., spectral properties (1H and 13C NMR, MS), X-ray crystallographic analysis, chemical reactions and chemical conversions (as a continuation of Volume 42 of this treatise), and pharmacological activity of this important group of alkaloids. This review on the C19-diterpenoid alkaloids, in combination with two previous reviews in this treatise (C20-diterpenoid alkaloids, Volume 59, and C18-diterpenoid alkaloids, Volume 67), will present readers with a complete and updated profile of the diterpenoid alkaloids. The only exception is the description of the total syntheses of the diterpenoid alkaloids, which will be summarized in a subsequent individual chapter.

Zhou M.,University of Sichuan
The Cochrane database of systematic reviews | Year: 2013

Neuropathic pain is difficult to treat. Oxcarbazepine is an anticonvulsant drug closely related to carbamazepine and is reportedly better tolerated. Oxcarbazepine has been reported to be efficacious in the treatment of neuropathic pain. To determine the benefits and harms of oxcarbazepine for different forms of neuropathic pain. We searched the Cochrane Neuromuscular Disease Group Specialized Register (30 October 2012), CENTRAL (2012, Issue 10), MEDLINE (January 1966 to October 2012), EMBASE (January 1980 to October 2012) and the Chinese Biomedical Retrieval System (January 1978 to October 2012) for trials. We also searched the National Institutes of Health (NIH) databases and the World Health Organization (WHO) International Clinical Trials Registry Platform for ongoing trials, and wrote to the companies who make oxcarbazepine and to pain experts asking for additional information. All randomised controlled trials and cross-over studies of oxcarbazepine for the treatment of people of any age or sex with any neuropathic pain were eligible. We planned to include trials of oxcarbazepine compared with placebo or any other intervention, regardless of administration route, dosage or length of treatment. Two review authors independently selected the studies for inclusion, assessed their risk of bias, extracted data and typed the data onto forms. The authors resolved any disagreements through discussion. Four multicentre, randomised, placebo-controlled, double-blind trials with a total of 779 participants were eligible for inclusion. These were from a series of studies funded by the manufacturer. Three of them investigated oxcarbazepine in people with painful diabetic neuropathy (634 participants) and one was a trial of oxcarbazepine for neuropathic pain due to radiculopathy (145 participants). Although these trials were well designed, the imbalanced and large amount of incomplete outcome data led to a risk of bias in the results. Results for painful diabetic neuropathy showed that compared to the baseline the proportion of participants who reported a 50% or 30% reduction of pain scores after 16 weeks of treatment was significantly higher in the oxcarbazepine group than the placebo group (50% reduction: risk ratio (RR) 1.91, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.08 to 3.39, number of people needed to treat for an additional beneficial outcome (NNTB) 6.0, 95% CI 3.3 to 41.0; 30% reduction: RR 1.57, 95% CI 1.01 to 2.44, NNTB 6.1, 95% CI 3.1 to 113.6). However, both results were based on data from the single positive trial (146 participants) since the two negative trials did not provide data that could be included in a meta-analysis. For participants with neuropathic pain due to radiculopathy, the trial demonstrated no significant efficacy for oxcarbazepine. Although trial reports stated that most side effects were mild to moderate in severity, the proportion of events leading to withdrawals was statistically higher in the oxcarbazepine group than in the placebo group both for painful diabetic neuropathy (RR 3.86, 95% CI 2.29 to 6.40) and radiculopathy (RR 2.84, 95% CI 1.55 to 5.23). On the basis of moderate quality evidence from one trial in diabetic peripheral neuropathy, oxcarbazepine is effective in reducing pain for this condition. However, this conclusion does not take into account negative results from other trials in diabetic peripheral neuropathy that could not be included in our meta-analysis. We did not find any evidence from randomised controlled trials to determine the efficacy or safety of oxcarbazepine for other kinds of neuropathic pain. Most adverse effects related to oxcarbazepine are rated as mild to moderate in severity, but adverse events leading to discontinuation of drug administration or serious adverse events are not uncommon. More well designed randomised controlled trials investigating oxcarbazepine for various types of neuropathic pain are needed.

Gao W.,University of Sichuan
Zhongguo xiu fu chong jian wai ke za zhi = Zhongguo xiufu chongjian waike zazhi = Chinese journal of reparative and reconstructive surgery | Year: 2011

To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of autologous hemopoietic stem cell implantation for peripheral arterial disease (PAD). Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were identified from CBM (1978 to September 2010), CNKI (1979 to September 2010), MEDLINE (1950 to September 2010), Pubmed (1950 to September 2010), Embase (1970 to September 2010), and Cochrane library (issue 4, 2010). The papers of the RCTs of clinical therapeutic studies on PAD treated by autologous hemopoietic stem cell implantation were included and analyzed according to the criteria of the Cochrane handbook. Eight RCTs involving 280 patients and 322 extremities were included, with majority of trials of low methodological quality. Meta-analysis indicated that autologous hemopoietic stem cell transplantation had an increased ulcer cure rate [RD = 0.38, 95% CI = (0.25, 0.50)], a significant improvement in the ankle brachial index [MD = 0.11, 95% CI = (0.04, 0.18)], transcutaneous oxygen tension [MD = 7.33, 95% CI = (3.14, 11.51)], and pain-free walking distance [SMD = 1.35, 95% CI = (0.90, 1.79)], a significant reduction in rest pain scores [MD = 1.70, 95% CI= (2.15, 1.25)], and a significant benefit in terms of limb salvage [RD = 0.19, 95% CI = (-0.31, 0.07)]. Only 2 trials reported the side effects of autologous hemopoietic stem cell transplantation, such as limbs swelling and concentrations of serum creatine phosphokinase increasing, and the long-term safety was not reported. Based on the review, autologous hemopoietic stem cell transplantation may have positive effect on "no-option" patients with PAD. However, the evidence is not strong enough due to the general low methodological quality, so we can not draw a reliable conclusion about the effects of autologous stem cell transplantation for PAD at the moment. Further larger, randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled, and multicenter trials are needed.

Zhang K.,Zun yi Medical College | Zhang K.,University of Sichuan | Wang X.,Chengdu Women and Children Central Hospital
Legal Medicine | Year: 2013

Maternal smoking is detrimental to the development of fetuses and neonates. This meta-analysis was performed to measure the accumulated association of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) risk with both prenatal and postnatal maternal smoking. The odds ratio (OR) corresponding to the 95% confidence interval (CI) was used to assess the associations between maternal smoking and SIDS risk. The statistical heterogeneity among studies was assessed with the Q-test and I2 statistics. The data for this meta-analysis were available from 35 case-control studies. The prenatal and postnatal maternal smoking was associated with a significantly increased risk of SIDS (OR=2.25, 95% CI=2.03-2.50 for prenatal maternal smoking analysis, and OR=1.97, 95% CI=1.77-2.19 for postnatal maternal smoking analysis, respectively) by random effects model. After stratified analyses, regardless of prenatal or postnatal smoking, heavy cigarette consumption increased the risk of SIDS and significantly elevated SIDS risk was found to be associated with co-sleeping with postnatal smoking mothers. Our results suggested that maternal smoking were associated with elevated SIDS risk, the effects were dose-dependent. In addition, SIDS risk was significantly increased in infants co-sleeping with postnatal smoking mothers. © 2012 .

Yang M.,University of Sichuan
Cochrane database of systematic reviews (Online) | Year: 2013

Despite conflicting evidence, chest physiotherapy has been widely used as an adjunctive treatment for adults with pneumonia. To assess the effectiveness and safety of chest physiotherapy for pneumonia in adults. We searched CENTRAL 2012, Issue 11, MEDLINE (1966 to November week 2, 2012), EMBASE (1974 to November 2012), Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro) (1929 to November 2012), CINAHL (2009 to November 2012) and CBM (1978 to November 2012). Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) assessing the efficacy of chest physiotherapy for treating pneumonia in adults. Two authors independently assessed trial eligibility, extracted data and appraised trial quality. Primary outcomes were mortality and cure rate. We used risk ratios (RR) and mean difference (MD) for individual trial results in the data analysis. We performed meta-analysis and measured all outcomes with 95% confidence intervals (CI). Six RCTs (434 participants) appraised four types of chest physiotherapy (conventional chest physiotherapy; osteopathic manipulative treatment (which includes paraspinal inhibition, rib raising and myofascial release); active cycle of breathing techniques (which include active breathing control, thoracic expansion exercises and forced expiration techniques); and positive expiratory pressure).None of the physiotherapies (versus no physiotherapy or placebo) improved mortality rates of adults with pneumonia.Conventional chest physiotherapy (versus no physiotherapy), active cycle of breathing techniques (versus no physiotherapy) and osteopathic manipulative treatment (versus placebo) did not increase the cure rate or chest X-ray improvement rate.Osteopathic manipulative treatment (versus placebo) and positive expiratory pressure (versus no physiotherapy) reduced the mean duration of hospital stay by 2.0 days (mean difference (MD) -2.0 days, 95% CI -3.5 to -0.6) and 1.4 days (MD -1.4 days, 95% CI -2.8 to -0.0), respectively. Conventional chest physiotherapy and active cycle of breathing techniques did not.Positive expiratory pressure (versus no physiotherapy) reduced fever duration (MD -0.7 day, 95% CI -1.4 to -0.0). Osteopathic manipulative treatment did not.Osteopathic manipulative treatment (versus placebo) reduced the duration of intravenous (MD -2.1 days, 95% CI -3.4 to -0.9) and total antibiotic treatment (MD -1.9 days, 95% CI -3.1 to -0.7).Limitations of this review are that the studies addressing osteopathic manipulative treatment were small, and that six published studies which appear to meet the inclusion criteria are awaiting classification. Based on current limited evidence, chest physiotherapy might not be recommended as routine additional treatment for pneumonia in adults.

Li S.,University of Sichuan
The Cochrane database of systematic reviews | Year: 2013

This is an update of a Cochrane review first published in 2002. Osteoarthritis is a disease that affects the synovial joints, causing degeneration and destruction of hyaline cartilage and subchondral bone. Electromagnetic field therapy is currently used by physiotherapists and may promote growth and repair of bone and cartilage. It is based on principles of physics which include Wolff's law, the piezoelectric effect and the concept of streaming potentials. To assess the benefits and harms of electromagnetic fields for the treatment of osteoarthritis as compared to placebo or sham. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library 2013, Issue 9), PreMEDLINE for trials published before 1966, MEDLINE from 1966 to October 2013, CINAHL and PEDro up to and including October 2013. Electronic searches were complemented by handsearches. Randomised controlled trials of electromagnetic fields in osteoarthritis, with four or more weeks treatment duration. We included papers in any language. Two review authors independently assessed studies for inclusion in the review and resolved differences by consensus with a third review author. We extracted data using pre-developed data extraction forms. The same review authors assessed the risk of bias of the trials independently using the Cochrane 'Risk of bias' tool. We extracted outcomes for osteoarthritis from the publications according to Outcome Measures in Rheumatology Clinical Trials (OMERACT) guidelines. We expressed results for continuous outcome measures as mean difference (MD) or standardised mean difference (SMD) with 95% confidence interval (CI). We pooled dichotomous outcome measures using risk ratio (RR) and calculated the number needed to treat (NNT). Nine studies with a total of 636 participants with osteoarthritis were included, six of which were added in this update of the review. Selective outcome reporting was unclear in all nine included studies due to inadequate reporting of study design and conduct, and there was high risk of bias for incomplete outcome data in three studies. The overall risk of bias across the nine studies was low for the other domains.Participants who were randomised to electromagnetic field treatment rated their pain relief 15.10 points more on a scale of 0 to 100 (MD 15.10, 95% CI 9.08 to 21.13; absolute improvement 15%) after 4 to 26 weeks' treatment compared with placebo. Electromagnetic field treatment had no statistically significant effect on physical function (MD 4.55, 95% CI -2.23 to 11.32; absolute improvement 4.55%) based on the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities osteoarthritis index (WOMAC) scale from 0 to 100 after 12 to 26 weeks' treatment. We also found no statistically significant difference in quality of life on a scale from 0 to 100 (SMD 0.09, 95% CI -0.36 to 0.54; absolute improvement 0.09%) after four to six weeks' treatment, based on the SF-36. No data were available for analysis of radiographic changes. Safety was evaluated in four trials including up to 288 participants: there was no difference in the experience of any adverse event after 4 to 12 weeks of treatment compared with placebo (RR 1.17, 95% CI 0.72 to 1.92). There was no difference in participants who withdrew because of adverse events (measured in one trial) after four weeks of treatment (RR 0.90, 95% CI 0.06 to 13.92). No participants experienced any serious adverse events. Current evidence suggests that electromagnetic field treatment may provide moderate benefit for osteoarthritis sufferers in terms of pain relief. Further studies are required to confirm whether this treatment confers clinically important benefits in terms of physical function and quality of life. Our conclusions are unchanged from the previous review conducted in 2002.

Gao Y.,University of Sichuan
The Cochrane database of systematic reviews | Year: 2013

Radial head fractures are the most common type of elbow fracture and can severely affect the function of the elbow. There is uncertainty and controversy about when surgery is indicated as well as what type of surgical intervention is best. To assess the effects of surgical interventions for treating radial head fractures in adults. We aimed to compare surgical versus non-surgical treatment, and different methods of surgical intervention. We searched the Cochrane Bone, Joint and Muscle Trauma Group Specialised Register (May 2012), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (The Cochrane Library; 2012 Issue 4), MEDLINE (1946 to May 2012), EMBASE (1980 to 2012 Week 19) and trial registers (November 2011). No language restrictions were applied. All randomised and quasi-randomised controlled trials evaluating surgical interventions for treating radial head fractures. Two review authors independently selected trials, assessed risk of bias and extracted data. Where appropriate, results were pooled. We included three randomised controlled trials, involving a total of 251 participants. All three trials were at high risk of performance bias reflecting the fact that surgeons could not be blinded. One trial was at low risk of selection bias but was undermined by a high attrition bias, in part resulting from post-randomisation exclusions. There were incomplete details of methodology for the other two trials, which usually resulted in unclear risk of bias judgements.Two trials compared radial head replacement with open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF) for treating Mason type III radial head fractures. The trial authors reported outcomes at a mean of 2.8 years and 15 months respectively. There were significant differences between the two groups in favour of radial head replacement in the Broberg and Morrey elbow scores (92.1 versus 72.4, mean difference (MD) 19.70; 95% confidence interval (CI) 15.64 to 23.76; one trial, 45 participants), excellent or good Broberg and Morrey elbow scores (33/36 versus 16/31, risk ratio (RR) 1.88; 95% CI 1.27 to 2.77; two trials), and overall adverse events (6/36 versus 15/31, RR 0.33; 95% CI 0.14 to 0.77; two trials). No statistically significant difference was found between the two groups in any of the reported individual adverse events.One trial compared biodegradable pins with standard metal screws in treating radial head fractures of AO-classification 21 B2. The two types of fixation devices yielded similar results, with no significant between-group differences in the Broberg and Morrey scores (93.3 versus 90.9, MD 2.40; 95% CI -0.10 to 4.90), excellent or good Broberg and Morrey elbow scores (72/74 versus 56/61, RR 1.06; 95% CI 0.97 to 1.15), and adverse events (13/82 versus 16/82, RR 0.81; 95% CI 0.42 to 1.58) at two-year follow-up. Only tentative conclusions can be drawn from the available evidence in this review. Compared with ORIF, there was some evidence that radial head replacement had better elbow function and fewer adverse events for Mason type III radial head fractures in the short term. However, the evidence is of low quality and it is unknown whether these results would apply in the longer term or more generally. Using biodegradable implants may be as good as metallic implants for fixation of some usually more stable fractures but more evidence is needed to confirm this. There is a need for good quality evidence for addressing the areas of uncertainty for the surgical treatment of radial head fractures.

Zhang J.,University of Sichuan
The Cochrane database of systematic reviews | Year: 2013

Trigeminal neuralgia was defined by the International Association for the Study of Pain as a sudden, usually unilateral, severe, brief, stabbing recurrent pain in the distribution of one or more branches of the fifth cranial nerve. Standard treatment is with anti-epileptic drugs. Non-antiepileptic drugs have been used in the management of trigeminal neuralgia since the 1970s. This is an update of a review first published in 2006 and previously updated in 2011. To systematically review the efficacy and tolerability of non-antiepileptic drugs for trigeminal neuralgia. On 20 May 2013, for this updated review, we searched the Cochrane Neuromuscular Disease Group Specialized Register, CENTRAL (2013, Issue 4), MEDLINE (January 1966 to May 2013), EMBASE (January 1980 to May 2013), LILACS (January 1982 to May 2013) and the Chinese Biomedical Retrieval System (1978 to May 2013). We searched clinical trials registries for ongoing trials. We included double-blind, randomised controlled trials in which the active drug was used either alone or in combination with other non-antiepileptic drugs for at least two weeks. Two authors decided which trials fitted the inclusion criteria and independently graded risk of bias. We assessed the quality of the evidence according to the GRADE criteria for this update. In this 2013 update, we updated the searches, but identified only two new ongoing studies. The review includes four trials involving 139 participants. The primary outcome measure in each was pain relief. Three trials compared one of the oral non-antiepileptic drugs tizanidine, tocainide or pimozide with carbamazepine. The quality of evidence for all outcomes for which data were available was low. In a trial of tizanidine involving 12 participants (one dropped out due to unrelated disease), one of five participants treated with tizanidine and four of six treated with carbamazepine improved (risk ratio (RR) 0.30, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.05 to 1.89). Few side effects were noted with tizanidine. For pimozide, there was evidence of greater efficacy than carbamazepine at six weeks. Up to 83% of participants reported adverse effects but these did not lead to withdrawal; the report did not provide comparable data for carbamazepine. Limited data meant that we could not assess the effects of tocainide; however, data from non-randomised studies (not included in this review) indicate that serious haematological adverse events can occur. A trial involving 47 participants compared 0.5% proparacaine hydrochloride eyedrops with placebo but did not show any significant benefits, again according to low-quality evidence. The report did not mention adverse events. The proparacaine trial was at low risk of bias; the other trials were at unclear risk of bias overall. There is low-quality evidence that the effect of tizanidine is not significantly different than that of carbamazepine in treating trigeminal neuralgia. Pimozide is more effective than carbamazepine, although the evidence is of low quality and the data did not allow comparison of adverse event rates. There is also low-quality evidence that 0.5% proparacaine hydrochloride eye drops have no benefit over placebo. Limitations in the data for tocainide prevent any conclusions being drawn. There is insufficient evidence from randomised controlled trials to show significant benefit from non-antiepileptic drugs in trigeminal neuralgia. More research is needed.

Xiao H.,University of Sichuan
Zhongguo xiu fu chong jian wai ke za zhi = Zhongguo xiufu chongjian waike zazhi = Chinese journal of reparative and reconstructive surgery | Year: 2013

To investigate the effectiveness of high frequency color Doppler ultrasound for detecting perforators in the anterolateral thigh (ALT) flap surgery. Between February 2011 and July 2012, 8 patients underwent high frequency color Doppler ultrasound to detect the perforator anatomy before ALT flap surgery. There were 5 males and 3 females, aged 21-46 years (mean, 34 years). Defects were caused by excision of squamous cell carcinoma in 2 cases, by scalp avulsion in 2 cases, by soft tissue necrosis after neck trauma in 1 case, by excision of groin fibrosarcoma in 1 case, by excision of groin melanoma in 1 case, and by malformation of the face in 1 case. The defect size varied from 12 cm x 7 cm to 22 cm x 18 cm. The perforator with wider caliber, faster flow speed, and shorter intramuscular trajectory was selected, and the flap was designed according to the observed results, which size varied from 14 cm x 9 cm to 25 cm x 20 cm. The donnor sites were repaired by free skin graft. Totally, 19 perforators in the flap area were detected by high frequency color Doppler ultrasound, and 18 were identified during operation, with an accuracy rate of 94.7%. The point going out muscle, the travel and direction of perforators observed during operation were basically in accordance with those detected by high frequency color Doppler ultrasound. The other flaps survived, and obtained healing by first intention except 1 flap which had partial fat necrosis with healing by second intention. The skin graft at donor site survived. All patients followed up 4-16 months (mean, 8 months). The flaps had good color and texture. High frequency color Doppler ultrasound is a valuable imaging modality for the preoperative assessment of the vascular supply for ALT flap.

Liu L.R.,University of Sichuan
The Cochrane database of systematic reviews | Year: 2013

Lower pole kidney stones typically have poor rates of spontaneous clearance from the body. Some studies have suggested that diuresis, percussion and inversion therapy could be beneficial for people with lower pole kidney stones following shock wave lithotripsy. There is however controversy about the relative benefits, harms, and efficacy of these interventions for the management of lower pole kidney stones. To identify the benefits and harms of percussion, diuresis, and inversion therapy to facilitate the passage of lower pole kidney stones following shock wave lithotripsy. We searched the Cochrane Renal Group's specialised register up to 27 November 2013 through contact with the Trials' Search Co-ordinator using search terms relevant to this review. All randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and quasi-RCTs looking at the benefits and harms of percussion, diuresis, and inversion therapy for aiding passage of lower pole kidney stones following shock wave lithotripsy were sought for assessment. The first phases of randomised cross-over studies were also eligible for inclusion. Two authors independently assessed study quality and extracted data. Results were expressed as relative risk (RR) for dichotomous outcomes and mean difference (MD) or standardised mean difference (SMD) for continuous data with 95% confidence intervals (CI). We identified two small studies (177 participants) for inclusion and analysis. One study (69 participants) compared percussion, diuresis and inversion therapy following shock wave lithotripsy versus observation-only after shock wave lithotripsy. This study reported significantly higher stone-free rates in the intervention group (RR 0.62, 95% CI 0.47 to 0.82) and a significant reduction in stone burden (MD -3.30, 95% CI -3.58 to -3.03) compared to the observation-only group. They reported no significant differences in complication rates (RR 3.00, 95% CI 0.12 to 76.24).The second study (108 participants) compared percussion, diuresis, and inversion therapy plus shock wave lithotripsy with shock wave lithotripsy therapy alone. This study reported significantly higher stone-free rates in the intervention group (RR 0.36, 95% CI 0.17 to 0.80) and a significant reduction in stone burden (MD -0.30, 95% CI -0.04 to -0.56) compared to the control group. They reported no significant differences in complication rates (RR 2.54, 95% CI 0.10 to 63.72).For both studies selection bias was unclear; there was high risk of bias for performance bias; and detection, attrition and reporting bias were low. Limited evidence from two small studies indicated that percussion, diuresis, and inversion therapy may be safe and effective therapies to assist clearance of lower pole kidney stone fragments following shock wave lithotripsy. Methodological quality in both studies was assessed as moderate. Further well-designed and adequately powered studies are required to inform clinical practice.

Yang X.,University of Sichuan
Zhongguo xiu fu chong jian wai ke za zhi = Zhongguo xiufu chongjian waike zazhi = Chinese journal of reparative and reconstructive surgery | Year: 2013

To analyze the clinical features and preliminary outcome of posterior operation for traumatic lumbar spondylolisthesis. The clinical data of 11 patients with traumatic lumbar spondylolisthesis who underwent surgeries between January 2008 and June 2012 were retrospectively analyzed. There were 6 male and 5 female patients, aged from 13 to 60 years with a median age of 38 years. The mechanism of injury included heavy pressure injury in 4 cases, falling injury from height in 4 cases, and traffic accident injury in 3 cases. The time of injury to operation was between 3 days and 13 years (median, 20 days). According to Frankel neurological function grading, 2 patients were rated as grade E, 4 as grade D, 3 as grade C, and 2 as grade B before operation; according to Meyerding spondylolisthesis grading, 4 cases were classified as degree I, 4 as degree II, 2 as degree III, and 1 as degree IV preoperatively. The affected segments included L4 in 3 and L5 in 8 patients. The surgical fixation segments were L4, 5 in 2 patients, L5, S1 in 7, and L4-S1 in 2. Eight patients underwent circumferential fusion, while 3 patients underwent posterolateral fusion. The reduction of spondylolisthesis and bone graft fusion were assessed on X-ray films and three-dimensional CT scans during follow-up. The clinical outcomes were evaluated by visual analogue scale (VAS) and Oswestry disability index (ODI) scores. All patients achieved primary healing of incision after operation. And all patients were followed up 6-40 months with a median time of 12 months. There was no pulling-out or breaking of internal fixation. The fusion rate was 100% on three-dimensional CT scans, and the fusion time was 3-6 months (mean, 4.5 months). The spondylolisthesis was degree 0 in 10 cases and degree I in 1 case according to Meyerding grading, showing significant difference when compared with preoperative spondylolisthesis grading (Z = -2.979, P = 0.003). The Frankel neurological function grading were E in 6, D in 3, and C in 2 at last follow-up, which were significantly improved when compared with preoperative one (Z = -2.271, P = 0.014). At 1 week after operation and last follow-up, VAS and ODI scores were significantly improved when compared with the preoperative scores (P < 0.05); however, no significant difference was found between at 1 week and at last follow-up (P > 0.05). If lumbar X-ray films suggest multiple fractures of transverses in emergency combined with the mechanism of injury, it strongly indicates the diagnosis of traumatic lumbar spondylolisthesis, moreover earlier decompression and fusion can provide the recovering of the neurological function and satisfactory preliminary effectiveness in these patients.

Lu D.,University of Sichuan
Cochrane database of systematic reviews (Online) | Year: 2011

Dementia is a brain disorder characterized by the permanent loss of higher cognitive functions. A number of vasodilatory drug treatments are prescribed for dementia. Naftidrofuryl is one such medicine which is reported to improve clinical symptoms significantly. The efficacy and possible adverse events of naftidrofuryl need to be reviewed systematically and assessed critically to inform clinical practice and guide the continued search for new treatment regimens. To evaluate the efficacy and safety of naftidrofuryl in the treatment of dementia. We searched ALOIS: the Cochrane Dementia and Cognitive Improvement Group's Specialized Register on 11 January 2011 using the terms: naftidrofuryl. ALOIS contains records of clinical trials from major healthcare databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, LILACS and CINAHL), trial registries (such as ClinicalTrials.gov) and grey literature sources. Randomised placebo-controlled trials in which patients with dementia were treated with naftidrofuryl were considered eligible for inclusion. Two review authors independently selected trials for inclusion, assessed trial quality, and extracted data using data extraction forms. The domains assessed for risk of bias were sequence generation, allocation concealment, blinding, incomplete outcome data, and selective outcome reporting. We used odds ratios (OR) for reporting dichotomous data, and mean differences (MD) and standardized mean differences (SMD) for continuous data. We assessed statistical heterogeneity using the I(2) statistic. We identified nine randomised controlled trials involving 847 patients with Alzheimer's disease, vascular dementia, mixed dementia, senile dementia and unspecified dementia. The beneficial effects were found on functional performance and behaviour (-1.04 standardized points, 95% CI -1.73 to -0.35, P = 0.003) with a high-level heterogeneity (I(2) = 54%), and mood (-0.80 standardized points, 95% CI -1.26 to -0.34, P=0.0006) for patients with dementia, as well as on cognitive function (-0.36 standardized points, 95% CI -0.71 to -0.02, P=0.04). However, this was not confirmed by clinical global measures. Naftidrofuryl was found to be well-tolerated by patients with dementia. Oral administration of naftidrofuryl is well-tolerated by patients with dementia.The low-quality evidence shows that, by use of naftidrofuryl, people with dementia may benefit on performance, behaviour, cognition, and mood. However, the benefit on global impression is inconsistent and unconvincing.

To verify the improving effect of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) at Dingchuan (EX-B 1) on the pulmonary function of COPD patients at acute stage. Forty cases of COPD patients at acute stage were randomly divided into group A (20 cases) and group B (20 cases). TENS at Dingchuan (EX-B 1) with the frequency of 4 Hz and wave width of 200 ms was used in group A, and sham stimulation without current output at Dingchuan (EX-B 1) was used in group B. The changes of pulmonary function tests before and after treatment and the therapeutic effect after 10 days' treatment were observed and evaluated. The pulmonary function tests included forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1), forced vital capacity (FVC) and forced expiratory volume in one second to forced vital capacity ratio (FEV1 %). There were no significant differences in all the pulmonary function indices between the two groups before treatment (all P > 0.05). There were also no significant differences in all the pulmonary function indices between the two groups after treatment (all P > 0.05). No statistical significance was obtained before and after treatment in each group (all P > 0.05). The adjuvant therapeutic effect of TENS at Dingchuan (EX-B 1) with the frequency of 4 Hz and wave width of 200 ms on the pulmonary function indices of COPD patients at acute stage is not obvious.

Yue J.,University of Sichuan
The Cochrane database of systematic reviews | Year: 2013

The morbidity and treatment costs associated with skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs) are high. Linezolid and vancomycin are antibiotics that are commonly used in treating skin and soft-tissue infections, specifically those infections due to methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). To compare the effects and safety of linezolid and vancomycin for treating people with SSTIs. In May 2013 we conducted searches of the following databases: Cochrane Wounds Group Specialised Register; The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library); Ovid MEDLINE; Ovid MEDLINE (In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations); Ovid EMBASE; and EBSCO CINAHL. We also contacted manufacturers for details of unpublished and ongoing trials. We scrutinised citations within all obtained trials and major review articles to identify any additional trials. We included all randomised controlled trials (RCTs) comparing linezolid with vancomycin in the treatment of SSTIs. Two review authors independently selected trials, assessed risk of bias and extracted data. The primary outcomes were clinical cure, microbiological cure, and SSTI-related and treatment-related mortality. We performed subgroup analyses according to age, and whether the infection was due to MRSA. We included nine RCTs (3144 participants). Linezolid was associated with a significantly better clinical (RR 1.09, 95% CI 1.03 to 1.16) and microbiological cure rate in adults (RR 1.08, 95% CI 1.01 to 1.16). For those infections due to MRSA, linezolid was significantly more effective than vancomycin in clinical (RR 1.09, 95% CI 1.03 to 1.17) and microbiological cure rates (RR 1.17, 95% CI 1.04 to 1.32). No RCT reported SSTI-related and treatment-related mortality. There was no significant difference in all-cause mortality between linezolid and vancomycin (RR 1.44, 95% CI 0.75 to 2.80). There were fewer incidents of red man syndrome (RR 0.04, 95% CI 0.01 to 0.29), pruritus (RR 0.36, 95% CI 0.17 to 0.75) and rash (RR 0.27, 95% CI 0.12 to 0.58) in the linezolid group compared with vancomycin, however, more people reported thrombocytopenia (RR 13.06, 95% CI 1.72 to 99.22), and nausea (RR 2.45, 95% CI 1.52 to 3.94) when treated with linezolid. It seems, from the available data, that length of stay in hospital was shorter for those in the linezolid group than the vancomycin group. The daily cost of outpatient therapy was less with oral linezolid than with intravenous vancomycin. Although inpatient treatment with linezolid cost more than inpatient treatment with vancomycin per day, the median length of hospital stay was three days shorter with linezolid. Thus, total hospital charges per patient were less with linezolid treatment than with vancomycin treatment. Linezolid seems to be more effective than vancomycin for treating people with SSTIs, including SSTIs caused by MRSA. The available evidence is at high risk of bias and is based on studies that were supported by the pharmaceutical company that makes linezolid. Further well-designed, independently-funded, RCTs are needed to confirm the available evidence.

Shi X.J.,University of Sichuan
Beijing da xue xue bao. Yi xue ban = Journal of Peking University. Health sciences | Year: 2013

To systematically analyze and compare the clinical characteristics of orthopedic inpatients in Lushan and Wenchuan earthquake, so as to provide useful references for future earthquakes injury rescue. Based on the orthopedic inpatients in Lushan and Wenchuan earthquakes, the data of the age, gender, injury causes, body injured parts and speed of transport were classified and compared. The duration of patients admitted to hospital lasted long and the peak appeared late in Wenchuan earthquake, which is totally opposed to Lushan earthquake. There was no significant difference in the patient's age and gender between the two earthquakes. However, the occurrence rate of crush syndrome, amputation, gas gangrene, vascular injury and multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS) in Wenchuan earthquake was much higher than that in Lushan earthquake. Blunt traumas or crush-related injuries (79.6%) are the major injury cause in Wenchuan earthquake, however, high falling injuries and falls (56.8%) are much higher than blunt trauma or crush-related injuries (39.2%) in Lushan earthquake. The incidence rate of foot fractures, spine fractures and multiple fractures in Lushan earthquake was higher than that in Wenchuan earthquake, but that of open fractures and lower limb fractures was lower than that in Wenchuan earthquake. The rapid rescue scene is the cornerstone of successful treatment, early rescue and transport obviously reduce the incidence of the wound infection, crush syndrome, MODS and amputation. Popularization of correct knowledge of emergency shelters will help to reduce the damage caused by blindly jumping or escaping while earthquake happens.

Li Y.X.,University of Sichuan
Zhonghua gan zang bing za zhi = Zhonghua ganzangbing zazhi = Chinese journal of hepatology | Year: 2013

To evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of antiviral combination therapy with pegylated-interferon alpha-2a plus ribavirin (RBV) in patients with autoantibody-positive chronic hepatitis C (CHC) and to investigate the impact of the presence of autoantibodies on the treatment outcome. Eighty-six consecutive CHC patients who underwent a 48-week treatment regimen composed of Peg-IFNa-2a (135 or 180 mug/wk) plus weight-based RBV ( less than or equal to 65 kg, 800 mg/d; 65 to 75 kg, 1000 mg/d; more than or equal to75 kg, 1200 mg/d ). Prior to treatment (baseline) and at end of treatment (EOT; week 48), levels of antinuclear antibody (ANA), anti-smooth muscle antibody (SMA), anti liver/kidney microsomal antibody type 1 (LKM1), anti-La (SSB), and anti liver cytosolic-1 (LC-1) were detected by indirect immunofluorescence. At baseline, during treatment (weeks 4, 12, 24, and 36), EOT, and 24 weeks after EOT, levels of HCV RNA were assessed by real-time quantitative PCR. Rapid virological response (RVR) was defined as HCV RNA less than 10(3) copy/ml at week 4. Sustained virologic response (SVR) was defined as HCV RNA load below the lower limit of detection at 24 weeks after EOT. Correlation between autoantibodies and treatment-induced reduced HCV RNA load was assessed by univariate analysis of variance or chi-squared tests. Autoantibodies were detected in 24 patients, which included 14 ANA-positive patients, five SMA-positive patients, three LKM1-positive patients, one patient with double-positivity for ANA and SSB, and one patient with double-positivity for ANA and LC-1. The autoantibody-positive patients and autoantibody-negative patients showed similar rates of RVR (70.8% vs. 72.5%, P more than 0.05) and SVR (81.4% vs. 82.2%, P more than 0.05). Antiviral therapy with Peg-IFNa-2a RBV can effectively reduce the HCV RNA load in autoantibody-positive CHC patients; however, the presence of autoantibodies may not be an independent predictor of therapy outcome.

Deng L.,University of Sichuan
Cochrane database of systematic reviews (Online) | Year: 2013

This is an update of the original review that was published in The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, 2009, Issue 2. Gestational trophoblastic neoplasia (GTN) are malignant disorders of the placenta that include invasive hydatidiform mole, choriocarcinoma, placental-site trophoblastic tumour (PSTT) and epithelioid trophoblastic tumour (ETT). Choriocarcinoma and invasive hydatidiform mole respond well to chemotherapy: low-risk tumours are treated with single-agent chemotherapy (e.g. methotrexate or actinomycin D), whereas high-risk tumours are treated with combination chemotherapy (e.g. EMA/CO (etoposide, methotrexate, actinomycin D, cyclophosphamide and vincristine)). Various drug combinations may be used for high-risk tumours; however, the comparative efficacy and safety of these regimens is not clear. To determine the efficacy and safety of combination chemotherapy in treating high-risk GTN. For the original review, we searched the Cochrane Group Specialised Register, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; Issue 2, 2008), MEDLINE, EMBASE and CBM in May 2008. For the updated review, we searched Cochrane Group Specialised Register, CENTRAL, MEDLINE and EMBASE to September 2012. In addition, we searched online clinical trial registries for ongoing trials. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and quasi-RCTs comparing first-line combination chemotherapy interventions in women with high-risk GTN. Two review authors independently collected data using a data extraction form. Meta-analysis could not be performed as we included only one study. We included one RCT of 42 women with high-risk GTN who were randomised to MAC (methotrexate, actinomycin D and chlorambucil) or the modified CHAMOCA regimen (cyclophosphamide, hydroxyurea, actinomycin D, methotrexate, doxorubicin, melphalan and vincristine). There were no statistically significant differences in efficacy of the two regimens; however women in the MAC group experienced statistically significantly less toxicity overall and less haematological toxicity than women in the CHAMOCA group. During the study period, six women in the CHAMOCA group died compared with one in the MAC group. This study was stopped early due to unacceptable levels of toxicity in the CHAMOCA group. We identified no RCTs comparing EMA/CO with MAC or other chemotherapy regimens. CHAMOCA is not recommended for GTN treatment as it is more toxic and not more effective than MAC. EMA/CO is currently the most widely used first-line combination chemotherapy for high-risk GTN, although this regimen has not been rigorously compared to other combinations such as MAC or FAV in RCTs. Other regimens may be associated with less acute toxicity than EMA/CO; however, proper evaluation of these combinations in high-quality RCTs that include long-term surveillance for secondary cancers is required. We acknowledge that, given the low incidence of GTN, RCTs in this field are difficult to conduct, hence multicentre collaboration is necessary.

Wang X.,University of Sichuan
Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry | Year: 2013

Sequestration of Ni(II) on diatomite as a function of reaction time, pH, ionic strength, foreign ions and temperature were investigated by batch sorption technique. The results indicated that the sorption of Ni(II) on diatomite was quickly in the first contact time of 2 h and then slowly with increasing contact time. The interaction of Ni(II) with diatomite was strongly pH- and ionic strength-dependent at low pH values (i.e., which was dominated by ion exchange or outer-sphere surface complexation), while the pH-dependent and ionic strength-independent sorption at high pH suggested that inner-sphere or multinuclear surface complexation was the main sorption mechanism. With increasing temperature, the sorption of Ni(II) on diatomite increased and the experimental data were well fitted by Langmuir model. The sorption samples at pH 6.8 and 10.0 were also characterized by XPS spectroscopy, and the results suggested that Si atoms also participated in Ni(II) sorption on diatomite. The results are important to evaluate the physicochemical behavior of Ni(II) and other similar radionuclides and heavy metal ions in the environment. © 2012 Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest, Hungary.

Zhu C.Z.,University of Sichuan
Zhonghua yu fang yi xue za zhi [Chinese journal of preventive medicine] | Year: 2011

This study was to analyze the mental health status of the children and adolescents from the areas struck by Wenchuan earthquake and to understand the factors that may have impact on their mental health after exposing to the earthquake. Subjects of this survey were students (8 - 16 years old) from Chendu, Dujiangyan, Beichuan and Wenchuan districts which were the most severely affected areas in the earthquake. We analyzed the subjects' mental health conditions after Wenchuan earthquake by using a general questionnaire that was composed of the Children's Revised Impact of Event Scale (CRIES-13) and Depression Self-rating Scale for Children (DSRSC). Students are investigated 7341 case, 7387 case, 7395 case after 3, 6, 24 months. The data were analyzed with logistic regression model. The CRIES-13 scores were (27.51 ± 12.26), (23.54 ± 12.79) and (21.35 ± 12.59) (F = 28.842, P ≤ 0.05) and the DSRSC scores were (11.79 ± 5.73), (10.94 ± 5.50) and (10.75 ± 5.27) (F = 17.084, P ≤ 0.05) 3, 6 and 24 months after the earthquake, respectively. The risk factors associated with depression 3, 6, 24 months after the earthquake were gender (female) (OR values were 2.14, 2.72, 2.31; 95%CI values were 1.01 - 3.03, 1.10 - 5.01, 1.02 - 4.58), age (less than 12 years old) (OR values were 1.97, 2.22, 1.93; 95%CI values were 1.43 - 3.17, 1.02 - 3.54, 1.32 - 3.27), having family member injury and death (OR values were 2.19, 2.45, 2.35; 95%CI values were 1.04-2.89, 1.16-2.08, 1.02 - 2.79), desperation (OR values were 2.24, 2.09, 2.16; 95%CI values were 1.00 - 2.54, 1.70 - 2.58, 1.00 - 4.56). The risk factors associated with PTSD 3, 6, 24 months after the earthquake were gender (OR values were 2.16, 2.94, 1.96; 95%CI values were 1.36 - 2.53, 1.36 - 2.53, 1.06 - 3.92), age (less than 12 years old) (OR values were 3.51, 2.62, 1.92; 95%CI values were 1.22 - 5.40, 1.14 - 4.93, 1.08 - 3.35), having teachers and schoolmates injury and death (OR values were 2.32, 2.48, 2.36; 95%CI values were 1.17 - 2.48, 1.30 - 2.72, 1.02 - 2.85), having family member injury and death (OR values were 2.73, 2.21, 1.85;95%CI values were 1.67 - 3.61, 1.04 - 3.15, 1.05 - 2.38), witnessing injury (OR values were 2.17, 2.36, 2.34; 95%CI values were 1.15 - 3.65, 1.17 - 2.67, 1.02 - 3.67), witnessing death (OR values were 1.98, 2.39, 1.71;95%CI values were 1.10 - 2.56, 1.14 - 3.70, 1.57 - 3.88), desperation (OR values were 2.02, 1.94, 2.02; 95%CI values were 1.67 - 2.35, 1.66 - 2.27, 1.82 - 2.26). The symptoms of PTSD and depression of young survivors from the earthquake-struck areas had gradually alleviated 3, 6, 24 months after the earthquake. Age (less than 12 years old), gender (female), having family member injury and death, witnessing injury and death, and desperation were the main risk factors that affected the children and adolescents mental health.

Li Y.B.,University of Sichuan
Zhonghua wai ke za zhi [Chinese journal of surgery] | Year: 2013

To investigate the effect on postoperative delayed gastric emptying (DGE) after laparoscopic versus open pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD). Data from 67 consecutive PD procedures performed between October 2010 and October 2012 were retrospectively analyzed. Among them, 20 patients underwent laparoscopic PD (LPD group), and 47 patients underwent open PD (OPD group; 22 patients underwent pylorus-preserving PD, 25 patients underwent standard PD). The LPD group had significantly longer operative times ((494 ± 46) minutes vs. (391 ± 70) minutes, t = -4.40, P = 0.000), reduced blood loss ((294 ± 158) ml. vs. (399 ± 68) ml, t = 2.73, P = 0.008) and shorter postoperative hospital stay (13.0 days vs. 16.3 days, t = 3.01, P = 0.009) compared to the OPD group. However, there was no difference in terms of DGE occurrence and postoperative complication rates. There was one postoperative death in the OPD group and none in the LPD group. Multivariate analysis by Logistic regression showed that DGE was significantly more frequent among patients with longer operative times (OR = 1.01, 95%CI: 1.000 - 1.024, P = 0.048), increased intraoperative blood loss (OR = 1.01, 95%CI: 1.000 - 1.022, P = 0.040) and postoperative intraabdominal complications (OR = 6.22, 95%CI: 1.400 - 27.700, P = 0.017). Mean postoperative hospital stay was longer among patients who developed DGE (19.7 days vs. 13.6 days, t = -6.50, P = 0.000) than those without DGE. Longer operative time, increased intraoperative blood loss and postoperative intraabdominal complications appear to be risk factors for DGE development. Meanwhile, the laparoscopic approach PD is safe and feasible, and outcomes appears comparable with those undergoing an open approach.

Wang X.,University of Sichuan
Sheng wu yi xue gong cheng xue za zhi = Journal of biomedical engineering = Shengwu yixue gongchengxue zazhi | Year: 2011

This paper was aimed to screen and analyze the genotypes of thalassemia of the residences in Sichuan Province. The phenotypes of thalassemia was screened by hemoglobin electrophoresis, and the genotypes of the phenotype positive cases was analyzed. There were 69 alpha-thal and 115 beta-thal phenotype positive cases in 3185 subjects. A total of 157 cases were diagnosed as thalassemia. These included 53 alpha-thal, 102 beta-thal and 2 alpha/beta-thal cases. The positive rates were 1.66%, 3.20%, 0.06%, respectively. It can be seen that Sichuan is one of the provinces with a high incidence of thalassemia. Hemoglobin electrophoresis is an important method for thalassemia screening, and GAP-PCR and PCR-RDB technology for thalassemia genotype analysis. A combination of both enables a wide range of screening and diagnosis of thalassemia.

Sun Q.,University of Sichuan
Sheng wu yi xue gong cheng xue za zhi = Journal of biomedical engineering = Shengwu yixue gongchengxue zazhi | Year: 2011

The present paper is to investigate the variation characteristics and clinical application of event related potentials (ERPs) in patients with bipolar disorder. A total of 70 patients with bipolar disorder, with 39 patients in manic phase and 31 patients in depressive phase, and 50 health volunteers were recruited in the case-control study. The ERPs, such as P300, MMN, CNV, P50, were recorded by the Nihon Kohden evoked potential instrument. Compared with the healthy volunteers' latency in the control group, the latency of MMN, CNV, N2, P3a, P3b was longer in the manic phase group; the latency of MMN, CNV, P3a and P3b were longer and the amplitude of CNV was lower in the depressive phase group. The S2/S1 value of P50 obviously increased among the manic phase patients. With manic phase or depression phase of bipolar disorder, the variation characteristics of ERPs were different. The features of ERP reflect the cognitive dysfunction and sensory gating impairment of patient's brain. The results provide neural electrophysiological basis for clinical diagnosis and therapy of bipolar disorder.

Lv D.,University of Sichuan
Cochrane database of systematic reviews (Online) | Year: 2010

BACKGROUND: Gynaecological malignancies contribute to 10 to 15% of cancers in women internationally. In recent years, a trend towards new perioperative care strategies has been documented as "Fast Track (FT) surgery", or "Enhanced Recovery Programmes" to replace some traditional approaches in surgical care. The FT multimodal programmes may enhance the postoperative recovery by means of reducing surgical stress. This systematic review aims to fully assess the beneficial and harmful effects of FT programmes in gynaecological cancer care. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the beneficial and harmful effects of FT programmes in gynaecological cancer care. SEARCH STRATEGY: We searched the following databases, The Cochrane Gynaecological Cancer Collaborative Review Group's Trial Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) Issue 4, 2009, MEDLINE and EMBASE to November 2009. In addition, all reference lists of included trials were searched and experts in the gynaecological oncology community were contacted in an attempt to locate trials. SELECTION CRITERIA: All randomised controlled trials (RCTs) comparing any type of FT programmes for surgery in gynaecological cancer to conventional recovery strategies were included. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two review authors independently screened studies for inclusion. Since no RCTs were identified, data collection and analysis could not be performed. MAIN RESULTS: No studies were found that met the inclusion criteria. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: We currently have no evidence from high quality studies to support or refute the use of perioperative enhanced recovery programmes for gynaecological cancer patients. Further well-designed RCTs with standard FT programmes are needed.

Zong Z.,University of Sichuan | Zong Z.,The State Key Laboratory of Biotherapy
PLoS ONE | Year: 2012

Introduction: blaOXA-48 is a globally emerging carbapenemase-encoding gene. The progenitor of blaOXA-48 appears to be a Shewanella species. The presence of the blaOXA-48-like gene was investigated for two Shewanella xiamenensis strains. Methods: Strain WCJ25 was recovered from post-surgical abdominal drainages, while S4 was the type strain of S. xiamenensis. Species identification for WCJ25 was established by sequencing the 16S rDNA and gyrB genes. PCR was used to screen the blaOXA-48-like genes and to obtain their complete sequences. A phylogenetic tree of the blaOXA-48-like genes was constructed. The genetic context of the blaOXA-48-like gene in strain WCJ25 was investigated by inverse PCR using self-ligated AseI- or RsaI-restricted WCJ25 DNA fragments as template, while that in strain S4 was determined by PCR mapping using that in WCJ25 as template. Results: A new blaOXA-48 variant, designated blaOXA-48b, with four silent nucleotide differences from the blaOXA-48 (designated blaOXA-48a) found in the Enterobacteriaceae was identified in strain S4. Strain WCJ25 had a new blaOXA-48-like variant, blaOXA-199, with five nucleotide differences from blaOXA-48a and blaOXA-48b. The OXA-199 protein has three amino acid substitutions (H37Y, V44A and D153G) compared with OXA-48. Both blaOXA-48b and blaOXA-199 were found adjacent to genes encoding a peptidase (indicated as orf), a protein of unknown function (sprT), an endonuclease I (endA), and a ribosomal RNA methyl transferase (rsmE) upstream and to transcriptional regulator gene lysR and an acetyl-CoA carboxylase-encoding gene downstream. In addition, the insertion sequence ISShes2 was found inserted downstream of blaOXA-199 but not of blaOXA-48b. The 26 bp sequences upstream and 63 bp downstream of blaOXA-48a, blaOXA-48b and blaOXA-199 were identical. Conclusions: blaOXA-48a, blaOXA-48b and blaOXA-199 might have a common origin, suggesting that the blaOXA-48a gene found in the Enterobacteriaceae could have originated from the chromosome of S. xiamenensis. © 2012 Zhiyong Zong.

Chen N.,University of Sichuan
Cochrane database of systematic reviews (Online) | Year: 2010

BACKGROUND: Bell's palsy or idiopathic facial palsy is an acute facial paralysis due to inflammation of the facial nerve. A number of studies published in China have suggested acupuncture is beneficial for facial palsy. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this review was to examine the efficacy of acupuncture in hastening recovery and reducing long-term morbidity from Bell's palsy. SEARCH STRATEGY: We updated the searches of the Cochrane Neuromuscular Disease Group Trials Specialized Register (24 May 2010), The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (Issue 2, 2010), MEDLINE (January 1966 to May 2010), EMBASE (January 1980 to May 2010), AMED (January 1985 to May 2010), LILACS (from January 1982 to May 2010) and the Chinese Biomedical Retrieval System (January 1978 to May 2010) for randomised controlled trials using 'Bell's palsy' and its synonyms, 'idiopathic facial paralysis' or 'facial palsy' as well as search terms including 'acupuncture'. Chinese journals in which we thought we might find randomised controlled trials relevant to our study were handsearched. We reviewed the bibliographies of the randomised trials and contacted the authors and known experts in the field to identify additional published or unpublished data. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included all randomised controlled trials involving acupuncture by needle insertion in the treatment of Bell's palsy irrespective of any language restrictions. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two review authors identified potential articles from the literature search, extracted data and assessed quality of each trial independently. All disagreements were resolved by discussion between the review authors. MAIN RESULTS: The literature search and handsearching identified 49 potentially relevant articles. Of these, six RCTs were included involving 537 participants with Bell's palsy. Two more possible trials were identified in the update than the previous version of this systematic review, but both were excluded because they were not real RCTs. Of the six included trials, five used acupuncture while the other one used acupuncture combined with drugs. No trial reported on the outcomes specified for this review. Harmful side effects were not reported in any of the trials. Poor quality caused by flaws in study design or reporting (including uncertain method of randomisation, allocation concealment and blinding) and clinical differences between trials prevented reliable conclusions about the efficacy of acupuncture. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: The quality of the included trials was inadequate to allow any conclusion about the efficacy of acupuncture. More research with high quality trials is needed.

Liu Q.,University of Sichuan
Wei sheng yan jiu = Journal of hygiene research | Year: 2011

To explore the influencing factors on psychological resilience of left-behind children in rural areas and to find protective factors for psychological resilience by Structural Equation Model. 349 left-behind children of two rural middle schools in Zizhong County, Sichuan Province were measured in group by the Social Support Appraisals (SS-A) Scale and California Health Kids Survey Resilience Assessment Module (HKRA) and other appraisal scales as well as cross-section investigated by self-made questionnaire, using Structural Equation Model for statistical analysis. Psychological resilience of left-behind children in rural areas was divided into two parts which were external protective factor and internal characteristic of individual. The latter was directly impacted by the former (beta = 1.138, P < 0.001) and gender (beta = 0.086, P = 0.048). External protective factor of psychological resilience was directly impacted by family support (beta = 0.076, P = 0.047), parents concern (beta = 0.092, P < 0.001), parental relationship (beta = 0.024, P = 0.043) and mother requiring (beta = 0.050, P = 0.065) and indirectly impacted by friends support, other support, the time of mothers working outside and guardian requiring. There was positive relationship between academic performance and internal characteristics of psychological resilience of left-behind children (r = 0.026, P = 0.055). Psychological resilience of left-behind children in rural areas was influenced by multidimensional factors. Family support, especially mother's care was the key protective factor. Guardians, teachers and friends support and care were also protective factors. Gender difference occurred as to internal characteristic of psychological resilience of the female left-behind children was higher than that of the male.

By using triangular silver (Ag) nanoparticle array, a localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) nanosensor was fabricated and shown to sense serum p53 protein in vitro, which is involved in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). The nanosensor consists of a triangular Ag nanoparticles array with single particle dimension of 120 nm in-plane width and 45 nm out-of-plane height. When examined using LSPR nanobiosensor, the results indicated significant difference in LSPR shifts (Δλ(max)) between HNSCC patient and control. Although there is need for precise quantification and large-scale prospective, this report shows that the LSPR nanobiosensor provides a promising platform with attractive advantages for serological diagnosis or molecular diagnosis in tumor, such as HNSCC. This is the first clinical application of the LSPR nanosensor in HNSCC.

Lu X.,University of Sichuan | Cui S.,Southwest Jiaotong University
Bioresource Technology | Year: 2010

In this paper, we explored a facile method to prepare stable silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) using extracted wool keratin as the capping agent. The formation of Ag NPs was investigated by UV-Vis spectroscopy, X-ray photo-electron spectrometer and X-ray diffraction spectrometer. The morphology of the NPs was detected by scanning electron microscopy in vacuum and atomic force microscopy in fluid. The possible interactions between the silver core and the capping agent have been investigated using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The effects of keratin concentration on the incubation of the NPs were studied by UV-Vis spectra. It was found that under alkaline condition the process of incubation was much faster than that under neutral pH condition. The photoluminescence properties of the Ag NPs were also investigated. We believe that this work is helpful for the high-value utilization of wool and other keratin-rich bioresource. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Mei L.,University of Sichuan
Cochrane database of systematic reviews (Online) | Year: 2010

BACKGROUND: Epithelial ovarian cancer accounts for about 90% of all cases of ovarian cancer. Debulking surgery and six courses of platinum-based chemotherapy results in complete clinical remission (CCR) in up to 75% of cases. However, 75% of the responders will relapse within a median time of 18 to 28 months and only 20% to 40% of women will survive beyond five years. It has been suggested that maintenance chemotherapy could assist in prolonging remission. To date, there has not been a systematic review on the impact of maintenance chemotherapy for epithelial ovarian cancer. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effectiveness and toxicity of maintenance chemotherapy for epithelial ovarian cancer and to evaluate the impact on quality of life (QoL). SEARCH STRATEGY: We searched the Cochrane Gynaecological Cancer Review Group Specialized Register, The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trails (CENTRAL, The Cochrane Library Issue1, 2009), MEDLINE, EMBASE, PubMed, CBMdisc, CNKI and VIP (to May 2009). We collected information from ongoing trials, checked reference lists of published articles and consulted experts in the field. SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) comparing maintenance chemotherapy with no further intervention, maintenance radiotherapy or other maintenance therapy. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two review authors independently assessed trials for eligibility and quality and extracted data. We analysed overall survival (OS) and progression free survival (PFS) rates as dichotomous variables. Toxicity and QoL data were extracted where present. All analyses were based on intention to treat (ITT) on the endpoint of survival. We also analysed data by subgroups of drugs. MAIN RESULTS: We included six trials(902 women). When all chemotherapy regimens were combined, meta-analysis indicated no significant difference in 3, 5 and 10-year OS or PFS. For 5-year OS, the combined relative risk (RR) was 1.07 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.91 to 1.27) and for the 5-year PFS the combined RR was 1.18 (95% CI 0.88 to 1.58). Results were very similar when trials of different regimens were analysed. Comparing chemotherapy with radiotherapy, only the RR for 10-year PFS in pathological complete remission was in favour of whole abdominal radiotherapy 0.51 (95% CI 0.27 to 1.00), while 3 and 5-year OS rates have no significant difference between the two groups. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: There is no evidence to suggest that the use of platinum agents or doxorubicin used as maintenance chemotherapy is more effective than observation alone. Further investigations regarding the effect of paclitaxel used as maintenance chemotherapy are required.

Hong Y.,University of Sichuan
Zhongguo xiu fu chong jian wai ke za zhi = Zhongguo xiufu chongjian waike zazhi = Chinese journal of reparative and reconstructive surgery | Year: 2013

To study the correlation between the cervical posture in the cervical disc replacement (CDR). Between January 2008 and August 2010, 51 and the cervical curve restoration in neutral position after surgery. patients underwent single segmental PRESTIGE LP replacement, and the clinical data were retrospectively analyzed. During the surgery, the patient was supinely placed and the lordosis of the cervical spine was mantained with a pillow placed beneath the neck. Of them, 28 were male and 23 were female, aged 30-64 years (mean, 45 years); 32 were diagnosed as having cervical spondylotic myelopathy, 7 having radiculopathy, and 12 having myelopathy and radiculopathy. The disease duration was 3-48 months (mean, 15 months). CDR was performed at C(4, 5) in 5 cases, at C(5, 6) in 42 cases, and at C(6, 7) in 4 cases. The Cobb angles of the cervical alignment, targeted functional spinal unit (FSU), and targeted disc were measured by sagittal X-ray film of the cervical spine in neutral position before and after surgery, as well as the intraoperative C-arm fluroscopy of the cervical spine. Linear correlation and regression were performed to analyze the relation between cervical Cobb angle difference at intraoperation and improvement of the Cobb angles at 3 months after operation. The cervical Cobb angles at intraoperation and 3 months after operation were larger than those at preoperation (P < 0.05). The difference of the Cobb angle between intra- and pre-operation was (6.72 +/- 9.13) degrees on cervical alignment, (2.10 +/- 5.12) degrees on targeted FSU, and (3.33 +/- 3.75) degrees on targeted disc. At 3 months after operation, the Cobb angle improvement of the cervical alignment, targeted FSU, and targeted disc was (6.30 +/- 7.28), (3.99 +/- 5.37), and (4.29 +/- 5.36) degrees, respectively. There was no significant difference in the Cobb angle improvement between the targeted FSU and the targeted disc (t = -4.391, P = 0.698), and between the targeted disc and the cervical alignment (t = -1.917, P = 0.061), but significant difference was found between the targeted FSU and the cervical alignment (t = -2.623, P = 0.012). The linear correlation between the Cobb angle difference and the Cobb angle improvement of the cervical spine was observed (P < 0.05). A slightly lordotic cervical posture during CDR is an important factor to maintaining normal physiological lordosis of the cervical spine after surgery.

Gene therapy is a promising approach to the treatment of a wide range of diseases. The development of efficient and adequate gene delivery systems could be one of the most important factors. Polyethyleneimine, a cationic polymer, is one of the most successful and widely used vectors for nonviral transfection in vitro and in vivo. A novel biodegradable poly(ester amine) copolymer (PEA) was successfully prepared from low molecular weight polyethylenimine (PEI, 2000 Da) and poly(L-lactide) copolymers. According to the results of agarose gel electrophoresis, particle size and zeta potential measurement, and transfection efficiency, the PEA copolymers showed a good ability to condense plasmid DNA effectively into nanocomplexes with a small particle size (≤150 nm) and moderate zeta potential (≥10 mV) at an appropriate polymeric carrier/DNA weight ratio. Compared with high molecular weight PEI (25kDa), the PEA obtained showed relatively high gene transfection efficiency as well as low cytotoxicity in vitro. These results indicate that such PEA might have potential application as a gene delivery system.

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relationship of coronary heart disease (CHD)-associated factors-C-reactive protein (CRP) and lipid profiles-with periodontitis in an ethnic Han population. METHOD AND MATERIALS: Forty healthy individuals as control, 40 patients with chronic periodontitis (CP), 28 patients with CHD, and 47 patients with both CP and CHD were included in the study. Serum CRP levels, lipid profile concentrations, and three periodontal clinical parameters (probing depth, clinical attachment level, and bleeding on probing) were measured and analyzed. The chi-square test, Student-Newman-Keuls test, analysis of covariance, and a logistic regression analysis were used in this study. RESULTS: The mean CRP level of patients with CP alone was 2.4 +/- 1.5 mg/L. There were significant differences in mean serum CRP levels among groups after confounders were adjusted, with CP+CHD patients having the highest level (7.3 +/- 5.7 mg/L) and the controls the lowest (1.0 +/- 0.6 mg/L) (P < .001). Mean HDL cholesterol level of CP patients (1.1 +/- 0.7 mmol/L) was significantly lower than that of controls (1.4 +/- 0.6 mmol/L) (P < .05), although it was significantly higher than that of the other two groups with CHD (0.8 +/- 0.5 mmol/L and 0.7 +/- 0.4 mmol/L) (P < .001). Significant correlations of CRP and HDL cholesterol with the three clinical periodontal parameters were apparent (P < .05). CRP and HDL cholesterol were found to be significantly associated with an increased frequency of CHD in this regression model (OR = 3.7 and OR = 1.9, respectively, P < .05). CONCLUSIONS: In an ethnic Han population with a low normal range of serum CRP levels, chronic periodontitis is associated with increased CRP levels and decreased HDL cholesterol concentrations, which suggests that there may be some relationship between periodontal inflammation and CHD.

Ye J.,University of Sichuan
International journal of nanomedicine | Year: 2011

Infection around membranes is often found in guided bone regeneration (GBR). The excellent antibacterial properties of Ag-nHA-nTiO(2)/polyamide-66 (PA66) nanocomposite membranes have been demonstrated previously. The aim of this study was to observe the microstructure of an Ag-nHA-nTiO(2)/PA66 membrane and its effects on osteoblast-like cells in vitro. An Ag-nHA-nTiO(2)/PA66 membrane was used in the experimental group, and both nHA/PA66 and expanded poly tetrafluroethylene (e-PTFE) membranes were set as control. MG63 osteoblast-like cells were cultured on the three kinds of membrane and tissue culture polystyrene (TCP). The microstructure of the above membranes and the cells adhered on them were detected by scanning electronic microscope (SEM). Cell proliferation was determined by 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, cell viability with a cell viability analyzer, and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and Ca(2+) concentration of osteoblast-like cell matrix by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. SEM showed that both Ag-nHA-nTiO(2)/PA66 membranes and nHA/PA66 membranes were composed of porous obverse face and smooth opposite face. The e-PTFE membranes showed elliptic surface structure with many tiny lined cracks. The MG63 cells adhered and proliferated well on all three kinds of membranes. Though cell viability on Ag-nHA-nTiO(2)/PA66 membranes was significantly lower than that of the control groups (P < 0.05), MTT values, ALP activity, and Ca(2+) concentration did not differ significantly among the three kinds of membranes (P > 0.05). From these findings, it can be concluded that Ag-nHA-nTiO(2)/PA66 membranes are as biocompatible as nHA/ PA66 membranes and TCP, thus may be applied safely in GBR.

Li H.,CAS Institute of Psychology | Li H.,University of Chinese Academy of Sciences | Chan R.C.K.,CAS Institute of Psychology | Chan R.C.K.,University of Hong Kong | And 2 more authors.
Schizophrenia Bulletin | Year: 2010

Background: People with schizophrenia have difficulty with emotion perception. Functional imaging studies indicate regional brain activation abnormalities in patients with schizophrenia when processing facial emotion. However, findings have not been entirely consistent across different studies. Methods: Activation likelihood estimation (ALE) meta-analyses were conducted to examine brain activation during facial emotion processing in patients with schizophrenia, controls, and patients compared with controls. Secondary meta-analyses were performed to assess the contribution of task design and illness chronicity to the results reported. Results: When processing facial expressions of emotions, both patients with schizophrenia and healthy controls activated the bilateral amygdala and right fusiform gyri. However, the extent of activation in these regions was generally much more limited in the schizophrenia samples. When directly compared with controls, the extent of activation in bilateral amygdala, parahippocampal gyrus and fusiform gyrus, right superior frontal gyrus, and lentiform nucleus was significantly less in patients. Patients with schizophrenia, but not controls, activated the left insula. A relative failure to recruit the amygdala in patients occurred regardless of whether the task design was explicit or implicit, while differences in fusiform activation were evident in explicit, not implicit, tasks. Restricting the analysis to patients with chronic illness did not substantially change the results. Conclusions: A marked underrecruitment of the amygdala, accompanied by a substantial limitation in activation throughout a ventral temporal-basal ganglia-prefrontal cortex "social brain" system may be central to the difficulties patients experience when processing facial emotion. © The Author 2009.

Zeng Y.,University of Sichuan
Cellular and molecular biology (Noisy-le-Grand, France) | Year: 2011

Cell migration plays important roles in both physiological and pathological processes. Recent studies have shown that hydroxyurea, which is an anti-proliferative inhibitor, can affect cell morphology and specific gene expression of endothelial cells (ECs). In vivo, the functions of ECs are modulated by shear stress. It is well known that shear stress can have effects on EC migration by affecting cell morphology, cytoskeletal arrangement and cell-cell junction, and activating mechanosensors, inducing the changes of signaling pathways, and then increasing or decreasing the expression of gene and protein. However, the influences of hydroxyurea on EC function under shear stress are still unclear. In present study, we investigated the effects of hydroxyurea on EC proliferation, apoptosis and migration under laminar shear stress. The results showed that hydroxyurea prevented growth of ECs in a dose-dependent manner. Hydroxyurea at 2 mM completely inhibited the proliferation of ECs. The results also demonstrated that hydroxyurea induced EC apoptosis, but it was inhibited by 15.27 dyn/cm2 laminar shear stress. Furthermore, shear stress induced cell migration in the presence of hydroxyurea. Therefore, 2 mM hydroxyurea, which completely inhibited the proliferation of HUVECs, could be used to eliminate any confounding effect of shear stress on proliferation in shear stress-induced cell migration. These results also do confirm that shear stress plays important roles in achieving and maintaining the stabilization of ECs.

Duan X.,University of Electronic Science and Technology of China | Dai Q.,University of Electronic Science and Technology of China | Gong Q.,University of Sichuan | Chen H.,University of Electronic Science and Technology of China
NeuroImage | Year: 2010

Previous functional neuroimaging studies have uncovered partly separable neural substrates for perceiving different facial expressions presented below the level of conscious awareness. However, as one of the six basic emotions, the neural mechanism of unconsciously perceiving surprised faces has not yet been investigated. Using a backward masking procedure, we studied the neural activities in response to surprised faces presented below the threshold of conscious visual perception by means of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Eighteen healthy adults were scanned while viewing surprised faces, which presented for 33. ms and immediately "masked" by a neutral face for 467. ms. As a control, they viewed masked happy or neutral faces as well. In comparison to both control conditions, masked surprised faces yielded significantly greater activation in the parahippocampal gyrus and fusiform gyrus, which associated previously with novelty detection. In the present study, automatic activation of these areas to masked surprised faces was investigated as a function of individual differences in the ability of identifying and differentiating one's emotions, as assessed by the 20-item Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20). The correlation results showed that, the subscale, Difficulty Identifying Feelings, was negatively correlated with the neural response of these areas to masked surprised faces, which suggest that decreased activation magnitude in specific brain regions may reflect increased difficulties in recognizing one's emotions in everyday life. Additionally, we confirmed activation of the right amygdala and right thalamus to the masked surprised faces, which was previously proved to be involved in the unconscious emotional perception system. © 2010 Elsevier Inc.

Guo X.,University of Sichuan
Zhonghua er ke za zhi. Chinese journal of pediatrics | Year: 2011

The clinical features of four cases of visceral leishmaniasis (VL)-associated hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (VL-HLH) were retrospectively analyzed for the purpose of helping the diagnosis of secondary HLH. Clinical data of three childhood cases of VL-HLH documented in our hospital and one case diagnosed in the Capital Institute of Pediatrics was reviewed retrospectively, with particular emphasis on peculiar clinical manifestations and on clues to the diagnosis of this relatively rare disease entity. Three children were from endemic areas of VL, and the other one had lived in endemic area for one year, which was revealed by detailed history-taking. Clinically, VL-HLH is characterized by persistent fever, hepatosplenomegaly and pancytopenia, which is similar to those of HLH, and is one of the important reasons of delayed diagnosis or misdiagnosis. Based on the HLH-2004 protocol, all the four cases met the diagnostic criteria of HLH. In addition, bone marrow aspirate and immunologic detection of VL-specific antibody via rk39 dipstick test during the early disease course of VL-HLH yielded negative results. Two cases who received HLH-targeted therapy responded reasonably well, with rapid temperature normalization and spleen retraction. Nevertheless, Hb remained lower than normal, which we believed to be related to persistent red cell destruction by the invading parasite Leishmania donovani. VL, a parasitic disease caused by Leishmania donovani, which is currently endemic just in 6 provinces in China, shares similar clinical picture of HLH and is an easily ignored underlying cause of secondary HLH. We suggest that VL should be in the list of differential diagnosis for any patients with HLH who lives in or has a definite travel history to endemic areas. Repeated bone marrow studies are highly warranted to make a definite diagnosis of VL, because bone marrow aspirate or rk39 dipstick test during early disease course might yield negative results. Although VL-HLH responds quite well to HLH-tailored chemotherapy, specific therapy against VL must be given to prevent disease recurrence, and HLH-targeted chemotherapy might be discontinued to prevent chemotherapy-related toxicities.

He Q.,University of Sichuan
Advances in Applied Mathematics and Mechanics | Year: 2012

In this paper, we propose a new two-level preconditioned C-G method which uses the quadratic smoothing and the linear correction in distorted but topologically structured grid. The CPU time of this method is less than that of the multigrid preconditioned C-G method (MGCG) using the quadratic element, but their accuracy is almost the same. Numerical experiments and eigenvalue analysis are given and the results show that the proposed two-level preconditioned method is efficient. © 2012 Global Science Press.

Zhang J.,University of Sichuan
Zhongguo xiu fu chong jian wai ke za zhi = Zhongguo xiufu chongjian waike zazhi = Chinese journal of reparative and reconstructive surgery | Year: 2010

To study the biological characteristic of rabbit bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) double-labeled by PKH26 and BrdU in vitro, and to construct tissue engineered cardiac patch in vitro. The BMSCs were harvested from 6-month-old New Zealand rabbits and labeled with PKH26 and BrdU. The growth and fluorescent intensity were observed by inverted phase contrast microscope, fluorescent microscope, flow cytometry, and MTT detection. The characteristics of double-labeled BMSCs differentiating into osteoblasts and adipocytes, respectively, in vitro were identified by alkaline phosphatase (ALP) staining, Alizarin red staining, Oil red O staining, immunocytochemical technique of collagen type I, and osteocalcin expression. The labeled BMSCs were seeded on the small intestinal submucosa (SIS) and co-cultured for 5-7 days to construct tissue engineered cardiac patch. The patches were tested by inverted phase contrast microscope, fluorescent microscope, scanning electron microscope, and HE staining to observe the cell proliferation. The double-labeled cells grew well and showed red fluorescence. There was no significant difference in the growth characteristic between the labeled and unlabeled cells. There was no significant difference in the expression of stem cell specific surface antigen between before labeling and after labeling. After osteogenic induction of labeled BMSCs, ALP staining and Alizarin red staining were positive, and the cells expressed collagen type I and osteocalcin. After adipocytes induction, lipid droplets could be observed in cytoplasm by Oil red O staining. After the co-culture in vitro for 5-7 days, the double-labeled cells grew well, showing a multi-layer cellular structure on the surface of SIS. Rabbit BMSCs can be double-labeled with PKH26 and BrdU stably. The labeled cells still have the potential of self-renewal ability and multi potent differentiation ability; tissue engineered cardiac patch can be constructed by co-culturing labeled BMSCs and SIS in vitro.

Yang M.,University of Sichuan
Clinical & developmental immunology | Year: 2013

To analyze serum interleukin-6 (IL-6) expression level and its clinical significance in patients with dermatomyositis. Blood samples from 23 adult patients with dermatomyositis (DM), 22 with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), 22 with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), 16 with Sjögren's syndrome (SS), and 20 healthy controls were collected. The IL-6 concentration was detected by chemiluminescence immunoassay. Correlations between IL-6 expression levels and clinical features or laboratory findings in patients with DM were investigated. IL-6 expression level of DM patients was significantly higher than that of normal controls, significantly lower than that of RA patients, and slightly lower than that of SLE or SS patients with no significant differences. The incidence of fever was significantly higher in the IL-6 elevated group. Serum ferritin (SF) and C-reactive protein (CRP) were positively correlated with IL-6. IL-6 plays a less important role in DM than in RA. IL-6 monoclonal antibodies may have poor effect in patients with DM.

Wang X.,University of Sichuan
Zhonghua wai ke za zhi [Chinese journal of surgery] | Year: 2013

To analyze the long-term survivors of glioblastoma and to identify any prognostic factors that potentially contribute to survival. Fifteen glioblastomas patients underwent surgery from June 2007 to April 2009 who survived longer than 3 years were enrolled in. Clinical characteristics such as age, location of tumor, extent of resection, and radiotherapy or chemotherapy were analyzed. The expressions of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), tumor protein 53 (P53), phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN), O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT), isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 gene (IDH1), and neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF-1) in tumor samples were measured by immunohistochemical method, and the status of P53 and IDH1 were detected by direct DNA sequencing as well. And the patients who survived less than 1 year were set as control. Kaplan-Meier analysis was used to evaluate the prognostic factors. The average age of patients at diagnosis was 45.6 years. And the overall survival time was 3-6 years (median survival time 3.5 years). Thirteen patients underwent a total resection, and 14 patients took orally temozolomide. The occurrence frequency of these molecular markers in long-term survivors was PTEN (13/15), IDH1 (13/15), IDH1 mutation (12/15), P53 (8/15), P53 mutation (7/15), EGFR (6/15), MGMT (4/15) and NF-1 (3/15). There was a good correlation between IDH1 protein expression and IDHI mutation, and between P53 protein expression and P53 mutation. And the survival analysis showed that age above 50 years at diagnosis (OR = 0.262, 95%CI: 0.102 - 0.672), total resection (OR = 0.372, 95%CI: 0.149 - 0.931) and combined oral temozolomide (OR = 0.131, 95%CI: 0.044 - 0.390) were favorable clinical prognostic factors. PTEN (OR = 0.201, 95%CI: 0.074 - 0.549) and IDH1 (OR = 0.151, 95%CI: 0.050 - 0.454) expression, IDH1 mutation (OR = 0.276, 95%CI: 0.108 - 0.709) in tumor cells contributed to a favorable prognosis. There is probably no single molecular marker that is responsible for long-term survival of patients with glioblastoma, may be a balance between all these molecular events result in a favorable outcome.

Tan S.S.,University of Sichuan
Archives of gynecology and obstetrics | Year: 2011

Primary lymphomas of the female genital tract are rare. Most involve the cervix rather than the uterine corpus. Many cases of primary endometrial lymphoma are diagnosed as diffuse large B cell type, whereas the precursor B cell lymphoblastic type is extremely rare. We report a case of precursor B cell lymphoblastic lymphoma of uterine corpus which was successfully treated with surgery and chemotherapy. Staging evaluation revealed tumor limited to the uterine corpus (stage I(E)). After receiving a total abdominal hysterectomy, bilateral salpingooophorectomy, lymph node dissection and combination chemotherapy, the patient is currently free of disease after follow-up of 42 months. If correct diagnosis is established and appropriate therapy is chosen, the prognosis of precursor B-LBL of uterine corpus is expected to be good. The literature on primary precursor B cell lymphoblastic lymphoma of the uterine corpus is reviewed.

Wu Z.,University of Electronic Science and Technology of China | Zeng B.Q.,University of Electronic Science and Technology of China | Zhong S.,University of Sichuan
Journal of Electromagnetic Waves and Applications | Year: 2010

In this paper, a double-layer metamaterial is proposed composing of twisted metallic foil pairs and dielectric spacer. Negative refractive index can be realized originating from chiral configuration of this metamaterial. With precious tuning of rotated angle θ in each metallic foil pair and dielectric thickness h, different chirality parameters and negative refraction indices can be obtained. These results help to give a more profound understanding on chirality and to design new chiral metamaterial. © 2010 VSP.

Study design:We evaluated whether combination of chondroitinase (chABC) administration and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF)-mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) transplantation could provide an optimal effect for the treatment of spinal cord injury (SCI) subjected to complete transection.Objectives:Behavioral assessments and DBA tracing were used to evaluate the effects of combination of chABC administration and BDNF-MSC transplantation on axonal regeneration and functional improvement in SCT rats.Setting:Sichuan, ChinaMethods:Bone mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) were cultured and overexpressed BDNF recombinant vector was constructed into MSCs, then transplanted into the impaired spinal cord, together with chABC administration. Finally, the cortical spinal tract regeneration was detected by DBA tracing at 4 weeks post operation, and the expression of nerve growth factor (NGF), BDNF, neurotrophic factor (NT)-3, NT-4, fibroblast growth factor (FGF-2)-2, B cell lymphoma 2 (BCL-2) assaciated X protein (BAX) and BCL-2 in the caudal cord tissues was assessed by reverse transcription-PCR.Results:Animals received both BDNF-BMSC transplantation and chABC administration presented the best functional recovery and obvious axonal regeneration. Moreover, NGF expression was significantly higher than that in the other groups.Conclusion:Co-treated strategy could effectively promote motor functional recovery and axonal regeneration in SCT rats associated with NGF upregulation.Spinal Cord advance online publication, 28 June 2016; doi:10.1038/sc.2016.55. © 2016 International Spinal Cord Society

Han B.J.,University of Sichuan
International journal of oral science | Year: 2010

The purpose of this study is to compare the effects of the two clutches on recording the condylar movement. Ten subjects (6 women, 4 men; mean age 25.4 years) participated in the study. The mandibular movement, sagittal condylar inclination angle, and transversal condylar inclination angle of each subject were recorded with the CADIAX using the two clutches, respectively. The characteristics of the tracings of the protrusion, opening, and mediotrusion were analyzed with the t-test statistics at a = 0.05 level. The Kappa values were calculated for an assessment of the congruence of the tracings. The results showed that the contour, direction, and dimension of the tracings in the two clutches were approximately same, but the tracings determined by the functional occlusal clutch were more regular and congruent. In the group segment recorded with the tray clutch, opening/closing paths of one subject showed crossed and time curves of three subjects appeared peak-like changes of velocity, but none were statistically different (P>0.05). The research suggests that the functional occlusal clutch should be preferred in the evaluation of the mandibular function, as the tracings with the tray clutch are more likely to produce false positive results.

Dihedral fullerenes are thermodynamically stable molecules with D nd or D nh symmetry. Based on experimental findings, two series of dihedral fullerenes with five-fold (C5) and six-fold (C6) symmetry have been studied using density functional theory (DFT). The DFT calculations showed that for both series the stabilities increased with increasing fullerene size. Structural analyses indicated that the stabilities are related to specific local geometries. In the case of the more abundant C5 series, the presence of approximately planar pentagons and hexagons on the top bowl favors their formation. That is to say, those fullerenes with small dihedral angles within the polygons are readily formed, because planar hexagons lead to strengthened conjugation which lowers average bonding energies (ABE) and increases thermodynamic stabilities. Non-planar hexagons at equatorial positions in tube-shaped fullerenes have an adverse effect on the conjugation and inhibit their formation. Calculations also demonstrated that fullerenes in the two series, including C 50(D 5h), C 60(D 6h), C 80(D 5d), C 96(D 6d), C 110(D 5h), and C 120(D 5d), have thermodynamically stable triplet structures with strong conjugation. The calculated IR and 13C NMR spectra of the fullerenes show some similarities and regular trends due to their homogenous structures. The electronic structures indicate that short double bonds in hexagons with high electron occupancies are readily attacked by electrophilic agents and can also be coordinated by transition metals. Mechanistic discussions suggested that C 2 additions and C 2 losses constitute reversible processes at high temperature and C 2 additions in pentagonal fusions are crucial to the kinetics of the curvature of structures. C 3 additions lead to the formation of large fullerenes of other types. © Science China Press and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2012.

Cai J.,University of Sichuan
Zhongguo xiu fu chong jian wai ke za zhi = Zhongguo xiufu chongjian waike zazhi = Chinese journal of reparative and reconstructive surgery | Year: 2010

To summarize the regulations of Hedgehog signaling pathway on the proliferation and multi-differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). The related literature in recent years concerning the regulations of Hedgehog signaling pathway on the biological characteristics of MSCs was reviewed and analyzed. Hedgehog signaling pathway promoted the proliferation of MSCs, and played a major role in the induction of osteogenic and chondrogenic differentiations, but it inhibited the adipocytic differentiation. The regulations of Hedgehog signaling pathway in MSCs multi-differentiation and proliferation could be used as the new therapeutic targets of tissue ischemia, osteoporosis, achondroplasia, obesity, and so on.

Commonly used drugs for the treatment of colon{} cancer patients like CPT-11 shows severe side effects or induces resistance in clinical settings. Thus, we analyzed a combination of PLK1 (polo-like kinase 1)-specific short hair RNA (shRNA), a potent tool to destroy mitosis in cancer cells, together with CPT-11 to enhance drug sensitivity. Cellular proliferation and apoptosis were determined in SW620 colorectal carcinoma cells. Knockdown of cellular PLK1 led to the decreased mRNA and PLK1 protein in RT-PCR and western blot assay. The viability declined (p<0.001) in MTT assay and colony formation assay, and the number of apoptotic cells was clearly increased (p<0.01) in flow cytometric analysis and Hoechst 33258 staining compared with control cells after incubation with PLK1-specific shRNA and SN-38. We found the level of cleaved PARP was also increased in vitro. In vivo, employment of shRNA targeting PLK1 improved the sensitivity to treat SW620 nude mouse model toward CPT-11. The combination therapy inhibited cellular proliferation and promoted apoptosis observed at the percentage of PCNA and caspase3 by immunohistochemistry, accompanied with TUNEL assay. As we expect, the combination treatment delayed tumor growth (p<0.01) and simultaneously reduced tumor weight (p<0.01) compared with control group. Taken together, combination of PLK1-specific shRNA interference with low-dose CPT-11 triggered a antitumor efficacy and represented a potential strategy to treat colon cancer.

Liu G.,Xiamen University | Liu G.,North Sichuan Medical College | Gao J.,Xiamen University | Ai H.,University of Sichuan | Chen X.,U.S. National Institutes of Health
Small | Year: 2013

Owing to their unique physical and chemical properties, magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles have become a powerful platform in many diverse aspects of biomedicine, including magnetic resonance imaging, drug and gene delivery, biological sensing, and hyperthermia. However, the biomedical applications of magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles arouse serious concerns about their pharmacokinetics, metabolism, and toxicity. In this review, the updated research on the biomedical applications and potential toxicity of magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles is summarized. Much more effort is required to develop magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles with improved biocompatible surface engineering to achieve minimal toxicity, for various applications in biomedicine. Magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles have become a powerful platform in many diverse aspects of biomedicine, including magnetic resonance imaging, drug and gene delivery, biological sensing, and hyperthermia. However, the biomedical applications of magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles arouse serious concerns about their pharmacokinetics, metabolism and toxicity. This review presents a broad overview of the biomedical applications and available toxicity assessments of magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

Xiao Y.-L.,Sichuan University | Xue J.,University of Sichuan | Su X.,Sichuan University
Optics Letters | Year: 2013

Commonly, fringe-projection photogrammetry involves two independent stages: system calibration and measurement. The measurement accuracy largely depends on the calibration procedure. However, the results of system calibration may be unstable in different occasions. In this Letter, we propose a robust self-calibration 3D shape measurement in fringe-projection photogrammetry by combining control and measurement points. The control points with known 3D coordinates are provided on the checkerboard, and the measurement points are identified by absolute phase information in the deformed fringes. The introduction of control points in the nonlinear collinearity equations can be regarded as invariant in the optimization procedure, which enhances the measurement robustness. Compared to the binocular model in fringe-projection technique, moreover, multiple-view ray intersection is utilized to reflect the advantage of photogrammetry in the fringe-projection 3D measurement. © 2013 Optical Society of America.

Wu P.,Nankai University | Wu P.,University of Sichuan | Miao L.-N.,Nankai University | Wang H.-F.,Nankai University | And 2 more authors.
Angewandte Chemie - International Edition | Year: 2011

Lab-on-a-nanoparticle: The triple-channel optical properties of Mn-doped ZnS quantum dots (fluorescence, phosphorescence, and light scattering) are explored to develop a multidimensional sensing device for the discrimination of proteins in a lab-on-a-nanoparticle approach (see picture). © 2011 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

Liu E.,University of Sichuan
Computers and Geotechnics | Year: 2010

Biaxial compressional tests with two types of stress paths were carried out on an assembly of round bars, which can be crushed to investigate the breakage and deformation mechanisms of granular materials at the mesoscale. The following was found experimentally: (1) upon loading, the crushable rods slide, rotate and break, and finally the breakage band forms for the two types of stress paths and different stress states; and (2) for the axial loading stress path, the round rods mainly fail in the vertically split mode and laterally crushed mode. However, for the lateral unloading stress path, the round rods fail with the combination mode of locally crushed and vertically split. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

Chen X.,University of Sichuan
Orthopaedic surgery | Year: 2012

Bone has emerged as a novel endocrine organ for its ability to produce hormones and involvement in several regulatory feedback loops. Osteocalcin (OCN) is released into bloodstream during bone resorption and has been demonstrated to exert endocrine regulation on islets, fat and male testis to form feedback loops. We hypothesize that bone delivers its energy metabolism signals to related energy-regulating organs through OCN based on the following evidence: First, OCN has close interactions with islets and fat, and it shows ability to stimulate islets and fat to secret insulin and adiponectin, respectively. Islets and fat are important organs involved in energy metabolism. Second, OCN undergoes physiological fluctuations during a lifetime. In children and adolescents, during the development of osteoporosis or after bone fracture, OCN level increases significantly. The elevated OCN at these stages represents enhanced bone turnover and metabolic activity, which require more energy supply. Therefore, the metabolic activity of bone and the energy-related organs like fat and islets are closely linked by circulating OCN. Through systemic release of OCN, bone delivers its energy-demanding information to other organs to satisfy its energy requirement. © 2012 Tianjin Hospital and Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

Zhang C.,University of Sichuan | Wu S.,Sichuan University | Xu D.,Sichuan University
Journal of Physical Chemistry B | Year: 2013

The angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) exhibits critical functions in the conversion of angiotensin I to angiotensin II and the degradation of bradykinin and other vasoactive peptides. As a result, the ACE inhibition has become a promising approach in the treatment of hypertension, heart failure, and diabetic nephropathy. Extending our recent molecular dynamics simulation of the testis ACE in complex with a bona fide substrate molecule, hippuryl-histidyl-leucine, we presented here a detailed investigation of the hydrolytic process and possible influences of the chloride ion on the reaction using a combined quantum mechanical and molecule mechanical method. Similar to carboxypeptidase A and thermolysin, the promoted water mechanism is established for the catalysis of ACE. The E384 residue was found to have the dual function of a general base for activating the water nucleophile and a general acid for facilitating the cleavage of amide C-N bond. Consistent with experimental observations, the chloride ion at the second binding position is found to accelerate the reaction rate presumably due to the long-range electrostatic interactions but has little influence on the overall substrate binding characteristics. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

A porous poly(L-lactic acid)/β-tricalcium phosphate (PLLA/β-TCP) composite scaffold was fabricated using a novel technique comprising powder mixing, compression molding, low-temperature treatment, and particulate leaching without any organic solvent. The effect of this scaffold on osteoblast proliferation and differentiation was evaluated in vitro. The fabricated scaffold had a homogeneously interconnected porous structure with a porosity of 70% and compressive strength of 1.35 MPa. The methylthiazol tetrazolium values and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity of osteoblasts seeded on the solvent-free scaffold were significant higher than those of the control. Using real-time PCR, gene expressions of ALP, osteocalcin, and type 1 collagen were shown to be upregulated. As the method does not use any organic solvent, it eliminates problems associated with organic solvent residue and therefore improves the cell compatibility. It has a promising potential for the preparation of porous scaffold for bone tissue engineering.

Yang X.,Sichuan University | Shang H.,Sichuan University | Ding C.,Sichuan University | Li J.,Sichuan University | Li J.,University of Sichuan
Polymer Chemistry | Year: 2015

Nowadays, the bioinspired strategy has become a prevalent guide for the design and fabrication of various novel materials. Due to their unique steric structures and rich peripheral functional groups, dendritic polymers can be designed for various bioinspired functions. This review begins with a brief introduction on the preparation of dendritic polymers, followed by the discussion of their physicochemical and biological properties. Then, a detailed review will focus on their bioinspired applications such as artificial proteins, virus, enzymes, cellular structures and light harvesting antenna, including our own studies. This review highlights the structure-function relationship of dendritic polymers to their bioinspired applications. Finally, an outlook will be proposed about the developing trends and challenges in this field. © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2015.

Yang M.,University of Sichuan
Cochrane database of systematic reviews (Online) | Year: 2010

Diffuse panbronchiolitis (DPB) is a chronic airways disease predominantly affecting East Asians. Macrolides, a class of antibiotics, have been used as the main treatment for DPB, based on evidence from retrospective and non-randomised studies. To assess the efficacy and safety of macrolides for DPB. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library 2010, issue 1), which contains the Cochrane Acute Respiratory Infections Group's Specialised Register, MEDLINE (1966 to April 2010), EMBASE (1974 to April 2010), Chinese Biomedical Literature Database (CBM) (1978 to April 2010), China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) (1974 to April 2010), KoreaMed (1997 to April 2010) and Database of Japana Centra Revuo Medicina (1983 to April 2010). Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) or quasi-RCTs assessing the effect of macrolides for DPB. Two review authors independently assessed study quality and subsequent risk of bias according to the Cochrane Collaboration's tool for assessing risk of bias. The primary outcomes were five-year survival rate, lung function and clinical response. We used risk ratios (RR) for individual trial results in the data analysis and measured all outcomes with 95% confidence intervals (CI). Only one RCT (19 participants) with significant methodological limitations was included in this review. It found that the computerised tomography images of all participants treated with a long-term, low-dose macrolide (erythromycin) improved from baseline, while the images of 71.4% of participants in the control group (with no treatment) worsened and 28.6% remained unchanged. Adverse effects were not reported. There is little evidence for macrolides in the treatment of DPB. We are therefore unable to make any new recommendations. It may be reasonable to use low-dose macrolides soon after diagnosis is made and to continue this treatment for at least six months, according to current guidelines.

Yang X.Y.,University of Sichuan
Archives of gynecology and obstetrics | Year: 2011

Recent evidence suggests that ADP-ribosylation factor-like tumor suppressor gene 1(ARLTS1) may act as a tumor suppressor gene. However, its role in tumor chemotherapy remains unclear. The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of ARLTS1 gene in regulation of chemosensitivity in ovarian cystadenocarcinoma cell line SKOV3. We stably expressed wild-type (wt) ARLTS1 and empty vector (neo) in SKOV3 cells. Chemosensitivity test was carried out with four chemotherapeutic agents. Cell proliferation, cycle kinetics and apoptosis were evaluated by MTT assay and flow cytometry. Apoptosis-related proteins caspase-3 and bcl-2 were determined by Western blot analysis. The proliferation of wtARLTS1 clones was more dramatically inhibited by all the cytotoxic agents than parental cells (P < 0.05). Increased sensitivity to chemotherapy by two to threefolds was detected in wtARLTS1 cells. The rate of apoptosis in wtARLTS1 was 60.2% treated with DDP (10× peak plasma concentration, PPC), which was dramatically higher than that of neo and parental cells (P is 0.017 and 0.020, respectively). Expression of caspase-3 and bcl-2 in parental cells declined modestly when treated with DDP, while in wtARLTS1 clones the expression of caspase-3 and bcl-2 levels declined more dramatically and become undetectable at lower DDP doses (P = 0.023 and <0.001, respectively). Our findings suggested that ARLTS1 may facilitate chemosensitivity in ovarian cancer cells by acting synergistic with chemotherapeutic agents to induce the apoptosis signaling pathway and regulate apoptosis-related proteins.

Li T.,University of Sichuan
Artificial cells, nanomedicine, and biotechnology (Print) | Year: 2013

This study was designed to investigate whether polymerized human placenta hemoglobin (PolyPHb) attenuated hemorrhagic shock-induced lung injury. A mean arterial pressure (MAP) of 30mmHg was maintained for 60 min. Then, all the rats were randomly resuscitated with hetastarch, whole blood, or PolyPHb. The result indicated that PolyPHb greatly improved the MAP and pulmonary function, and significantly reduced the release of inflammatory cytokines, histopathological changes, and pulmonary edema. Therefore, our findings suggest that PolyPHb could reduce pulmonary injury after hemorrhagic shock, and this effect was probably associated with the depressed inflammatory response.

Xu D.,University of Sichuan | Xu L.,Zhejiang University of Technology
IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control | Year: 2010

The main aim of this technical note is to present a new approach to studying the asymptotic behavior of nonlinear delay differential systems. Firstly, we develop a new nonlinear delay differential inequality which will be more effective and interesting than earlier ones in . Then we establish a new generalized Barbalat's lemma which can extend and improve earlier ones in . Finally, by combining the obtained generalized Barbalat's lemma with the nonlinear delay differential inequality, we obtain the attracting set and invariant set of the nonlinear delay differential systems. © 2006 IEEE.

Wong W.K.,Hong Kong Polytechnic University | Guo Z.X.,University of Sichuan | Leung S.Y.S.,Hong Kong Polytechnic University
International Journal of Production Economics | Year: 2014

A multi-objective production planning problem in the labor-intensive manufacturing industry is investigated. An intelligent and real-time multi-objective decision-making model is developed to provide timely and effective solutions for this problem by integrating RFID technology with intelligent optimization techniques, in which RFID technology is used to collect real-time production data, a novel (μ/ρ+λ)-evolution strategy process with self-adaptive population size and novel recombination operation is proposed and integrated with effective non-dominated sorting and pruning techniques to generate Pareto optimal solutions for real-world production. Experiments based on industrial data were conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed model. Experimental results show that the proposed model can effectively solve the investigated problem by providing production planning solutions superior to industrial solutions. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

Gao J.H.,University of Sichuan
Journal of physiology and pharmacology : an official journal of the Polish Physiological Society | Year: 2013

The mammalian gastrointestinal (GI) mucosa is a rapidly self-renewing tissue in the body, and its integrity is preserved through the strict regulation of epithelial cell proliferation, growth arrest, and apoptosis. Polyamines are shown to play an important role in the regulation of gastrointestinal mucosal growth and healing after injury under physiological and various pathological conditions. In this review, we highlight the importance of cellular polyamines in the control GI mucosal proliferation, migration, apoptosis, angiogenesis and GI barrier function during mucosal repair after injury.

Zhu Z.,University of Sichuan
Advanced Materials Research | Year: 2011

A crater blasting model of rock with pre-existing defects under blasting loads is established by using finite difference method. The defects are saturated with water and are randomly distributed. The defects include voids, pores and small open joints. A shock equation of state (EOS), obtained from the existing test results, is employed for the granite near the explosive charge, and for the granite far from the charge, a linear EOS is applied. A modified principal stress failure criterion is applied to determining the granite statuses. The granite dynamic strengths, which increase with strain rate, are calculated from the existing test results. The simulation results show that under blasting, the strength of wet rock is lower than that of dry rock. © (2011) Trans Tech Publications.

Zhu Z.,University of Sichuan
Advanced Materials Research | Year: 2011

Joints can reflect and transmit stress waves, thus joints affect rock fracturing, and accordingly they could affect blasting efficiency. In this paper, numerical and experimental investigations have been implemented and the effect of joints on wave propagation and rock fracturing has been discussed. A dynamic numerical model of jointed rock mass has been established by using finite difference method. The simulation results show that as joints are parallel to wave propagation, the corresponding rock damage zones increase. Blasting experiments by using artificial joints have been carried out. Generally the experimental results agree with our numerical results. © 2011 Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland.

Zhu Z.,University of Sichuan
Advanced Materials Research | Year: 2011

A surface blasting model of rock with pre-existing randomly distributed defects, including voids, pores and small open joints, under blasting loads are established by using finite difference method. A shock equation of state, obtained from the existing test results, is employed for the granite near the explosive charge, and for the granite far from the charge, a linear EOS is applied. The granite dynamic strengths, which increase with strain rate, are calculated based on the existing test results. The simulation results show that under blasting, most of cracks are initiated at the defect tips independently; the damage range increases as defect density decreases; spalling is easily happening near a free surface as there is a blasting near the surface. © 2011 Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland.

Wang K.,University of Sichuan
Cell death & disease | Year: 2013

Stem cells are characterized by their unique ability of self-renewal to maintain the so-called stem cell pool. Over the past decades, reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been recognized as toxic aerobic metabolism byproducts that are harmful to stem cells, leading to DNA damage, senescence or cell death. Recently, a growing body of literature has shown that stem cells reside in redox niches with low ROS levels. The balance of Redox homeostasis facilitates stem cell self-renewal by an intricate network. Thus, to fully decipher the underlying molecular mechanisms involved in the maintenance of stem cell self-renewal, it is critical to address the important role of redox homeostasis in the regulation of self-renewal and differentiation of stem cells. In this regard, we will discuss the regulatory mechanisms involved in the subtly orchestrated balance of redox status in stem cells by scavenger antioxidant enzyme systems that are well monitored by the hypoxia niches and crucial redox regulators including forkhead homeobox type O family (FoxOs), apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) endonuclease1/redox factor-1 (APE1/Ref-1), nuclear factor erythroid-2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM). We will also introduce several pivotal ROS-sensitive molecules, such as hypoxia-inducible factors, p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38) and p53, involved in the redox-regulated stem cell self-renewal. Specifically, all the aforementioned molecules can act as 'redox sensors' by virtue of redox modifications of their cysteine residues, which are critically important in the control of protein function. Given the importance of redox homeostasis in the regulation of stem cell self-renewal, understanding the underlying molecular mechanisms involved will provide important new insights into stem cell biology.

Wang M.,University of Sichuan
Zhongguo xiu fu chong jian wai ke za zhi = Zhongguo xiufu chongjian waike zazhi = Chinese journal of reparative and reconstructive surgery | Year: 2013

To review the application of genipin for the modification of natural biomaterials as a crosslinking agent and progress in research. Domestic and foreign literature on application of genipin for the modification of natural biomaterials as a crosslinking agent was thoroughly reviewed. Results Genipin is an effective natural crosslinking agent with a very low level of cytotoxicity compared with conventional synthetic crosslinking agents. Tissues fixed with genipin can maintain a high level of stability as well as resistance to enzymatic degradation. Genipin is a promising substitute for conventional synthetic crosslinking agents, which has offered an alternative for modification of natural biomaterials for tissue engineering.

Fu W.,University of Sichuan
Zhongguo xiu fu chong jian wai ke za zhi = Zhongguo xiufu chongjian waike zazhi = Chinese journal of reparative and reconstructive surgery | Year: 2013

To review the research progress of the seed cells, scaffolds, growth factors, and the prospects for clinical application of the intervertebral disc regeneration. The recent literature concerning the regeneration strategies and tissue engineering for treatment of degenerative intervertebral disc disease was extensively reviewed and summarized. Seed cells based on mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and multiple-designed biomimetic scaffolds are the hot topic in the field of intervertebral disc regeneration. It needs to be further investigated how to effectively combine the interactions of seed cells, scaffolds, and growth factors and to play their regulation function. The biological regeneration of intervertebral disc would have a very broad prospects for clinical application in future.

Yang M.,University of Sichuan
The Analyst | Year: 2013

Every few years, a novel material with salient and often unique properties emerges and attracts both academic and industrial interest from the scientific community. The latest blockbuster is graphene, an increasingly important nanomaterial with atomically thin sheets of carbon, which has become a shining star and has shown great promise in the field of material science and nanotechnology. In recent years, it has changed from being the exclusive domain of physicists to the new passion of chemists and biologists. Graphene and its derivatives are now at the forefront of nearly every rapidly developing field of science and engineering, including biochemistry, biomedicine and certain cutting-edge interdisciplines that have intense popularity. The aim of this review is, firstly, to provide readers with a comprehensive, systematic and in-depth prospective of graphene's band structure and properties, and secondly, to concentrate on the recent progress in producing graphene-based nanomaterials, including mechanical exfoliation, chemical vapor deposition, plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition, chemical reduction of graphene oxide, total organic synthesis, electrochemical synthesis and other fabrication strategies widely accepted by research scientists. At the same time, important definitions related to graphene are also introduced. The focus of this Tutorial Review is to emphasize the current situation and significance of using this new kind of two-dimensional material in the hot and emerging fields that are closely related to human life quality, for instance, cell biochemistry, bioimaging along with other frontier areas. Finally, the latest developments and possible impact that affect the heart of the whole scientific community have been discussed. In addition, the future trends along with potential challenges of this rapidly rising layered carbon have been pointed out in this paper.

Huang Z.,University of Sichuan | Kraus V.B.,Duke University
Nature Reviews Rheumatology | Year: 2016

The nature of the gastrointestinal microbiome determines the reservoir of lipopolysaccharide, which can migrate from the gut into the circulation, where it contributes to low-grade inflammation. Osteoarthritis (OA) is a low-grade inflammatory condition, and the elevation of levels of lipopolysaccharide in association with obesity and metabolic syndrome could contribute to OA. A 'two-hit' model of OA susceptibility and potentiation suggests that lipopolysaccharide primes the proinflammatory innate immune response via Toll-like receptor 4 and that progression to a full-blown inflammatory response and structural damage of the joint results from coexisting complementary mechanisms, such as inflammasome activation or assembly by damage-associated molecular patterns in the form of fragmented cartilage-matrix molecules. Lipopolysaccharide could be considered a major hidden risk factor that provides a unifying mechanism to explain the association between obesity, metabolic syndrome and OA. © 2016 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

Zhu D.,University of Sichuan | Wang Q.J.,Northwestern University
Journal of Tribology | Year: 2013

Effect of roughness orientation on lubricant film thickness has been an important issue of surface design, attracting much attention since the 1970 s. A systematical study, however, is still needed for various contact types in an extended range of operating conditions, especially in mixed lubrication cases with film thickness to roughness ratio (λratio) smaller than 0.5. The present study employs a deterministic mixed elastohydrodynamic lubrication (EHL) model to investigate the performance of lubricating films in different types of contact geometry, including the line contact, circular contact, and elliptical contacts of various ellipticity ratios. The speed range for analyzed cases covers 11 orders of magnitude so that the entire transition from full-film and mixed EHL down to dry contact (corresponding λratio from about 3.5 down to 0.001 or so) is simulated. Three types of machined surfaces are used, representing transverse, longitudinal, and isotropic roughness, respectively. The line contact results are compared with those from the stochastic models by Patir and Cheng ("Effect of Surface Roughness Orientation on the Central Film Thickness in EHD Contacts," Proc. 5th Leeds-Lyon Symp. on Tribol., 1978, pp. 15-21) and the influence of roughness orientation predicted by the deterministic model is found to be less significant than that by the stochastic models, although the basic trends are about the same when λ>0.5. The orientation effect for circular or elliptical contact problems appears to be more complicated than that for line contacts due to the existence of significant lateral flows. In circular contacts, or elliptical contacts with the ellipticity ratio smaller than one, the longitudinal roughness may become more favorable than the isotropic and transverse. Overall, the orientation effect is significant in the mixed EHL regime where thekratio is roughly in the range from 0.05 to 1.0. It is relatively insignificant for both the full-film EHL (λ>1.2 or so) and the boundary lubrication/dry contact (λ<0.025∼0.05). Copyright ©2013 by ASME.

Wang E.-Y.,Zhengzhou University | Yang Q.,Zhengzhou University | Liao Z.-G.,University of Sichuan
Clinical and Experimental Immunology | Year: 2015

Summary: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is characterized by synovial infiltrates and progressive cell-mediated destruction of the joints, which results in significant disability and early mortality. Genetic factors may play an important role in the development of RA. The aim of this study was to investigate the association of common polymorphisms in interleukin (IL)-12A and IL-12B genes with RA in a Chinese Han population. Three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in IL-12 genes were genotyped in 412 patients with RA and 279 control subjects using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP). Our data showed that IL-12B gene SNPsrs3212227 and rs6887695 were observed as a risk factor of RA. The minor allele (C) frequency of IL-12B gene rs3212227 and rs6887695 increased the risk of RA. Individuals carrying the rs3212227/rs6887695 C/C haplotype were associated with a significantly increased risk of RA. RA patients with the C allele of IL-12B gene rs6887695 was a protective factor to erosive arthropathy. Carriers of the C allele of IL-12B gene rs3212227 were significantly more likely to be RF-positive. No significant association was observed between rs2243115 in IL-12A and RA, due probably to the limited power. These results suggest that common variants in IL-12B may contribute to the development of RA in the Chinese population. © 2014 British Society for Immunology.

Jiang S.,Michigan State University | Cao D.,Michigan State University | Li Y.,University of Sichuan | Liu J.,Central South University | Peng F.Z.,Michigan State University
IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics | Year: 2012

This paper presents a novel synchronous-frame repetitive controller for three-phase UPS inverters. Distinguished from conventional repetitive control techniques, the proposed synchronous-frame approach minimizes the repetitive control time delay to one-sixth of the fundamental period such that the dynamic response is significantly improved. In order to overcome the harmonic distortions under severe load conditions (e.g., unbalanced and nonlinear), in this paper, three synchronous rotating frames are deliberately selected, in each of which the repetitive controller is incorporated. Resultantly, the (6n ± 1)th harmonics as well as the triplen harmonics are compensated. Moreover, a high-performance fourth-order linear phase infinite-impulse-response filter is applied to further enhance the accuracy of steady-state tracking. The proposed controller is programmed on the 16-bit fixed-point digital signal processor (TI TMS320LF2407) and eliminates high-resolution current sensors for cost effectiveness. Simulations and experimental tests have been carried out based on an 18-kW three-phase UPS system. Low total harmonic distortion (<2) has been achieved under heavily distorted nonlinear load and unbalanced load. Fast dynamic response has been demonstrated during step load transients. © 2006 IEEE.

Wang D.,University of Massachusetts Medical School | Zhong L.,University of Massachusetts Medical School | Nahid M.A.,University of Massachusetts Medical School | Gao G.,University of Massachusetts Medical School | Gao G.,University of Sichuan
Expert Opinion on Drug Delivery | Year: 2014

Introduction: Muscle-directed gene therapy is rapidly gaining attention primarily because muscle is an easily accessible target tissue and is also associated with various severe genetic disorders. Localized and systemic delivery of recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) vectors of several serotypes results in very efficient transduction of skeletal and cardiac muscles, which has been achieved in both small and large animals, as well as in humans. Muscle is the target tissue in gene therapy for many muscular dystrophy diseases, and may also be exploited as a biofactory to produce secretory factors for systemic disorders. Current limitations of using rAAVs for muscle gene transfer include vector size restriction, potential safety concerns such as off-target toxicity and the immunological barrier composing of pre-existing neutralizing antibodies and CD8+ T-cell response against AAV capsid in humans. Areas covered: In this article, we will discuss basic AAV vector biology and its application in muscle-directed gene delivery, as well as potential strategies to overcome the aforementioned limitations of rAAV for further clinical application. Expert opinion: Delivering therapeutic genes to large muscle mass in humans is arguably the most urgent unmet demand in treating diseases affecting muscle tissues throughout the whole body. Muscle-directed, rAAV-mediated gene transfer for expressing antibodies is a promising strategy to combat deadly infectious diseases. Developing strategies to circumvent the immune response following rAAV administration in humans will facilitate clinical application. © 2014 Informa UK, Ltd.

In this chapter a review of research published since 2000 on the biology of the snail intermediate hosts of trematode parasites of medical importance in Southeast Asia, and related taxa is presented. Recent taxonomic revisions of the first intermediate hosts of Paragonimus in the region are considered and an account of changes in current perspectives regarding the evolution of intermediate-host:parasite associations for both Paragonimus and Schistosoma is given. The latest phylogeographical hypotheses for Schistosoma, Paragonimus, Fasciola and Fasciolopsis are also reviewed and compared. Work performed in the region on the snail intermediate hosts of other less studied parasites, such as Opisthorchis/Clonorchis and haplorchids, is also described. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

Mo S.-T.,University of Sichuan
Sichuan Daxue Xuebao (Gongcheng Kexue Ban)/Journal of Sichuan University (Engineering Science Edition) | Year: 2011

The signal-to-noise ratio of Charge Coupled Devices(CCD) output can be improved by the optimization of control parameters of Correlated Double Sampling (CDS). However, the control parameters of CDS of high-speed CCDare difficult to determine from experiments. An adaptive algorithm was proposed to get a better signal to noise ratio of CCD output. With fixed target and exposure parameters, the CDS control parameters such as the width of reset pulse, the timing of noise sampling and data sampling were tuned. The images on all combination of the CDS control parameters were acquired. The square sum of the Tenengrad function of all pixels on each image was used to evaluate the quality of the image. The combination of three CDS parameters corresponding to the maximum sum was chosen as CDS control parameters, resulting the best signal-to-noise ratio of the CCD out. Finally, the algorithm was implemented in Field-Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) and the experiments results showed that compared with the best image acquired without adaptive algorithm, the parameters of Edge Profile are improved from 507.4 pixels per PH to 763.8 pixels per PH, the parameters of MTF50 improved from 526.5 LW/PH to 937.8 LW/PH. It showed that adaptive algorithm can effectively improve the signal to noise ratio of CCD output.

Liu X.,University of Sichuan | Lei J.,CAS Institute of Process Engineering
Polymer Engineering and Science | Year: 2012

A novel method for combinatorial synthesis and screening of uniform-size molecularly imprinted microspheres using a microfluidic device is presented, in which a new microfluidic device containing twelve pairs of "" shape microchannels is designed to produce droplets and imprinted microspheres via controlled suspension polymerization. This technique combines molecular imprinting and microfluidic device with the combinatorial chemical approach, allowing rapid screening and optimization of uniform imprinted microspheres. On the example of chloramphenicol (CAP), the imprinted microspheres of CAP were prepared by a combinatorial approach using water with 1.5% polyvinyl alcohol as continuous phase, and ethyl acetate-chloroform (4:1, v/v) as porogenic solvents. Functional monomers methacrylic acid (MAA), 4-vinylpyridine or acrylamide were screened, and the molar ratio of template molecule to functional monomer was optimized. The results indicate that MAA is the best functional monomer for imprinting of CAP, and when the molar ratio of CAP to MAA is 1:5, the imprinted microspheres exhibit the best imprinting performance, and have good monodispersity and selectivity. This combinatorial protocol is well suited for fast and efficient screening and optimization of synthesis for uniform imprinted microspheres because 12 kinds of imprinting conditions can be performed simultaneously in this microfluidic device. Copyright © 2012 Society of Plastics Engineers.

Chen S.,University of Sichuan | Chen S.,University of California at Davis | Sun G.,University of California at Davis
ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces | Year: 2013

A hierarchically structured three-dimensional network nanofibrous composite membrane was prepared through in situ growing uniform polyaniline nanofibers on the surfaces of poly(ethylene-co-glycidyl methacrylate) (PE-co-GMA) nanofibers. And the nanocomposite membrane was fabricated into a super sensitive sensor of ammonia gas in ambient temperature. Morphological analysis of the nanocomposite membranes revealed uniform small nanofibers of PANI rooted on the surface of PE-co-GMA large nanofibers and a three-dimensional porous nanocomposite structure formed. Because of the ultrahigh surface areas and three-dimensional porous architecture, the prepared sensor demonstrated high sensitivity in the parts per billion range and quick response with good reproducibility to ammonia gas. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

Feng M.,University of Sichuan
The Cochrane database of systematic reviews | Year: 2013

Patients with primary nephrotic syndrome mostly need immunosuppression to achieve remission, but many of them either relapse after immunosuppression therapy or resistant to it. On the other hand, immunosuppression therapy could increase the adverse effect. Huangqi and Huangqi type formulations have been used to treat nephrotic syndrome for years in China, however the effects and safety of these formulations have not been systematically reviewed. This is an update of a review first published in 2008. To assess the benefits and harms of Huangqi and Huangqi type formulations in treating nephrotic syndrome in any age group, either as sole agents or in addition to other drug therapies. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, EMBASE, Chinese Biomedicine Database (CBM), CNKI, VIP and reference lists of articles. There was no language restriction.Date of search: April 2011. All randomised controlled trials (RCTs) assessing the use of Huangqi or Huangqi type formulations in treating nephrotic syndrome in adults and children, either as sole agents or in addition to other drug therapies. Two authors independently assessed study quality and extracted data. For dichotomous outcomes results were expressed as relative risk (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Continuous outcomes were expressed as mean difference (MD) with 95% CI. Nine studies were identified. One was judged to be at high risk of bias for random sequence, the rest were judged to be at low risk of bias. All studies had high risk of bias for allocation concealment and performance bias; unclear risk for detection bias and low risk for attrition bias. Two studies had unclear risk reporting bias and the rest had low risk. No other potential threats to validity were found. Compared to control interventions, Huangqi type formulations had a positive effect on plasma albumin (MD 6.41 g/dL, 95% Cl 4.24 to 8.59), urine albumin excretion (-0.57 g/24 h, 95% CI -1.04 to -0.10), cholesterol (MD -1.70 mmol/L, 95% Cl -2.60 to -1.13) and triglycerides (-0.33 mmol/L, 95% CI -0.63 to -0.03); and more patients showed improvement at three months (RR 0.41, 95% CI 0.20 to 0.84). There was no significant difference between Huangqi type formulations and control interventions for complete (RR 1.59, 95% CI 0.29 to 8.65) or partial remission (RR 1.22, 95% CI 0.57 to 2.58). While some formulations showed improvement in the number of patients achieving complete or partial remission, the number of studies (usually one per formulation), and the number patients (ranging from 38 to 78) were small. Relapse was reported at varying time points, ranging from three months to three years, and therefore these results were not pooled. Complications of nephrotic syndrome and adverse events were only reported by two studies; Only one study reported complications of nephrotic syndrome (infection) and another reported adverse reactions to treatment (Cushing's syndrome, steroid withdrawal syndrome, respiratory tract infection, and upper gastrointestinal haemorrhage). Both studies reported those treated with Huangqi type formulations had significantly less complications or adverse reactions. Huangqi and Huangqi type formulations may have some positive effects in treating nephrotic syndrome by increasing plasma albumin and reducing urine albumin excretion, blood cholesterol and triglycerides, and decreasing the number who don't show improvement at three months. Some formulations showed an increase in the number of patients achieving complete or partial remission, however study and participant numbers were small.

Chen T.,University of Sichuan
Molecules (Basel, Switzerland) | Year: 2012

Gambogic acid (GA) is in a phase II clinical trial as an antitumor and antiangiogenesis agent. In this study, 36 GA derivatives were synthesized and screened in a zebrafish model to evaluate their antiangiogenic activity and toxicity. Derivatives 4, 32, 35, 36 effectively suppressed the formation of newly grown blood vessels and showed lower toxicities than GA as evaluated by zebrafish heart rates and mortalities. They also exhibited more potent migration and HUVEC tube formation inhibiting activities than GA. Among them, 36 was the most potent one, suggesting that it may serve as a potential new antiangiogenesis candidate with low toxicity. Additionally, 36 showed comparable antiproliferative activity to HUVECs and five tumor cell lines but low cytotoxicity to LO2 cells.

A peptide immobilized tentacle-type monolith is developed here for high-performance IgG purification. In this work, the glucose-anchored GMA molecules serve as monomers to be grafted into the tentacle-type chains on highly porous monolith by a series of chemical reactions. While maintaining high column permeability, the tentacle grafting endows the monolith with lots of reactive handles to anchor more peptides. With that, the grafted monolith shows high peptide density of about 155μmolmL-1, up to approximately 4.7 times higher over the ungrafted one (33μmolmL-1). As a result, the static adsorbing capacity and dynamic adsorption capacity at 50% breakthrough point reach 101.8 and 83.3mgmL-1 for IgG adsorption, respectively. Regeneration, recycle and reuse of grafted monolith are highly successful for 25 runs without obvious capacity loss. By taking these advantages of high capacity and excellent structure stability, the affinity grafted monolith is evaluated by using cleared human blood supernatant. And the result shows the peptide immobilized tentacle type monolith displays excellent specificity and high effectiveness for IgG purification. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Jiang S.,Michigan State University | Cao D.,Michigan State University | Li Y.,University of Sichuan | Peng F.Z.,Michigan State University
IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics | Year: 2012

This paper presents a novel grid-connected boost-half-bridge photovoltaic (PV) microinverter system and its control implementations. In order to achieve low cost, easy control, high efficiency, and high reliability, a boost-half-bridge dc-dc converter using minimal devices is introduced to interface the low-voltage PV module. A full-bridge pulsewidth-modulated inverter is cascaded and injects synchronized sinusoidal current to the grid. Moreover, a plug-in repetitive current controller based on a fourth-order linear-phase IIR filter is proposed to regulate the grid current. High power factor and very low total harmonic distortions are guaranteed under both heavy load and light load conditions. Dynamic stiffness is achieved when load or solar irradiance is changing rapidly. In addition, the dynamic behavior of the boost-half-bridge dc-dc converter is analyzed; a customized maximum power point tracking (MPPT) method, which generates a ramp-changed PV voltage reference is developed accordingly. Variable step size is adopted such that fast tracking speed and high MPPT efficiency are both obtained. A 210W prototype was fabricated and tested. Simulation and experimental results are provided to verify the validity and performance of the circuit operations, current control, and MPPT algorithm. © 2012 IEEE.

Ma J.,University of Sichuan
Cochrane database of systematic reviews (Online) | Year: 2012

Stroke is a serious public health problem that causes morbidity and mortality throughout the world. Iron chelators are potential neuroprotective drugs to treat patients with both hemorrhagic and ischemic stroke. To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of the administration of iron chelators in patients with acute stroke. We searched the Cochrane Stroke Group Trials Register (May 2012), the Chinese Stroke Trials Register (May 2012), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library 2012, Issue 1), MEDLINE (1950 to May 2012), EMBASE (1980 to May 2012), Science Citation Index (1980 to May 2012) and three Chinese databases. In an effort to identify further published, unpublished and ongoing trials we searched ongoing trials registers, checked reference lists, and contacted authors and pharmaceutical companies. We included published and unpublished randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of iron chelator versus no iron chelator or placebo for the treatment of acute stroke. Two review authors independently screened search results to identify the full texts of potentially relevant studies for inclusion. From the results of the screened searches two review authors independently selected trials meeting the inclusion criteria, with no disagreement. We found no completed RCTs eligible for inclusion in the review. We identified one ongoing RCT but no data were available. There is insufficient evidence to support or refute the use of iron chelators for the treatment of acute stroke. Further RCTs are required to assess the effect of iron chelators in people with acute stroke.

Yang S.,University of Sichuan
Cochrane database of systematic reviews (Online) | Year: 2012

Oesophageal cancer is a global heath problem. The prognosis for advanced oesophageal cancer is generally unfavourable, but early-stage asymptomatic oesophageal cancer is basically curable and could achieve better survival rates. The two most commonly used tests are cytologic examination and endoscopy with mucosal iodine staining. The efficacy of the screening tests is controversial, and the true benefit and efficacy of screening remains uncertain because of the potential lead-time and length-time biases. This review was conducted to examine the evidence for the efficacy of screening for oesophageal cancer (squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma). To determine the efficacy of early screening, using endoscopy with iodine staining or cytologic examination, in reducing mortality from oesophageal cancer in asymptomatic individuals from high-risk and general populations. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (2012, Issue 8), The Cochrane Library (2012, Issue 8), MEDLINE (1950 to August 2012), EMBASE (1980 to August 2012), Allied and Complementary Medicine (AMED) (1985 to August 2012), Chinese Biomedical Database (CBM) (January 1975 to August 2012), VIP Database (January 1989 to August 2012), China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) (January 1979 to August 2012), and the Internet. We also searched reference lists, conference proceedings, and databases of ongoing trials. There was no restriction on language or publication status in the search for trials. We included only randomised controlled trials (RCT) of screening versus no screening for oesophageal cancer. Randomisation of groups or clusters of individuals was acceptable. Two review authors independently scanned the titles and abstracts from the initial search for potential trials for inclusion. We did not find any trials that met the inclusion criteria. The electronic search identified 3482 studies. Two authors independently reviewed the references. The reports of 18 studies were retrieved for further investigation. None met the eligibility criteria for a RCT investigation of the effects of screening versus no screening for oesophageal cancer. There were no RCTs that determined the efficacy of screening for oesophageal cancer. Non-RCTs showed a high incidence and the reported better survival after screening could be caused by selection bias, lead-time and length-time biases. RCTs are needed to determine the efficacy of screening for oesophageal cancer.

Xiao M.,University of Sichuan
Nan fang yi ke da xue xue bao = Journal of Southern Medical University | Year: 2013

To investigate the therapeutic value and possible mechanism of diammonium glycyrrhizinate (DG) in treatment of airway remodeling in a murine model of chronic asthma. Thirty male BALB/C mice were randomly divided into control group, OVA+DG group and OVA group (n=10). HE staining was used to observe the pathological changes, and Masson's staining was used to detect and measure collagen deposition. Alpha-SMA and PPARγ mRNA expressions were analyzed by RT-PCR, and the protein expressions of α-SMA and PPARγ were measured by Western blotting. After 75 days of OVA sensitization and challenge, obvious pathological changes occurred in the lung tissues, which was more severe in OVA group than in OVA+DG group. Collagen deposition was significantly increased after OVA stimulation, but was obviously milder in OVA+DG group than in OVA group. OVA-induced up-regulation of α-SMA was notably attenuated by DG injection. The expression of PPARγ was markedly down-regulated after OVA stimulation but was substantially enhanced after DG intervention. DG can inhibit airway smooth muscle proliferation possibly through up-regulation of PPARγ in a murine model of chronic asthma.

Bao Y.,University of Sichuan
Cochrane database of systematic reviews (Online) | Year: 2012

Urinary stones are a common condition characterised by high incidence and high recurrence rate. For a long time, increased water intake has been the main preventive measure for the disease and its recurrence. This is an update of a review originally published in 2004. To assess the effectiveness of increased water intake for the primary and secondary prevention of urinary stones. We searched the Cochrane Renal Group's specialised register, CENTRAL, MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Chinese Biomedical Disk using a search strategy developed in conjunction with Cochrane Renal Group's Trials Search Co-ordinator. No language restriction was applied. Date of last search: April 2012. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and quasi-RCTs of increased water intake for the prevention of urinary stones and its recurrence were included. Two authors independently assessed risk of bias and extracted data. Statistical analyses were performed using the random effects model and the results expressed as risk ratio (RR) for dichotomous outcomes or mean difference (MD) for continuous data with 95% confidence intervals (CI). No studies of increased water intake for the primary prevention of urinary stones met the inclusion criteria. One study with 199 patients provided results of increased water intake for the recurrence of urinary stones. The stone recurrence was lower in the increased water intake group than that of the no intervention group (12% versus 27%; RR 0.45, 95% CI 0.24 to 0.84). The average interval for recurrence was 3.23 ± 1.1 years in increased water intake group and 2.09 ± 1.37 years in the no intervention group (MD 1.14, 95% CI 0.33 to 1.95). There were insufficient data to assess selection, performance, detection or attrition bias. The evidence from only one study indicates that increased water intake reduces the risk of recurrence of urinary stones and prolongs the average interval for recurrences. However further research is required. Due to the lack of appropriate RCTs, no conclusions can be drawn on increased water intake for the primary and secondary prevention of urinary stones.

Liu Z.P.,University of Sichuan
The Angle orthodontist | Year: 2011

To assess the efficacy of chincup therapy for mandibular growth retardation in early orthopedic treatment of Class III malocclusion. An electronic search for articles reporting randomized clinical trials, controlled clinical trials, and cohort studies testing the efficacy of chincup appliance for Class III malocclusion published up to the present was done through four databases: Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; to March 2010), MEDLINE (1950-March 2010), EMBASE (1980-March 2010), and CBM (1978-March 2010). Study quality assessment and data extraction were done by two reviewers independently. Meta-analysis was done with the assistance of Revman 5.01. The search resulted in 50 articles. After selection following the established criteria, four cohort studies qualified for the final review analysis. The results showed that chincup therapy decreased SNB angle and increased ANB angle; the total pooled weighted mean difference values (95% confidence interval) were -1.18 (-1.69, -0.67; P < .00001) and 1.90 (0.60, 3.21; P = .004), respectively. Two studies showed a increase in Gonial angle (P < .05) but no significant change in the mandibular length (Cd-Gn; P = .059 and .39, respectively). One study indicated that chincup therapy exerted no effect on mandibular growth retardation, and mandibular growth continued after the treatment in a downward direction. There are insufficient data in these studies to make clear recommendations regarding the efficacy of chincup therapy in the retardation of mandibular growth.

Li H.,University of Sichuan
Photonic Sensors | Year: 2016

Due to extremely effective advantages of the quantum cascade laser spectroscopy and technology for trace gas detection, this paper presents spectroscopy scanning, the characteristics of temperature tuning, system resolution, sensitivity, and system stability with the application of the presented gas sensor. Experimental results showed that the sensor resolution was ≤0.01cm−1 (equivalent to 0.06 nm), and the sensor sensitivity was at the level of 194 ppb with the application of H2CO measurement. © 2016, The Author(s).

Liao H.,Shanghai JiaoTong University | Xu Z.,University of Sichuan
International Journal of Intelligent Systems | Year: 2014

Intuitionistic fuzzy sets (IFSs) have attracted more and more scholars' attention due to their powerfulness in expressing vagueness and uncertainty. In the course of decision making with IFSs, aggregation operators play a very important role since they can be used to synthesize multidimensional evaluation values represented as intuitionistic fuzzy values into collective values. This paper proposes a family of intuitionistic fuzzy hybrid weighted aggregation operators, such as the intuitionistic fuzzy hybrid weighted averaging operator, the intuitionistic fuzzy hybrid weighted geometric operator, the generalized intuitionistic fuzzy hybrid weighted averaging operator, and the generalized intuitionistic fuzzy hybrid weighted geometric operator. All these newly developed operators not only can weight both the arguments and their ordered positions simultaneously but also have some desirable properties, such as idempotency, boundedness, and monotonicity. To show the applications of our proposed intuitionistic fuzzy hybrid weighted aggregation operators, a simple schema for decision making with intuitionistic fuzzy information is developed. An example concerning the human resource management is given to illustrate the validity and applicability of the proposed method and also the hybrid weighted aggregation operators. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Zhu D.,University of Sichuan | Liu Y.,Northwestern University | Wang Q.,Northwestern University
Tribology Transactions | Year: 2014

Numerical solution of rough surface elastohydrodynamic lubrication (EHL) is of great importance. In recent years, research efforts have been focused on deterministic modeling, because it is proven to be capable of predicting detailed contact and lubrication characteristics based on measured three-dimensional machined surface topography in a wide range of operating conditions. The accurate calculation of roughness derivatives, ∂S/∂X and ∂S/∂T, is found to be crucial for numerically solving EHL problems, especially if machined roughness with high-frequency components is involved. When discretized rough surfaces are employed, one may have to handle three different discretization grids, one for the stationary solution domain of the Reynolds equation and the other two for the moving rough surfaces in contact. Two numerical ways can be employed to fulfill the computation of ∂S/∂X and ∂S/∂T. One is to interpolate the topographic heights into the solution domain grid and then conduct the derivation calculations there. The other is to do derivations first in the surface grids and then interpolate the obtained derivatives into the solution mesh. In order to compare these two ways based on an accuracy analysis, a transverse sinusoidal rough surface is exploited and the effects of mesh spacing, differential scheme, interpolation method, and roughness wavelength on numerical errors of ∂S/∂X and ∂S/∂T are investigated. It is found that the appropriate way to minimize the errors is to ensure that the surface grids are considerably denser than that of the solution domain and to conduct derivation calculation first on the surface grids. A densified surface mesh may lead to a great reduction in numerical errors without causing any significant increase in the computing time. Densification of the solution domain mesh, on the other hand, is more difficult because it would result in a large increase in computational burden. It is also found that high-order differential schemes and interpolation methods are helpful to improve accuracy. Large roughness wavelengths lead to smaller numerical errors, but roughness amplitude has no influence on numerical accuracy. © Society of Tribologists and Lubrication Engineers.

Zhang X.,Nanjing Southeast University | Xu Z.,University of Sichuan
International Journal of Intelligent Systems | Year: 2014

Recently, a new model based on Pythagorean fuzzy set (PFS) has been presented to manage the uncertainty in real-world decision-making problems. PFS has much stronger ability than intuitionistic fuzzy set to model such uncertainty. In this paper, we define some novel operational laws of PFSs and discuss their desirable properties. For the multicriteria decision-making problems with PFSs, we propose an extended technique for order preference by similarity to ideal solution method to deal effectively with them. In this approach, we first propose a score function based comparison method to identify the Pythagorean fuzzy positive ideal solution and the Pythagorean fuzzy negative ideal solution. Then,we define a distancemeasure to calculate the distances between each alternative and the Pythagorean fuzzy positive ideal solution as well as the Pythagorean fuzzy negative ideal solution, respectively. Afterward, a revised closeness is introduced to identify the optimal alternative. At length, a practical example is given to illustrate the developed method and to make a comparative analysis. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Cheng L.,University of Sichuan
Investigative ophthalmology & visual science | Year: 2013

Müller cells, a major type of glial cell found in the eye, are postulated to play an important role in many retinal diseases, including diabetic retinopathy (DR). Complement is an integral part of innate immunity, and the activation of complement has been associated with retinal diseases. However, the role of complement in the regulation of Müller cell function remains unclear. We were trying to address these issues in this study. Using primary human Müller cells and a spontaneously immortalized human Müller cell line, we examined the expression of complement receptor C5aR both at mRNA and protein levels. Regulation of C5aR expression on Müller cells by prostaglandin E2 and by hyperglycemia, both of which are integrally involved in DR, were studied. Significance of C5aR on Müller cells was also investigated by examining relevant cytokine productions and their impacts on retinal endothelial cell proliferation/permeability after ligating the receptor using its ligand, C5a. C5aR is constitutively expressed in human Müller cells. Prostaglandin E2 and hyperglycemia individually and synergistically upregulate C5aR expression in Müller cells. Signaling through C5aR on Müller cells upregulates production of IL-6 and VEGF, which promotes the proliferation of human retinal endothelial cells and increases their permeability. These results indicate that complement can regulate Müller cells through C5aR, which may contribute to the pathogenesis of retinal diseases, including DR.

Li X.J.,University of Sichuan
World journal of gastroenterology : WJG | Year: 2012

To investigate the prevalence and physicians' detection rate of depressive and anxiety disorders in gastrointestinal (GI) outpatients across China. A hospital-based cross-sectional survey was conducted in the GI outpatient departments of 13 general hospitals. A total of 1995 GI outpatients were recruited and screened with the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). The physicians of the GI departments performed routine clinical diagnosis and management without knowing the HADS score results. Subjects with HADS scores ≥ 8 were subsequently interviewed by psychiatrists using the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI) to make further diagnoses. There were 1059 patients with HADS score ≥ 8 and 674 (63.64%) of them undertook the MINI interview by psychiatrists. Based on the criteria of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th edition), the adjusted current prevalence for depressive disorders, anxiety disorders, and comorbidity of both disorders in the GI outpatients was 14.39%, 9.42% and 4.66%, respectively. Prevalence of depressive disorders with suicidal problems [suicide attempt or suicide-related ideation prior or current; module C (suicide) of MINI score ≥ 1] was 5.84% in women and 1.64% in men. The GI physicians' detection rate of depressive and anxiety disorders accounted for 4.14%. While the prevalence of depressive and anxiety disorders is high in Chinese GI outpatients, the detection rate of depressive and anxiety disorders by physicians is low.

Liu W.W.,University of Sichuan
International journal of nanomedicine | Year: 2011

The objective of this study was to investigate the mechanical properties of a low-shrinkage acrylate liquid crystalline resin matrix (ALCRM), (4-3-(acryloyloxy)-2-hydroxypropoxy) phenyl 4-(3-(acryloyloxy)-2-hydroxypropoxy) benzoate, combined with nano-hydroxyapatite (na-HA). The ALCRM monomer and diluent monomer triethylene glycol dimethacrylate (TEGDMA) were mixed at a mass ratio of 7:3 to prepare the resin matrix. The volume shrinkage of the ALCRM/TEGDMA and the traditional resin matrix Bis-GMA (2, 2-bis [4-(3-methacryloxy-2-hydroxypropoxy) phenyl] propane)/TEGDMA were measured. Then 20%, 30%, and 40% na-HA were added to ALCRM/TEGDMA and Bis-GMA/TEGDMA, respectively. Compressive strength (CS) and Vickers hardness (VHN) were tested to identify mechanical properties of the composites. The volume shrinkage of the ALCRM/TEGDMA was 3.60% ± 0.36%, which was lower than that of the traditional resin matrix. Moreover, with the same amount of na-HA filler, the mechanical properties of the ALCRM-based composites were superior to those of Bis-GMA-based composites. ALCRM-based composites exhibited the highest CS and VHN values when the filler content was 30%. These results indicate that the low-shrinkage liquid crystalline resin matrix has strong mechanical properties after incorporating the na-HA. The experimental ALCRM-based composites have promising potential for the development of novel low-shrinkage dental resins with strong mechanical properties.

Bao Z.,University of Sichuan
International Journal of Hydrogen Energy | Year: 2015

Abstract The metal hydride based thermal energy storage (MHTES) technology is expected to be an attractive option. Being a key component, the metal hydride reactor should facilitate good heat and mass transfer. In this study, the effects of two heat transfer enhancement measures, i.e. using metal fins and making metal hydride powder into compacts, on the MHTES system performance were evaluated. The heat and mass transfer characteristics in five different reactors using different enhancement measures were compared. As shown in the simulation results, the temperature distributions of the reactors are more uniform when the bed thermal conductivity of the reactors is increased by making metal hydride powder into compacts. Moreover, the average reaction rate is remarkably increased when the measures for heat transfer enhancement are adopted. When the gravimetric heat storage rate (GHSR) is used as a comprehensive evaluation index, the optimum reactor of the MHTES system is not equipped with using any fins but using metal hydride compact technique. Therefore, metal hydride compact technique is recommended in the MHTES applications while expensive metal fins can be removed. Copyright © 2015, Hydrogen Energy Publications, LLC.

Lu D.,University of Sichuan
Cochrane database of systematic reviews (Online) | Year: 2012

Robotic surgery is the latest innovation in the field of minimally invasive surgery. Robotic surgical systems have been used to perform surgery for endometrial, cervical cancer and ovarian cancer. There is mounting evidence which demonstrates the feasibility and safety of robotic surgery for gynaecological oncology. To evaluate the evidence for and against robotic assisted surgery in gynaecological cancer. We searched the Cochrane Gynaecological Cancer Review Group Trials Register, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library 2010, Issue 2), MEDLINE and EMBASE (up to July 2010) and citation lists of relevant publications. All randomised controlled trials (RCTs) comparing robotic assisted surgery for gynaecological cancer to laparoscopic or open surgical procedures as well as RCTs comparing different types of robotic assistants. Two review authors independently screened studies for inclusion. No RCTs were identified, therefore data collection and analysis could not be performed. No studies were found that met the inclusion criteria. Controlled clinical trials (CCTs) are summarised and analysed, but are not discussed in the main body of the review as they present a high risk of bias. Well-designed RCTs are required as only low quality evidence from CCTs is available. These studies support the use of robotic assisted surgery for endometrial cancer and cervical cancer, but these findings present a high risk of bias.

Li P.,University of Sichuan | Kou S.-P.,Beijing Normal University
Journal of Physics Condensed Matter | Year: 2012

The spin 1 bilinear-biquadratic model H= ij[cosS i S j+sin(S i S j) 2] on a square lattice in the region 0<<π/4 is studied in a fermion representation with a p-wave pairing Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer type of mean-field theory. Our results show there may exist a non-trivial gapped spin liquid with time-reversal symmetry spontaneously breaking. This exotic state manifests its topological nature by forming chiral states at the edges. To show this more clearly, we set up and solved a ribbon system. We got a gapless dispersion representing the edge modes beneath the bulk modes. The edge modes with nonzero longitudinal momentum (k x0) convect in opposite directions at the two edges, which leads to a twofold degeneracy, while the modes with zero longitudinal momentum (k x=0) turn out to be Majorana fermion states. The edge spin correlation functions are found to decay following a power law with increasing distance. We also calculated the contribution of the edge modes to the specific heat and obtained a linear law at low temperatures. © 2012 IOP Publishing Ltd.

Wen J.,Xian Jiaotong University | Feng M.,University of Sichuan | He Y.,Xian Jiaotong University
Computer Methods in Applied Mechanics and Engineering | Year: 2013

In this paper, we propose a new multiscale finite element method for the stationary Navier-Stokes problem. This new method for the lowest order finite element pairs P1/P0 is based on the multiscale enrichment and derived from the Navier-Stokes problem itself. Therefore, the new multiscale finite element method better reflects the nature of the nonlinear problem. The well-posedness of this new discrete problem is proved under the standard assumption. Meanwhile, convergence of the optimal order in H1-norm for velocity and L2-norm for pressure is obtained. Especially, via applying a new dual problem for the incompressible Navier-Stokes problem and some techniques in the process for proof, we establish the convergence of the optimal order in L2-norm for the velocity. Finally, numerical examples confirm our theory analysis for this new multiscale finite element method and validate the high effectiveness of this new method. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

Liao H.,Shanghai JiaoTong University | Xu Z.,University of Sichuan
IEEE Transactions on Fuzzy Systems | Year: 2014

The intuitionistic fuzzy preference relation (IFPR), whose elements are intuitionistic fuzzy values (IFVs), is more powerful than the traditional multiplicative preference relation and the fuzzy preference relation in expressing comprehensive preference information of a decision maker. The aim of this paper is to investigate a new approach to derive the priority weights from an IFPR. To do so, we give a new definition of multiplicative consistent IFPR, which is based on the membership and nonmembership degrees of the intuitionistic fuzzy judgments. After that, a formula, which involves the underlying intuitionistic fuzzy weights of the IFPR, is proposed to construct such a multiplicative consistent IFPR. Based on the formula, some fractional programming models are built to generate the intuitionistic fuzzy priority weighting vector of the IFPR. Several numerical examples are given to illustrate the validity and applicability of the proposed method. © 1993-2012 IEEE.

Zhang Y.,Anhui University of Science and Technology | Zheng F.,Anhui University of Science and Technology | Yang T.,Anhui University of Science and Technology | Zhou W.,Anhui University of Science and Technology | And 8 more authors.
Nature Materials | Year: 2012

The induction of autophagy on exposure of cells to a variety of nanoparticles represents both a safety concern and an application niche for engineered nanomaterials. Here, we show that a short synthetic peptide, RE-1, identified by means of phage display, binds to lanthanide (LN) oxide and upconversion nanocrystals (UCN), forms a stable coating layer on the nanoparticlesĝ™ surface, and effectively abrogates their autophagy-inducing activity. Furthermore, RE-1 peptide variants exhibit a differentially reduced binding capability, and correspondingly, a varied ability to reduce the autophagic response. We also show that the addition of an arginineg-glycineg-aspartic acid (RGD) motif to RE-1 enhances autophagy for LN UCN through the interaction with integrins. RE-1 and its variants provide a versatile tool for tuning materialg-cell interactions to achieve the desired level of autophagy, and may prove useful for the various diagnostic and therapeutic applications of LN-based nanomaterials and nanodevices. © 2012 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

Luo M.-X.,Southwest Jiaotong University | Deng Y.,University of Sichuan
Quantum Information Processing | Year: 2013

Immeasurability of a quantum state has important consequence in practical implementation of quantum computers. Our purpose is to analyze the efficiency of the entangled output of Pati-Braunstein deleting machine or Wootters-Zurek quantum copying machine as a quantum channel. Interestingly we find that for special values of the input parameter the state does not violate the Bell's inequality. Moreover, we analyze the performances of the entangled output of Pati-Braunstein deleting after the Wootters-Zurek copying machine. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

Luo M.-X.,Southwest Jiaotong University | Deng Y.,Southwest Jiaotong University | Deng Y.,University of Sichuan
Quantum Information Processing | Year: 2013

In this paper, we propose two schemes to remotely split an arbitrary three-qubit state. The χ and a GHZ state are used to construct the quantum channel. One scheme is completed by using the generalized Bell basis measurement of multi-particles. The other scheme is constructed by using the quantum primitives, which are described by the quantum circuit and photon architecture. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

Long S.,Leshan Normal University | Xu D.,University of Sichuan
Fuzzy Sets and Systems | Year: 2014

In this paper, we investigate the global exponential p-stability of stochastic non-autonomous Takagi-Sugeno fuzzy cellular neural networks with time-varying delays and impulses. By using the property of M-matrix, we establish a new differential inequality and a new L-operator inequality to be effective for non-autonomous Takagi-Sugeno fuzzy systems. Based on the inequalities obtained above, sufficient conditions ensuring the global exponential p-stability of the considered system are obtained. In addition, we derive sufficient conditions ensuring the global exponential stability of the corresponding autonomous systems. Our results improve some early results in the literature. One example is given to illustrate the effectiveness of our proposal. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

Zhu B.,Nanjing Southeast University | Xu Z.,University of Sichuan
Fuzzy Sets and Systems | Year: 2014

The existing methods for solving the group decision making (GDM) problems with preference relations generally include four steps: (1) estimation of missing preferences, (2) consistency and consensus reaching, (3) aggregation and (4) exploitation, which make the GDM process complicated. Relatively, very few research results focus on exploring the methods which can simplify this process to improve the efficiency. In this paper, we develop a new fuzzy linear programming method (FLPM) to deal with the GDM problems with additive reciprocal fuzzy preference relations (FPRs). The FLPM can directly produce meaningful results without the four steps. An effect index is developed to measure the decision makers (DMs)' effects in the GDM problems. Based on the FLPM and the effect index, we propose a new method to determine the DMs' weights. A step by step procedure is further proposed to deal with the GDM problems with all the developed methods, and its performance is illustrated by examples. © 2014 Published by Elsevier B.V.

Fang Y.P.,University of Sichuan | Meng K.,Southwest Jiaotong University | Yang X.Q.,Hong Kong Polytechnic University
Operations Research | Year: 2012

In this paper we study piecewise linear multicriteria programs, that is, multicriteria programs with either a continuous or discontinuous piecewise linear objective function and a polyhedron set constraint. We obtain an algebraic representation of a semi-closed polyhedron and apply it to show that the image of a semi-closed polyhedron under a continuous linear function is always one semi-closed polyhedron. We establish that the (weak) Pareto solution/point set of a piecewise linear multicriteria program is the union of finitely many semi-closed polyhedra. We propose an algorithm for finding the Pareto point set of a continuous piecewise linear bi-criteria program and generalize it to the discontinuous case. We apply our algorithm to solve the discontinuous bi-criteria portfolio selection problem with an l ∞ risk measure and transaction costs and show that this algorithm can be improved by using an ideal point strategy. © 2012 INFORMS.

Zhao Y.,University of Sichuan | Pehkonen S.O.,Masdar Institute of Science and Technology
Corrosion Science | Year: 2013

Although many studies have been carried out regarding the role of sulphide anions in promoting microbial corrosion of various metal substrates, very little is known about the differences between inorganic sulphide and biogenically-derived sulphide by sulphate-reducing bacteria (SRB) and what the reasons for differing corrosion behaviour between the two types of sulphide may be towards common metals. In this study, various electrochemical and surface analytical techniques were employed to study the effect of the inorganic and biogenic sulphide (active SRB present) on the surface chemistry and corrosion behaviour of 304 stainless steels in a simulated seawater-based modified Baar's (SSMB) medium. Clear differences in the surface chemistry of the sulphurised passive film by inorganic and biogenic sulphide (active SRB present) were quantified by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The transformation of metal sulphides in abiotic and biotic sulphide solutions with the exposure time was correlated with different corrosion behaviour of 304 stainless steels. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

Lin D.,Dalian University of Technology | Lin D.,University of Sichuan | Wang X.,Dalian University of Technology
Neurocomputing | Year: 2011

This paper proposes a self-organizing adaptive fuzzy neural control (SAFNC) for the synchronization of uncertain chaotic systems with random-varying parameters. The proposed SAFNC system is composed of a computation controller and a robust controller. The computation controller containing a self-organizing fuzzy neural network (SOFNN) identifier is the principle controller. The SOFNN identifier is used to online estimate the compound uncertainties with the structure and parameter learning phases of fuzzy neural network (FNN), simultaneously. The structure-learning phase consists of the growing of membership functions, the splitting of fuzzy rules and the pruning of fuzzy rules, and thus the SOFNN identifier can avoid the time-consuming trial-and-error tuning procedure for determining the network structure of fuzzy neural network. The robust controller is used to attenuate the effects of the approximation error so that the synchronization of chaotic systems is achieved. All the parameter learning algorithms are derived based on the Lyapunov stability theorem to ensure network convergence as well as stable synchronization performance. To demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method, simulation results are illustrated in this paper. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

Xiong L.,Central Laboratory | Edwards C.K.,University of Sichuan | Edwards C.K.,University of Colorado at Denver | Zhou L.,Central Laboratory
International Journal of Molecular Sciences | Year: 2014

CD147 or EMMPRIN is a member of the immunoglobulin superfamily in humans. It is widely expressed in human tumors and plays a central role in the progression of many cancers by stimulating the secretion of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and cytokines. CD147 regulates cell proliferation, apoptosis, and tumor cell migration, metastasis and differentiation, especially under hypoxic conditions. CD147 is also important to many organ systems. This review will provide a detailed overview of the discovery, characterization, molecular structure, diverse biological functions and regulatory mechanisms of CD147 in human physiological and pathological processes. In particular, recent studies have demonstrated the potential application of CD147 not only as a phenotypic marker of activated regulatory T cells but also as a potential diagnostic marker for early-stage disease. Moreover, CD147 is recognized as an effective therapeutic target for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and other cancers, and exciting clinical progress has been made in HCC treatment using CD147-directed monoclonal antibodies. © 2014 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.

He Y.J.,Chengdu University of Technology | Peng J.F.,Chengdu University of Technology | Chu W.,University of Sichuan | Li Y.Z.,Chengdu University of Technology | Tong D.G.,Chengdu University of Technology
Journal of Materials Chemistry A | Year: 2014

Black mesoporous anatase TiO2 nanoleaves with an electro-conducting trivalent Ti have been successfully synthesized via a facile solution plasma process and their electrochemical aluminum storage performance in Al(NO3)3 aqueous solution is investigated. The unique structure and highly extraordinary electro-conducting physical properties of the as-formed black mesoporous anatase TiO2 nanoleaves facilitates aluminum ion diffusion and electronic transport. Meanwhile, the bulk intercalation of aluminum ions was accompanied by the phenomenon of interfacial aluminum ion storage in the black mesoporous anatase TiO2 nanoleaves. As a result, they not only exhibit a sustained high aluminum storage performance 278.1 mA h g-1 (corresponding to Al 0.27TiO2) at a current density of 0.05 A g-1, but also exhibit an excellent rate capability (141.3 mA h g-1 at a current density of 2.0 A g-1) with excellent cycling stability. The as-prepared black mesoporous anatase TiO2 nanoleaves electrode is promising for secondary aqueous battery applications with high power and energy densities. © 2014 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

Lu G.,CAS Institute of Microbiology | Lu G.,University of Sichuan | Wang Q.,CAS Institute of Microbiology | Gao G.F.,CAS Institute of Microbiology | Gao G.F.,Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention China
Trends in Microbiology | Year: 2015

Both severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) are zoonotic pathogens that crossed the species barriers to infect humans. The mechanism of viral interspecies transmission is an important scientific question to be addressed. These coronaviruses contain a surface-located spike (S) protein that initiates infection by mediating receptor-recognition and membrane fusion and is therefore a key factor in host specificity. In addition, the S protein needs to be cleaved by host proteases before executing fusion, making these proteases a second determinant of coronavirus interspecies infection. Here, we summarize the progress made in the past decade in understanding the cross-species transmission of SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV by focusing on the features of the S protein, its receptor-binding characteristics, and the cleavage process involved in priming. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.

Dai F.,University of Sichuan | Xia K.W.,Tianjin University | Xia K.W.,University of Toronto
International Journal of Rock Mechanics and Mining Sciences | Year: 2013

Barre granite exhibits strong anisotropy due to its pre-existing microcracks induced by long-term tectonic loading. The quantification of rock anisotropy in fracture properties such as mode-I fracture toughness under a wide range of loading rates is critical to a variety of rock engineering applications. To quantify fracture toughness of Barre granite, notched semi-circular bend (NSCB) fracture tests are conducted statically with an MTS hydraulic servo-control testing machine and dynamically with a split Hopkinson pressure bar (SHPB) system. Barre granite samples are prepared based on the three principal directions, resulting in six orientation sample groups. For dynamic tests, pulse shaping technique is used to achieve dynamic force balance. The finite element method is then implemented to formulate equations relating the failure load to the mode-I fracture toughness using an orthotropic elastic material model. For samples in the same orientation group, the fracture toughness shows clear loading rate dependence, with the fracture toughness increasing with the loading rate. The fracture toughness anisotropy is characterized by the ratio of the largest fracture toughness over the smallest one at a given loading rate. The mode-I fracture toughness anisotropy exhibits a pronounced rate dependence, being strong under static loading while diminishing as the loading rate increases. The mode-I fracture toughness anisotropy may be understood by considering the preferentially oriented microcracks, which will be fully explored in the future. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

Dan H.,University of Sichuan
Quintessence international (Berlin, Germany : 1985) | Year: 2011

IL-10 is a cytokine that plays a complex role in the control of immune responses. A case-control study was conducted to investigate the expression pattern of IL-10 in both serum and the whole unstimulated saliva from ethnic Chinese patients with oral lichen planus. Seventy-nine Chinese patients with oral lichen planus were recruited for this study, and 41 healthy volunteers served as a control group. The levels of IL-10 and IFN-g in the serum and saliva were detected using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The IFN-g/IL-10 ratio was calculated by direct counting. The results demonstrated an expression profile of high IL-10 level and low IFN-g level and IFN-g/IL-10 ratio in both serum and saliva from oral lichen planus patients, compared to the controls. Saliva levels of IL-10 and IFN-g were positively correlated to their serum partners. No significant difference was found among subtypes of oral lichen planus. Elevation of IL-10 level might be involved in the pathogenesis of oral lichen planus, and saliva might be a substitute for serum to reflect the disease-related cytokine production in oral lichen planus patients.

Huang R.,University of Sichuan
Zhonghua zhong liu za zhi [Chinese journal of oncology] | Year: 2013

To evaluate the quality of life (QOL) in patients with breast cancer at different TNM stages and to estimate the value of EuroQol Five Dimension Indicator (EQ-5D) in measuring QOL among Chinese breast cancer patients. A survey with Quality of Life Instruments for Cancer Patients-Breast Cancer (QLICP-BR) and EQ-5D was undertaken in breast cancer patients who had completed their standardized treatment (except for the endocrine treatment) six months ago. Chi-square test, one-way ANOVA, and covariance analysis were used to evaluate the possible factors influencing the QOL of breast cancer patients. Simultaneously, with the results of Quality of Life Instruments for Cancer Patients-General Module (QLICP-GM, which is included in QLICP-BR.) and the total scores of QLICP-BR as standard, we conducted Pearson correlation analysis to evaluate the value of EQ-5D. A total of 178 female breast cancer survivors were collected from March 2010 to September 2010. There were 47 cases (26.4%) at stage 0 and I, 81 cases (45.5%) at stage II, and 50 cases (28.1%) at stage III and IV. The total standardized score of QLICP-BR was 72.55 ± 3.10 in patients at stage 0 and I, 64.09 ± 2.69 in patients at stage II and 58.21 ± 3.00 in patients at stage III and IV. The total standardized score of QLICP-BR and social domain of patients at stage 0 and I were higher than patients at stage II (all P < 0.05). The total standardized score of QLICP-BR, specific domain of breast cancer, psychological, social and physical domains of patients at stage 0 and I were higher than patients at stage III and IV (all P < 0.05). Covariance analysis showed that QOL standardized scores were significantly different across TNM stages when age, degree of education, birth place (metropolis or rural), occupation, domestic income, and medical insurance were controlled (P = 0.002). Correlation analysis indicated that EQ-5D has a positive correlation with QLICP-GM and QLICP-BR (all P < 0.05). QOL of patients with early stage breast cancer is better than those at late stage. Early diagnosis and treatment can improve QOL of breast cancer patients. Chinese version of EQ-5D can well detect the differences of QOL among patients with different TNM stages, which can be used for evaluating QOL in Chinese female breast cancer patients.

Jun X.,University of Sichuan
Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition | Year: 2013

High-pressure processing is a food processing technique that has shown great potentials in the food industry. Recently, it was developed to extract bioactive ingredients from plant materials, known as ultrahigh pressure extraction (UPE), taking advantages of time saving, higher extraction yields, fewer impurities in the extraction solution, minimal heat and can avoid thermal degradation on the activity and structure of bioactive components, and so on. This review provides an overview of the developments in the UPE of bioactive ingredients from plant material. Apart from a brief presentation of the theories of UPE and extraction equipment systems, the principal parameters that influence the extraction efficiency to be optimized in the UPE (e.g., solvent, pressure, temperature, extraction time, and the number of cycle) were discussed in detail, and finally the more recent applications of UPE for the extraction of active compounds from plant materials were summarized. © 2013 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.

Yang C.Y.,University of Sichuan
Zhong yao cai = Zhongyaocai = Journal of Chinese medicinal materials | Year: 2011

To investigate the therapeutic effect of Rheum offĩcinale on acute pancreatitis. Buffered sodium taurocholate (3% m/V) was injected into the pancreatico-biliary duct to induce acute pancreatitis. Death rate,coefficient of pancreas, serum amylyse (AMY), hemocuprein (SOD), TNF-alpha and IL-1beta level were examined at 6, 12 and 24 hours after operations. Pathology analysis were also obtained. Compared with corresponding pancreatitis groups,death rate, coefficient of pancreas, serum TNF-alpha and IL-1beta level of drug groups decreased remarkably (P < 0.05), while serum SOD level significantly increased (P < 0.01). Serum AMY level of drug groups increased at 6 h (P < 0.01), decreased at 12 h (P < 0.01) and had no statistics disparity at 24 h (P > 0.05) compared with respective pancreatitis group. Although score points of all drug groups were lower than corresponding pancreatitis groups, the growth tendency of both were similar. Rheum officinale Baill has the effect of prevention to pancreas pathological changes in the animal pattern, but not able to reverse the tendency.

Peng Q.,University of Sichuan | Huang Q.,Nanchang Hangkong University | Hou X.,Nanchang Hangkong University | Chang P.,Nanchang Hangkong University | And 2 more authors.
Chemical Communications | Year: 2012

Replacing benzodithiophene (BDT) with a naphthodithiophene (NDT) building block, PNDTDPP exhibited enhanced photovoltaic performance with a PCE of 5.37% when compared with BDT-based copolymer PBDDPP, which gave a PCE of 2.91% in conventional device structures. Encouragingly, the obtained inverted PSC with PBDDPP achieved an impressively high PCE of 6.92%. © 2012 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

Zhu Z.,University of Sichuan
Journal of Applied Geophysics | Year: 2013

Vertical stresses in the earth's upper crust may be evaluated by the depth times the average unit weight of the overlying rock mass; however, the horizontal stress is difficult to obtain. Rock usually contains joints or cracks, and its fracture toughness is limited. If the horizontal stress acting on a cracked rock body exceeds a certain range, the crack will propagate and lead to rock fracture; and if a cracked rock is stable, the horizontal stress must be within a certain range. Therefore, from the stability condition of cracks, the range of horizontal stress can be evaluated. In this paper, a collinear crack model is employed to establish the cracked rock stability condition, and our theoretical results generally agreewith the in-situmeasurement results. The theoretical results can well explain the phenomenon that the ratio of horizontal stress to vertical stress near crust surface is scattered in a wide range, but in deep zone, it is scattered in a narrow range. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

Zhang X.-Y.,University of Sichuan
Shock | Year: 2016

ABSTRACT: Lung ischemia-reperfusion injury (LIRI) occurs in various clinical situations, such as transplantation, cardio pulmonary bypass, cardiac arrest and major trauma, leading to significant morbidity and mortality. Despite researchers have spent years of effort to investigate the pathogenesis of pulmonary ischemic injury, the concrete cellular and molecular mechanisms are still unknown. We hypothesized that toll–like receptor (TLR) 3 signaling may play a vital role in inflammation responses, apoptosis and pulmonary dysfunction during LIRI. Lung ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) mouse model was established by the occlusion of the left pulmonary hilum of adult male C57BL/6J wild-type (WT) and TLR3 deficient (TLR3) mice for 1?h, followed by reperfusion for 2?h. Blood serum and lung tissues of the mice were collected after lung I/R for subsequent experiments. Compared with WT mice, TLR3 mice had better preserved pulmonary function, and significantly attenuated pulmonary cytokines mRNA and protein production after I/R. Pulmonary apoptosis was also inhibited after TLR3 knockout, as indicated by cleaved caspase-3 western blot and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) staining. Levels of serum microRNAs (miRNAs), especially miRNA155, were decreased in the TLR3 I/R group compared to that of the WT I/R group. In conclusion, these data suggest that TLR3 signaling pathway may be a promising target for the treatment of lung I/R injury. © 2016 by the Shock Society

Liu E.,University of Sichuan | He S.,CAS Chengdu Institute of Mountain Hazards and Environment
Engineering Geology | Year: 2012

A series of laboratory tests were performed to assess the effects of confining pressure on the mechanical properties and fatigue damage evolution of sandstone samples subjected to cyclic loading. Six levels of confining pressure (2.0, 10.0, 20.0, 30.0, 40.0 and 50.0. MPa) were applied during axial cyclic loading at a 1.0. Hz frequency using a MTS-815 Rock and Concrete Test System. Results from the cyclic dynamic loading tests indicated that the level of confining pressure had a significant influence on the cyclic dynamic deformation and fatigue damage evolution of the sandstone samples tested. With increasing confining pressure, the axial strain at failure increased, as did the residual volumetric strain at the initiation of dilatancy. The residual axial strains of sandstone samples obtained at a confining stress state can be described as three deformational stages, namely, the initial phase, uniform velocity phase and accelerated phase. Both the residual strain method and the axial secant modulus method proposed here could be used to describe the initial fatigue damage and degradation process of sandstone samples subjected to fatigue loading under a confining stress state; however, the latter also considers the influence of stress level on fatigue damage evolution when fatigue loads are applied. At a constant confining pressure, the shear fracture plane can form under static and cyclic dynamic loading conditions, and the higher the confining pressure, the wider the shear fracture planes become under cyclic dynamic loadings. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

Background: Studies of dentifrices containing strontium chloride or potassium nitrate have documented the clinical efficacy of these formulations for dentin hypersensitivity (DH), but few studies have evaluated dentifrices containing both active ingredients. Objective: The objective of this study was to compare the effects on DH of a dentifrice containing 2% strontium chloride and 5% potassium nitrate in a silica base (experimental dentifrice) with those of a dentifrice containing the same silica base without any active ingredient (control dentifrice). Methods: Male and female patients aged 20 to 65 years with DH were eligible to participate in this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study in China. Patients were assigned to receive the experimental or control dentifrice. At baseline, immediately after topical dentifrice use, and after 3 days, patients received an oral examination of their hard and soft tissues, followed by an evaluation of DH that used the Yeaple Probe to measure tactile hypersensitivity and the Schiff Cold Air Scale to measure the perception of pain from an air blast stimulus. Adverse events (in particular, discomfort while brushing or alteration in taste) in the oral hard or soft tissues were monitored throughout the study. Results: A total of 81 patients were enrolled (40 in the experimental group; 41 in the control group), of whom 79 (55 women; 24 men) completed the study. After topical use, the experimental group had a significantly higher mean (SD) tactile hypersensitivity score (19.47 [14.69] vs 14.27 [5.76]; P = 0.047) and a significantly lower mean air blast hypersensitivity score (1.93 [0.51] vs 2.22 [0.60]; P = 0.026) than did the control group. After 3 days, the experimental group had a significantly higher mean tactile hypersensitivity score (19.87 [14.95] vs 14.51 [6.00]; P = 0.045) and a significantly lower air blast hypersensitivity score (1.80 [0.56] and 2.13 [0.60]; P = 0.014) than the control group. After topical use and after 3 days, the experimental group had increases from baseline in tactile scores of 54.04% and 56.67%, respectively (both, P = 0.001) and reductions from baseline in air blast scores of 18.51% and 24.21% (both, P < 0.001); the control group had increases in tactile scores of 21.14% and 21.54% (P = 0.022 and P = 0.007) and reductions in air blast scores of 10.24% and 13.41% (P = 0.001 and P < 0.001). No adverse events were reported throughout the study. Conclusion: In these patients with DH in China, the dentifrice containing 2% strontium chloride and 5% potassium nitrate was efficacious in reducing DH when used instantly after topical dentifrice use and after 3 days of use. Clinicaltrials.gov identifier: NCT01426360. © 2012 Elsevier HS Journals, Inc.

Yang C.,Chengdu Fine Optical Engineering Research Center | Yan H.,Chengdu Fine Optical Engineering Research Center | Wang J.,Chengdu Fine Optical Engineering Research Center | Zhang R.,University of Sichuan
Optics Express | Year: 2013

A continuous-phase plate (CPP) is a key element for beam smoothing in a high-power laser system. For the beam-smoothing effect, the surface shape of a CPP is one of the most important facts. In this paper, the change law of the transmission direction of light rays has been analyzed according to the geometrical optical principle. It is discovered that the 2-dimensional histogram of a surface gradient can be used to show the far-field distribution of a CPP. Drawing on the experience of histogram modification technology in digital image processing, a novel method is proposed to design a CPP. The design steps of a 1-dimensional CPP are introduced in detail. The far-field distribution and spatial frequency spectrum of this CPP are calculated. The results show that this method is efficient and can reflect the relationship between the surface figure and the far-field distribution of a CPP directly. © 2013 Optical Society of America.

Tong D.G.,Chengdu University of Technology | Chu W.,University of Sichuan | Wu P.,Chengdu University of Technology | Gu G.F.,Chengdu University of Technology | Zhang L.,Chengdu University of Technology
Journal of Materials Chemistry A | Year: 2013

Multiwalled carbon nanotube supported iron-boron catalysts (Fe-B/MWCNTs) were developed via the chemical reduction of aqueous sodium borohydride with iron chloride for hydrolysis of hydrous hydrazine (N2H4). The effects of loading, N2H4 concentration, reaction temperature and supporting materials on the as-prepared Fe-B/MWCNTs were investigated. A high H2 generation rate of 34.2 L h-1 g-1 catalyst for the 9.86 wt% Fe-B/MWCNTs is achieved with 97.0% H2 selectivity at room temperature. Furthermore, the hydrolysis reaction is zero order with respect to N2H4 concentration in the range 0.1-5 mol L-1, and the activation energy is 46.7 ± 1.3 kJ mol-1 for 9.86 wt% Fe-B/MWCNTs. The 9.86 wt% Fe-B/MWCNTs are stable catalysts for N2H4 hydrolytic dehydrogenation as they provide 114 480 total turnovers in 30 h. The improved performance of Fe-B/MWCNTs is a promising step towards the application of N 2H4 as a chemical hydrogen storage material. © 2013 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

Li Y.,Case Western Reserve University | Lin F.,Case Western Reserve University | Lin F.,University of Sichuan
Blood | Year: 2012

Despite the potent immunosuppressive activity that mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) display in vitro, recent clinical trial results are disappointing, suggesting that MSC viability and/or function are greatly reduced after infusion. In this report, we demonstrated that human MSCs activated complement of the innate immunity after their contact with serum. Although all 3 known intrinsic cell-surface complement regulators were present on MSCs, activated complement overwhelmed the protection of these regulators and resulted in MSCs cytotoxicity and dysfunction. In addition, autologous MSCs suffered less cellular injury than allogeneic MSCs after contacting serum. All 3 complement activation pathways were involved in generating the membrane attack complex to directly injure MSCs. Supplementing an exogenous complement inhibitor, or up-regulating MSC expression levels of CD55, one of the cell-surface complement regulators, helped to reduce the serum-induced MSC cytotoxicity. Finally, adoptively transferred MSCs in complement deficient mice or complement-depleted mice showed reduced cellular injury in vivo compared with those in wild type mice. These results indicate that complement is integrally involved in recognizing and injuring MSCs after their infusion, suggesting that autologous MSCs may have advantages over allogeneic MSCs, and that inhibiting complement activation could be a novel strategy to improve existing MSC-based therapies. © 2012 by The American Society of Hematology.

Yang G.,University of Sichuan
The Scientific World Journal | Year: 2013

We study a class of two-dimensional Finsler metrics defined by a Riemannian metric α and a 1-form β. We characterize those metrics which are Douglasian or locally projectively flat by some equations. In particular, it shows that the known fact that β is always closed for those metrics in higher dimensions is no longer true in two-dimensional case. Further, we determine the local structures of two-dimensional (α, β)-metrics which are Douglasian, and some families of examples are given for projectively flat classes with β being not closed. © 2013 Guojun Yang.

Hu H.,University of Sichuan
Cell Research | Year: 2016

Ubiquitination has emerged as a crucial mechanism that regulates signal transduction in diverse biological processes, including different aspects of immune functions. Ubiquitination regulates pattern-recognition receptor signaling that mediates both innate immune responses and dendritic cell maturation required for initiation of adaptive immune responses. Ubiquitination also regulates the development, activation, and differentiation of T cells, thereby maintaining efficient adaptive immune responses to pathogens and immunological tolerance to self-tissues. Like phosphorylation, ubiquitination is a reversible reaction tightly controlled by the opposing actions of ubiquitin ligases and deubiquitinases. Deregulated ubiquitination events are associated with immunological disorders, including autoimmune and inflammatory diseases.Cell Research advance online publication 25 March 2016; doi:10.1038/cr.2016.40. © 2016 Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences

Sun Y.,Chengdu University of Technology | Yan K.-P.,University of Sichuan
International Journal of Hydrogen Energy | Year: 2014

Highly ordered TiO2 nanotube arrays were prepared by anodic oxidation of Ti foil under different anodization voltages in ethylene glycol electrolyte. The morphology and photoelectrochemical performance of the TiO 2 nanotubes (NTs) samples were characterized by FESEM and electrochemical working station. Hydrogen production was measured by splitting water in the two-compartment photoelectrochemical (PEC) cell without any external applied voltage or sacrificial agent. The results indicated that anodization voltage significantly affects morphology structures, photoelectrochemical properties and hydrogen production of TiO2 NTs. The pore diameter and layer thickness of TiO2 samples increased linearly with the anodization voltage, which led to the enhancement of active surface area. Accordingly, the photocurrent response, photoconversion efficiency and hydrogen production of TiO2 nanotubes were also linearly correlated with the anodization voltage. Copyright © 2014, Hydrogen Energy Publications, LLC. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Qiao L.,University of Sichuan | Nishimura T.,Stanford University | Shi L.,Stanford University | Sessions D.,Stanford University | And 5 more authors.
Circulation | Year: 2014

Background: Pulmonary endothelial injury triggers a reparative program, which in susceptible individuals is characterized by neointima formation, vascular narrowing, and the development of pulmonary arterial hypertension. The neointimal cells in human pathological plexiform lesions frequently coexpress smooth muscle α-actin and the endothelial von Willebrand antigen, creating a question about their cellular lineage of origin. Methods and Results: Experimental pulmonary hypertension with neointima formation develops in C57Bl/6 mice subjected to left pneumonectomy followed 1 week later by jugular vein injection of monocrotaline pyrrole (20 μg/μL and 1 μL/g; group P/MCTP). Compared with the group vehicle, by day 35, group P/MCTP developed higher right ventricular systolic pressure (54±5 versus 25±2 mm Hg; P<0.01) and right ventricular hypertrophy (0.58±0.16 versus 0.26±0.05; P<0.01). Transgenic vascular endothelial-cadherin Cre recombinase or Tie-2 Cre mice were intercrossed with mTomato/mGreen fluorescent protein double-fluorescent Cre reporter mice to achieve endothelial genetic lineage marking with membranetargeted green fluorescent protein. In control mice, few endothelial lineage-marked cells lining the lumen of small pulmonary arteries demonstrate expression of smooth muscle α-actin. Concurrent with the development of pulmonary hypertension, endothelial lineage-marked cells are prominent in the neointima and exhibit expression of smooth muscle α-actin and smooth muscle myosin heavy chain. Human pulmonary arterial hypertension neointimal lesions contain cells that coexpress endothelial CD31 or von Willebrand antigen and smooth muscle α-actin. Conclusion: Neointimal cells in pulmonary hypertension include contributions from the endothelial genetic lineage with induced expression of smooth muscle α-actin and smooth muscle myosin heavy chain. © 2013 American Heart Association, Inc.

Wu G.-C.,Neijiang Normal University | Wu G.-C.,University of Sichuan | Baleanu D.,King Abdulaziz University | Baleanu D.,Romanian Space Science Institute | Baleanu D.,Cankaya University
Nonlinear Dynamics | Year: 2014

A discrete fractional logistic map is proposed in the left Caputo discrete delta's sense. The new model holds discrete memory. The bifurcation diagrams are given and the chaotic behaviors are numerically illustrated. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.

Xu Z.,University of Sichuan
International Journal of Information Technology and Decision Making | Year: 2014

In fuzzy decision-making environments, intuitionistic preference relation is highly useful in depicting uncertainty and vagueness of preference information provided by the decision maker. In the process of decision making with intuitionistic preference relation, the most crucial issue is how to derive the ranking of alternatives from intuitionistic preference relation. In this article, we investigate the ranking methods of alternatives on the basis of intuitionistic preference relation from various angles, which are based on the intuitionistic fuzzy ordered weighted averaging operator, the intuitionistic fuzzy ordered weighted geometric operator, the uncertain averaging operator, the uncertain geometric operator, the uncertain ordered weighted averaging operator, and the uncertain ordered weighted geometric operator, respectively, and study their desirable properties. Moreover, we give a numerical analysis of the developed ranking methods by a practical example, and finally discuss further research directions. © 2014 World Scientific Publishing Company.

Wu G.,University of Sichuan
Journal of biomedical science | Year: 2011

Neural tube defects (NTDs) are the second most common birth defect in humans. Despite many advances in the understanding of NTDs and the identification of many genes related to NTDs, the fundamental etiology for the majority of cases of NTDs remains unclear. Planar cell polarity (PCP) signaling pathway, which is important for polarized cell movement (such as cell migration) and organ morphogenesis through the activation of cytoskeletal pathways, has been shown to play multiple roles during neural tube closure. The disrupted function of PCP pathway is connected with some NTDs. Here, we summarize our current understanding of how PCP factors affect the pathogenesis of NTDs.

Gao Q.,University of Sichuan
Journal of rehabilitation medicine | Year: 2014

To investigate the functional status of fracture victims 4 years after the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake. A total of 374 fracture victims who were admitted to the rehabilitation department of 5 municipal hospitals in the hardest hit areas in 2008 were interviewed face to face in 2012. Functional assessments, including muscle strength, range of motion, pain, activities of daily living and working status, were conducted. Approximately one-third (33.2%) of the fracture victims had decreased muscle strength and 29.4% had limited range of motion. Among the 55.3% of subjects who still experienced pain, the proportions of mild, moderate and severe pain were 65.7%, 28.5% and 5.8%, respectively. The majority (83.4%) of fracture victims were independent in caring for themselves. However, 1.6% of subjects were highly dependent or totally dependent. Single-fracture victims had better muscle strength, range of motion, pain and independence than those with multiple fractures. The degrees of pain, muscle strength and dependency were worse in the older age group, and better in those with a higher level of education. In addition 17.1% were jobless and 22.2% received economic support mainly from family members. The mean unemployment rate was significantly higher and the annual household income (USD 3,086 (standard deviation 1,985) was lower than in the general population in rural Sichuan province. The prevalence of functional disorders, including pain, limited range of motion, decreased muscle strength and dependency in activities of daily living, remained high among fracture victims 4 years after the Wenchuan earthquake. Unemployment rate was high and annual household income was low in this population.

Xiang N.,University of Sichuan
Zhongguo xiu fu chong jian wai ke za zhi = Zhongguo xiufu chongjian waike zazhi = Chinese journal of reparative and reconstructive surgery | Year: 2011

To review the basic researches and the clinical application of the nano-neural tissue engineering materials, especially the electrically conductive carbon nanotubes (CNT). The literature concerning the basic and clinical researches of the conductive materials of nano-neural tissue engineering, especially the electrically conductive CNT were reviewed. The researches of conductive materials of nano-neural tissue engineering have made some progress, the electrically conductive CNT can not only promote Schwan cells' adhension, migration, and proliferation, but also mimic the function of electric conductivity of neural myelin and enhance neurite growth and regeneration. So the electrically conductive CNT make great sense in stimulating and directing the growth of neurite and the regeneration of axons. Because of these unique properties, the electrically conductive CNT have great advantages in peripheral nerve repair and function reconstruction, and are promising to provide a novel method for clinical peripheral nerve repair and function reconstruction after injury.

Zheng H.,University of Sichuan
Cochrane database of systematic reviews (Online) | Year: 2011

Heart failure is a major public health problem worldwide. Shengmai (a traditional Chinese herbal medicine) has long been used as a complementary treatment for heart failure in China. To determine the effects (both benefits and harms) of Shengmai plus usual treatment versus usual treatment alone for heart failure. We searched CENTRAL and DARE on The Cochrane Library (Issue 3, 2008), MEDLINE (1966 to August 2008), EMBASE (1984 to August 2008), AMED (1985 to August 2008) and BIOSIS (1997 to August 2008) and CBM (1978 to August 2008). We added two new Chinese databases for the update; VIP (1989 to September 2008) and CNKI (1979 to September 2008). We also handsearched Chinese journals. No language restrictions were applied. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of Shengmai plus usual treatment versus usual treatment alone or Shengmai versus placebo for heart failure, irrespective of blinding status, were included. More stringent inclusion criteria were applied in this update and only studies that have a clear description of randomisation methods are classed as true RCTs and hence included. Two authors independently selected trials, assessed methodological quality and extracted data. Dichotomous and continuous data were calculated as relative risk (RR), and mean differences (MD) or standardized mean difference (SMD). Random-effect model and fixed-effect model were used to perform meta-analysis for with and without heterogeneity respectively. Only six RCTs with a total of 440 patients were included in this updated review. Compared to usual treatment alone, Shengmai plus usual treatment in five trials indicated an improvement in NYHA classification (RR 0.37; 95% CI 0.25 to 0.54). Other benefits were observed, but were limited to low patient numbers and significant heterogeneity: ejection fraction, cardiac output, stroke volume, exercise test and ratio of peak early to late diastolic filling velocity. Only one RCT with 40 patients compared Shengmai to placebo, and improvements were seen in stroke volume, Heath and Cardic index and myocardial contractility. Two studies reported mild adverse effects, but no patients were withdrawn or needed medication due to these adverse effects. Shengmai may be beneficial for heart failure compared to placebo or plus usual treatment compared to usual treatment alone. However, long-term and more high quality studies are needed to provide clear evidence for the future use of Shengmai.

Dai J.,Sun Yat Sen University | Zou S.,Sun Yat Sen University | Pei Y.,Sun Yat Sen University | Cheng D.,Sun Yat Sen University | And 2 more authors.
Biomaterials | Year: 2011

A major challenge in gene therapy is the development of effective gene delivery vectors with low toxicity. In the present study, linear poly(ethylenimine) (lPEI) with low molecular weight was grafted onto the block copolymer (PPL) of poly(l-lysine) (PLL) and poly(ethylene glycol)(PEG), yielding a ternary copolymer PEG- b-PLL- g-lPEI (PPI) for gene delivery. In such molecular design, PLL, lPEI and PEG blocks were expected to render the vector biodegradability, proton buffering capacity, low cationic toxicity and potentially long circulation in vivo, respectively. Given proper control of molecular composition, the copolymers demonstrated lower cytotoxicity, proton buffering capacity, ability to condense pDNA and mediate effective gene transfection in various cell lines. With folate as an exemplary targeting ligand, the FA-PPI/pDNA complex showed much higher transgene activity than its nontargeting counterpart for both reporter and therapeutic genes in folate receptor(FR)-positive cells. FA-PPI mediated effective transfection of the TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand gene (TRAIL) in human hepatoma Bel 7402 cells, leading to cell apoptosis and great suppression of cell viability. Our results indicate that the copolymers might be a promising vector combining low cytotoxicity, biodegradability, and high gene transfection efficiency. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

Liao H.,Shanghai JiaoTong University | Xu Z.,University of Sichuan
Soft Computing | Year: 2014

Hesitant fuzzy set turns out to be a powerful tool in expressing uncertainty and vagueness. Liao and Xu (J Intell Fuzzy Syst, 26:1601-1617, 2014b) proposed a family of hesitant fuzzy hybrid weighted aggregation operators to synthesize hesitant fuzzy information and pointed out that these operators not only weight the importance of the hesitant fuzzy arguments and their ordered positions simultaneously, but also keep the property of idempotency. In this paper, some new properties, such as the boundedness and commutativity, of these operators are further investigated. After that, several new aggregation operators are introduced, including the generalized hesitant fuzzy hybrid weighted averaging operator, the generalized hesitant fuzzy hybrid weighted geometric operator, the generalized quasi hesitant fuzzy hybrid weighted averaging operator, the generalized quasi hesitant fuzzy hybrid weighted geometric operator, and their induced forms. The properties of these operators are investigated as well. Based on the proposed operators, an algorithm is established to aid multi-criteria decision making with hesitant fuzzy information. A numerical example concerning the evaluation of candidate portfolios is provided to show the practicality and validity of the proposed procedure and aggregation operators. © 2014 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most commonly diagnosed cancer in males and second in females worldwide. Unfortunately 40-50% of patients already have metastatic disease at presentation when prognosis is poor with a 5-year survival of <10%. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been proposed to play a crucial role in tumor metastasis. We now show that higher levels of ROS accumulation are found in a colorectal cancer-derived metastatic cell line (SW620) compared with a cell line (SW480) derived from the primary lesion from the same patient. In addition, ROS accumulation can affect both the migratory and invasive capacity of SW480 and SW620 cells. To explore the molecular mechanism underlying ROS-induced migration and invasion in CRC, we have compared protein expression patterns between SW480 and SW620 cells using a two-dimensional electrophoresis-based proteomics strategy. A total of 63 altered proteins were identified from tandem MS analysis. Cluster analysis revealed dysregulated expression of multiple redox regulative or ROS responsive proteins, implicating their functional roles in colorectal cancer metastasis. Molecular and pathological validation demonstrated that altered expression of PGAM1, GRB2, DJ-1, ITGB3, SOD-1, and STMN1 was closely correlated with the metastatic potential of CRC. Functional studies showed that ROS markedly up-regulated expression of ITGB3, which in turn promoted an aggressive phenotype in SW480 cells, with concomitant up-regulated expression of STMN1. In contrast, knockdown of ITGB3 expression could mitigate the migratory and invasive potential of SW620 or H(2)O(2)-treated SW480 cells, accompanied by down-regulated expression of STMN1. The function of ITGB3 was dependent on the surface expression of integrin αvβ3 heterodimer. Furthermore, STMN1 expression and the PI3K-Akt-mTOR pathway were found to be involved in ROS-induced and ITGB3-mediated migration and invasion of colorectal cancer cells. Taken together, these studies suggest that ITGB3 plays an important role in ROS-induced migration and invasion in CRC.

Zhang X.,Nanjing Southeast University | Xu Z.,University of Sichuan
Applied Soft Computing Journal | Year: 2015

Multi-attribute group decision making (MAGDM) is an important research topic in decision theory. In recent decades, many useful methods have been proposed to solve various MAGDM problems, but very few methods simultaneously take them into account from the perspectives of both the ranking and the magnitude of decision data, especially for the interval-valued intuitionistic fuzzy decision data. The purpose of this paper is to develop a soft computing technique based on maximizing consensus and fuzzy TOPSIS in order to solve interval-valued intuitionistic fuzzy MAGDM problems from such two aspects of decision data. To this end, we first define a consensus index from the perspective of the ranking of decision data, for measuring the degree of consensus between the individual and the group. Then, we establish an optimal model based on maximizing consensus to determine the weights of experts. Following the idea of TOPSIS, we calculate the closeness indices of the alternatives from the perspective of the magnitude of decision data. To identify the optimal alternatives and determine their optimum quantities, we further construct a multi-choice goal programming model based on the derived closeness indices. Finally, an example is given to verify the developed method and to make a comparative analysis. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Chen N.,Nanjing Southeast University | Chen N.,Nanjing University of Finance and Economics | Xu Z.,University of Sichuan
Information Sciences | Year: 2015

Hesitant fuzzy set (HFS) permits the membership degrees of an element to a set represented by several possible values. Thus, it provides a suitable means to express uncertain information of different group members within the process of multi-criteria decision making (MCDM). In this paper, we suggest a new approach, named HF-ELECTRE II approach that combines the idea of HFSs with the ELECTRE II method, to efficiently handle different opinions of group members that are frequently encountered when handling the MCDM problems. We formulate the approach by defining the concepts of hesitant fuzzy concordance and discordance sets and by constructing the strong and weak outranking relations, which are employed to decide the ranking for a set of alternatives. Numerical examples are presented to exhibit the applications of the proposed method. Furthermore, a comparison of the alternatives' rankings derived from the HF-ELECTRE II method with those derived from the aggregation operators and the fuzzy group ELECTRE approach is made. After that, a decision supporting system based on the HF-ELECTRE II method is constructed to aid decision making, and the prominent characteristics of the HF-ELECTRE II method and future research challenges are also discussed. © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Zhang D.,University of Sichuan
Fuzzy Sets and Systems | Year: 2010

We show that there are natural ways to make a fuzzy set into an enriched category, and that in doing so, some basic results in fuzzy set theory are applications of enriched category theory. Thus we argue that the theory of enriched categories is a useful tool for fuzzy set theorists. © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Huang T.T.,University of Sichuan
Molecules (Basel, Switzerland) | Year: 2012

A novel series of N-methylpicolinamide-4-thiol derivatives were synthesized and evaluated on human cancer cell lines. Among them, compound 6p displayed potent and broad-spectrum anti-proliferative activities in vitro on some human cancer cell lines, even better than sorafenib. The advanced kinase inhibitory assays showed that compound 6p could selectively inhibit Aurora-B kinase. The biological results were rationalized by the molecular docking study, which indicated the stable interactions of 6p with the Aurora-B kinase.

Xu Z.,University of Sichuan
IEEE Transactions on Fuzzy Systems | Year: 2015

Preference structures, such as fuzzy preference relations, incomplete fuzzy preference relations, utility values, and preference orderings, are very useful in depicting the decision makers' preferences over the considered objects in group decision making. They have been attracting great interest from both researchers and practitioners in recent decades. An important issue on these preference structures is to investigate the techniques of deriving priority weights of the objects from them. In this paper, based on generalized multiplicative consistency, we establish a general nonlinear optimization model with fuzzy preference relations, incomplete fuzzy preference relations, utility values, and preference orderings. By solving the model, we get a system of nonlinear equations and prove the uniqueness of its solution. Then, a convergent iterative algorithm is devised to derive the priority weights from this system of equations. The model and the algorithm include a variety of special cases suitable for group decision making with one or several of the aforementioned preference structures. A practical case illustration concerning a manufacturing company that is searching for the best compression ignition engine design is provided, and the numerical results of the developed models and the algorithm and the existing ones are also compared and analyzed in order to demonstrate the advantages and practicality of our models and algorithm. © 1993-2012 IEEE.

Lin Z.-E.,University of Sichuan | Yang G.-Y.,CAS Fujian Institute of Research on the Structure of Matter
European Journal of Inorganic Chemistry | Year: 2011

This review article briefly summarizes the recent research advances in the field of crystalline oxo boron clusters and their open frameworks. By using different amine molecules and transition metal complexes or inorganic ions as the charge-balancing agents, different oxo boron clusters, such as [B 3O 3(OH) 4] -, [B 4O 5(OH) 4] 2-, [B 5O 6(OH) 4] -, [B 7O 9(OH) 5] 2-, [B 8O 10(OH) 6] 2-, [B 9O 12(OH) 6] 3-, and [B 14O 20(OH) 6] 4- polyanions, have been successfully isolated and structurally characterized. These polyborate anions may act as the main building blocks to create new open-framework compounds with layered and three-dimensional structures. Odd ring channels and helical channels are noteworthy in open-framework borate structures. Besides their traditional zeolitic properties, open-framework borates exhibit interesting optical properties including photoluminescence and second harmonic generation, suggesting their potential applications in catalysis, nonlinear optics, display and lighting devices. © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

Liu D.-L.,University of Sichuan
Chinese Journal of Tissue Engineering Research | Year: 2015

BACKGROUND: Control of hepatic stellate cell activation and proliferation is the focus of developing strategies against liver fibrosis. Human or murine bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells can induce apoptosis of hepatic stellate cells through paracrine of hepatocyte growth factors. OBJECTIVE: To explore the mechanism by which bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells participate in apoptosis of rat hepatic stellate cells. METHODS: Hepatic stellate cells and bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells were seeded and co-cultured in the upper and lower chambers in a co-culture system, serving as a co-culture group. In the blank control group, only hepatic stellate cells were involved. In the c-Met inhibitor group, hepatic stellate cells and bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells were treated with 3 mg/L C-Met inhibitor. In the RhoA inhibitor group, both kinds of cells were treated with 3 mg/L RhoA inhibitor. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: The concentration of c-Met inhibitor was 3.0 mg/L. RhoA inhibitor at 30 μmol/L exhibited a greater inhibitor effect than at other concentrations. RhoA mRNA and protein expression in the co-culture, c-Met inhibitor and in paricular RhoA inhibitor groups was obviously greater than in the blank control group. Hepatocyte growth factor concentration in each group was gradually decreased with time, hepatocyte growth fetor activator concentration in each group was gradually increased with time, and the changes were most obvious in the c-Met inhibitor group. Apoptosis rate of hepatic stellate cells in each group was gradually increased with time, and highest apoptosis rate appeared in the RhoA inhibitor group, and lowest apoptosis rate in the c-Met inhibitor group. These findings suggest that bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells partcipate in and promote the apoptosis of hepatic stellate cells by activating hepatocyte growth factors and downregulating Rho activity. © 2015, Journal of Clinical Rehabilitative Tissue Engineering Research, All Right Reserved.

Our previous study found that somatostatin (SST) inhibited the intestinal inflammatory injury in a macaque model of intestinal ischemia-reperfusion (IIR); however, the underlying mechanism was unclear. The present study was aimed to investigate the effects of SST on IFN-γ and the systemic inflammatory response after IIR. Fifteen macaques were randomly divided into controls, IIR and SST+ IIR groups. ELISA was performed to measure IFN-γ in ileum tissues, ileac epithelial cells (IECs) and ileal lymphocytes, as well as the systemic levels of IL-6, IL-1β, TNF-α and IFN-γ in the peripheral circulation and the portal vein. HE staining was performed to evaluate morphological changes in vital organs. Immunohistochemistry was performed to identify the distribution of IFN-γ, CD4, CD8 and CD57 in the ileum. After IIR, IFN-γ level was significantly increased in the IECs. IL-6, IL-1β and TNF-α were significantly increased in both the portal vein and the peripheral circulation; in contrast, IFN-γ level was increased in the portal vein alone. Prophylactic SST reversed the change in IFN-γ in the IECs and portal vein. SST led to an alleviation of the pathological changes in systemic vital organs. The distribution of CD4(+), CD57(+) and CD8(+) cells was not positively correlated with the secretion of IFN-γ. IECs are the main source of IFN-γ production after IIR. SST may indirectly lead to mast cell deactivation through the inhibition of IFN-γ production by IECs. Pretreatment with SST may be beneficial for preventing a massive systemic inflammatory response in vital organs after IIR.

Lu J.Q.,University of Sichuan
Zhen ci yan jiu = Acupuncture research / [Zhongguo yi xue ke xue yuan Yi xue qing bao yan jiu suo bian ji] | Year: 2013

To observe whether acupuncture stimulation of Neiguan (PC 6) can prevent postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) in patients undergoing craniotomy. A total of 60 patients scheduled for craniotomy were randomly assigned to acupuncture group (n = 30) and control group (n = 30). When regaining consciousness from the surgical anesthesia, patients of the acupuncture group received immediate acupuncture stimulation of bilateral Neiguan (PC 6). After insertion, the filiform needles were manipulated with uniform reinforcing-reducing method for about 1 min (re-manipulated once again 10 min later), followed by retaining it for 20 min. Patients of the control group received no treatment. Vomiting or retching (having vomitus) was considered as an emetic episode. Nausea was assessed by a four-point verbal rating scale (none, mild, moderate, severe). Following the treatment, in the acupuncture group, 1 patient had a vomiting from 0 to 2 h, and 1 patient had a vomiting from 2 to 6 h after the operation, and no patients had this symptom 6 h after the operation. While in the control group, the vomiting occurred in 11 patients from 0 to 2 h, 8 cases from 2 to 6 h, and other 8 cases from 6 to 24 h after the operation. Comparison between two groups showed that the nausea scores in the 3 time-stages were significantly lower in the acupuncture group than in the control group (P < 0.05). Acupuncture stimulation of PC 6 is effective in preventing and treating PONV in patients undergoing craniotomy.

Chen X.-X.,University of Sichuan
International Journal of Quantum Chemistry | Year: 2012

The mechanism of H-H σ bond activation catalyzed by VO 2 + ( 1A 1/ 3A′) has been investigated by using density functional theory at the B3LYP/6-311G(2d, p) level and the single-point energy calculations were done at the CCSD/6-311G (2d, p)//B3LYP/6-311G(2d, p) level of theory using the geometries along the minimum energy pathway. According to our calculation results, the different reaction mechanisms were found for the singlet and triplet potential energy surfaces (PESs). Specially, the crossing points (CPs) between the different PESs have been located by means of the intrinsic reaction coordinate approach used by Yoshizawa et al, and corresponding minimum energy CPs that we obtained by the mathematical algorithm proposed by Harvey et al. has also been employed. In addition, the orbital interaction for ion-molecule complexes 1IM1 and 3IM1 have been examined by fragment molecular orbital analysis. Finally, the frontier molecular orbital interaction analysis about 3TS1 and 3TS2 were used to gain useful information about the H-H σ bond activation by VO 2 +. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Aitken Z.H.,California Institute of Technology | Fan H.,Johns Hopkins University | Fan H.,University of Sichuan | El-Awady J.A.,Johns Hopkins University | Greer J.R.,California Institute of Technology
Journal of the Mechanics and Physics of Solids | Year: 2015

We conducted uniaxial compression of single crystalline Mg alloy, AZ31 (Al 3 wt% and Zn 1 wt%) nanopillars with diameters between 300 and 5000 nm with two distinct crystallographic orientations: (1) along the [0001] c-axis and (2) at an acute angle away from the c-axis, nominally oriented for basal slip. We observe single slip deformation for sub-micron samples nominally oriented for basal slip with the deformation commencing via a single set of parallel shear offsets. Samples compressed along the c-axis display an increase in yield strength compared to basal samples as well as significant hardening with the deformation being mostly homogeneous. We find that the "smaller is stronger" size effect in single crystals dominates any improvement in strength that may have arisen from solid solution strengthening. We employ 3D-discrete dislocation dynamics (DDD) to simulate compression along the [0001] and [112¯2] directions to elucidate the mechanisms of slip and evolution of dislocation microstructure. These simulations show qualitatively similar stress-strain signatures to the experimentally obtained stress-strain data. Simulations of compression parallel to the [112¯2] direction reveal the activation and motion of only -type dislocations and virtually no dislocation junction formation. Computations of compression along [0001] show the activation and motion of both and dislocations along with a significant increase in the formation of junctions corresponding to the interaction of intersecting pyramidal planes. Both experiments and simulation show a size effect, with a differing exponent for basal and pyramidal slip. We postulate that this anisotropy in size effect is a result of the underlying anisotropic material properties only. We discuss these findings in the context of the effective resolved shear stress relative to the unit Burgers vector for each type of slip, which reveal that the mechanism that governs size effect in this Mg-alloy is equivalent in both orientations. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Li M.,University of Sichuan
Zhonghua nei ke za zhi [Chinese journal of internal medicine] | Year: 2012

To investigate the expression of the double-stranded RNA-dependent protein kinase (PKR) gene in the peripheral blood leukocyte of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), and to evaluate the relationship between the gene expression and the disease activity. The clinical data of 100 SLE patients, 40 non-SLE patients with rheumatic diseases, and 40 normal controls were collected. Total RNA was extracted from the peripheral blood and then reverse transcribed into cDNA. Sybr green dye based real-time quantitative PCR method was used to compare the expression levels (indicated as 2(-ΔCt) value) of PKR in the three groups. (1) The 2(-ΔCt) value of PKR expression level in the SLE patients was (14.69 ± 7.62), which was significantly higher than those in the non-SLE patients (5.09 ± 4.73, P = 0.012)and normal controls(4.79 ± 3.49, P = 0.005). (2) The 2(-ΔCt) value of PKR expression level in the SLE patients with severe activity was (22.57 ± 2.61), which was significantly higher than those in the SLE patients with mild activity and no activity (12.94 ± 2.41, P = 0.000; 8.85 ± 2.17, P = 0.000). (3) The 2(-ΔCt) value of PKR expression level in the SLE patients with lupus nephritis was significantly higher than that in the SLE patients without lupus nephritis (16.85 ± 7.32 vs 8.35 ± 2.04, P = 0.034). (4) The 2(-ΔCt) value of PKR was correlated with the systemic lupus erythematosus index (SLEDAI) scores (r = 0.32, P = 0.000), WBC (r = 0.46, P = 0.000), Hb (r = -0.22, P = 0.035), the quantitation of urine protein in 24 hours (r = 0.21, P = 0.000), HDL-C (r = 0.21, P = 0.022), and anti-RNP antibody (r(s) = -0.21, P = 0.025). The expression of PKR in the SLE patients is up-regulated, especially in those with severe activity. The expression level of PKR gene is associated with SLE disease activity.

OBJECTIVES: Risk of pancreatic cancer between Helicobacter pylori infected and noninfected persons is controversial, and therefore a meta-analysis was performed. METHODS: PubMed was searched up to September 2014. Only population-based nested case-control studies comparing the serological prevalence of Helicobacter pylori between pancreatic cancer cases and cancer-free controls were eligible. Pooled odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for pancreatic cancer risk between Helicobacter pylori infected and noninfected persons were estimated. RESULTS: Five eligible nested case-control studies were included, with 1446 pancreatic cancer cases and 2235 cancer-free controls. On the whole, the proportion of pancreatic cancer cases among those infected with Helicobacter pylori was not significant different from those noninfected (OR, 0.99; 95% CI, 0.65–1.50; P = 0.96). Likewise, seropositivity of cytotoxin-associated gene A (CagA) showed nonsignificant association with pancreatic cancer (OR, 0.92; 95% CI, 0.65–1.30; P = 0.63). The CagA-positive virulent strains of Helicobacter pylori did not increase the risk of pancreatic cancer (OR, 0.97; 95% CI, 0.50–1.89; P = 0.93). However, CagA-negative nonvirulent strains of Helicobacter pylori had a significant increased risk for pancreatic cancer (OR, 1.47; 95% CI, 1.11–1.96; P = 0.008). CONCLUSIONS: The CagA-negative non-virulent strains of Helicobacter pylori may be a potential risk factor of pancreatic cancer. High-quality prospective large-scaled studies are required for more conclusive results. © 2015 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.

Yang Y.F.,University of Sichuan
Zhonghua yu fang yi xue za zhi [Chinese journal of preventive medicine] | Year: 2011

This study was to identify the post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) changes and the relative risk factors within one year after Wenchuan earthquake among middle school students in the disaster area. A total of 1966 students from 3 schools in Wenchuan earthquake region were selected as the target population. For each student, personal basic information and standard psychological scale (PCL-C, PSSS) were investigated by a self-administrated questionnaire in the 3rd, the 6th, the 9th and the 12th month after the earthquake, respectively. PTSD trends over the time and the associated risk factors were analyzed through the establishment of multi-level random coefficient model. There were 1677 middle school students fully participated in the PTSD follow-up study by turning in the valid questionnaires. The averaged scores of PTSD at the time of the 3rd, the 6th, the 9th and the 12th month after the earthquake were 35.14 ± 11.08, 32.90 ± 11.03, 30.67 ± 11.28 and 29.75 ± 11.22, respectively. Meanwhile, the general incidences of PTSD were 36.6% (613/1677), 30.7% (515/1677), 24.8% (416/1677)and 22.2% (373/1677), respectively. The median score of perceived social support system was 60.00 and the general incidences of PSS was 17.20% (289/1677). The PTSD scores for the students had a decreasing trend during the period of our observation (β(time) = -1.879, χ(2) = 47.03, P < 0.05). The averaged scores for boys for the 4 follow-up studies were 33.71, 31.61, 29.66, 28.83; for girls were 36.33, 33.98, 31.51, 30.52; for junior school students were 35.46, 33.28, 30.18, 29.22; for senior school students were 34.89, 32.62, 31.04, 30.15. Moreover, two factors, gender and grade, were related with the decreasing trend (the trend for girls and senior school students was sharper than that for boys and junior school students) (β(gender-time) = -0.354, χ(2) = 4.83, P < 0.05; β(grade-time) = 0.622, χ(2) = 11.30, P < 0.05). The prevalence of PTSD was high. Meanwhile, there was a trend of self-recovery for adolescent's PTSD during the first year of post-earthquake, but boys and junior school students recovered more slowly.

Sun L.,University of Sichuan
Orthopaedic surgery | Year: 2012

To evaluate the causes, treatment and prevention of esophageal fistulas after anterior cervical spine surgery. Between January 2004 and December 2011, 5 of 2348 patients who underwent anterior cervical surgery in our hospital developed esophageal fistulas (three male and two female patients, average age 34 years). Their diagnoses were cervical injuries (three), cervical spondylosis (one) and cervical tuberculosis (one). Their esophageal fistulas were treated by debridement and exploratory surgery, primary suturing of the perforation and/or sternocleidomastoid myoplasty. If conservative treatment failed or esophageal fistula recurred, plate removal was offered. Postoperative treatment included esophageal rest, enteral nutrition, wound drainage, and antibiotics. Methylene blue was used to evaluate results. An esophageal fistula was discovered during anterior cervical surgery in one patient and primary suturing performed. In four patients, fistulas were diagnosed after anterior cervical decompression and fusion. In one of these, only debridement and exploratory surgery were required. In another, a perforation was sutured during debridement and exploratory surgery. In the third, internal fixation was removed because of failure of prolonged conservative treatment. In the fourth, the esophageal fistula recurred repeatedly; he required removal of the hardware and reinforcement with a sternocleidomastoid muscle flap. At 6-48 months follow-up, all patients were in good condition, symptom free, and without cervical instability or infectious spondylitis. Successful management of esophageal fistula after anterior cervical spinal surgery depends on primary closure of the perforation with or without muscle flaps, surgical drainage, esophageal rest and nutritional support, and removal of hardware if necessary. Prevention consists of careful surgery and gentle tissue handling. © 2012 Tianjin Hospital and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to explore the potential role of myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88), which acts as an adaptor in the TLR4 signalling pathway, in immune responses of the pancreatic duct during acute pancreatitis. METHODS: Primary cultures of pancreatic duct epithelial cells from Wistar rats and cultures of the pancreatic ductal ARIP cell line were treated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS), and expression of toll-like receptor 4 mRNA was determined using real-time PCR, expression of MyD88 protein using Western blot, and levels of inflammatory cytokines using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. These experiments were repeated using ARIP cells in which MyD88 expression was stably knocked down. RESULTS: Toll-like receptor 4 and MyD88 expression were similar between pancreatic duct epithelial cells and ARIP cells after LPS stimulation. Myeloid differentiation factor 88 knockdown led to significantly lower levels of inflammatory cytokines after LPS induction in ARIP cells. CONCLUSIONS: Myeloid differentiation factor 88 knockdown attenuates LPS-induced inflammatory responses in pancreatic ductal cells, suggesting that the MyD88 pathway plays a critical role in their immune defense activity. Copyright © 2015 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.

Yam C.,University of Hong Kong | Zhang Q.,University of Hong Kong | Wang F.,University of Sichuan | Chen G.,University of Hong Kong
Chemical Society Reviews | Year: 2012

The poor scaling of many existing quantum mechanical methods with respect to the system size hinders their applications to large systems. In this tutorial review, we focus on latest research on linear-scaling or O(N) quantum mechanical methods for excited states. Based on the locality of quantum mechanical systems, O(N) quantum mechanical methods for excited states are comprised of two categories, the time-domain and frequency-domain methods. The former solves the dynamics of the electronic systems in real time while the latter involves direct evaluation of electronic response in the frequency-domain. The localized density matrix (LDM) method is the first and most mature linear-scaling quantum mechanical method for excited states. It has been implemented in time- and frequency-domains. The O(N) time-domain methods also include the approach that solves the time-dependent Kohn-Sham (TDKS) equation using the non-orthogonal localized molecular orbitals (NOLMOs). Besides the frequency-domain LDM method, other O(N) frequency-domain methods have been proposed and implemented at the first-principles level. Except one-dimensional or quasi-one-dimensional systems, the O(N) frequency-domain methods are often not applicable to resonant responses because of the convergence problem. For linear response, the most efficient O(N) first-principles method is found to be the LDM method with Chebyshev expansion for time integration. For off-resonant response (including nonlinear properties) at a specific frequency, the frequency-domain methods with iterative solvers are quite efficient and thus practical. For nonlinear response, both on-resonance and off-resonance, the time-domain methods can be used, however, as the time-domain first-principles methods are quite expensive, time-domain O(N) semi-empirical methods are often the practical choice. Compared to the O(N) frequency-domain methods, the O(N) time-domain methods for excited states are much more mature and numerically stable, and have been applied widely to investigate the dynamics of complex molecular systems. © 2012 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

Zhang M.,University of Sichuan
Zhonghua er bi yan hou tou jing wai ke za zhi = Chinese journal of otorhinolaryngology head and neck surgery | Year: 2012

To study the related factors of central lymph node (CLN) metastasis in papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC),the indications and the extent of central neck dissection (CND). A total of 153 cases treated between Jan. 2009 and Dec. 2010 was analysed retrospectively. Of the cases 28 males and 125 cases females, with a mean age of (44 ± 14) years. T1, T2, and T3 diseases accounted for 51, 10 and 81 cases, respectively; I, II, III and IV diseases for 88, 3, 26 and 36 cases, respectively. Multifocal tumors were found in 63 cases. The related clinicopathologic factors were analyzed, including sex, age, tumor size, extrathyroidal extension, and multifocal tumor. All the cases had total/near total thyroidectomy and CND, of them 64 cases had unilateral neck dissection and 18 cases had bilateral neck dissection. CLN metastases existed in 68.6% (105/153) cases, 37.2% (57/153) for unilateral and 31.4% (48/153) for bilateral respectively. The rates of CLN metastasis were 86.6% (71/82) in cN1 cases and 47.9% (34/71) cN0 cases, respectively,and the rates of bilateral CLN metastases were 45.1% (37/82) in cN1 cases and 15.5% (11/71) in cN0 cases. Multivariate analysis showed that extrathyroidal extension (P = 0.002, OR = 3.502) was an independent risk factor for CLN metastasis and that lateral neck lymph node metastasis (P = 0.028, OR = 3.080), surrounding tissue invasion (P = 0.014, OR = 3.113), and maximum tumor diameter greater than 1 cm (P = 0.012, OR = 3.732) were independent risk factors for bilateral CLN metastases. It is indicated that ipsilateral CND should be obligatory for PTC. Intraoperative frozen section examination should be routine. Bilateral CND should be conducted when ipsilateral CLN metastases accompanied by one of following issues such as more invasive tumor (surrounding tissue invasion, T3 or T4 disease), maximum tumor diameter greater than 1 cm, and lateral neck lymph node metastasis.

Sun X.,University of Sichuan | Sun X.,McMaster University | Ioannidis J.P.A.,Stanford University | Agoritsas T.,McMaster University | And 2 more authors.
JAMA - Journal of the American Medical Association | Year: 2014

Clinicians, when trying to apply trial results to patient care, need to individualize patient care and, potentially, managepatientsbasedonresultsofsubgroupanalyses.Apparentlycompellingsubgroup effects oftenprovespurious,andguidanceisneededto differentiate crediblefromless crediblesubgroup claims.We therefore provide 5 criteria to usewhenassessing the validity of subgroup analyses: (1)Canchanceexplain the apparent subgroup effect; (2) Is the effect consistent across studies; (3)Was the subgroup hypothesis one of a small number of hypotheses developed a priori with directionspecified;(4) Istherestrongpreexistingbiologicalsupport;and(5)Istheevidencesupporting the effect based on within- or between-study comparisons. The first 4 criteria are applicable to individualstudiesorsystematicreviews, thelastonlytosystematicreviewsofmultiplestudies.These criteria will help clinicians deciding whether to use subgroup analyses to guide their patient care. Copyright 2014 American Medical Association. All rights reserved.

Yang W.,University of Sichuan
Pancreas | Year: 2015

OBJECTIVES: To explore the effect of betaine on alcoholic pancreatic steatosis and its mechanism. METHODS: Rats were randomly assigned to control, ethanol, or ethanol + betaine groups. Changes in pancreatic morphology; serum lipid levels; and pancreatic lipid, amylase and lipase levels were determined. The serum and adipose tissue adiponectin level was measured by an enzyme-linked immunoassay. Adiponectin receptor-1 (AdipoR1), AdipoR2, sterol regulatory element binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c), SREBP-2, and fatty acid synthetase expression levels were quantified. The SREBP-1c expression in SW1990 cells treated with various concentrations of ethanol or ethanol plus betaine and/or adiponectin was assessed. RESULTS: Alcohol-induced changes in pancreatic morphology were attenuated by betaine. Pancreatic triglyceride, free fatty acid and expression levels of SREBP-1c and fatty acid synthetase were elevated after ethanol feeding but remained at control levels after betaine supplementation. Alcohol-induced decreases in serum and adipose tissue adiponectin, pancreatic AdipoR1, amylase, and lipase were attenuated by betaine. Serum triglyceride and free fatty acid levels were elevated after alcohol consumption and remained higher after betaine supplementation compared with controls. Betaine and/or adiponectin suppressed alcohol-induced SREBP-1c upregulation in vitro. CONCLUSIONS: Betaine attenuated alcoholic-induced pancreatic steatosis most likely by suppressing pancreatic SREBP-1c both directly and through the restoration of adiponectin signaling. Copyright © 2015 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.

Chen R.,University of Sichuan
Zhonghua wai ke za zhi [Chinese journal of surgery] | Year: 2012

To study the predictors of level V metastasis in papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC). The clinic data of 122 patients with PTC who underwent therapeutic lateral neck dissection between March 2004 and November 2010 was analyzed retrospectively. There were 31 male and 91 female patients. The median age at diagnosis was 38.5 years (ranging from 8 to 87 years). All the patients had undergone unilateral or bilateral lymph node dissection (II-VI or I-VI). Univariate analysis and multivariate analysis were performed using χ(2) test and binary Logistic regression test, respectively. The level V metastases was significantly associated with capsular invasion, extrathyroidal extension, preoperative distant metastasis, the size of primary, ipsilateral level IV lymph node metastasis and simultaneous metastases to ipsilateral level II, III and IV (χ(2) = 4.223 - 13.748, P < 0.05). Age, sex, tumor-multifocal, pTNM, central lymph node metastases ipsilateral level II lymph node metastases and ipsilateral level III lymph node metastases were not found to be associated with level V metastases (χ(2) = 0.882 - 3.167, P > 0.05). In multivariate analysis, extrathyroidal extension (OR = 8.32, 95%CI: 2.44 - 28.3, P = 0.001) and simultaneous metastases to ipsilateral level II, III and IV (OR = 7.81, 95%CI: 2.11 - 28.8, P = 0.002) were independent predictors of level V metastasis. Extrathyroidal extension, simultaneous metastases to ipsilateral level II, III and IV are risk factors for level V lymph nodes metastases in PTC. Dissection of level V lymph nodes should be considered for PTC patients with extrathyroidal extension and simultaneous metastases to ipsilateral level II, III and IV.

Zhang J.,University of Sichuan
Cochrane database of systematic reviews (Online) | Year: 2012

The sudden loss of blood supply in ischemic stroke is associated with the increase of calcium ions within neurons. Inhibiting this increase could protect neurons and hence might reduce neurological impairment, disability and handicap after stroke. To determine whether calcium antagonists reduce the risk of death or dependency after acute ischemic stroke. To investigate the influence of different drugs, dosages, routes of administration, time intervals after stroke and trial design on the risk of a primary outcome. We searched the Cochrane Stroke Group Trials Register (January 2012), MEDLINE (1950 to December 2011), EMBASE (1980 to December 2011), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library, 2011 issue 4) and four Chinese databases (December 2011): Chinese Biological Medicine Database (CBM-disc), China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), Chinese scientific periodical database of VIP information and Wanfang Data. We also contacted trialists and researchers. All truly randomized trials comparing a calcium antagonist with control in patients with acute ischemic stroke. Two authors assessed all trials and extracted the data. We used death or dependency at the end of long-term follow-up (at least three months) in activities of daily living as the primary outcome. Analyses were, if possible, intention-to-treat. We included 34 trials including 7731 patients. There was no effect of calcium antagonists on the primary outcome (risk ratio (RR) 1.05; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.98 to 1.13), or on death at the end of follow-up (RR 1.07, 95% CI 0.98 to 1.17). Comparisons of different doses of nimodipine suggested that the highest doses were associated with poorer outcome. No evidence is available using calcium antagonists in patients with acute ischemic stroke is effective.

Fang Y.,University of Sichuan
Cochrane database of systematic reviews (Online) | Year: 2012

Craniopharyngiomas are the commonest benign histological tumours to involve the hypothalamo-pituitary region in childhood. Cystic craniopharyngiomas occur in more than 90% of tumours. The optimal treatment of cystic craniopharyngioma remains controversial. Radical resection is the treatment of choice in patients with favourable tumour localization. When the tumour localization is unfavourable, a gross-total or partial resection followed by radiotherapy is the main treatment option in adults. However, it presents risk of morbidity especially for children. Intracystic bleomycin has been utilized to potentially delay the use of radiotherapy or radical resection to decrease morbidity. To determine the benefits and harms of intracystic bleomycin versus other treatments for cystic craniopharyngiomas in children. We searched the electronic databases of CENTRAL (The Cochrane Library 2010, Issue 4), MEDLINE/PubMed (from 1966 to Oct 2010), and EMBASE/Ovid (from 1980 to Oct 2010) with pre-specified terms. In addition, we searched reference lists of relevant articles and reviews, conference proceedings and ongoing trial databases. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) quasi-randomised trials or controlled clinical trials (CCTs) comparing intracystic bleomycin and other treatments for cystic craniopharyngiomas in children (from birth to 18 years). Two review authors independently performed the data extraction and the 'Risk of bias' assessment. We used risk ratio (RR) for binary data and mean difference (MD) for continuous data. We planned that if one of the treatment groups experienced no events and there was only one study available for the outcome, we would use the Fischer's exact test. We could not identify any studies in which the only difference between the treatment groups was the use of intracystic bleomycin. We did identify a RCT comparing intracystic bleomycin with intracystic (32)P (n = 7 children). The trial had a high risk of bias. Survival could not be evaluated. There was no evidence of a significant difference in cyst reduction (MD = -0.15, 95% confidence interval (CI) -0.69 to 0.39, P= 0.59), neurological status (Fisher's exact P = 0.429), 3rd nerve paralysis (Fischer's exact P = 1.00), fever (RR = 2.92, 95% CI 0.73 to 11.70, P = 0.13) and total adverse effects (RR = 1.75, 95% CI 0.68 to 4.53, P = 0.25 ) between the treatment groups. There was a significant difference in favour of the (32)P group for the occurrence of headache and vomiting (Fischer's exact P = 0.029 for both outcomes). Since no RCTs, quasi-randomised trials or CCTs in which only the use of intracystic bleomycin differed between the treatment groups in the treatment of cystic craniopharyngiomas in children, no definitive conclusions could be made about the effects of intracystic bleomycin in these patients. Only one low-power RCT comparing intracystic bleomycin with intracystic (32)P treatment was available, but no definitive conclusions can be made about the effectiveness of these agents in children with cystic craniopharyngiomas. Based on the currently available evidence, we are not able to give recommendations for the use of intracystic bleomycin in the treatment of cystic craniopharyngiomas in children. High quality RCTs are needed.

Hao Z.,University of Sichuan
Cochrane database of systematic reviews (Online) | Year: 2012

Fibrinogen depleting agents reduce fibrinogen in blood plasma, reduce blood viscosity and hence increase blood flow. This may help remove the blood clot blocking the artery and re-establish blood flow to the affected area of the brain after an ischaemic stroke. The risk of haemorrhage may be less than with thrombolytic agents. This is an update of a Cochrane review first published in 1997 and last updated in 2003. To assess the effect of fibrinogen depleting agents in patients with acute ischaemic stroke. We searched the Cochrane Stroke Group Trials Register (July 2011), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library 2011, Issue 7), the Chinese Stroke Trials Register (September 2011), MEDLINE (1950 to July 2011), EMBASE (1980 to July 2011) and Web of Science Conference Proceedings (1990 to July 2011). In addition, we searched six Chinese databases, four ongoing trials registers (July 2011) and relevant reference lists. For previous versions of the review, we handsearched journals and contacted researchers in China and Japan and relevant drug companies. Randomised trials of fibrinogen depleting agents started within 14 days of stroke onset, compared with control in patients with definite or possible ischaemic stroke. Two review authors independently selected trials, assessed trial quality and extracted the data. We resolved disagreement by discussion. We included eight trials involving 5701 patients. Six trials tested ancrod and two trials tested defibrase (patients were treated for less than three hours to less than 48 hours). Allocation concealment was adequate in seven trials. Fibrinogen depleting agents marginally reduced the proportion of patients who were dead or disabled at the end of follow-up (risk ratio (RR) 0.95, 95% confidence Interval (CI) 0.90 to 0.99, 2P = 0.02). There was no statistically significant difference in death from all causes during the scheduled treatment or follow-up period. There were fewer stroke recurrences in the treatment group than in the control group (RR 0.67, 95% CI 0.49 to 0.92, 2P = 0.01). However, symptomatic intracranial haemorrhage was about twice as common in the treatment group compared with the control group (RR 2.42, 95% CI 1.65 to 3.56, 2P < 0.00001). The current evidence is promising but not yet sufficiently robust to support the routine use of fibrinogen depleting agents for the treatment of acute ischaemic stroke. Further trials are needed to determine whether there is worthwhile benefit, and if so, which categories of patients are most likely to benefit.

Zhang Y.,University of Sichuan
Cochrane database of systematic reviews (Online) | Year: 2012

Oxygen therapy is widely used in the treatment of lung diseases. However, the effectiveness of oxygen therapy as a treatment for pneumonia is not well known. To determine the effectiveness and safety of oxygen therapy in the treatment of pneumonia in adults older than 18 years. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) 2011, Issue 4, part of The Cochrane Library, www.thecochranelibrary.com (accessed 9 December 2011), which includes the Cochrane Acute Respiratory Infections Group's Specialised Register, MEDLINE (1948 to November week 3, 2011) and EMBASE (1974 to December 2011). Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of oxygen therapy for adults with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) and nosocomial (hospital-acquired) pneumonia (HAP or NP) in intensive care units (ICU). Two review authors independently reviewed abstracts and assessed data for methodological quality. Three RCTs met our inclusion criteria. The studies enrolled 151 participants with CAP or immunosuppressed patients with pulmonary infiltrates. Overall, we found that non-invasive ventilation can reduce the risk of death in the ICU, odd ratio (OR) 0.28, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.09 to 0.88; endotracheal intubation, OR 0.26, 95% CI 0.11 to 0.61; complications, OR 0.23, 95% CI 0.08 to 0.70; and shorten ICU length of stay, mean duration (MD) -3.28, 95% CI -5.41 to -1.61.Non-invasive ventilation and standard oxygen supplementation via a Venturi mask were similar when measuring mortality in hospital, OR 0.54, 95% CI 0.11 to 2.68; two-month survival, OR 1.67, 95% CI 0.53 to 5.28; duration of hospital stay, MD -1.00, 95% CI -2.05 to 0.05; and duration of mechanical ventilation, standard MD -0.26, 95% CI -0.66 to 0.14. Some outcomes and complications of non-invasive ventilation were varied according to different participant populations. We also found that some subgroups had a high level of heterogeneity when conducting pooled analyses. Non-invasive ventilation can reduce the risk of death in the ICU, endotracheal intubation, shorten ICU stay and length of intubation. Some outcomes and complications of non-invasive ventilation were varied according to different participant populations. Other than the oxygen therapy, we must mention the importance of standard treatment by physicians. The evidence is weak and we did not include participants with pulmonary tuberculosis and cystic fibrosis. More RCTs are required to answer these clinical questions. However, the review indicates that non-invasive ventilation may be more beneficial than standard oxygen supplementation via a Venturi mask for pneumonia.

Huang Y.,University of Sichuan
Cochrane database of systematic reviews (Online) | Year: 2012

Chinese herbal medicines are commonly used to treat sore throat in China and are used worldwide by practitioners of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). Their efficacy in treating sore throat has not previously been systematically reviewed. To assess the efficacy and safety of Chinese herbal medicines for patients with sore throat. We searched CENTRAL (The Cochrane Library Issue 4, 2011) which contains the Cochrane Acute Respiratory Infections Group's Specialised Register; MEDLINE (1966 to week 3, November 2011); EMBASE (1980 to December 2011); AMED (1985 to December 2011); the Chinese Biomedical Database (CBM) (1975 to December 2011); and China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) (1994 to December 2011). We included randomised controlled trial (RCTs) assessing Chinese herbal medicines for the treatment of sore throat, with the outcomes of recovery, inefficacy, and adverse events. The three review authors extracted and analysed the data. One review author contacted the study authors of potential RCTs. We included 12 studies involving 1954 participants. We identified ten studies as being of methodologically poor quality and two studies as being of medium quality. We did not perform a meta-analysis but reported the results separately. Six formulations were shown to be superior to the control in improving recovery: Ertong Qingyan Jiere Koufuye was more effective than Fufang Shuanghua Koufuye for acute pharyngitis (odds ratio (OR) 2.52; 95% confidence interval (Cl) 1.11 to 5.74); Yanhouling mixture was more effective than gentamicin atomised inhalation for acute pharyngitis (OR 5.39; 95% CI 2.69 to 10.81); Qinganlan Liyan Hanpian was more effective than Fufang Caoshanhu Hanpian for acute pharyngitis (OR 2.25; 95% CI 1.08 to 4.67); sore throat capsules were more effective than antibiotics (intravenous cefalexin) for acute pharyngitis or acute tonsillitis (OR 2.36; 95% CI 1.01 to 5.51); compound dandelion soup was more effective than sodium penicillin for acute purulent tonsillitis (OR 5.06; 95% CI 1.70 to 15.05); and eliminating heat by nourishing yin and relieving sore-throat methods combined with Dikuiluqan Hanpian was more effective than Dikuiluqan Hanpian alone for children with chronic pharyngitis (OR 2.63; 95% CI 1.02 to 6.79). Another six formulations were shown to be equally efficacious as the control. Based on the existing evidence in this review, some Chinese herbal medicines for treating sore throat appeared efficacious. However, due to the lack of high quality clinical trials, the efficacy of Chinese herbal medicine for treating sore throat is controversial and questionable. Therefore we cannot recommend any kind of Chinese medical herbal formulation as an effective remedy for sore throat.

Shan D.,University of Sichuan
Cochrane database of systematic reviews (Online) | Year: 2012

Diabetic kidney disease (DKD) is associated with increased morbidity and mortality, mostly relating to cardiovascular complications. The relevance of inflammation in the pathogenesis of DKD has been investigated in recent years, and it has been shown that inflammatory markers are higher in people with DKD compared with the wider population. Pentoxifylline is a methylxanthine phosphodiesterase inhibitor with favourable anti-inflammatory effects and immunoregulatory properties. The anti-inflammatory effects conferred by pentoxifylline may be beneficial in the management of DKD. To assess the benefits and harms of pentoxifylline for treating people with DKD. We searched the Cochrane Renal Group's specialised register (January 2012), CENTRAL (Issue 12, 2011), MEDLINE, EMBASE and four Chinese biomedical literature databases (CBM-disc, 1979 to July 2009), Chinese Science and Technique Journals Database (VIP, until July 2009), China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI, until July 2009) and WanFang database (until July 2009). All randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and quasi-RCTs studying the benefits and harms of pentoxifylline for DKD. Data were extracted independently by two authors. Meta-analyses were performed when more than one study provided data on a comparable outcome in sufficiently similar patients. Results of dichotomous outcomes were expressed as risk ratios (RR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI). Mean differences (MD) were calculated to assess the effects of treatment where outcomes were expressed on continuous scales, and standardised mean differences (SMD) calculated where different scales were used. Data was pooled using the random effects model. Adverse effects were assessed using descriptive techniques and where possible, risk differences (RD) with 95% CI. We identified 17 studies that included a total of 991 participants with DKD which met our inclusion criteria. Overall, the methodological quality of included studies was low: 4/17 reported the method of randomisation, 13/17 did not; no study described the method of random allocation; 4/17 studies were considered to be at high risk of bias and 13/17 were considered to have unclear risk for incomplete outcome data reporting; 9/17 studies were at low risk bias and in 8/17 the risk of bias was unclear for selective outcome reporting.Compared with placebo, pentoxifylline significantly reduced serum creatinine (SCr) (MD -0.10 mg/dL, 95% CI -0.17 to -0.03), albuminuria (SMD -2.28, 95% CI -3.85 to -0.70) and overt proteinuria (MD -428.58 μg/min, 95% CI -661.65 to -195.50), but there was no difference in creatinine clearance (CrCl) (MD -5.18 mL/min, 95% CI -15.55 to 5.19). When compared with routine treatment alone, pentoxifylline did not significantly reduce SCr (MD 0.00 mg/dL, 95% CI -0.06 to 0.07) or blood pressure (systolic (SBP): MD -0.28 mm Hg, 95% CI -2.20 to 1.63; diastolic (DBP): MD -0.15 mm Hg, 95% CI -1.44 to 1.14), but did significantly reduce albuminuria (SMD 0.62, 95% CI 0.18 to 1.07) and proteinuria (MD 0.46 g/24 h, 95% CI 0.17 to 0.74). There was no significant difference in SCr (MD 0.00 mg/dL, 95% CI -0.08 to 0.07), albuminuria (MD -8.79 μg/min, 95% CI -27.18 to 9.59), proteinuria (MD -0.01 g/24 h, 95% CI -0.03 to 0.01) or blood pressure (SBP: MD 1.46 mm Hg, 95% CI -0.57 to 3.50; DBP: MD 1.37 mm Hg, 95% CI -0.23 to 2.98) between pentoxifylline and the active comparator (captopril or clonidine/methyldopa) for patients with type 1 and type 2 DKD. CrCl was significantly increased when pentoxifylline was compared to clonidine/methyldopa (MD 10.90 mL/min, 95% CI -1.40 to 20.40) but not with captopril (MD 3.26 mL/min, 95% CI -1.05 to 7.59). No data were available on the incidence of end-stage kidney disease (ESKD), time to ESKD, quality of life, or all-cause mortality. The adverse events of pentoxifylline were mild; no serious adverse events were reported in any of the included studies. From the available evidence, pentoxifylline seems to offer some beneficial effects in renal function improvement and reduction in albuminuria and proteinuria, with no obvious serious adverse effects for patients with DKD. However, most studies were poorly reported, small, and methodologically flawed. Evidence to support the use of pentoxifylline for DKD was insufficient to develop recommendations for its use in this patient population. Rigorously designed, randomised, multicentre, large scale studies of pentoxifylline for DKD are needed to further assess its therapeutic effects.

Hwa R.C.,University of Oregon | Zhu L.,University of Sichuan
Physical Review C - Nuclear Physics | Year: 2012

The production of hadrons in heavy-ion collisions at the Relativistic Heavy-Ion Collider in the low-transverse-momentum (p T) region is investigated in the recombination model with emphasis on the effects of minijets on the azimuthal anisotropy. Since the study is mainly focused on the hadronization of partons at late time, the fluid picture is not used to trace the evolution of the system. The inclusive distributions at low p T are determined as the recombination products of thermal partons. The p T dependencies of both the pion and the proton have a common exponential factor apart from other dissimilar kinematic and resonance factors, because they are inherited from the same pool of thermal partons. Instead of the usual description based on hydrodynamics, the azimuthal anisotropy of the produced hadrons is explained as the consequence of the effects of minijets, either indirectly through the recombination of enhanced thermal partons in the vicinity of the trajectories of the semihard partons or directly through thermal-shower recombination. Although our investigation is focused on the single-particle distribution at midrapidity, we give reasons why a component in that distribution can be identified with the ridge, which, together with the second harmonic v 2, is due to the semihard partons created near the medium surface that lead to calculable anisotropy in φ. It is shown that the higher azimuthal harmonics, v n, can also be well reproduced without reference to flow. The p T and centrality dependencies of the higher harmonics are prescribed by the interplay between thermal-thermal (TT) and thermal-shower (TS) recombination components. The implication of the success of this drastic departure from the conventional approach is discussed. © 2012 American Physical Society.

Xiao J.,University of Rochester | Xiao J.,University of Sichuan | Koo H.,University of Rochester
Journal of Applied Microbiology | Year: 2010

Aims: To investigate the structural organization and dynamics of exopolysaccharides (EPS) matrix and microcolonies formation by Streptococcus mutans during the biofilm development process. Methods and Results: Biofilms of Strep. mutans were formed on saliva-coated hydroxyapatite (sHA) discs in the presence of glucose or sucrose (alone or mixed with starch). At specific time points, biofilms were subjected to confocal fluorescence imaging and computational analysis. EPS matrix was steadily formed on sHA surface in the presence of sucrose during the first 8 h followed by a threefold biomass increase between 8 and 30 h of biofilm development. The initial formation and further development of three-dimensional microcolony structure occurred concomitantly with EPS matrix synthesis. Tridimensional renderings showed EPS closely associated with microcolonies throughout the biofilm development process forming four distinct domains (i) between sHA surface and microcolonies, (ii) within, (iii) covering and (iv) filling the spaces between microcolonies. The combination of starch and sucrose resulted in rapid formation of elevated amounts of EPS matrix and faster assembly of microcolonies by Strep. mutans, which altered their structural organization and susceptibility of the biofilm to acid killing (vs sucrose-grown biofilms; P < 0·05). Conclusions: Our data indicate that EPS modulate the development, sequence of assembly and spatial distribution of microcolonies by Strep. mutans. Significance and Impact of the Study: Simultaneous visualization and analysis of EPS matrix and microcolonies provide a more precise examination of the structural organization of biofilms than labelling bacteria alone, which could be a useful approach to elucidate the exact mechanisms by which Strep. mutans influences oral biofilm formation and possibly identify novel targets for effective antibiofilm therapies. © 2009 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

Xue Q.M.,University of Sichuan
Zhen ci yan jiu = Acupuncture research / [Zhongguo yi xue ke xue yuan Yi xue qing bao yan jiu suo bian ji] | Year: 2011

To observe the effects of electroacupuncture (EA) of "Zusanli" (ST 36) on serum TNF-alpha and IL-6 contents and pancreatic nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-kappaB) expression in acute pancreatitis rats. Sixty-six male SD rats were randomly divided into sham operation (sham), model and EA groups (n=22). Acute pancreatitis model was established by intra-pancreatic duct injection of 3.5% sodium taurocholate (0.1 mL/100 g). EA (2 Hz /100 Hz, 2 mA) was applied to bilateral ST 36 for 30 min after modeling and at the end of the experiment. The animals were killed at 3 h (n=7), 6 h (n=7) and 12 h (n=8) after modeling. The expression of pancreatic NF-,cB P65 was detected by immunohistochemical staining, and serum TNF-alpha and IL-6 contentswere determined by ELISA. The pathological changes of pancreatic tissue were displayed by H. E. staining and the quantity of ascite was measured by electronic balance. The pathologic score, ascite quantity, serum TNFalpha and IL-6 contents, and pancreatic NF-kappaB P 65 expression levels at 3 h, 6 h and 12 h after modeling were significantly higher in the model group than in the sham group (P < 0.05). Compared with the model group, the pathologic score, ascite quantity, serum TNF-alpha and IL-6 contents, and pancreatic NF-kappaB P 65 expression levels at 3 h, 6 h and 12 h were significantly decreased in the EA group (P < 0.05). Microscopic observation displayed that the necrosis of the pancreatic acinar cells and infiltration of inflammatory cells were lighter in the EA group than in the model group. EA at ST 36 is able to down-regulate sodium taurocholate injection incduced increase of serum TNF-alpha and IL-6 contents, and pancreatic NF-kappaB P65 expression level in acute pancreatitis rats, which may contribute to its effect in relieving necrosis of the pancreatic acinar cells and infiltration of pancreatic inflammatory cells.

Liu Y.-L.,East China Normal University | Wang X.,University of Sichuan | Zhao Y.-L.,East China Normal University | Zhu F.,East China Normal University | And 5 more authors.
Angewandte Chemie - International Edition | Year: 2013

All in a sequence: An organocatalyzed Morita-Baylis-Hillman (MBH)/bromination/[3+2] annulation sequence for highly stereoselective syntheses of bis(spirooxindole)s featuring adjacent spiro-stereocenters is described. The key step is an unprecedented catalytic asymmetric [3+2] annulation of isatin-derived MBH adducts, containing a tetrasubstituted alkene moiety, with isatins. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

Liu X.,University of Sichuan
Cochrane database of systematic reviews (Online) | Year: 2012

Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) is an acute respiratory disease caused by a novel coronavirus, which first appeared in Foshan City, China on 22 December 2002. Chinese herbs were used in its treatment. To evaluate the possible effectiveness and safety of Chinese herbs combined with Western medicines versus Western medicines alone for SARS patients. We searched CENTRAL 2012, Issue 3, MEDLINE (1966 to February Week 4, 2012), EMBASE (1990 to March 2012) and the Chinese Biomedical Literature (Issue 3, 2012). Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and quasi-RCTs of Chinese herbs combined with Western medicines versus Western medicines alone for patients diagnosed with SARS. Two review authors (XL, MZ) independently extracted trial data. We extracted dichotomous and continuous data with 95% confidence intervals (CI). For dichotomous data, we used risk ratio (RR). For continuous data, we calculated mean differences (MD). We calculated overall results based on the random-effects model if heterogeneity existed between studies. If no heterogeneity was detected between the studies, we used the fixed-effect model. We used the Z score and the Chi(2) test with significance being set at P < 0.05 to test heterogeneity. No severe adverse events were reported. We included 12 RCTs and one quasi-RCT. A total of 640 SARS patients and 12 Chinese herbs were identified. We did not find Chinese herbs combined with Western medicines decreased mortality versus Western medicines alone. Two herbs may improve symptoms. Five herbs may improve lung infiltrate absorption. Four herbs may decrease the dosage of corticosteroids. Three herbs may improve the quality of life of SARS patients. One herb may shorten the length of hospital stay. Chinese herbs combined with Western medicines made no difference in decreasing mortality versus Western medicines alone. It is possible that Chinese herbs combined with Western medicines may improve symptoms, quality of life and absorption of pulmonary infiltration, and decrease the corticosteroid dosage for SARS patients. The evidence is weak because of the poor quality of the included trials. Long-term follow-up of these included trials is needed.

The authors performed a meta-analysis to compare the clinical outcomes of enamel matrix derivative (EMD) used in combination with various bone grafts with EMD alone in patients with intrabony defects. The authors retrieved relevant studies through Sept. 30, 2011, from MEDLINE, PubMed, Embase and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials. The main clinical outcomes were probing pocket depth (PPD) reduction, clinical attachment level (CAL) gain, gingival recession (REC) increase and defect fill gain. The authors performed two separate meta-analyses, according to the length of follow-up. They also conducted subgroup analyses regarding the study designs and surgical procedures used. The authors included 11 studies in their meta-analysis. At six to eight months' follow-up, pooled estimates showed that there was no significant difference regarding PPD reduction (P = .62) and CAL gain (P = .23) among the treatment groups, but there was a significant difference regarding defect fill gain and REC increase. At 12 months' follow-up, pooled estimates revealed no significant differences regarding PPD reduction (P = .29), CAL gain (P = .15) and REC increase (P = .30) between the groups, but the authors still detected a significant difference for defect fill gain. In trials with a short-term follow-up, the combination therapies yielded better clinical outcomes regarding defect fill gain and REC increase compared with EMD alone, whereas most clinical outcomes were not significantly different between the two groups in the long run. The additional benefits from using combination therapies to promote periodontal tissue regeneration need to be confirmed.

Ma J.,University of Sichuan
Cochrane database of systematic reviews (Online) | Year: 2012

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a leading cause of death and disability. Progesterone is a potential neuroprotective drug to treat patients with TBI. To assess the effectiveness and safety of progesterone in people with acute TBI. We searched: the Cochrane Injuries Group's Specialised Register (13 July 2012), Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (Issue 7, 2012), MEDLINE (Ovid) (1950 to August week 1, 2012), EMBASE (Ovid) (1980 to week 32 2012), LILACS (12 August 2012), Zetoc (13 July 2012), Clinicaltrials.gov (12 August 2012), Controlled-trials.com (12 August 2012). We included published and unpublished randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of progesterone versus no progesterone (or placebo) for the treatment of people with acute TBI. Two review authors independently screened search results to identify the full texts of potentially relevant studies for inclusion. From the results of the screened searches two review authors independently selected trials meeting the inclusion criteria, with no disagreement. Three studies were included with a total of 315 people. Two included studies were of high methodological quality, with low risk of bias in allocation concealment, blinding and incomplete outcome data. One study did not use blinding and had unclear risk of bias in allocation concealment and incomplete outcome data. All three studies reported the effects of progesterone on mortality. The pooled risk ratio (RR) for mortality at end of follow-up was 0.61, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.40 to 0.93. Three studies measured disability and found the RR of death or severe disability in patients treated with progesterone to be 0.77, 95% CI 0.62 to 0.96. Data from two studies showed no difference in mean intracranial pressure or the rate of adverse and serious adverse events among people in either group. One study presented blood pressure and temperature data, and there were no differences between the people in the progesterone or control groups. There was no substantial evidence for the presence of heterogeneity. Current clinical evidence from three small RCTs indicates progesterone may improve the neurologic outcome of patients suffering TBI. This evidence is still insufficient and further multicentre randomised controlled trials are required.

Wang K.,CAS Institute of Psychology | Cheung E.F.C.,Castle Peak Hospital | Gong Q.-Y.,University of Sichuan | Chan R.C.K.,CAS Institute of Psychology
PLoS ONE | Year: 2011

Background: Theoretically semantic processing can be separated into early automatic semantic activation and late contextualization. Semantic processing deficits have been suggested in patients with schizophrenia, however it is not clear which stage of semantic processing is impaired. We attempted to clarify this issue by conducting a meta-analysis of the N400 component. Methods: Twenty-one studies met the inclusion criteria for the meta-analysis procedure. The Comprehensive Meta-Analysis software package was used to compute pooled effect sizes and homogeneity. Results: Studies favoring early automatic activation produced a significant effect size of -0.41 for the N400 effect. Studies favoring late contextualization generated a significant effect size of -0.36 for the N400 effect, a significant effect size of -0.52 for N400 for congruent/related target words, and a significant effect size of 0.82 for the N400 peak latency. Conclusion: These findings suggest the automatic spreading activation process in patients with schizophrenia is very similar for closely related concepts and weakly or remotely related concepts, while late contextualization may be associated with impairments in processing semantically congruent context accompanied by slow processing speed. © 2011 Wang et al.

He J.,University of Sichuan
Cochrane database of systematic reviews (Online) | Year: 2012

Mumps is an acute, viral illness transmitted by respiratory droplets and saliva. A number of studies published in China have suggested that acupuncture is beneficial for children with mumps but the literature reporting the benefits or harms of acupuncture for mumps has not been systematically reviewed. To determine the efficacy and safety of acupuncture for children with mumps. We searched CENTRAL (2012, Issue 4), MEDLINE (1950 to April week 4, 2012), EMBASE (1974 to May 2012), CINAHL (1981 to May 2012), AMED (1985 to May 2012), the Chinese BioMedicine Database (CBM) (1979 to May 2012), China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) (1979 to May 2012), Chinese Technology Periodical Database (CTPD) (1989 to May 2012) and WANFANG database (1982 to May 2012). We also handsearched a number of journals (from first issue to current issue). We included randomised controlled trials comparing acupuncture with placebo acupuncture, no management, Chinese medication, Western medication or other treatments for mumps. Acupuncture included either traditional acupuncture or contemporary acupuncture, regardless of the source of stimulation (body, electro, scalp, fire, hand, fine needle, moxibustion). Two review authors independently extracted data and assessed the quality of included studies. We calculated risk ratios (RR) with their 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the effective percentage and standardised mean differences (SMD) with 95% CIs for the time to cure. Only one study with 239 participants met our inclusion criteria. There were a total of 120 participants in the acupuncture group, of which 106 recovered, with their temperature returning back to normal and no swelling or pain of the parotid gland; the condition of 14 participants improved, with a drop in temperature and alleviation of swelling or pain of the parotid gland. There were 119 participants in the Western medicine group, of which 56 recovered and the condition of 63 improved. The acupuncture group had a higher recovery rate than the control group. The relative RR of recovery was 1.88 (95% CI 1.53 to 2.30). However, the acupuncture group had a longer time to cure than the control group. The mean was 4.20 days and the standard deviation (SD) was 0.46 in the acupuncture group, while in the control group the mean was 3.78 days and the SD was 0.46.There was a potential risk of bias in the study because of low methodological quality. We could not reach any confident conclusions about the efficacy and safety of acupuncture based on one study. More high-quality research is needed.

Lu D.,University of Sichuan
Cochrane database of systematic reviews (Online) | Year: 2012

Endometriosis is a chronic, recurring condition that occurs during the reproductive years. It is characterized by endometrial tissue developing outside the uterine cavity. This endometrial tissue development is dependent on oestrogen produced primarily by the ovaries and, therefore, traditional management has focused on ovarian suppression. In this review we considered the role of modulation of the immune system as an alternative approach. This is an update of a Cochrane Review previously published in 2009 (Lu 2009). To assess the effects of pentoxifylline, which has anti-inflammatory effects, in subfertile, premenopausal women for the management of endometriosis. For the first publication of this review we searched the following databases (from inception to December 2008) for trials: Cochrane Menstrual Disorders and Subfertility Group Specialised Register, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library), MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, and PsycINFO. In addition, all reference lists of included trials were searched and experts in the field were contacted in an attempt to locate trials. This search was rerun to 23 November 2011, for this update. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) comparing pentoxifylline with placebo or no treatment, medical treatment, or surgery in subfertile, premenopausal women were included. Two review authors independently selected trials for inclusion, assessed trial risk of bias, and extracted data using data extraction forms. We contacted study authors for additional information and data. The domains assessed for risk of bias were sequence generation, allocation concealment, blinding, incomplete outcome data, and selective outcome reporting. Peto odds ratios (OR) were used for reporting dichotomous data with 95% confidence intervals (CI), whilst mean differences (MD) were expressed for continuous data. Statistical heterogeneity was assessed using the I(2) statistic. Four trials involving 334 participants were included. One RCT [n=34] showed pentoxifylline had no significant effect on reduction in pain (MD -1.60, 95% CI -3.32 to 0.12). There was no evidence of an increase in clinical pregnancy events in the pentoxifylline group compared with placebo (three RCTs [n=67] OR 1.54, 95% CI 0.89 to 266). One RCT studied recurrence of endometriosis [n=88] (OR 0.88,95% CI 0.27 to 2.84). No trials reported the effects of pentoxifylline on the odds of live birth rate per woman, improvement of endometriosis-related symptoms, or adverse events. This review has been updated in 2011. The results of the original review published in 2009 remain unchanged. There is still not enough evidence to support the use of pentoxifylline in the management of premenopausal women with endometriosis in terms of subfertility and relief of pain outcomes.

Lin S.,University of Sichuan
Cochrane database of systematic reviews (Online) | Year: 2012

External counterpulsation (ECP) may improve cerebral blood flow, and it has been proposed as a potential therapy for patients with ischaemic stroke. To assess the efficacy and safety of ECP for acute ischaemic stroke. We searched the Cochrane Stroke Group Trials Register (June 2011), Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library, 2011 Issue 2), MEDLINE (1948 to June 2011), EMBASE (1980 to June 2011), CINAHL (1982 to June 2011), AMED (Allied and Complementary Medicine) (1985 to June 2011), China Biological Medicine Database (CBM) (1978 to June 2011), Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) (1979 to June 2011), Chinese Science and Technique Journals Database (VIP) (1989 to June 2011) and Wanfang Data (1984 to June 2011). We also searched ongoing trials registers, reference lists and relevant conference proceedings and contacted authors and manufacturers of external counterpulsation devices. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) in which ECP (started within seven days of stroke onset) was compared with sham treatment or no treatment, or ECP plus routine treatment was compared with routine treatment alone, in patients with acute ischaemic stroke. Two review authors independently assessed trial quality and extracted data, checked for adverse events data and contacted trialists for missing information. We included two trials involving 160 patients. Numbers of death or dependent patients at the end of at least three months follow-up were not reported in either of the included trials. The outcome measure used in the included trials was only the number of participants with improvement of neurological impairment after treatment according to the Modified Edinburgh-Scandinavian Stroke Scale (MESSS) or self-making criteria. ECP was associated with a significant increase in the number of participants whose neurological impairment improved (risk ratio (RR) 1.75, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.37 to 2.23). Only one trial reported no adverse events. The methodological quality of the included studies was poor, and reliable conclusions could not be drawn from the present data. High-quality and large-scale RCTs are needed.

Li L.R.,University of Sichuan
Cochrane database of systematic reviews (Online) | Year: 2012

Paraquat is an effective and widely used herbicide but is also a lethal poison. In many developing countries paraquat is widely available and inexpensive, making poisoning prevention difficult. However most of the people who become poisoned from paraquat have taken it as a means of suicide.Standard treatment for paraquat poisoning both prevents further absorption and reduces the load of paraquat in the blood through haemoperfusion or haemodialysis. The effectiveness of standard treatments is extremely limited.The immune system plays an important role in exacerbating paraquat-induced lung fibrosis. Immunosuppressive treatment using glucocorticoid and cyclophosphamide in combination is being developed and studied. To assess the effects of glucocorticoid with cyclophosphamide on mortality in patients with paraquat-induced lung fibrosis. To identify randomised controlled trials (RCTs) on this topic, we searched the Cochrane Injuries Group's Specialised Register (searched 1 February 2012), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library 2012, Issue 1), MEDLINE (Ovid SP) (1946 January Week 3 2012), EMBASE (Ovid SP) (1947 to Week 4 2012), ISI Web of Science: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED) (1970 to January 2012), ISI Web of Science: Conference Proceedings Citation Index - Science (CPCI-S) (1990 to January 2012), Chinese Biomedical Literature and Retrieval System (CBM) (1978 to April 2012), Chinese Medical Current Contents (CMCC) (1995 to April 2012), and Chinese Medical Academic Conference (CMAC) (1994 to April 2012). Searches were completed on English language databases on 1 February 2012 and on Chinese language databases on 12 April 2012. RCTs were included in this review. All patients were to receive standard care, plus the intervention or control. The intervention was glucocorticoid with cyclophosphamide in combination versus a control of a placebo, standard care alone or any other therapy in addition to standard care. The mortality risk ratio (RR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) was calculated for each study on an intention-to-treat basis. Data for all-cause mortality at final follow-up were summarised in a meta-analysis using a fixed-effect model. This systematic review includes three trials with a combined total of 164 participants who had moderate to severe paraquat poisoning. Patients who received glucocorticoid with cyclophosphamide in addition to standard care had a lower risk of death at final follow-up than those receiving standard care only (RR 0.72; 95% CI 0.59 to 0.89). Based on the findings of three small RCTs of moderate to severely poisoned patients, glucocorticoid with cyclophosphamide in addition to standard care may be a beneficial treatment for patients with paraquat-induced lung fibrosis. To enable further study of the effects of glucocorticoid with cyclophosphamide for patients with moderate to severe paraquat poisoning, hospitals may provide this treatment as part of an RCT with allocation concealment.

Wu H.M.,University of Sichuan
Cochrane database of systematic reviews (Online) | Year: 2012