The University of Sheffield is a research university in the city of Sheffield in South Yorkshire, England. It received its royal charter in 1905 as successor to Sheffield Medical School and University College of Sheffield . As one of the original red brick universities, it is also a member of the prestigious Russell Group of research-intensive universities.The University of Sheffield is widely recognized as a leading research and teaching university in the UK and in the world. In 2014, QS World University Rankings placed Sheffield as the 66th university worldwide and 12th in the UK. In 2011, Sheffield was named 'University of the Year' in the Times Higher Education awards. The latest Times Higher Education Student Experience Survey 2014 ranked the University of Sheffield 1st for student experience, social life, university facilities and accommodation, among other categories.The university had more than 17000 undergraduate and around 9000 postgraduate students in 2012. Its annual income for 2012-13 was £479.8 million, with an expenditure of £465.0 million, resulting in a surplus of £14.8 million. Wikipedia.
University of Sheffield | Date: 2017-06-28
An analysis device comprises an output to output data relating to at least one of a contact stress in or a contact load applied to the first element; and process the ultrasound data to determine ultrasound time-of-flight data, and derive the output data, wherein a propagation direction of the ultrasound has a greatest component perpendicular to the contact surface, and wherein the processing to determine ultrasound time-of-flight data includes determining a time-of-flight of the ultrasound independent of a phase shift dependent on a contact condition at the contact surface. In another analysis device, deriving output data includes determining at least one of the contact stress or the contact load, the determining based at least in part on an estimated change in a speed of the ultrasound due to the acoustoelastic effect.
The Regents Of The University Of California, University of Nottingham and University of Sheffield | Date: 2016-08-05
University of Sheffield | Date: 2017-06-28
A laser structure comprising a first photonic crystal surface emitting laser (PCSEL), a second PCSEL, and a coupling region that extends between the first PCSEL and the second PCSEL along a longitudinal axis and that is electrically controllable so as to be capable of coherently coupling the first PCSEL to the second PCSEL. Each PCSEL include an active layer, a photonic crystal, and a two-dimensional periodic array distributed in an array plane parallel to the longitudinal axis within the photonic crystal where the two-dimensional periodic array is formed of regions having a refractive index that is different to the surrounding photonic crystal.
The Regents Of The University Of California, Texas A&M University, University of Queensland and University of Sheffield | Date: 2016-10-17
A method of selectively modulating the activity of C5a receptor 2 (C5aR2). The method includes exposing the receptor to a compound that selectively modulates C5aR2 compared to C5a receptor 1 (C5aR1). In some cases, the compound is peptide P32 or P59. Methods of recruiting -arrestin 2 in a cell, modulating C5a-induced ERK1/2 activation in a macrophage, selectively inhibiting the release of IL-6 from a macrophage, are also provided.
Haynes A.,University of Sheffield
Advances in Catalysis | Year: 2010
The carbonylation of methanol to acetic acid is established as one of the major industrial applications of homogeneous catalysis. Since the introduction of a rhodium-catalyzed process by Monsanto four decades ago, there has been almost continuous activity aimed toward improving the process and gaining a deeper understanding of the underlying chemistry. Strategies to improve catalyst performance and process economics have been developed, resulting in both rhodium- and iridium-catalyzed systems that operate with high activity at reduced water concentration, making product purification less costly. This chapter describes important aspects of the commercial processes as well as potential strategies for enhancing catalyst activity, stability, and selectivity. A particular emphasis is placed on mechanistic aspects, with experimental studies being complemented in recent years by theoretical investigations. Attempts to anchor the rhodium catalyst and to influence activity and selectivity using phosphine ligands are reviewed. Some potential alternative catalytic routes to acetic acid and derivatives are also summarized. © 2010, Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Fagan R.P.,University of Sheffield |
Fairweather N.F.,Imperial College London
Nature Reviews Microbiology | Year: 2014
The outer surface of many archaea and bacteria is coated with a proteinaceous surface layer (known as an S-layer), which is formed by the self-assembly of monomeric proteins into a regularly spaced, two-dimensional array. Bacteria possess dedicated pathways for the secretion and anchoring of the S-layer to the cell wall, and some Gram-positive species have large S-layer-associated gene families. S-layers have important roles in growth and survival, and their many functions include the maintenance of cell integrity, enzyme display and, in pathogens and commensals, interaction with the host and its immune system. In this Review, we discuss our current knowledge of S-layer and related proteins, including their structures, mechanisms of secretion and anchoring and their diverse functions. © 2014 Macmillan Publishers Limited.
Howarth C.,University of Sheffield
Frontiers in Neuroscience | Year: 2014
In order to maintain normal brain function, it is critical that cerebral blood flow (CBF) is matched to neuronal metabolic needs. Accordingly, blood flow is increased to areas where neurons are more active (a response termed functional hyperemia). The tight relationships between neuronal activation, glial cell activity, cerebral energy metabolism, and the cerebral vasculature, known as neurometabolic and neurovascular coupling, underpin functional MRI (fMRI) signals but are incompletely understood. As functional imaging techniques, particularly BOLD fMRI, become more widely used, their utility hinges on our ability to accurately and reliably interpret the findings. A growing body of data demonstrates that astrocytes can serve as a "bridge," relaying information on the level of neural activity to blood vessels in order to coordinate oxygen and glucose delivery with the energy demands of the tissue. It is widely assumed that calcium-dependent release of vasoactive substances by astrocytes results in arteriole dilation and the increased blood flow which accompanies neuronal activity. However, the signaling molecules responsible for this communication between astrocytes and blood vessels are yet to be definitively confirmed. Indeed, there is controversy over whether activity-induced changes in astrocyte calcium are widespread and fast enough to elicit such functional hyperemia responses. In this review, I will summarize the evidence which has convincingly demonstrated that astrocytes are able to modify the diameter of cerebral arterioles. I will discuss the prevalence, presence, and timing of stimulus-induced astrocyte calcium transients and describe the evidence for and against the role of calcium-dependent formation and release of vasoactive substances by astrocytes. I will also review alternative mechanisms of astrocyte-evoked changes in arteriole diameter and consider the questions which remain to be answered in this exciting area of research. © 2014 Howarth.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: INFRAIA-01-2016-2017 | Award Amount: 10.01M | Year: 2017
Europe has become a global leader in optical-near infrared astronomy through excellence in space and ground-based experimental and theoretical research. While the major infrastructures are delivered through major national and multi-national agencies (ESO, ESA) their continuing scientific competitiveness requires a strong community of scientists and technologists distributed across Europes nations. OPTICON has a proven record supporting European astrophysical excellence through development of new technologies, through training of new people, through delivering open access to the best infrastructures, and through strategic planning for future requirements in technology, innovative research methodologies, and trans-national coordination. Europes scientific excellence depends on continuing effort developing and supporting the distributed expertise across Europe - this is essential to develop and implement new technologies and ensure instrumentation and infrastructures remain cutting edge. Excellence depends on continuing effort to strengthen and broaden the community, through networking initiatives to include and then consolidate European communities with more limited science expertise. Excellence builds on training actions to qualify scientists from European communities which lack national access to state of the art research infrastructures to compete successfully for use of the best available facilities. Excellence depends on access programmes which enable all European scientists to access the best infrastructures needs-blind, purely on competitive merit. Global competitiveness and the future of the community require early planning of long-term sustainability, awareness of potentially disruptive technologies, and new approaches to the use of national-scale infrastructures under remote or robotic control. OPTICON will continue to promote this excellence, global competitiveness and long-term strategic planning.
De Palma M.,Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne |
Lewis C.E.,University of Sheffield
Cancer Cell | Year: 2013
Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) promote key processes in tumor progression, like angiogenesis, immunosuppression, invasion, and metastasis. Increasing studies have also shown that TAMs can either enhance or antagonize the antitumor efficacy of cytotoxic chemotherapy, cancer-cell targeting antibodies, and immunotherapeutic agents-depending on the type of treatment and tumor model. TAMs also drive reparative mechanisms in tumors after radiotherapy or treatment with vascular-targeting agents. Here, we discuss the biological significance and clinical implications of these findings, with an emphasis on novel approaches that effectively target TAMs to increase the efficacy of such therapies. © 2013 Elsevier Inc.
Zhong Q.-C.,University of Sheffield
IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics | Year: 2013
In this paper, the inherent limitations of the conventional droop control scheme are revealed. It has been proven that parallel-operated inverters should have the same per-unit impedance in order for them to share the load accurately in proportion to their power ratings when the conventional droop control scheme is adopted. The droop controllers should also generate the same voltage set-point for the inverters. Both conditions are difficult to meet in practice, which results in errors in proportional load sharing. An improved droop controller is then proposed to achieve accurate proportional load sharing without meeting these two requirements and to reduce the load voltage drop due to the load effect and the droop effect. The load voltage can be maintained within the desired range around the rated value. The strategy is robust against numerical errors, disturbances, noises, feeder impedance, parameter drifts and component mismatches. The only sharing error, which is quantified in this paper, comes from the error in measuring the load voltage. When there are errors in the voltage measured, a fundamental tradeoff between the voltage drop and the sharing accuracy appears. It has also been explained that, in order to avoid errors in power sharing, the global settings of the rated voltage and frequency should be accurate. Experimental results are provided to verify the analysis and design. © 2012 IEEE.