Sheffield, United Kingdom
Sheffield, United Kingdom

The University of Sheffield is a research university in the city of Sheffield in South Yorkshire, England. It received its royal charter in 1905 as successor to Sheffield Medical School and University College of Sheffield . As one of the original red brick universities, it is also a member of the prestigious Russell Group of research-intensive universities.The University of Sheffield is widely recognized as a leading research and teaching university in the UK and in the world. In 2014, QS World University Rankings placed Sheffield as the 66th university worldwide and 12th in the UK. In 2011, Sheffield was named 'University of the Year' in the Times Higher Education awards. The latest Times Higher Education Student Experience Survey 2014 ranked the University of Sheffield 1st for student experience, social life, university facilities and accommodation, among other categories.The university had more than 17000 undergraduate and around 9000 postgraduate students in 2012. Its annual income for 2012-13 was £479.8 million, with an expenditure of £465.0 million, resulting in a surplus of £14.8 million. Wikipedia.


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The Regents Of The University Of California, University of Nottingham and University of Sheffield | Date: 2016-08-05

Provided are methods and compositions for improving the growth characteristics of plants.


Lundgren M.R.,University of Sheffield | Christin P.-A.,University of Sheffield
Journal of Experimental Botany | Year: 2017

C4 photosynthesis is a physiological innovation involving several anatomical and biochemical components that emerged recurrently in flowering plants. This complex trait evolved via a series of physiological intermediates, broadly termed 'C3-C4', which have been widely studied to understand C4 origins. While this research program has focused on biochemistry, physiology, and anatomy, the ecology of these intermediates remains largely unexplored. Here, we use global occurrence data and local habitat descriptions to characterize the niches of multiple C3-C4 lineages, as well as their close C3 and C4 relatives. While C3-C4 taxa tend to occur in warm climates, their abiotic niches are spread along other dimensions, making it impossible to define a universal C3-C4 niche. Phylogeny-based comparisons suggest that, despite shifts associated with photosynthetic types, the precipitation component of the C3-C4 niche is particularly lineage specific, being highly correlated with that of closely related C3 and C4 taxa. Our large-scale analyses suggest that C3-C4 lineages converged toward warm habitats, which may have facilitated the transition to C4 photosynthesis, effectively bridging the ecological gap between C3 and C4 plants. The intermediates retained some precipitation aspects of their C3 ancestors' habitat, and likely transmitted them to their C4 descendants, contributing to the diversity among C4 lineages seen today. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.


Bellasio C.,University of Sheffield
Journal of Experimental Botany | Year: 2017

The goal of suppressing photorespiration in crops to maximize assimilation and yield is stimulating considerable interest among researchers looking to bioengineer carbon-concentrating mechanisms into C3 plants. However, detailed quantification of the biochemical activities in the bundle sheath is lacking. This work presents a general stoichiometric model for C3, C2, C2+C4, and C4 assimilation (SMA) in which energetics, metabolite traffic, and the different decarboxylating enzymes (NAD-dependent malic enzyme, NADP-dependent malic enzyme, or phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase) are explicitly included. The SMA can be used to refine experimental data analysis or formulate hypothetical scenarios, and is coded in a freely available Microsoft Excel workbook. The theoretical underpinnings and general model behaviour are analysed with a range of simulations, including (i) an analysis of C3, C2, C2+C4, and C4 in operational conditions; (ii) manipulating photorespiration in a C3 plant; (iii) progressively upregulating a C2 shuttle in C3 photosynthesis; (iv) progressively upregulating a C4 cycle in C2 photosynthesis; and (v) manipulating processes that are hypothesized to respond to transient environmental inputs. Results quantify the functional trade-offs, such as the electron transport needed to meet ATP/NADPH demand, as well as metabolite traffic, inherent to different subtypes. The SMA refines our understanding of the stoichiometry of photosynthesis, which is of paramount importance for basic and applied research. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.


Christin P.-A.,University of Sheffield
Journal of Experimental Botany | Year: 2017

C4 photosynthesis is nature's response to CO2 limitations, and evolved recurrently in several groups of plants. To identify genes related to C4 photosynthesis, Huang et al. looked for evidence of past episodes of adaptive evolution in the genomes of C4 grasses. They identified a large number of candidate genes that evolved under divergent selection, indicating that, besides alterations to expression patterns, the history of C4 involved strong selection on protein-coding sequences. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.


Fletcher A.G.,University of Sheffield | Cooper F.,University of Oxford | Baker R.E.,University of Oxford
Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences | Year: 2017

Embryonic epithelia achieve complex morphogenetic movements, including in-plane reshaping, bending and folding, through the coordinated action and rearrangement of individual cells. Technical advances in molecular and live-imaging studies of epithelial dynamics provide a very real opportunity to understand how cell-level processes facilitate these large-scale tissue rearrangements. However, the large datasets that we are now able to generate require careful interpretation. In combination with experimental approaches, computational modelling allows us to challenge and refine our current understanding of epithelial morphogenesis and to explore experimentally intractable questions. To this end, a variety of cell-based modelling approaches have been developed to describe cell –cell mechanical interactions, ranging from vertex and ‘finite-element’ models that approximate each cell geometrically by a polygon representing the cell’s membrane, to immersed boundary and subcellular element models that allow for more arbitrary cell shapes. Here, we review how these models have been used to provide insights into epithelial morphogenesis and describe how such models could help future efforts to decipher the forces and mechanical and biochemical feedbacks that guide cell and tissue-level behaviour. In addition, we discuss current challenges associated with using computational models of morphogenetic processes in a quantitative and predictive way. © 2017 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.


Schmidt R.,University of Sheffield | Berke J.D.,University of California at San Francisco
Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences | Year: 2017

Many studies have implicated the basal ganglia in the suppression of action impulses (‘stopping’). Here, we discuss recent neurophysiological evidence that distinct hypothesized processes involved in action preparation and cancellation can be mapped onto distinct basal ganglia cell types and pathways. We examine how movement-related activity in the striatum is related to a ‘Go’ process and how going may be modulated by brief epochs of beta oscillations. We then describe how, rather than a unitary ‘Stop’ process, there appear to be separate, complementary ‘Pause’ and ‘Cancel’ mechanisms. We discuss the implications of these stopping subprocesses for the interpretation of the stop-signal reaction time—in particular, some activity that seems too slow to causally contribute to stopping when assuming a single Stop processes may actually be fast enough under a Pause-then-Cancel model. Finally, we suggest that combining complementary neural mechanisms that emphasize speed or accuracy respectively may serve more generally to optimize speed–accuracy trade-offs. © 2017 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.


Meth P.,University of Sheffield
British Journal of Criminology | Year: 2017

Violence and crime in countries such as South Africa are shaped by deep socio-economic inequalities; however, the spatial designs of urban areas and housing also play a role, but often in differing ways. There is little qualitatively derived research published on the design realities of poor informal housing where the hyper-permeability of housing structures directly shapes residents' experiences of crime, often in gendered ways. This paper speaks to the wider literature on Crime Prevention through Environmental Design (CPTED) and applauds its recognition of the role of wider social factors in shaping crime and prevention, arguing that socio-political factors are critical too in the South African case. However, this paper calls for a fuller analysis of the particular material and design realities of informal housing, realities that are ever-present across the global South, which in practice can undermine efforts towards target hardening. © The Author 2017.


Provis J.L.,University of Sheffield
Cement and Concrete Research | Year: 2017

This paper, which forms part of the UNEP White Papers series on Eco-Efficient Cements, provides a brief discussion of the class of cementing materials known as 'alkali-activated binders', which are identified to have potential for utilization as a key component of a sustainable future global construction materials industry. These cements are not expected to offer a like-for-like replacement of Portland cement across its full range of applications, for reasons related to supply chain limitations, practical challenges in some modes of application, and the need for careful control of formulation and curing. However, when produced using locally-available raw materials, with well-formulated mix designs (including in particular consideration of the environmental footprint of the alkaline activator) and production under adequate levels of quality control, alkali-activated binders are potentially an important and cost-effective component of the future toolkit of sustainable construction materials. © 2017 Elsevier Ltd.


Wilson S.P.,University of Sheffield
PLoS Computational Biology | Year: 2017

A thermodynamic model of thermoregulatory huddling interactions between endotherms is developed. The model is presented as a Monte Carlo algorithm in which animals are iteratively exchanged between groups, with a probability of exchanging groups defined in terms of the temperature of the environment and the body temperatures of the animals. The temperature-dependent exchange of animals between groups is shown to reproduce a second-order critical phase transition, i.e., a smooth switch to huddling when the environment gets colder, as measured in recent experiments. A peak in the rate at which group sizes change, referred to as pup flow, is predicted at the critical temperature of the phase transition, consistent with a thermodynamic description of huddling, and with a description of the huddle as a self-organising system. The model was subjected to a simple evolutionary procedure, by iteratively substituting the physiologies of individuals that fail to balance the costs of thermoregulation (by huddling in groups) with the costs of thermogenesis (by contributing heat). The resulting tension between cooperative and competitive interactions was found to generate a phenomenon called self-organised criticality, as evidenced by the emergence of avalanches in fitness that propagate across many generations. The emergence of avalanches reveals how huddling can introduce correlations in fitness between individuals and thereby constrain evolutionary dynamics. Finally, a full agent-based model of huddling interactions is also shown to generate criticality when subjected to the same evolutionary pressures. The agent-based model is related to the Monte Carlo model in the way that a Vicsek model is related to an Ising model in statistical physics. Huddling therefore presents an opportunity to use thermodynamic theory to study an emergent adaptive animal behaviour. In more general terms, huddling is proposed as an ideal system for investigating the interaction between self-organisation and natural selection empirically. © 2017 Stuart P. Wilson.


PURPOSE: Using the “educational alliance” as a conceptual framework, the authors explored medical students’ beliefs about feedback and how their feedback behaviors reflect their perceptions. METHOD: Five focus groups (four to six medical students each) at one UK medical school in 2015 were used to capture and elucidate learners’ feedback perceptions and behaviors within the context of the learner–educator relationship. A map of key feedback opportunities across the program was used as a tool for exploring student engagement with the feedback process. Qualitative data were analyzed using an approach based on grounded theory principles. RESULTS: Three learner feedback behaviors emerged: recognizing, using, and seeking feedback. Five core themes influencing these behaviors were generated: learner beliefs, attitudes, and perceptions; relationships; teacher attributes; mode of feedback; and learning culture. Conceptual models illustrating the relationships between the themes and each behavior were developed. Learning culture influenced all three behaviors with a wide context of influences. CONCLUSIONS: Ensuring that feedback leads to improved performance requires more than training educators in best practices. The conceptual models support the educational alliance framework and illustrate the context and complexity of learning culture surrounding the educational relationship, learner, and feedback exchange. The educational alliance approach is underpinned by a mutual understanding of purpose and responsibility. Enhancing learners’ feedback literacy skills seems to be the key aspect of the educational alliance in need of attention. Empowering learners to recognize, seek, and use feedback received within diverse learning cultures is essential. © 2017 by the Association of American Medical Colleges


News Article | March 21, 2017
Site: www.techtimes.com

A team of British and Japanese researchers set out to discover the factors that determine a successful conception and the hurdles that sperm encounter in their journey to produce a healthy embryo. The findings revealed sperm's swimming ability isn't the only influencing element; a major role is also played by the pattern and rhythm in which they move, and which can be described through a simple mathematical formula. The study, published in the journal Physical Review Letters, offers new insight into the reproductive system and could bring important contributions to the development of male fertility treatments. After unprotected intercourse, more than 50 million sperm enter the marathon toward the fallopian tubes. The liquid environment they are traversing is relatively hostile and few survive its trying conditions. For most of them, the path is hindered by obstacles and dead ends, and they eventually become trapped on their route to the uterus. The 0.060-millimeter sperm are also hunted along the way by intrepid leukocytes - white blood cells that stand guard, ready to dispatch intruders. Barely 10 sperm survive to reach their destination, and there can only be one winner: just one individual sperm can fertilize the egg, provided the latter has been released to perfectly synchronize with the sperm's arrival. "Every time someone tells me they are having a baby, I think it is one of the greatest miracles ever - but no one realizes," says Hermes Gadelha, study author and lecturer in applied mathematics at the University of York. What makes the tenacious sperm successful and causes the others to fail? Gadelha's team uncovered that aside from sperm motility, count, and morphology, the rhythm in which they swim upstream to the fallopian tubes is also important. Tests showed the head and tail of the sperm move in specific patterns, which resemble the fields forming around magnets and whose function is to propel the sperm closer to the egg. To better understand how male reproductive cells are able to swim in the encompassing fluid, the team analyzed the tails of individual sperm and measured the rhythm of their movements. As they discovered, these cells describe specific rhythmical patterns that enable them to reach their destination. In other words, for couples trying to conceive, off-rhythm sperm can cause a lot of heartache. The team was able to synthesize the pattern in a mathematical formula and plans to test how it could be used to anticipate the movement of large sperm counts. "The more we know about sperm the better," says Professor Allan Pacey, an expert from the University of Sheffield, who believes this formula might provide a new direction in infertility treatments. © 2017 Tech Times, All rights reserved. Do not reproduce without permission.


This may sound preposterous, but every loaf of bread on the table is a reminder of the threat humanity is facing: global warming. Every step in the production of the wheat loaf has left an indelible mark of carbon footprint, a study said. The challenge is perhaps the biggest now more than ever on how to produce healthy food at a cheaper cost to feed the world without endangering the environment. According to a study published in the journal Nature Plants on Feb. 27, growing wheat, which is part of the loaf bread production process, is a greenhouse gas contributor. Cultivating wheat, which is one of the processes in loaf production, uses ammonium nitrate fertilizer. The study found out the fertilizer contributes almost half of greenhouse gas emission — the highest in the supply chain. Most consumers, if not all, are not aware how the products they are using may impact the environment, Liam Goucher, a research fellow at the University of Sheffield, observed. While many are aware of the effect of plastic packaging to the environment, it is the first time to bring into public knowledge the environmental impacts of food production such as in the case of loaf bread. Every loaf, Goucher pointed out, is global warming in a pack as a result of fertilizer application to boost wheat harvest. A large quantity of energy is required to produce fertilizer, and at the same time, it also releases nitrous oxide gas when dissolved in soil. Both instances are contributing a large amount of carbon dioxide emission to the atmosphere. Sixty percent of agricultural crops are cultivated using synthetic fertilizers. While it accounted to improved agricultural production to meet the demand for food everywhere, its chemical composition of methane, carbon dioxide, ammonia, and nitrogen are contributors to greenhouse gases. The study's findings highlight the challenge to food security initiatives. This challenge involves resolving the conflicts in the food production system. "[The] primary purpose is to make money not to provide sustainable global food security," Peter Horton, professor and chief research officer at the University of Sheffield's Grantham Centre for Sustainable Futures, said. Over 100 million tons of fertilizers are used annually worldwide, but its impact on global warming are not fully appreciated. Its impact is "not costed within the system and so there are currently no real incentives to reduce our reliance on fertilizer," Horton added. Wheat products in the United States include breads, pastas, and pizza. After 30 years of increasing consumption on wheat products, it dropped since 2000. It dipped from 146.3 pounds per capita consumption in 2000 to 133.4 pounds by mid-2000s and further fell to 132.5 pounds in 2011. The drop of consumption on wheat products is largely due to an increased health awareness that leads to lower carbohydrate intake in the country. © 2017 Tech Times, All rights reserved. Do not reproduce without permission.


News Article | April 19, 2017
Site: motherboard.vice.com

The glistening spires of Iceberg Alley on Canada's East coast, so called for the yearly parade of icebergs that floats by, don't normally inspire headlines around the world, despite how impressive a sight it can be. But this week, the beaching of a giant chunk of ice on the shores of Ferryland, Newfoundland has attracted international attention, looming as it was over the picturesque town perched on the Avalon Peninsula on the Atlantic Ocean. It's part of a huge uptick in bergs floating down the eastern coast of Canada recently. More than 450 of them have been reported in shipping lanes so far in this year, with last year's total count culminating at 687. Scientists are puzzled about exactly why so many icebergs are piling up on the East coast right now, although climate change could have something to do with it, and send more our way in years to come. Their towering white shapes are an omen of a radically different future. Warming Arctic waters mean these icebergs are melting earlier, and end up being much smaller. In other words, tourists should enjoy them while they still can. According the Canadian Ice Service (CIS), icebergs off the coast of Newfoundland normally calve from glaciers of Greenland and Baffin Island, then float down the Davis Strait in the Labrador Sea and past the towns and villages on the coast. They're carried by ocean currents and strong winds, and interact with coastal boat traffic so much that there's need for organizations like the International Ice Patrol and to keep track of them, so nobody smacks into one. I reached out to University of California, Irvine professor Eric Rignot, who has decades of experience studying the ice sheets of Greenland. While he couldn't comment directly on what we're seeing in Newfoundland this year, and the seeming surge of icebergs there, he agreed that climate change, in general, is sending more icebergs into that part of the Atlantic. "With climate change, more ice is disbursed into the ocean by the glaciers, effectively increasing the number of icebergs flowing out of Greenland," Rignot told me in an email. "But the icebergs have also been found to be smaller in size as they break up more easily in a warmer climate." It isn't the first year we've seen a swarm of icebergs off Canada's East coast, either. "Speaking subjectively, there have been other seasons in the recent past that have been notable for the presence of icebergs in 'unusual' locations or for the quantity of icebergs that have been observed," said CIS senior ice forecaster Scott Weese in an email. Researchers at the University of Sheffield found that calving events are happening more often, in higher and higher latitudes. The 2014 study found that these changes do happen in cyclical episodes, but since the 1990s, calving rates have been at historically high levels. The paper concluded that "the recent past [is] an unprecedented period for high Greenland ice sheet iceberg fluxes, consistent with rapid changes in Greenland climate occurring around this time." Read More: A Nuclear-Powered US Military Ice Base Will Resurface as the Arctic Melts The change in iceberg patterns has been backed up by the people who live and work nearby. "[The fact that icebergs were shrinking] was first conveyed to me by a fisherman who takes tourists in Ilulissat fjord to see icebergs. Since 2002, the 'bergs are smaller," said Rignot. Rignot explained it was difficult to track down quantifiable data of how icebergs behave on open ocean water because they disappear over time, and it's "like chasing a herd of cats," he told me. While these towering icebergs make for a great view, they're also a looming reminder that we influence seasonal cycles. Gorgeous events can be hard to enjoy when it feels like the planet is giving us a grand finale. Motherboard is nominated for three Webby Awards for Best Science YouTube Channel , Best Drama , Best Tech/Science Podcast . Please vote for us!


News Article | April 17, 2017
Site: www.scientificamerican.com

Eugenia Cheng’s passion for theoretical mathematics is rivaled only by her love of food. In talks and in her book, How to Bake Pi: An Edible Exploration of the Mathematics of Mathematics, the mathematician and pianist uses baking and cooking to explore the concepts behind pure math. Pure mathematics deals with its underlying structures and concepts. It is sometimes referred to as math for math’s sake and has a philosophical bent, in contrast to the more familiar applied mathematics used for problem-solving. Cheng, currently a scientist in residence at the School of the Art Institute of Chicago, specializes in a particularly abstract area of pure mathematics known as category theory, or what she calls “the mathematics of mathematics,” which looks at structures and systems of structures. Her book includes recipes but Cheng uses rules and rule-breaking in baking and cooking as well as the experience of serving and even eating foods to explain her own study of math. She opens the prologue with an analogy: Just as a rice cooker can also make clotted cream, math is about numbers but also serves other purposes. She uses cookies to illustrate the importance of abstraction. How many cookies you have at a given moment depends on how much you felt like eating some of those cookies just now. But if you turn them into abstract things, such as numbers, you can add and subtract them without worrying about whether you might eat them. (Numbers obey logic in a way food will not.) She shares an anecdote about successfully improvising a recipe for chocolate cake because she was so familiar with the rules of ratios in baking. “The point is that if you understand the principle behind a process rather than just memorizing the process, you will be much more in control of the situation,” she wrote. In one YouTube talk given while she was a professor at the University of Sheffield, Cheng even explores the ideal ratio of jam and cream to scone size, using an array of scones she has baked in 25 different sizes. Cheng will share a lesson in food and pure mathematics from the Perimeter Institute on Wednesday, April 5 at 7 P.M. Eastern time. The talk will be broadcast live on this page as well as on the Perimeter Web site. Online viewers can ask questions before and during the event by tweeting to @Perimeter using the #piLIVE hashtag or commenting on the institute’s Facebook posts about the event.


News Article | May 1, 2017
Site: www.nytimes.com

Andreas Vlachos, a computer scientist at the University of Sheffield in England, is one of a growing number of researchers looking for ways to use artificial intelligence to combat fake news.


News Article | April 17, 2017
Site: www.newscientist.com

We are pumping carbon dioxide into the atmosphere so fast that it could soar to its highest level for at least 50 million years by the middle of this century. And that’s even worse news than it sounds, because the sun is hotter now than it was then. This is one of the conclusions of a study looking at how CO levels in the atmosphere have changed over the past half billion years and comparing that with future scenarios. “CO in the past was not as high as we thought,” says Gavin Foster at the University of Southampton in the UK. Thanks to bubbles of air trapped in Antarctic ice, we have a good picture of CO levels over the past 800,000 years. But going further back in time is much more challenging. Foster and his colleagues have compiled data from more than 100 different studies to produce the best estimate yet of how CO levels changed in the past 420 million years. Among other things, the researchers corrected for the fact that studies based on carbonates in fossil soils are now known to have overestimated past CO levels. Their compilation suggests that the concentration of CO in the atmosphere never rose above 3000 parts per million during this time period, whereas some earlier studies have suggested levels were as high as 5000 ppm at times. And by looking at future CO emission scenarios, they say the level will soon reach its highest for at least 50 million years – at around 600 ppm. What’s not in doubt is that when CO levels were higher than in pre-industrial times, the planet was much warmer and had no ice at the poles. The gradual rise in the sun’s warmth over the past half a billion years has been balanced by a long-term decline in CO levels, says Foster, keeping the planet’s temperature in the habitable zone – with a little help from plants. Land plants help break down volcanic rocks that react with CO and remove it from the atmosphere. This activity increases as the planet warms, and falls when it cools. “Plant-driven weathering processes are too slow to save us from global warming, but they can be accelerated by applying crushed silicates to croplands to capture CO ,” says David Beerling at the University of Sheffield, who is leading a project to explore how much difference this could make. But unless we manage to capture stupendous amounts of CO with methods like this, we’re headed into uncharted waters. Read more: Highest ever annual rise in carbon dioxide levels recorded; First yearly CO2 forecast predicts one of biggest rises ever


News Article | May 3, 2017
Site: www.futurity.org

New research shows how mitochondria—the energy generators within cells—can withstand attacks on their DNA from rogue molecules. The findings could pave the way for new treatments to tackle neurodegenerative diseases and cancer. The research could also have important implications for clinical advances in mitochondrial donation—sometimes called a “three-parent baby”—used to correct defects in faulty mitochondria. The five-year study, published in Science Advances, reveals how the enzyme TDP1—already known to have a role in repairing damaged DNA in the cell’s nucleus—is also responsible for repairing damage to mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). During the process of energy production and making proteins, a large amount of rogue reactive oxygen species are produced which constantly attack the DNA in the mitochondria. These attacks break their DNA, however the new findings show mitochondria have their very own repair toolkits that are constantly active to maintain their own DNA integrity. “Each mitochondria repair toolkit has unique components—enzymes—which can cut, hammer, and seal the breaks. The presence of these enzymes is important for energy production,” says lead author Sherif El-Khamisy, professor and chair of molecular medicine at the University of Sheffield. “Defects in repairing DNA breaks in the mitochondria affect vital organs that rely heavily on energy such as the brain. It also has implications on mitochondria replacement therapies recently approved in the UK and known as ‘three parent babies.'” Although much research has focused on how free radicals damage the DNA in the cell’s nucleus, their effect on mitochondrial DNA is less well understood despite this damage to mtDNA being responsible for many different types of disease such as neurological disorders. Having healthy mitochondria is also essential for tissue regeneration, making it particularly important for successful organ transplants. The team further identified a mechanism through which mtDNA can be damaged and then fixed, via a protein called TOP1, which is responsible for untangling coils of mtDNA. When the long strands become tangled, TOP1 breaks and quickly repairs the strands to unravel the knots. If free radicals are also attacking the mitochondrial DNA, then TOP1 proteins can become trapped on the mitochondrial DNA strands, making repair even more difficult. El-Khamisy believes the findings could pave the way for the development of new therapies for mitochondrial disease that boost their DNA repair capacity, or for cancer treatments which could use TDP1 inhibitors to prevent mtDNA repair selectively in cancer cells. “Cancer relies on cells dividing very quickly. That means they need a lot of energy, so will have really healthy mitochondria,” says El-Khamisy. “If we can find a way to selectively damage the mitochondria in the cancer cells, by preventing or slowing its repair mechanism, this could be really promising.” The findings could also be important for new clinical advances such as the decision by the Human Fertilisation and Embryology Authority (HFEA) to allow “mitochondrial donation,” in which mtDNA from a female donor is introduced to an embryo to correct mitochondrial defects. “This research suggests that clinicians should assess the function of TDP1 and mitochondrial TOP1 before mitochondrial donation takes place, to ensure the success of this procedure,” adds El-Khamisy. “Even if the new embryo has healthy mitochondrial DNA from the donor, it could still have defective TDP1 or mitochondrial TOP1 from the recipient, since they are both produced by the DNA in the cell’s nucleus, so mitochondrial DNA damage could still take place over time, and cause disease.” A Wellcome Trust Investigator Award and a Lister Institute of Preventative Medicine Fellowship supported the work. The University of Sheffield led the study in collaboration with the University of Newcastle, the University of Sussex, RAFT, Zewail City of Science and Technology in Egypt, and St Jude Children’s Research Hospital in the US.


News Article | May 1, 2017
Site: www.biosciencetechnology.com

New research has unraveled the mystery of how mitochondria—the energy generators within cells—can withstand attacks on their DNA from rogue molecules. The findings could pave the way for new treatments to tackle neurodegenerative diseases and cancer. The research could also have important implications for clinical advances in 'mitochondrial donation' -- known as the 'three-parent baby' -- used to correct defects in faulty mitochondria. The five-year study led by scientists at the University of Sheffield, published today (28 April 2017) in Science Advances, reveals how the enzyme TDP1 - which is already known to have a role in repairing damaged DNA in the cell's nucleus - is also responsible for repairing damage to mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). Mitochondria are the powerhouses of cells, they generate the energy required for all cellular activity and have their own DNA -- the genetic material which they rely upon to produce important proteins for their function. During the process of energy production and making proteins, a large amount of rogue reactive oxygen species are produced which constantly attack the DNA in the mitochondria. These attacks break their DNA, however the new findings show mitochondria have their very own repair toolkits which are constantly active to maintain their own DNA integrity. Lead author of the study, Professor Sherif El-Khamisy, a Wellcome Trust Investigator and Chair of Molecular Medicine at the University of Sheffield, said: "Each mitochondria repair toolkit has unique components -- enzymes -- which can cut, hammer and seal the breaks. The presence of these enzymes is important for energy production. "Defects in repairing DNA breaks in the mitochondria affect vital organs that rely heavily on energy such as the brain. It also has implications on mitochondria replacement therapies recently approved in the UK and known as 'three parent babies'." Although much research has focused on how free radicals damage the DNA in the cell's nucleus, their effect on mitochondrial DNA is less well understood despite this damage to mtDNA being responsible for many different types of disease such as neurological disorders. Having healthy mitochondria is also essential for tissue regeneration, making it particularly important for successful organ transplants. The team further identified a mechanism through which mtDNA can be damaged and then fixed, via a protein called TOP1, which is responsible for untangling coils of mtDNA. When the long strands become tangled, TOP1 breaks and quickly repairs the strands to unravel the knots. If free radicals are also attacking the mitochondrial DNA, then TOP1 proteins can become trapped on the mitochondrial DNA strands, making repair even more difficult. Professor El-Khamisy believes the findings could pave the way for the development of new therapies for mitochondrial disease that boost their DNA repair capacity, or for cancer treatments which could use TDP1 inhibitors to prevent mtDNA repair selectively in cancer cells. "Cancer relies on cells dividing very quickly. That means they need a lot of energy, so will have really healthy mitochondria," said Professor El-Khamisy. "If we can find a way to selectively damage the mitochondria in the cancer cells, by preventing or slowing its repair mechanism, this could be really promising." The findings could also be important for new clinical advances such as the decision by the Human Fertilisation and Embryology Authority (HFEA) to allow 'mitochondrial donation' -- also known as 'three-parent babies' -- where mtDNA from a female donor is introduced to an embryo to correct mitochondrial defects. "This research suggests that clinicians should assess the function of TDP1 and mitochondrial TOP1 before mitochondrial donation takes place, to ensure the success of this procedure," added Professor El-Khamisy. "Even if the new embryo has healthy mitochondrial DNA from the donor, it could still have defective TDP1 or mitochondrial TOP1 from the recipient, since they are both produced by the DNA in the cell's nucleus, so mitochondrial DNA damage could still take place over time, and cause disease." Professor Allan Pacey, a fertility expert at the University of Sheffield's Department of Oncology and Metabolism, said "Given that the first UK license to perform mitochondrial donation procedures was awarded by the HFEA last month, the publication of this study is very timely. "It is important that we know as much as possible about how to identify healthy and defective mitochondria, in order to help those people with debilitating mitochondrial disease."


New research has unravelled the mystery of how mitochondria - the energy generators within cells - can withstand attacks on their DNA from rogue molecules. The findings could pave the way for new treatments to tackle neurodegenerative diseases and cancer. The research could also have important implications for clinical advances in 'mitochondrial donation' - known as the 'three-parent baby' - used to correct defects in faulty mitochondria. The five-year study led by scientists at the University of Sheffield, published in Science Advances, reveals how the enzyme TDP1 - which is already known to have a role in repairing damaged DNA in the cell's nucleus - is also responsible for repairing damage to mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). Mitochondria are the powerhouses of cells, they generate the energy required for all cellular activity and have their own DNA - the genetic material which they rely upon to produce important proteins for their function. During the process of energy production and making proteins, a large amount of rogue reactive oxygen species are produced which constantly attack the DNA in the mitochondria. These attacks break their DNA, however the new findings show mitochondria have their very own repair toolkits which are constantly active to maintain their own DNA integrity. Lead author of the study, Professor Sherif El-Khamisy, a Wellcome Trust Investigator and Chair of Molecular Medicine at the University of Sheffield, said: "Each mitochondria repair toolkit has unique components - enzymes - which can cut, hammer and seal the breaks. The presence of these enzymes is important for energy production. "Defects in repairing DNA breaks in the mitochondria affect vital organs that rely heavily on energy such as the brain. It also has implications on mitochondria replacement therapies recently approved in the UK and known as 'three parent babies'." Although much research has focused on how free radicals damage the DNA in the cell's nucleus, their effect on mitochondrial DNA is less well understood despite this damage to mtDNA being responsible for many different types of disease such as neurological disorders. Having healthy mitochondria is also essential for tissue regeneration, making it particularly important for successful organ transplants. The team further identified a mechanism through which mtDNA can be damaged and then fixed, via a protein called TOP1, which is responsible for untangling coils of mtDNA. When the long strands become tangled, TOP1 breaks and quickly repairs the strands to unravel the knots. If free radicals are also attacking the mitochondrial DNA, then TOP1 proteins can become trapped on the mitochondrial DNA strands, making repair even more difficult. Professor El-Khamisy believes the findings could pave the way for the development of new therapies for mitochondrial disease that boost their DNA repair capacity, or for cancer treatments which could use TDP1 inhibitors to prevent mtDNA repair selectively in cancer cells. "Cancer relies on cells dividing very quickly. That means they need a lot of energy, so will have really healthy mitochondria," said Professor El-Khamisy. "If we can find a way to selectively damage the mitochondria in the cancer cells, by preventing or slowing its repair mechanism, this could be really promising." The findings could also be important for new clinical advances such as the decision by the Human Fertilisation and Embryology Authority (HFEA) to allow 'mitochondrial donation' - also known as 'three-parent babies' - where mtDNA from a female donor is introduced to an embryo to correct mitochondrial defects. "This research suggests that clinicians should assess the function of TDP1 and mitochondrial TOP1 before mitochondrial donation takes place, to ensure the success of this procedure," added Professor El-Khamisy. "Even if the new embryo has healthy mitochondrial DNA from the donor, it could still have defective TDP1 or mitochondrial TOP1 from the recipient, since they are both produced by the DNA in the cell's nucleus, so mitochondrial DNA damage could still take place over time, and cause disease." Professor Allan Pacey, a fertility expert at the University of Sheffield's Department of Oncology and Metabolism, said "Given that the first UK licence to perform mitochondrial donation procedures was awarded by the HFEA last month, the publication of this study is very timely. "It is important that we know as much as possible about how to identify healthy and defective mitochondria, in order to help those people with debilitating mitochondrial disease." The research was funded by a Wellcome Trust Investigator Award and a Lister Institute of Preventative Medicine Fellowship and was led by the University of Sheffield in collaboration with the University of Newcastle, the University of Sussex, RAFT, Zewail City of Science and Technology in Egypt, and St Jude Children's Research Hospital in the US.


News Article | April 17, 2017
Site: www.newscientist.com

Infection with a common, symptomless virus could be one of the first steps towards developing coeliac disease, a painful autoimmune condition that damages the gut. Coeliac disease involves the immune system treating gluten as an antigen and attacking it and has generally been thought to be a genetic disease. However, there is some evidence that the onset of the condition may be linked to people experiencing viral infections. These may include infection by adenoviruses, which cause colds, rotaviruses, which can cause diarrhoea, and the hepatitis C virus. Now there is experimental evidence that some viruses may indeed prompt the onset of coeliac disease. Bana Jabri at the University of Chicago, Illinois, and her team have found that exposing mice to a common reovirus called T1L breaks their tolerance of gluten. When the team fed small groups of mice gliadin – a component of gluten – they found that mice produced two to three times as many antibodies against the compound over the next two days if they were also infected with reovirus. “The reovirus changes the way the immune system sees gluten,” says Jabri. Normally, the body’s immune system learns to tolerate the wide range of substances in our food, including gluten – a protein found in wheat, rye and barley. But the team’s findings suggest that infection with a reovirus interferes with this, leading the body to mistakenly attack gluten. “Our experiments are the first to demonstrate that a virus can induce loss of tolerance to dietary antigens,” says Jabri. “Instead of mounting a tolerant, non-aggressive response, the immune system in the presence of the reovirus views gluten as being dangerous, promoting a destructive inflammatory response,” says Jabri. The researchers also found that mice infected with the T1L virus had between two to four times as much of an inflammatory molecule in their bodies. This molecule, called interferon regulatory factor 1, has been found at abnormally high levels in the gut linings of children with coeliac disease, and has also been implicated in instigating the condition’s onset. Compared with other common foodstuffs, gluten is particularly likely to trigger immunological problems because it is unusually resistant to being broken down in the gut, says Jabri. Gliadin is the most difficult component of gluten to digest. The team’s findings could explain why only a small proportion of people develop coeliac disease, which is a far more severe condition that gluten intolerances. While 40 per cent of people in the US seem to have a genetic predisposition to coeliac disease, only 3 per cent of the population – around 3 million people – have the condition. This could be because the others haven’t been exposed to a viral trigger. “This is a fascinating study,” says David Sanders, at the University of Sheffield, UK. “Investigators have studied this ‘second-hit’ hypothesis for some time, to explain why not everyone with genetic predisposition actually develops the disease. Now the new study suggests that reoviruses might play a role.” If studies in people confirm that reovirus can trigger coeliac disease, it could lead to new treatments, says Sanders. Jabri’s team are now working on a vaccine that might stop infections from causing coeliac disease. Read more: Think gluten-free is just a fad? The science isn’t settled yet


News Article | April 26, 2017
Site: phys.org

Dr Eyad Arabi, Research Associate in the Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering. Credit: University of Bristol Wireless communications is a technology that is used every day. Across society, there is a move away from using the internet on desktop computers and towards smartphones, tablets and laptops. Engineers at the University of Bristol have developed a novel radio frequency (RF) design tool that will speed up the design of tuneable wireless devices and will enable smartphones to roam internationally. The research, in collaboration with the University of Sheffield, is addressing the simultaneous multi-band operation of wireless systems through the co-design of both hardware and software sub-systems. The paper, conducted as part of the EPSRC Frequency Agile RADio (FARAD) project, is published in IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques (T-MTT). Wireless connected devices are now an integral part in people's work and social lives and it is playing a growing role in healthcare technologies. The advent of 5G will create further disruption or step change in everyone's use of wireless technology. Today smartphones are at the heart of this evolution as prices decrease and functionality improves, making them the first choice for internet access. Everyone wants their phone to offer higher data rates and work seamlessly throughout the world but because of the different frequency channels this isn't always possible. Dr Eyad Arabi, Research Associate in the Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, the lead author, said: "For smartphones to operate globally, phones need to tune or switch bands, ideally without compromising performance. Such frequency agility poses tough design challenges due to the increased complexity and physical size of the tuneable system. At Bristol, we have developed a novel radio frequency (RF) design methodology that will ensure the efficient design of tuneable wireless devices." Mark Beach, Professor of Radio Systems Engineering in the Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering: "For efficient RF design an understanding of the electrical dynamics of the tuneable components is essential. Bristol's new tool will allow the designer to visualise the tuning range or coverage of the tuneable components, speeding up the design of antennas, filters and amplifiers used in smartphones." Dr Kevin Morris, Reader in Radio Frequency Engineering and Head of the Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, added: "This work allows flexibility to be brought into the design process which will significantly increase the ability of future 5G amplifiers to work over multiple frequency ranges and lead to a single handset that could be used around the world." Explore further: New technology could fundamentally change future wireless communications More information: Eyad Arabi et al. Analytical Formulas for the Coverage of Tunable Matching Networks for Reconfigurable Applications, IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques (2017). DOI: 10.1109/TMTT.2017.2687902


News Article | May 3, 2017
Site: www.eurekalert.org

A new study has shown that approximately 53 per cent of NHS patients displayed clinical symptoms of depression and anxiety within a year after completing psychological treatments. A total of 439 patients, who were considered to have recovered from their symptoms following therapy on the NHS, took part in the study. Over half of these were found to have suffered a relapse event, with up to 79 per cent of events occurring within the first six months after treatment. The study, published in Behaviour Research and Therapy, was conducted by a team of NHS clinicians and scientists from the Universities of York, Sheffield, Huddersfield and Trier. Dr Shehzad Ali, from the University of York's Department of Health Sciences, said: "Our research highlights that, under the current system, some patients are being discharged too soon. As a result, patients who have low levels of depression at the time of discharge are more likely to relapse within a few months." Participants in the study were in contact with researchers on a monthly basis for 12 months after treatment to monitor their wellbeing and to quantify the percentage of cases that relapsed. Patients with residual depression symptoms at the end of treatment were twice as likely to relapse. Dr Jaime Delgadillo, from the University of Sheffield, said: "These findings underline the importance of monitoring patients' wellbeing for at least six months after treatment and offering adequate support to ensure they stay well. We argue that relapse prevention is a crucial but often neglected aspect of psychological care in the NHS. "Incomplete or insufficient treatment also costs the NHS, as patients who relapse often need further care or support." According to a report in 2016 from the independent Mental Health Taskforce to the NHS, poor mental health carries an economic and social cost of £105 billion a year in England. In total, £9.2 billion is spent every year by the NHS on mental health support and services. Depression and anxiety are highly common and often disabling mental health problems, experienced by one in six adults in the UK. Available treatments in the NHS include medication and psychological therapy. The most widely available form of psychological care for these conditions is known as Low intensity Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (LiCBT), which is a brief and simplified adaptation of a treatment called Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT). LiCBT involves weekly contact with a mental health professional who guides patients on how to look after their mental health and typically lasts under two months. LiCBT has been found to lead to short-term improvement of depression and anxiety in previous studies, although there is as still limited evidence about its long-term effectiveness after treatment.


New research has unravelled the mystery of how mitochondria -- the energy generators within cells -- can withstand attacks on their DNA from rogue molecules. The findings could pave the way for new treatments to tackle neurodegenerative diseases and cancer. The research could also have important implications for clinical advances in 'mitochondrial donation' -- known as the 'three-parent baby' -- used to correct defects in faulty mitochondria. The five-year study led by scientists at the University of Sheffield, published today (28 April 2017) in Science Advances, reveals how the enzyme TDP1 - which is already known to have a role in repairing damaged DNA in the cell's nucleus - is also responsible for repairing damage to mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). Mitochondria are the powerhouses of cells, they generate the energy required for all cellular activity and have their own DNA -- the genetic material which they rely upon to produce important proteins for their function. During the process of energy production and making proteins, a large amount of rogue reactive oxygen species are produced which constantly attack the DNA in the mitochondria. These attacks break their DNA, however the new findings show mitochondria have their very own repair toolkits which are constantly active to maintain their own DNA integrity. Lead author of the study, Professor Sherif El-Khamisy, a Wellcome Trust Investigator and Chair of Molecular Medicine at the University of Sheffield, said: "Each mitochondria repair toolkit has unique components -- enzymes -- which can cut, hammer and seal the breaks. The presence of these enzymes is important for energy production. "Defects in repairing DNA breaks in the mitochondria affect vital organs that rely heavily on energy such as the brain. It also has implications on mitochondria replacement therapies recently approved in the UK and known as 'three parent babies'." Although much research has focused on how free radicals damage the DNA in the cell's nucleus, their effect on mitochondrial DNA is less well understood despite this damage to mtDNA being responsible for many different types of disease such as neurological disorders. Having healthy mitochondria is also essential for tissue regeneration, making it particularly important for successful organ transplants. The team further identified a mechanism through which mtDNA can be damaged and then fixed, via a protein called TOP1, which is responsible for untangling coils of mtDNA. When the long strands become tangled, TOP1 breaks and quickly repairs the strands to unravel the knots. If free radicals are also attacking the mitochondrial DNA, then TOP1 proteins can become trapped on the mitochondrial DNA strands, making repair even more difficult. Professor El-Khamisy believes the findings could pave the way for the development of new therapies for mitochondrial disease that boost their DNA repair capacity, or for cancer treatments which could use TDP1 inhibitors to prevent mtDNA repair selectively in cancer cells. "Cancer relies on cells dividing very quickly. That means they need a lot of energy, so will have really healthy mitochondria," said Professor El-Khamisy. "If we can find a way to selectively damage the mitochondria in the cancer cells, by preventing or slowing its repair mechanism, this could be really promising." The findings could also be important for new clinical advances such as the decision by the Human Fertilisation and Embryology Authority (HFEA) to allow 'mitochondrial donation' -- also known as 'three-parent babies' -- where mtDNA from a female donor is introduced to an embryo to correct mitochondrial defects. "This research suggests that clinicians should assess the function of TDP1 and mitochondrial TOP1 before mitochondrial donation takes place, to ensure the success of this procedure," added Professor El-Khamisy. "Even if the new embryo has healthy mitochondrial DNA from the donor, it could still have defective TDP1 or mitochondrial TOP1 from the recipient, since they are both produced by the DNA in the cell's nucleus, so mitochondrial DNA damage could still take place over time, and cause disease." Professor Allan Pacey, a fertility expert at the University of Sheffield's Department of Oncology and Metabolism, said "Given that the first UK licence to perform mitochondrial donation procedures was awarded by the HFEA last month, the publication of this study is very timely. "It is important that we know as much as possible about how to identify healthy and defective mitochondria, in order to help those people with debilitating mitochondrial disease." The research was funded by a Wellcome Trust Investigator Award and a Lister Institute of Preventative Medicine Fellowship and was led by the University of Sheffield in collaboration with the University of Newcastle, the University of Sussex, RAFT, Zewail City of Science and Technology in Egypt, and St Jude Children's Research Hospital in the US. With almost 27,000 of the brightest students from over 140 countries, learning alongside over 1,200 of the best academics from across the globe, the University of Sheffield is one of the world's leading universities. A member of the UK's prestigious Russell Group of leading research-led institutions, Sheffield offers world-class teaching and research excellence across a wide range of disciplines. Unified by the power of discovery and understanding, staff and students at the university are committed to finding new ways to transform the world we live in. Sheffield is the only university to feature in The Sunday Times 100 Best Not-For-Profit Organisations to Work For 2017 and was voted number one university in the UK for Student Satisfaction by Times Higher Education in 2014. In the last decade it has won four Queen's Anniversary Prizes in recognition of the outstanding contribution to the United Kingdom's intellectual, economic, cultural and social life. Sheffield has six Nobel Prize winners among former staff and students and its alumni go on to hold positions of great responsibility and influence all over the world, making significant contributions in their chosen fields. Global research partners and clients include Boeing, Rolls-Royce, Unilever, AstraZeneca, Glaxo SmithKline, Siemens and Airbus, as well as many UK and overseas government agencies and charitable foundations. For further information, please visit: http://www. For further information, please visit http://www. For further information please contact: Amy Pullan, Media Relations Officer, University of Sheffield, 0114 222 9859, a.l.pullan@sheffield.ac.uk To read other news releases about the University of Sheffield, visit http://www.


Chown S.L.,Stellenbosch University | Gaston K.J.,University of Sheffield
Biological Reviews | Year: 2010

Body size is a key feature of organisms and varies continuously because of the effects of natural selection on the size-dependency of resource acquisition and mortality rates. This review provides a critical and synthetic overview of body size variation in insects from a predominantly macroecological (large-scale temporal and spatial) perspective. Because of the importance of understanding the proximate determinants of adult size, it commences with a brief summary of the physiological mechanisms underlying adult body size and its variation, based mostly on findings for the model species Drosophila melanogaster and Manduca sexta. Variation in nutrition and temperature have variable effects on critical weight, the interval to cessation of growth (or terminal growth period) and growth rates, so influencing final adult size. Ontogenetic and phylogenetic variation in size, compensatory growth, scaling at the intra- and interspecific levels, sexual size dimorphism, and body size optimisation are then reviewed in light of their influences on individual and species body size frequency distributions. Explicit attention is given to evolutionary trends, including gigantism, Cope's rule and the rates at which size change has taken place, and to temporal ecological trends such as variation in size with succession and size-selectivity during the invasion process. Large-scale spatial variation in size at the intraspecific, interspecific and assemblage levels is considered, with special attention being given to the mechanisms proposed to underlie clinal variation in adult body size. Finally, areas particularly in need of additional research are identified. © 2009 Cambridge Philosophical Society.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP | Phase: ICT-2013.4.2 | Award Amount: 8.48M | Year: 2014

Miniaturisation, progress with energy issues and cost reductions have resulted in rapid growth in deployment of networked devices and sensors, very strongly connecting the internet with the physical world. With wide adoption of smartphones and social media, also people have become key sources of information about the physical world, corresponding events and the intents and plans of many individuals. With more than a billion of people organizing their lives electronically and sharing information via social platforms on the Internet and with the number of devices connected to the Internet already exceeding the number of people on earth and still growing to an estimated 50 billion devices by 2020, handling these massive amounts of data becomes a huge challenge. Surmounting this challenge, however, may give us previously unattainable understanding of events and changes in our surrounding environments. EPPICS will develop large scale adaptive methods to enable pervasive modelling, monitoring and predicting of events in the real world by extracting and combining data and information from physical and social sensors. Such methods will be integrated into a platform that will support citizens, authorities and organizations in taking informed and timely decisions when tackling real world events. Application domains will cover the intelligent management in urban settings with a particular focus on city-wide events management as well as water management, specifically monitoring and reacting to widespread floods. EPPICS will provide the technological and methodological framework for the capturing, integrating, modeling and forecasting of the large-scale hybrid information deriving from hundreds of sensors, thousands of cars and large-scale social media. The technology will enable the authorities a huge leap in terms of the ability to manage large events where hundreds of thousands of people are involved at the same time.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP | Phase: ICT-2011.4.1 | Award Amount: 2.30M | Year: 2012

The aim of the TaaS project is to create a cloud-based platform for acquiring, cleaning up, sharing, and reusing multilingual terminological data, one of the most important language resources for industry, academia, and society in general. The motivation of the TaaS project is to address an evident need for instant access to the most recent terms and direct user involvement in the creation and sharing of terminology data. Such a platform will provide a variety of online services for key terminology tasks becoming an integral part of the multifaceted global cloud-based service infrastructure. TaaS services will perform term identification in the user provided documents. The platform will perform terminology extraction and return a list of term candidates. The TaaS infrastructure will ensure an automatic acquisition of translation equivalents for the obtained term candidates in the required target languages. Besides querying major terminology databases, term candidates will be extracted from the huge array of multilingual texts on the web. Users will clean up the obtained data and store it in the shared terminology repository. TaaS will cover all EU official languages and address the terminology needs for both human and machine users. Open access to data, API access to services, reliance on terminology data exchange standards opens a variety of application possibilities. The TaaS project will develop an innovative cloud-based data collection model combining both the latest techniques for automated data extraction and user involvement in data clean-up and sharing. Public terminology resources will be shared via well-established channels for sharing of language resources. Thus, the more users the platform will have the larger volumes of multilingual terminological data will be acquired, cleaned and then shared and reused via different channels. TaaS platform will serve terminology needs of a wide range of applications from which three usage scenarios will be elaborated.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: ICT-10-2015 | Award Amount: 2.00M | Year: 2016

Response to crisis often reveals organisational and technological shortcomings, which threaten community recovery and sustainable. Even though some technological solutions exist, challenges of communication, interoperability, and data analytics remain. The deployment and use of technologies, and the social structures in which they are adopted, are interdependent. Hence it is imperative to develop human-centred technologies that take into account actual real world practices of affected populations and responders. The rise of social media as an information channel during crisis has become key to community resilience and response. However, existing crisis awareness applications, such as Ushahidi, while vital for information gathering, often struggle to address the challenges of real-time social data analysis and aggregation of crisis micro-events, and filtering of unverified content and reporters. This project will build an intelligent collective resilience platform to help communities to reconnect, respond, and recover from crisis situations. COMRADES will achieve this through an interdisciplinary, socio-technical approach, which will draw on the latest advances in computational social science, social computing, real-time analytics, text and social media analysis, and Linked Open Data. The platform specifications and design requirements will be derived through participatory design workshops with existing activist, responder, and reporter communities. The open source COMRADES platform will go beyond the now standard data collection, mapping, and manual analysis functions provided by the underpinning, widely used Ushahidi crisis mapping tool, to include new intelligent algorithms aimed at helping communities, citizens, and humanitarian services with analysing, verifying, monitoring, and responding to emergency events. COMRADES platform will be deployed and evaluated with multiple, local and distributed, communities, using collective multilingual crisis information.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: IA | Phase: PHC-20-2014 | Award Amount: 3.79M | Year: 2015

The number of elderly living with cognitive impairment is growing rapidly due to increasing life expectancy. The percentage of those who live alone depends upon the condition (i.e. roughly 30% of those diagnosed with dementia) but the majority would like to live in their own home or with family, provided that it is safe, comfortable, and cost effective. IN LIFE aims to prolong and support independent living for elderly with cognitive impairments, through interoperable, open, personalised and seamless ICT services that support home activities, communication, health maintenance, travel, mobility and socialization, with novel, scalable and viable business models, based on feedback from large-scale, multi-country pilots. Building on existing knowledge and tested AAL technology/services IN LIFE will offer 19 different services, which will be further optimised and adapted to the particular needs and wants of various elderly groups, including mild cognitive impairment (MCI), early dementia and cognitive impairment with co morbid conditions, plus formal and informal caregivers. These interoperable services will be integrated into an open, cloud- based, reference architecture to be tested in 6 Europe-wide pilots in Greece, Netherlands, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, and UK, with over 1200 elderly with cognitive impairments, 600 formal and informal caregivers, and 60 other stakeholders. Attention will be paid to issues concerning multilingual and multicultural environments. The project will establish and extensively test new business models for a new taxonomy of elderly with cognitive impairments, encompassing those that are clustered as dependent, at risk, assisted or active and formulating and accessing new business scenarios, such as the user-centric, service provider-centric and data exploitation-centric ones. This work will be carried out in 36 months by 20 partners from 9 European countries, totaling 591PMs with a total requested financing of 3.38M euros.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: DRS-07-2014 | Award Amount: 4.32M | Year: 2015

Large scale crises are affecting critical infrastructures with a growing frequency. This is a result of both basic exposure and dependencies between infrastructures. Because of prohibitive costs, the paradigm of protection against extreme events is expanding and now also encompasses the paradigm of resilience. In addition to strengthening and securing systems; system design objectives are now being set, and response planning is being carried out, to facilitate a fast recovery of infrastructure following a large scale incident. With an interconnected European society, countries and infrastructures are increasingly reliant upon their neighbours, both under normal operating conditions and in the event of an incident. Despite this, there is no common European methodology for measuring resilience or for implementing resilience concepts, and different countries and sectors employ their own techniques. There is also no shared, well-developed system-of-systems approach, which would be able to test the effects of dependencies and interdependencies between individual critical infrastructures and sectors. This increases the risk as a result of reliance on critical infrastructures, as well as affects the ability for sharing resources for incident planning due to no common terminology or means of expressing risk. The overall objective of IMPROVER is to improve European critical infrastructure resilience to crises and disasters through the implementation of combinations of societal, organisational and technological resilience concepts to real life examples of pan-European significance, including cross-border examples. This implementation will be enabled through the development of a methodology based on risk evaluation techniques and informed by a review of the positive impact of different resilience concepts on critical infrastructures. The methodology will be cross sectoral and will provide much needed input to standardisation of security of infrastructure.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: INFRAIA-1-2014-2015 | Award Amount: 5.92M | Year: 2015

One of the most pressing and fascinating challenges scientists face today, is understanding the complexity of our globally interconnected society. The big data arising from the digital breadcrumbs of human activities promise to let us scrutinize the ground truth of individual and collective behaviour at an unprecedented detail and scale. There is an urgent need to harness these opportunities for scientific advancement and for the social good. The main obstacle to this accomplishment, besides the scarcity of data scientists, is the lack of a large-scale open infrastructure, where big data and social mining research can be carried out. To this end, SoBigData proposes to create the Social Mining & Big Data Ecosystem: a research infrastructure (RI) providing an integrated ecosystem for ethic-sensitive scientific discoveries and advanced applications of social data mining on the various dimensions of social life, as recorded by big data. Building on several established national infrastructures, SoBigData will open up new research avenues in multiple research fields, including mathematics, ICT, and human, social and economic sciences, by enabling easy comparison, re-use and integration of state-of-the-art big social data, methods, and services, into new research. It will not only strengthen the existing clusters of excellence in social data mining research, but also create a pan-European, inter-disciplinary community of social data scientists, fostered by extensive training, networking, and innovation activities. In addition, as an open research infrastucture, SoBigData will promote repeatable and open science. Although SoBigData is primarily aimed at serving the needs of researchers, the openly available datasets and open source methods and services provided by the new research infrastructure will also impact industrial and other stakeholders (e.g. government bodies, non-profit organisations, funders, policy makers).


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP | Phase: SPA.2013.1.1-07 | Award Amount: 2.60M | Year: 2013

Boreal forest is the largest terrestrial biome and will be strongly affected by climate warming, which is predicted to be strongest at high latitudes, with significant impacts on the European economy. North State will demonstrate how innovative methods applied to the new Sentinel data streams can be combined with models to monitor carbon and water fluxes for pan-boreal Europe, with intensive study sites in Finland, Iceland and Russia. This will reduce the high uncertainty in current estimates of flux rates. Key model parameters will be derived from Sentinel and other EO data, in situ and ancillary data, including relevant FP7 and ESA CCI projects. Parameter types include forest characteristics such as area and species, model drivers such as incoming radiation, and indicators of the dynamic state of the forest, such as fAPAR and tree height. Many of these parameters will also be applicable for other purposes, such as operational forest management. The project brings together leading experts and organisations, including an SME experienced in developing value adding services, needed to address key research challenges that require innovative remote sensing methods: adaptation of the carbon and water cycle models for effective use of EO data; effective pre-processing and data management techniques to exploit high temporal frequency time series; assessing the potential of hyper-spectral data; developing powerful data fusion techniques; and developing an intelligent, automated framework to learn from and interpret multi-source data to address a key societal problem. It responds to the Lund declaration and the recommendations of the Space Advisory Group. It will strengthen European leadership in the provision of EO-based services and will be a paradigm for exploiting opportunities offered by the new generation of EO satellites in developing products for future GMES services.


Grant
Agency: GTR | Branch: NERC | Program: | Phase: Research Grant | Award Amount: 510.21K | Year: 2014

The Atlantic Oceans conveyor belt circulation is a fundamental component of the global climate system, transporting heat from low to high latitudes, and thus warming Northern Europe. The strength of this circulation is thought to have varied abruptly in the past, giving rise to rapid climate changes of more than 10 degrees C in a decade during the last glacial period. Changes of this nature today would have a severe impact on society, so we want to know more about the sensitivity of this circulation. In order to do this, we will study intervals of rapid climate and circulation change in the past. To better understand these past circulation changes we will reconstruct the concentration of radiocarbon in surface and deep waters in the North Atlantic Ocean. This is known as a radiocarbon reservoir age, and it is highly sensitive to the rate of ocean circulation. Therefore, by reconstructing reservoir ages, we can tell how quickly the ocean was circulating during intervals of rapid climate change. We also need to know what the reservoir age was in the past if we want to use radiocarbon as a dating tool, to tell the age of geological and archeological objects and events. Radiocarbon can be thought of as a stopwatch for a geological sample. For a marine sample, however, there is already some time on the clock when we press go. This extra time before starting the clock is the reservoir age, and we must know what it is in order to accurately tell geological time. By reconstructing reservoir ages, we will therefore improve understanding of rapid circulation and climate change, and also improve the most important dating tool used in earth and archeological sciences. To reconstruct radiocarbon reservoir ages we need to measure the radiocarbon content of a sample, and also to know its age independently, so we can work out what was already on the clock when the sample formed. To do this we will make radiocarbon measurements on shells taken from sediment cores from the North Atlantic, and pair them with a range of exciting new techniques that can tell their age. Firstly we will look for layers of volcanic ash in the sediment cores, which we can date using their argon content, and match to precisely dated ash layers in ice cores and on Iceland. Secondly we can look at changes in sea surface temperature records, and match these to the same events that are precisely dated in ice cores. Thirdly we will use the concentration of thorium in sediments to tell how much sediment accumulated between these ash and temperature tie points. Fourthly, we will combine all this information using statistical modelling, which will also provide a good measure of the uncertainty in our results. This work will create maps of reservoir ages and how they changed in the North Atlantic over the last 10 to 50 thousand years, with a special focus on times of rapid climate change. To help us link the reservoir ages to different circulation regimes, we will use a climate model that can simulate radiocarbon. We will make this models ocean circulation operate in different ways, and see which circulations best match our data. This will allow us to better understand how ocean circulation changed in the past to cause rapid climate change, and improve confidence in how ocean circulation may operate in the future. Finally, we will package our reservoir age maps into a tool that can be used by earth scientists and archeologists to improve their radiocarbon dating.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: MC-ITN | Phase: FP7-PEOPLE-2012-ITN | Award Amount: 3.76M | Year: 2013

Over the last decade, enormous progress has been made on recording the health state of an individual patient down to the molecular level of gene activity and genomic information even sequencing a patients genome for less than 1000 dollars is no longer an unrealistic goal. However, the ultimate hope to use all this information for personalized medicine, that is to tailor medical treatment to the needs of an individual, remains largely unfulfilled. To turn the vision of personalized medicine into reality, many methodological problems remain to be solved: there is a lack of methods that allow us to gain a causal understanding of the underlying disease mechanisms, including gene-gene and gene-environment interactions. Similarly, there is an urgent need for integration of the heterogeneous patient data currently available, for improved and robust biomarker discovery for disease diagnosis, prognosis and therapy outcome prediction. The field of machine learning, which tries to detect patterns, rules and statistical dependencies in large datasets, has also witnessed dramatic progress over the last decade and has had a profound impact on the Internet. Amongst others, advanced methods for high-dimensional feature selection, causality inference, and data integration have been developed or are topics of current research. These techniques address many of the key methodological challenges that personalized medicine faces today and keep it from rising to the next level. Despite this rich potential of machine learning in personalized medicine, its impact on data-driven medicine remains low, due to a lack of experts with knowledge in both machine learning and in statistical genetics. Our ITN aims to close this gap by bringing together leading European research institutes in Machine Learning and Statistical Genetics, both from the private and public sector, to train 14 early stage researchers.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: MC-ITN | Phase: FP7-PEOPLE-2011-ITN | Award Amount: 4.12M | Year: 2012

In everyday life, people listen to speech under a wide range of conditions that are non-optimal relative to the controlled conditions in laboratory experiments. Classical research methods can only deal with the effects of individual adverse conditions. This has contributed to the fragmentation of speech communication research in numerous sub-disciplines that have little interaction. While each type of adversity can have important consequences on its own, it is often the combination of conditions that conspire to create serious communication problems especially for elderly and hearing impaired persons. The long-term objective of Investigating Speech Processing in Realistic Environments (INSPIRE) is creating a community of researchers who can exploit synergies between the sub-disciplines that investigate individual aspects of speech communication, resulting in a new curriculum: Real-world speech communication. We will develop novel research methods that take advantage of the massive amounts of experimental data that are becoming available and allow for the analysis of communication behaviours in real-world situations characterised by simultaneous presence of multiple adverse conditions. Computational models will be developed that allow to predict speech intelligibility for normal-hearing and hearing-impaired listeners under realistic conditions. INSPIRE will create a permanent collection of measurement data and tools that are accessible for external researchers for testing and comparing speech intelligibility models, thus enabling a breakthrough improvement in hearing instrument tuning. INSPIRE will achieve its objectives by bringing together E(S)Rs with leading academic scientists from the core disciplines in speech communication, R&D personnel from leading companies in acoustics and hearing instruments and ENT specialists from hospitals that treat people with hearing impairments. All research projects in the network will address multiple adverse conditions.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP | Phase: ICT-2009.1.5 | Award Amount: 12.39M | Year: 2010

BEAMING is the process of instantaneously transporting people (visitors) from one physical place in the world to another (the destination) so that they can interact with the local people there. This is achieved through shifting their means for perception into the destination, and decomposing their actions, physiological and even emotional state into a stream of data that is transferred across the internet. Simultaneous streams of data from the destination site to the visitors perceptual apparatus, and from the actions and state of the visitor to the destination site, cohere together to form a unified virtual environment representing the physical space of the destination in real-time a destination that now includes the beamed people. BEAMING will endow this process with physicality.\nThe visitors actions at the destination site can have physical consequences, the actions of local people at the destination site can have physical consequences for the visitor. The visitor may be embodied at the destination site as a physical robot, and yet be seen by the locals virtually in human form. This project will bring todays networking, computer vision, computer graphics, virtual reality, haptics, robotics and user interface technology together in a way that has never been tried before thereby transcending what is possible today. The goal is to produce a new kind of virtual transportation, where the person can be physically embodied interacting with life-sized people who may be thousands of kilometres away. Moreover, this is underpinned by the practical utilisation of recent advances in cognitive neuroscience in understanding the process whereby the brain represents our own body. The project brings technology researchers together with neuroscientists in order to develop and understand this complex but far reaching technology. The profound ethical and legal issues raised by a (near) future world in which this will be possible are considered in a dedicated workpackage.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: MC-ITN | Phase: FP7-PEOPLE-2013-ITN | Award Amount: 3.69M | Year: 2014

Neurogastroenterology is a new and emerging medical/scientific subspecialty that currently has no formal training opportunities in medicine and related disciplines. It includes basic science aspects (neurophysiology, neurobiology, neuropsychology, psychophysiology) and clinical aspects (gastroenterology, neurology, internal medicine, surgery, psychology, psychosomatic medicine) of the neural control of intestinal functions (motility, secretion, absorption, immunity, sensitivity) in health and disease. Functional disorders of the gastrointestinal tract are among the most frequent disorders in the general population, are associated with high psychiatric (depression, anxiety, chronic fatigue) and somatic comorbidities (back pain, headache), and account for substantial direct and indirect health care costs occurring throughout Europe. Functional disorders of the gastrointestinal tract are thought to be due to disorganized gut-brain interaction of either afferent or efferent or both pathways in control of intestinal functions. In addition, low-grade inflammation, nutritional challenges of the local immune system, and/or post-infectious neuroplastic changes of the enteric nervous system of the gut are believed to be common pathogenetic mechanisms. Genetic contributions have been established, and psychological modulators of its clinical expression have been shown to be effective; both contribute to the efficacy of therapeutic interventions. The standards of diagnosis of functional bowel disorders are still a matter of debate, and only a few effective treatment strategies are available. The NeuroGut network, consisting of experienced academic and industrial partners organized in the European Neurogastroenterology and Motility Society (ESNM), is therefore aimed at offering young researchers excellent training opportunities in neurogastroenterology and in complementary skills in order to generate a new generation of scientists dedicated to resolving open questions.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP | Phase: HEALTH.2012.3.2-1 | Award Amount: 3.62M | Year: 2012

Integrated delivery systems of care, e.g. networks of health organizations and professionals who work together to coordinate services to meet their patients needs, are an important way of linking fragmented services and maximizing system efficiency and seamlessness of patient transition. Research increasingly shows that patients with advanced cancer and advanced chronic disease are treated well by integrated palliative care pathways, with comparable quality of care at lower costs. Palliative care involves the multidisciplinary care for patients in the last phase of life-threatening disease and is expected to largely grow due to the ageing of the European population. However, palliative care in Europe is still mostly organized across institutional lines: hospital, home care, hospice. This project aims at the identification of best practices in integrated palliative care with regard to quality of life and quality of care. Mixed methods will be used to identify models for integrated palliative care in Europe and to assess patient/caregiver experiences and perceptions within these pathways at the one hand and organizational, managerial, financial and regulatory aspects of these integrated pathways at the other hand. The project will evaluate existing initiatives for patients with cancer, COPD and CHF, and will deliver recommendations on (requirements for) best practices in integrated palliative care. This will also include recommendations on (changes in) skill mix of health professionals. Results will be disseminated via conferences, articles, and an interactive website including an e-learning module. This project will contribute vastly to the improvement of the (organization of) care for patients with advanced cancer and chronic disease and can be extrapolated to other patients with complex care needs.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: MSCA-ITN-ETN | Phase: MSCA-ITN-2014-ETN | Award Amount: 3.91M | Year: 2015

BIOPOL is an interdisciplinary European training network at the interface of cell biology, physics and engineering. BIOPOL aims specifically at the understanding of fundamental mechanochemical principles guiding cellular behaviour and function and their relevance to human disease. A new supra-disciplinary research field is emerging bringing together the fields of molecular cell biology, physics and engineering aiming at an in depth understanding of fundamental cellular mechanochemical principles. BIOPOL combines exactly this required expertise in one joint training program for young researchers. BIOPOL has assembled a unique multidisciplinary consortium bringing together top scientists from the fields of molecular/developmental cell biology, membrane physics, engineering as well as specialists from the private sector. The scientific objectives focus on understanding of fundamental mechanisms of cellular mechanosensing in health and disease, the role of external forces in cell division and mechanochemical regulation of cell polarity including tissue formation. Finally, part of BIOPOLs research program is the further development of cutting edge technologies like advanced atomic force microscopy, novel photonic tools like optical stretcher or innovative organ on a chip technology, exploiting physical cellular properties. BIOPOLs collaborative cutting edge research program is integral part of its training program provided to early stage researcher and is further translated into seven state of the art experimental training stations representing the consortiums expertise. In addition, BIOPOL has developed a 3 years modular curriculum including workshops, summerschools, Business plan competitions and conferences with a specific agenda of transferable skill training elements highly relevant for scientific communication, translational research and in particular entrepreneurship.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: SGA-RIA | Phase: FETFLAGSHIP | Award Amount: 89.00M | Year: 2016

Understanding the human brain is one of the greatest scientific challenges of our time. Such an understanding can provide profound insights into our humanity, leading to fundamentally new computing technologies, and transforming the diagnosis and treatment of brain disorders. Modern ICT brings this prospect within reach. The HBP Flagship Initiative (HBP) thus proposes a unique strategy that uses ICT to integrate neuroscience data from around the world, to develop a unified multi-level understanding of the brain and diseases, and ultimately to emulate its computational capabilities. The goal is to catalyze a global collaborative effort. During the HBPs first Specific Grant Agreement (SGA1), the HBP Core Project will outline the basis for building and operating a tightly integrated Research Infrastructure, providing HBP researchers and the scientific Community with unique resources and capabilities. Partnering Projects will enable independent research groups to expand the capabilities of the HBP Platforms, in order to use them to address otherwise intractable problems in neuroscience, computing and medicine in the future. In addition, collaborations with other national, European and international initiatives will create synergies, maximizing returns on research investment. SGA1 covers the detailed steps that will be taken to move the HBP closer to achieving its ambitious Flagship Objectives.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: MSCA-ITN-ETN | Phase: MSCA-ITN-2016 | Award Amount: 3.97M | Year: 2017

MMbio will bridge the classically separate disciplines of Chemistry and Biology by assembling leading experts from academia and non-academic partners (industry, technology transfer & science communication) to bring about systems designed to interfere therapeutically with gene expression in living cells. Expertise in nucleic acid synthesis, its molecular recognition and chemical reactivity is combined with drug delivery, cellular biology and experimental medicine. This project represents a concerted effort to make use of a basic and quantitative understanding of chemical interactions to develop and deliver oligonucleotide molecules of utility for therapy. Our chemical biology approach to this field is ambitious in its breadth and represents a unqiues opportunity to educate young scientists across sectorial and disciplinary barriers. Training will naturally encompass a wide range of skills, requiring a joint effort of chemists and biologists to introduce young researchers in a structured way to and array of research methodologies that no single research grouping could provide. The incorporation of early-stage and later stag ebiotechnology enterprises ensures that commercialisation of methodologies as well as the drug development process is covered in this ITN. We hope that MMBio will train scientists able to understand both the biological problem and the chemistry that holds the possible solution and develop original experimental approaches to stimulate European academic and commercial success in this area.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP | Phase: ENERGY.2012.2.3.1 | Award Amount: 19.53M | Year: 2012

The overall objectives of the INNWIND.EU project are the high performance innovative design of a beyond-state-of-the-art 10-20MW offshore wind turbine and hardware demonstrators of some of the critical components. These ambitious primary objectives lead to a set of secondary objectives, which are the specific innovations, new concepts, new technologies and proof of concepts at the sub system and turbine level. The progress beyond the state of the art is envisaged as an integrated wind turbine concept with i) a light weight rotor having a combination of adaptive characteristics from passive built-in geometrical and structural couplings and active distributed smart sensing and control, ii) an innovative, low-weight, direct drive generator and iii) a standard mass-produced integrated tower and substructure that simplifies and unifies turbine structural dynamic characteristics at different water depths. A lightweight blade design will be demonstrated at a MW scale turbine. The drive train innovations include a super conducting generator; pseudo magnetic drive train and a light weight re-design of the bedplate for reduced tower top mass. The superconducting generator technology and the pseudo magnetic drive technology will be demonstrated at relevant scales by participating industry. The concepts are researched individually at the component level but also at the wind turbine system level in an integrated approach. Their benefits are quantified through suitable performance indicators and their market deployment opportunities are concretely established in two dedicated integrating work packages. The consortium comprises of leading Industrial Partners and Research Establishments focused on longer term research and innovation of industrial relevance. The project addresses the heart of the Long Term R&D Programme of the New Turbines and Components strand of the European Wind Initiative (EWI) established under SET-Plan, the Common European Policy for Energy Technologies.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-TP | Phase: KBBE.2011.3.6-01 | Award Amount: 3.87M | Year: 2011

Currently, biologists are collecting enormous amounts of omics data in a vast number of different databases. Predictive, data-driven computational models are needed to understand the complex, multi-scale biological networks underlying these high-throughput datasets. Such models are non-linear and contain many parameters, which are difficult (or impossible) to measure directly. Instead, parameters need to be inferred from data. This approach is called reverse-engineering. It has tremendous potential for several areas, such as biotechnology and systems biology, since it allows us to develop models with unprecedented accuracy and predictive power. This is achieved through an iterative refinement of our models compared to quantitative omics data, a process called the systems-biology modelling cycle. Many methods have been developed that deal with specific steps in this cycle (data analysis, model building/discrimination, parameter estimation/identifiability analysis, uncertainty quantification, and optimal experimental design), but we still lack an over-arching, easy-to-use software framework that supports the modelling cycle in its entirety, allowing its widespread application. This project aims at improving accessibility of the data, and developing novel algorithms and tools implemented in such a general framework, which will enable the efficient transfer of cutting-edge modelling and optimisation methods from an academic research setting to private biotechnology partners. We will use representative biological and biotechnological applications as benchmark problems to develop robust and generally applicable methodology. The availability of such tools to the biotechnology sector (and other industries) will greatly enhance our ability to design and optimise complex production processes, especially those of nutraceuticals, biopharmaceuticals, or fine chemicals based on engineered organisms such as bacteria, yeast or plants.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP | Phase: SEC-2011.6.1-5 | Award Amount: 4.24M | Year: 2012

Convenience and cost-effectiveness are the two key considerations for both citizens and security forces when deciding which technologies to embrace or avoid in the Information Society. State actors and private corporations adopt information communication technologies (ICTs) because they are cost-effective. The motivation for adoption may be different in the private and public sectors but once adopted these ICTs are then capable of being bridged in multiple ways permitting police/security forces to go beyond the data they gather directly but also increasingly tap into data gathered and stored by private corporations. These ICTs, which have to date gone through a period of largely organic growth, will be deemed to be in balance if they are implemented in a way which respects individual privacy while still maximising convenience, profitability, public safety and security. RESPECT seeks to investigate if the current and foreseeable implementation of ICTs in surveillance is indeed in balance and, where a lack of balance may exist or is perceived by citizens not to exist, the project explores options for redressing the balance through a combination of Privacy-Enhancing Technologies and operational approaches. Investigating at least five key sectors not yet tackled by other recent projects researching surveillance (CCTV, database mining and interconnection, on-line social network analysis, RFID & geo-location/sensor devices, financial tracking), RESPECT will also carry out quantitative and qualitative research on citizens awareness and attitudes to surveillance. RESPECT will produce tools that would enable policy makers to understand the socio-cultural as well as the operational and economic impact of surveillance systems. The project will also produce operational guidelines incorporating privacy by design approaches which would enable law enforcement agencies to deploy surveillance systems with lowest privacy risk possible and maximum security gain to citizens.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP | Phase: ICT-2009.5.3 | Award Amount: 15.53M | Year: 2011

The airways diseases asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease affect over 400 million people world-wide and cause considerable morbidity and mortality. Airways disease costs the European Union in excess of 56 billion per annum. Current therapies are inadequate and we do not have sufficient tools to predict disease progression or response to current or future therapies. Our consortium, Airway Disease PRedicting Outcomes through Patient Specific Computational Modelling (AirPROM), brings together the exisiting clinical consortia (EvA FP7, U-BIOPRED IMI and BTS Severe Asthma), and expertise in physiology, radiology, image analysis, bioengineering, data harmonization, data security and ethics, computational modeling and systems biology. We shall develop an integrated multi-scale model building upon existing models. This airway model will be comprised of an integrated micro-scale and macro-scale airway model informed and validated by omic data and ex vivo models at the genome-transcriptome-cell-tissue scale and by CT and functional MRI imaging coupled to detailed physiology at the tissue-organ scale utilising Europes largest airway disease cohort. Validation will be undertaken cross-sectionally, following interventions and after longitudinal follow-up to incorporate both spatial and temporal dimensions. AirPROM has a comprehensive data management platform and a well-developed ethico-legal framework. Critically, AirPROM has an extensive exploitation plan, involving at its inception and throughout its evolution those that will develop and use the technologies emerging from this project. AirPROM therefore will bridge the critical gaps in our clinical management of airways disease, by providing validated models to predict disease progression and response to treatment and the platform to translate these patient-specific tools, so as to pave the way to improved, personalised management of airways disease.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: REV-INEQUAL-05-2016 | Award Amount: 3.25M | Year: 2017

The proposed project aims to study the relations between inequalities and young peoples ways of doing politics as well as to advance scenarios for future democratic models and political systems in Europe that are more inclusive for young people. It has three main objectives: (1) To provide systematic evidence on the ways in which inequalities are lived by young people and (re)acted upon, exploring the coping mechanisms which are embedded in young peoples ways of doing politics; these coping mechanisms are manifested in multiple forms, i.e. as either political (dis)engagement and contestation online and offline or as (trans-)national democratic innovation and experimentation; (2) To advance knowledge on the conditions and causes underpinning young peoples ways of doing politics; this involves an examination of their norms, values, attitudes, and behaviors regarding democracy, power, politics, policy-making, social and political participation (online and offline) and the organization of economic, social and private life in order to identify ways to strengthen youth political participation and engagement with democratic life in Europe; (3) To suggest a number of different future scenarios for the development of democracy and political participation in Europe, putting particular emphasis on implementing new democratic models that are more inclusive for young people especially those with fewer opportunities. The research design consists of a multidimensional theoretical framework that combines macro-level (institutional), meso-level (organizational), and micro-level (individual) explanatory factors, a cross-national comparative design that includes nine European countries with different institutional arrangements and policies towards youth, and an integrated methodological approach based on multiple sources and methods (policy analysis, claims-making analysis, organizational survey, panel survey, survey experiments, biographical interviews, and social media analysis).


Grant
Agency: GTR | Branch: EPSRC | Program: | Phase: Research Grant | Award Amount: 3.23M | Year: 2014

The manufacturing and processing of metals to form components is one of the largest industrial sectors and accounts for 46% of all manufactured value, with an economic value to the EEA of Euro 1.3 trillion annually. Material security concerns the access to raw materials to ensure military and economic sufficiency. We will face major future challenges as key elements will be increasingly in short supply with consequent price volatility (the ticking time bomb). Equally, many materials rely on strategic elements for which supply is not guaranteed, with rare earth elements being the prime example (central to the performance of magnesium alloys). Metals production consumes about 5% of global energy use and is responsible for an annual emission of over 2Gton of CO2, so efficiency in manufacture can produce significant reductions in environmental impact. The recent report Material Security: Ensuring resource availability for the UK economy from the TSB noted the importance of material security has increased due to limited short-term availability of some raw materials, widespread large increases in raw material prices, oligopolistic industry structures and dependence on a limited number of sometimes politically unstable countries as sources of key materials. Furthermore, The issue of sustainability has attained unprecedented prominence on both national and international agendas, occupying the minds of businesses and governments as never before... Resource efficiency has a key role to play in mitigating wider issues such as depletion of resources, environmental impact and materials security, and it also contributes significantly to the low-carbon economy. Addressing resource efficiency in metals production and use requires that new metal alloys be developed specifically to reduce reliance on strategic and scarce elements, for recycling and for disruptive manufacturing technologies that minimise waste. The size of the problem is too large to be undertaken by the traditional matrix experiment. Rather, a wide range of state-of-the-art modelling, experimental and processing skills needs to be brought together to target resource efficiency in metallic systems. In the DARE approach we use basic science to come to an understanding of the role of strategically important elements, to design new alloys with greater resource efficiency and to optimise the processing route for the new alloys to give supply chain compression. Unique to the DARE approach is to bring manufacturing into the centre of the alloy design paradigm. The combined themes will tackle key metal alloys, including ultra-high strength, low alloy and nanostructured steel (e.g. for a resource efficient approach to vehicle light weighting to give reduced automotive emissions); titanium alloys and titanium aluminides (e.g. for aerospace applications) and Mg alloys (e.g. in automotive and military applications, for example, cast gear box casings). The research team and their ten industrial partners will deliver actual materials and implementation into industry, moving the resource efficiency agenda from the sphere of policy into the real economy. We will support the growth of the high-value UK speciality metals manufacturing industry by developing and exploiting the DARE approach to the design of alloys that improve the resource efficiency and flexibility with regard to fluctuating material availability of the UK manufacturing economy, addressing the EPSRC grand challenges in transitioning to a low-carbon society. This will help existing UK world-leading industries to expand and manufacture for the future.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: BG-09-2016 | Award Amount: 15.49M | Year: 2016

The overall objective of INTAROS is to develop an integrated Arctic Observation System (iAOS) by extending, improving and unifying existing systems in the different regions of the Arctic. INTAROS will have a strong multidisciplinary focus, with tools for integration of data from atmosphere, ocean, cryosphere and terrestrial sciences, provided by institutions in Europe, North America and Asia. Satellite earth observation data plays an increasingly important role in such observing systems, because the amount of EO data for observing the global climate and environment grows year by year. In situ observing systems are much more limited due to logistical constraints and cost limitations. The sparseness of in situ data is therefore the largest gap in the overall observing system. INTAROS will assess strengths and weaknesses of existing observing systems and contribute with innovative solutions to fill some of the critical gaps in the in situ observing network. INTAROS will develop a platform, iAOS, to search for and access data from distributed databases. The evolution into a sustainable Arctic observing system requires coordination, mobilization and cooperation between the existing European and international infrastructures (in-situ and remote including space-based), the modeling communities and relevant stakeholder groups. INTAROS will include development of community-based observing systems, where local knowledge is merged with scientific data. An integrated Arctic Observation System will enable better-informed decisions and better-documented processes within key sectors (e.g. local communities, shipping, tourism, fisheries), in order to strengthen the societal and economic role of the Arctic region and support the EU strategy for the Arctic and related maritime and environmental policies.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: MG-1.9-2015 | Award Amount: 1.40M | Year: 2016

This research project focuses on several key Direct Energy Deposition (DED) Additive Manufacturing (AM) processes that have great potential to be used as cost-effective and efficient repairing and re-manufacturing processes for aerospace components such as turbine blades and landing gears. This project aims to conduct fundamental research to understand the material integrity through chosen DED AM processes, the accuracy and limitations of these deposition processes, effective defect geometry mapping and generation methods, and automated and hybrid DED and post-deposition machining strategies. This project intends to connect repair and re-manufacturing strategies with design through accurate DED process simulation and novel multi-disciplinary design optimisation (MDO) methods to ultimately reduce the weakness of aerospace component at design stage and prolong their the lifecycles. Both powder-based and wire-based DED systems will be investigated to establish an across-the-board comparative study. The data collected through this comprehensive comparative study will be extremely valuable for the OEMs of this project (i.e. GKN, PWC, and HDI) to understand the pros and cons of these DED systems and will help them to select suitable repair and re-manufacturing strategies. The tests conducted in this research are also extremely beneficial for the SMEs in this project (i.e. Liburdi, AV&R, DPS) to validate their existing repairing systems and techniques.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: Shift2Rail-CSA | Phase: S2R-OC-IP4-01-2016 | Award Amount: 2.00M | Year: 2016

The establishment of good governance will effectively secure the confidence of the industry to use the Interoperability Framework (IF) semantic technologies that will be established under the IP4 Shift2Rail program. The objective of the Governance of the IF for Rail and Intermodal Mobility (GoF4R) project is to define sustainable governance for the IF that will create the right conditions to introduce seamless mobility services and foster the development of multi-modal travel services. GoF4R will help to overcome obstacles currently impeding development of market innovation by fostering a large acceptance of the semantic web for transportation. The objectives will be achieved through a partnership of specialist participants including research institutions, a major European rail operator, industry associations representing the passenger and multi-modal transport sectors and public transportation authorities. Participants, who are also involved in the consortium of designers for the IF, will focus on the establishment of sustainable governance that will promote community confidence. The governance structure will create the basis for long term stability and controlled future evolution of the IF, promoting industry confidence so that it is attractive to invest in future products and services. The project encompasses all current and future stakeholders who will exploit the IF as described in the Shift2Rail Multi Annual Action Plan, contributing to the realisation of a distributed semantic web of transport integrating the TAP-TSI specifications as one of its elements. The governance models proposed in GoF4R will assure the interests of European travellers by fostering market uptake by mobility service providers. It will facilitate new business opportunities for improved mobility and travel related services and improve the incorporation of new stakeholders in the European arena by removing technological, administrative and economic boundaries.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: MSCA-RISE | Phase: MSCA-RISE-2016 | Award Amount: 283.50K | Year: 2017

Within a context of growing urban population, advances in urban logistics operations and improved local authority planning, especially in the field of the urban freight transport, can alleviate the associated negative environmental and economic impacts occurring in cities. Several types of stakeholders are involved in such urban logistics management processes. Among them, freight carriers and shippers are interested in minimizing freight logistics costs in order to maximize their profits, while maintaining a competitive level of service to their customers. City administrators and residents are oriented towards a decrease in traffic congestion, social costs and environmental nuisances, even though they are often direct beneficiaries of high quality delivery services. This leads to a multitude of differing and possibly conflicting objectives that are involved in urban freight transport planning and decision making, yielding a high level of complexity. This provides a main motivation for the development of tools for helping decision makers to reach higher grades of efficiency. Despite growing academic interest, the extent to which freight transport is acknowledged and formally considered in local authority transport planning varies considerably from country to country, and on a more local level, between towns and cities. As a result, policy development with respect to urban freight and city logistics is characterised by a rather fragmented approach, with many city authorities finding it difficult to address the complex set of differing views of a large variety of stakeholders. The proposed project will be aimed at identifying local authority planning needs with regards to urban/city logistics activities and the necessary pre-requisites for inclusion of stakeholders in the process. Finally, the project will promote the knowledge transfer of methods and models through the conceptual development of a novel decision support tool (thanks to involved software houses).


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP | Phase: HEALTH.2010.3.1-1 | Award Amount: 3.90M | Year: 2011

New knowledge is not necessarily readily applied in medicine, even when there is evidence of its effectiveness. As a result of the gap between knowing and doing, policy makers, professional care providers, patients and their families have benefited too little from new developments. Implementation research has developed models for stepwise implementation but it is still unclear which strategies are effective for whom and which factors influence the effectiveness of implementation strategies. From the point of view of implementation sciences changing palliative care is a major challenge, since adequate organization of palliative care requires collaboration between a range of different professionals and healthcare organizations. Besides, as a consequence of the ageing population, the number of people in need for cancer and dementia palliative care will rise. Therefore we will focus on implementation strategies in palliative care. The overall aim of this project is to develop optimal implementation strategies for using quality indicators to improve the organization of palliative cancer and dementia care in Europe and to study factors influencing the effectiveness of the strategies. We will focus on the implementation process and concentrate the work packages on: the organization of palliative care, the development of a set of setting-specific implementation strategies including an interactive website and instruction by consultants, the evaluation of the use of selected strategies to improve the organization of palliative care and factors influencing the effectiveness of the implementation strategies. This information will be used to build a conceptual model that should be applicable across diverse healthcare settings and that allows rigorous assessment of the effectiveness of implementation strategies. Dissemination of the results will be enhanced by involving stakeholders, including two European networks related to the subject of this implementation process study.


Grant
Agency: GTR | Branch: EPSRC | Program: | Phase: Research Grant | Award Amount: 3.77M | Year: 2013

The aim of this proposal is to transform the design and manufacture of structural systems by relieving the bottleneck caused by the current practice of restricting designs to a linear dynamic regime. Our ambition is to not only address the challenge of dealing with nonlinearity, but to unlock the huge potential which can be gained from exploiting its positive attributes. The outputs will be a suite of novel modelling and control techniques which can be used directly in the design processes for structural systems, which we will demonstrate on a series of industry based experimental demonstrators. These design tools will enable a transformation in the performance of engineering structural systems which are under rapidly increasing demands from technological, economic and environmental pressures. The performance of engineering structures and systems is governed by how well they behave in their operating environment. For a significant number of engineering sectors, such as wind power generation, automotive, medical robotics, aerospace and large civil infrastructure, dynamic effects dominate the operational regime. As a result, understanding structural dynamics is crucial for ensuring that we have safe, reliable and efficient structures. In fact, the related mathematical problems extend to other modelling problems encountered in other important research areas such as systems biology, physiological modelling and information technology. So what exactly is the problem we are seeking to address in this proposal? Typically, when the behaviour of an engineering system is linear, computer simulations can be used to make very accurate predictions of its dynamic behaviour. The concept of end-to-end simulation and virtual prototyping, verification and testing has become a key paradigm across many sectors. The problem with this simulation based approach is that it is built on implicit assumptions of repeatability and linearity. For example, many structural analysis methods are based on the concept of a frequency domain charaterisation, which assumes that response of the system can be characterised by linear superposition of the response to each frequency seperately. But, the response of nonlinear systems is known to display amplitude dependence, sensitivity to transient effects in the forcing, and potential bistability or multiplicity of outcome for the same input frequency. As a result, when the system is nonlinear (which is nearly always the case for a large number of important industrial problems) it is almost impossible to make dynamic predictions without introducing very limiting approximations and simplifications. For example, throughout recent history, there have been many examples of unwanted vibrations; Failure of the Tacoma Narrows bridge (1940); cable-deck coupled vibrations on the DongTing Lake Bridge (1999); human induced vibration on the Millennium Bridge (2000); NASA Helios failure (2003); Coupling between thrusters and natural frequencies of the flexible structure on the International Space Station (2009); Landing gear shimmy. In many cases, the complexity of modern designs has outstripped our ability to understand their dynamic behaviour in detail. Even with the benefit of high power computing, which has enabled engineers to carry out detailed simulations, interpreting results from these simulations is a fundamental bottleneck, and it would seem that our ability to match experimental results is not improving, due primarily to the combination of random and uncertain effects and the failure of the linear superposition approach. As a result a new type of structural dynamics, which fully embraces nonlinearity, is urgently needed to enable the most efficient design and manufacture of the next generation of engineering structures.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP | Phase: HEALTH.2012.3.2-2 | Award Amount: 3.89M | Year: 2013

The rise of complex, chronic diseases in an ageing European population led to the development of increasingly complex technologies. Current HTA is not well equipped to assess complex technologies due to a lack of attention to the diversity in patient characteristics and patient preferences, the limited consideration of context and implementation issues, and missing strategies to integrate all these aspects into a comprehensive assessment. We shall develop concepts and methods for HTA to enable a patient-centered, integrated assessment of the effectiveness, and the economic, social, cultural and ethical issues of complex technologies that takes context and implementation into account. We shall use palliative care for our case study as it is of extremely high relevance and it is an excellent example for a highly complex technology. More specifically, we shall adapt and develop methods and concepts - to assess the effectiveness and economic, social, cultural, and ethical issues of complex technologies, - to elicit patient preferences and patient-specific moderators of treatment - to include context, setting, and implementation - and, finally, to integrate these issues into a patient-centered, comprehensive assessment of complex technologies. Concepts and methods will be tested through assessing the complex technology Specialist palliative care. Revised guidance will be issued for comment to all relevant stakeholders. All partners of the consortium have an outstanding track record in the development of HTA methodology and are actively involved in major international initiatives in the field. The project will complement the work of similar initiatives and projects on HTA development, especially EUNetHTA/EUNetHTA JA and inform HTA agencies in all European countries. By focusing on an integrated assessment, we shall also match the need of policy-makers who prefer this to dealing with scattered information on innovative and complex technologies.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP | Phase: ICT-2013.4.1 | Award Amount: 3.56M | Year: 2013

The overall goals of the SENSEI project are twofold. First, SENSEI will develop summarization/analytics technology to help users make sense of human conversation streams from diverse media channels. Second, SENSEI will design and evaluate its summarization technology in ecological environments, aiming to improve task performance and productivity of end-users.Conversational interaction is the most natural and persistent paradigm for business relations with end-customers or users. In contact centres millions of customer spoken conversations are handled daily. On social media platforms hundreds of millions of blog posts are delivered through generalist or proprietary platforms. In both cases, conversations have little impact on the intended target listeners due to the volume, velocity and diversity (media, style, social context) of the document streams (spoken conversations and blog posts). Most language analytics technology is limited in that it performs keyword search, which does not provide automatic descriptions of what happened, who said what, which opinions are held on what subject, in a coherent, readable and executable form. In the SENSEI project we plan to go beyond keyword search and sentence based analysis of conversations. We will design and adapt lightweight and large coverage linguistic models of semantic and discourse resources to learn a layered model of conversations. SENSEI will address the issue of multidimensional textual, spoken and metadata descriptors in terms of semantic, para-semantic and discourse structures. The combination of supervised and unsupervised learning techniques will support the scaling and adaptation of such computational models to the diversity of the conversation data. Automated generation of readable analytics documents (summaries) will support end-users in the context of large data analysis tasks. Summarization technology developed in SENSEI will be evaluated with respect to users productivity in the context of ecological scenarios, specifically, call centre and social media conversation analysis.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP | Phase: SSH.2013.5.1-1 | Award Amount: 3.14M | Year: 2013

The proposed research deals with citizens reactions to economic crises and their social and political consequences. It examines in particular the ways in which European citizens have reacted to the crisis that, at different degree of intensity in different countries, struck Europe since 2008, but also how they deal with economic crises and their consequences more generally. We examine both individual and collective responses by citizens, both the private and the public dimensions of such responses, and both political and non-political responses. In addition, while the focus of the research is on citizens responses, we also examine policy responses so as to have a baseline for assessing citizens reactions to crises. The project has three main objectives: (1) to provide systematic evidence of the ways in which European citizens react to economic crises and their social and political consequences, both individually and collectively; (2) to advance knowledge on the connections between individual factors, contextual factors, and the ways in which European citizens react to economic crises and their social and political consequences; and (3) to suggest a number of good practices as to how to deal with economic crises, both at the social and political level, through which their negative consequences on European citizens can be avoided or limited. The projects objectives are addressed by means of six main types of data and methods: (1) the creation of a cross-national comparative dataset on economic, social, and political indicators; (2) an analysis of policy responses to crises; (3) an analysis of collective responses to crises in the public domain; (4) an analysis of individual responses to crises by private citizens; (5) experiments designed to assess causal effects of different dimensions of crises on citizens attitudes and behaviors; and (6) an analysis of alternative forms of resilience in times of crisis.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: MC-ITN | Phase: FP7-PEOPLE-2011-ITN | Award Amount: 3.74M | Year: 2012

Infectious diseases caused by pathogenic micro-organisms are major causes of death, disability, and social and economic disruption for millions of people. During evolution these pathogens have developed intricate strategies to manipulate host defence mechanisms and outwit the immune system. To reduce the burden of infectious diseases it is important to increase understanding of these host-pathogen interaction mechanisms and to develop more effective strategies for drug discovery. The zebrafish holds much promise as a high-throughput drug screening model. In the last few years, zebrafish models for studying human pathogens or closely related animal pathogens have emerged at a rapid pace. The fact that zebrafish produce large amounts of embryos, which develop externally and are optically transparent, gives unprecedented possibilities for live imaging of disease processes and is the basis of novel high-thoughput drug screening approaches. In recent years good models have been developed for toxicity, safety and efficacy of drug screening in zebrafish embryos. However, the major bottleneck for development of high-throughput antimicrobial drug screens has been that infection models rely on manual injection and handling of zebrafish embryos. This limiting factor has been overcome by a unique automated injection system that will be applied in this project. The FishForPharma training network brings together leading European research groups that have pioneered the use of zebrafish infection models and partners from the Biotech and Pharma sectors that aim to commercialise zebrafish tools for biomedical applications. FishForPharma aims to deliver the proof-of-principle for drug discovery using zebrafish infectious disease models and to increase understanding of host-pathogen interaction mechanisms to identify new drug targets for infectious disease treatment. Most importantly, we aim to equip a cohort of young researchers with the knowledge and skills to achieve these goals.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: MSCA-ITN-EID | Phase: MSCA-ITN-2015-EID | Award Amount: 1.06M | Year: 2016

MIMIC is an interdisciplinary European Industrial Doctorate at the interface of cell biology, engineering and drug development. MIMIC aims to develop and improve novel organs on chips technology. This technology combines modern cell biology with microfluidics and chip-based techniques with the goal to mimic organ functionality. There is a high demand by the pharmaceutical industry for more reliable tissue models to test drug toxicity and drug efficiency at early stages of drug development. Early reliable drug testing will have a major impact on drug development costs and human health. Furthermore, ethical considerations urge for the search for alternatives to replace animal tests in drug development and basic research. Organs on chips are a new exciting possibility to closer mimic human organ functionality in vitro than conventional 2D or 3D cell cultures. Organs on chips allow both, the emulation of healthy organs as well as the emulation of specific disease conditions using corresponding engineered or patient derived human cells. Moreover, organs on chips are ideally suited for high-throughput drug screening. The EID-MIMIC will develop novel organs on chips prototypes, and validate their suitability for end-users for high throughput drug screening or basic research. MIMIC will train early stage researchers in cutting edge technologies, like novel chip based technologies e.g. cell micropatterning, soft-lithography and microfluidics technology, as well as state of the art microscopy like super resolution- and confocal spinning disc microscopy and modern genome editing techniques like CRISPR-technology. In addition, MIMIC has developed a 3 year modular curriculum including workshops on creativity and business skills, summer schools, business plan competitions and international conferences with a specific agenda of transferable skill training elements highly relevant for scientific communication, translational research and, in particular, entrepreneurship.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP | Phase: ENV.2013.6.3-1 | Award Amount: 4.50M | Year: 2014

An estimated one billion tyres are discarded each year. Post-Consumer tyre arisings for EU countries (2010) are 3.4M tonnes per year. At the moment nearly 50% of all recycled tyres/components still end up as fuel, in low grade applications or in landfill. All tyre constituents (rubber, high strength steel cord and wire, high strength textile reinforcement) are high quality materials and deserve to be reused for their relevant properties. Construction is the highest user of materials with concrete being the most popular structural material. Concrete is inherently brittle in compression (unless suitably confined) and weak in tension and, hence, it is normally reinforced with steel bars or fibres. The authors believe that highly confined rubberised concrete can lead to highly deformable concrete elements and structures and that tyre steel and textile fibres can be used as concrete reinforcement to control shrinkage cracking. Hence, the aim of this proposal is to develop innovative solutions to reuse all tyre components in high value innovative concrete applications with reduced environmental impact. To achieve this aim, the proposed project will have to overcome scientific and technological challenges in: Development of novel confined rubberised concrete materials and reinforcement Development of high deformability RC elements suitable for integral bridge elements and base isolation systems for vibrations and seismic applications Development of concrete mixes using recycled steel fibres for use in various applications such as slabs on grade, suspended slabs, precast concrete elements and pumpable self compacting concrete or screed Development of concrete mixes using recycled tyre polymer fibres for crack control Development of novel concrete applications using combinations of the different tyre by-products Undertaking demonstrations projects using the developed materials/applications Development and implementation of standardised LCA/LCCA protocols


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CSA-CA | Phase: SiS.2012.1.3.3-1 | Award Amount: 1.16M | Year: 2013

The RECODE project will leverage existing networks, communities and projects to address challenges within the open access and data dissemination and preservation sector. The sector includes several different networks, initiatives, projects and communities that are fragmented by discipline, geography, stakeholder category (publishers, academics, repositories, etc.) as well as other boundaries. Many of these organisations are addressing the barriers to open access to research data, such as stakeholder fragmentation, technical and infrastructural issues, ethical and legal issues, and state and institutional policy fragmentation. However, these organizations are often working in isolation or with limited contact with one another. RECODE will provide a space for European stakeholders in the open access and data dissemination and preservation sector to work together to provide common solutions for these issues. It will provide over-arching recommendations for a policy framework to support open access to European research data. The RECODE partners will identify and connect with relevant stakeholders, building upon and strengthening existing stakeholder engagement mechanisms at the European and international levels. It will conduct studies of good practice and exchange good practice principles with relevant stakeholders and institutions during networking activities. The RECODE project will formulate recommendations for open access to research data targeted at different stakeholders and policy-makers in support of the Commissions policies. It will take account of the disciplinary and international differences in open access stakeholder ecosystems and stakeholder, institutional, funding body and governmental value chains.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: EURO-3-2014 | Award Amount: 2.85M | Year: 2015

TransSOL is committed to the systematic, interdisciplinary and praxis-oriented analysis of European solidarity in times of crisis. It has three overarching objectives: (a) it will map and analyse solidarity in Europe by means of a cross-national database that comprises three surveys addressing the general population, organized civil society, and claims-making in the media; (b) it will gather systematic data on the contextual factors and engage into political and legal analyses to ascertain the influence of the socio-economic, political, and legal context on solidarity, in particular the impact of the crisis, the EUs political responses and target-groups specific public policies; and (c) it will identify and develop best practices of transnational solidarity, draft evidence-based policy recommendations, and engage proactive dissemination and communication activities. The project comprises teams from Denmark, France, Germany, Greece, Italy, Poland, Switzerland and the UK, including scientists from various disciplines and civil society practitioners, thus promising to deliver interdisciplinary and comparative analyses, knowledge-transfer and evidence-based, practicable recommendations. The project will enable us to address the three topics of the call. First, TransSOL will provide the first rigorous and comprehensive analysis of transnational solidarity in Europe, its main forms, conditioning factors (e.g., individual features as gender and social class, spatial inequalities, and contextual factors), and underlying conflicts about contending norms, identities, and interests. Secondly, the project will address the impact of Europes cultural diversity and multiple identities on European solidarity by analysing public claims-making and debates within the media. And finally, we engage into a critical reflection about adequate policy responses, in particular about the potentials of social investments balancing civic virtues of solidarity with public responsibilities.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: IA | Phase: MG-4.1-2014 | Award Amount: 25.11M | Year: 2015

The project HERCULES-2 is targeting at a fuel-flexible large marine engine, optimally adaptive to its operating environment. The objectives of the HERCULES-2 project are associated to 4 areas of engine integrated R&D: Improving fuel flexibility for seamless switching between different fuel types, including non-conventional fuels. Formulating new materials to support high temperature component applications. Developing adaptive control methodologies to retain performance over the powerplant lifetime. Achieving near-zero emissions, via combined integrated aftertreatment of exhaust gases. The HERCULES-2 is the next phase of the R&D programme HERCULES on large engine technologies, which was initiated in 2004 as a joint vision by the two major European engine manufacturer groups MAN and WARTSILA. Three consecutive projects namely HERCULES - A, -B, -C spanned the years 2004-2014. These three projects produced exceptional results and received worldwide acclaim. The targets of HERCULES-2 build upon and surpass the targets of the previous HERCULES projects, going beyond the limits set by the regulatory authorities. By combining cutting-edge technologies, the Project overall aims at significant fuel consumption and emission reduction targets using integrated solutions, which can quickly mature into commercially available products. Focusing on the applications, the project includes several full-scale prototypes and shipboard demonstrators. The project HERCULES-2 comprises 4 R&D Work Package Groups (WPG): - WPG I: Fuel flexible engine - WPG II: New Materials (Applications in engines) - WPG III: Adaptive Powerplant for Lifetime Performance - WPG IV: Near-Zero Emissions Engine The consortium comprises 32 partners of which 30% are Industrial and 70% are Universities / Research Institutes. The Budget share is 63% Industry and 37% Universities. The HERCULES-2 proposal covers with authority and in full the Work Programme scope B1 of MG.4.1-2014.


Grant
Agency: GTR | Branch: EPSRC | Program: | Phase: Research Grant | Award Amount: 169.32K | Year: 2015

Advances in fit for use manufacturing of biopharmaceutical drug delivery and pharmaceutical systems are now required to fit Quality by Design (QbD) models. These current regulations require excellence to be built into the preparation of emerging products (both material and process) thereby leading to product robustness and quality. In addition, industrial needs (economical and reproducible quality enhancement) are driving manufacturing towards continuous processes over batch type processes which also rely on QbD (for integrity and quality). EHDA technology is a robust process that has been utilised in various formats (e.g. electrospinning, electrospraying, bubbling and even 3D printing) and is favourable due to applicability with the development of stable nanomedicines and biopharmaceuticals, the emergence of this technology is clearly evident in the UK and on the global scale. Attempts in scaling up (for suitable pharmaceutical scale) and in tandem with continuous processes (including controlled manufacturing) have been very limited. There also, now, remains a huge void in the adaptation of sensible QbD (multi-variate) for the current methods developed and also those required by industry. While lab scale research continues with the ongoing development of such processes (e.g. nanomedicines, smart and controlled delivery), the transition to industry or the clinic will have to meet these regulations (and scales) for there to be a real impact, which is now, also, an important aspect of grass root research in the UK. The EHDA network brings together specialists from academia and industry to advance this technology through several means. Firstly, initiating developments towards a real-viable scale for Pharmaceutical production. Secondly, to incorporate developments in lean manufacturing and legislation (e.g. continuous manufacturing, online diagnostics, QbD and adaptable scale). Thirdly, to marry optimised lean technologies with novel and emerging macromolecular therapies and actives. The network has a wide range of activities and initiatives which will lead to significant developments (and collaborations) in an area of increasing global interest (EHDA processes) - but currently only on a viable lab scale to date. This network will be the first of its kind and will serve as the central and pioneering hub in this remit.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: MC-ITN | Phase: FP7-PEOPLE-2012-ITN | Award Amount: 2.88M | Year: 2013

ECHONET is an Initial Training Network (ITN) comprising 8 full network participants from 6 countries, spanning 6 academic institutions and two private sector organisations, the latter representing SME and Global fine chemicals companies. The network is also supported by 2 associated partners from the private sector. Taken together, the consortium will offer research training and generic skills development by embarking on state-of-the-art chemical synthesis problems and by employing new approaches in catalysis, computational chemistry, bioactive molecule design and high throughput synthesis. As a whole, ECHONET offers tremendous opportunities for research training in an international interdisciplinary environment. It is anticipated that this network will make a significant contribution to the expertise already present in Europe, and will continue to play an important role in the progress of European fine chemical industries and related fields. ECHONET will be supported by 11 early stage researchers and 2 experienced researchers and their research training will be supplemented by formal courses and industrial experience, therefore offering valuable exposure to commercial environments.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: MSCA-RISE | Phase: MSCA-RISE-2016 | Award Amount: 549.00K | Year: 2017

This two-year project involves an international and inter-sector research and training network that focuses on the potential of makerspaces, which are specific spaces that enable creative design and the production of both digital and non-digital artefacts, to foster the digital literacy and creative skills of young children. A key aim of the project is to inform educational policy and practice in this area, enabling formal learning institutions (early years settings and primary schools) to learn from practice in non-formal learning spaces, and vice-versa, and also to foster innovation and entrepreneurship in the makerspace sector, enabling SMEs to develop robust business models and appropriate resources for future work in this area. The project involves 16 academic and non-academic beneficiaries and 10 non-academic, non-beneficiary partners across 6 EU countries (Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, Romania, UK), an Associated Country (Colombia) and 4 Third Countries (Australia, Canada, South Africa and USA). This global network of university scholars, cultural industry partners in makerspaces, early years practitioners, museum educators and librarians will engage in a collaborative research and training programme that addresses 4 objectives, which are to: 1. Conduct a comprehensive review of the role of makerspaces in the formal and non-formal educational experiences of children and young people. 2. Undertake empirical research to determine how makerspaces can foster the digital literacy and creativity skills and knowledge of young children. 3. Develop a conceptual framework for analysing young childrens engagement in makerspaces. 4. Make recommendations for policy and practice that will foster innovation and entrepreneurship in SME makerspaces and facilitate the use of makerspaces for enhancing digital literacy in early childhood educational institutions and non-formal learning spaces.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: INFRAIA-01-2016-2017 | Award Amount: 10.01M | Year: 2017

Europe has become a global leader in optical-near infrared astronomy through excellence in space and ground-based experimental and theoretical research. While the major infrastructures are delivered through major national and multi-national agencies (ESO, ESA) their continuing scientific competitiveness requires a strong community of scientists and technologists distributed across Europes nations. OPTICON has a proven record supporting European astrophysical excellence through development of new technologies, through training of new people, through delivering open access to the best infrastructures, and through strategic planning for future requirements in technology, innovative research methodologies, and trans-national coordination. Europes scientific excellence depends on continuing effort developing and supporting the distributed expertise across Europe - this is essential to develop and implement new technologies and ensure instrumentation and infrastructures remain cutting edge. Excellence depends on continuing effort to strengthen and broaden the community, through networking initiatives to include and then consolidate European communities with more limited science expertise. Excellence builds on training actions to qualify scientists from European communities which lack national access to state of the art research infrastructures to compete successfully for use of the best available facilities. Excellence depends on access programmes which enable all European scientists to access the best infrastructures needs-blind, purely on competitive merit. Global competitiveness and the future of the community require early planning of long-term sustainability, awareness of potentially disruptive technologies, and new approaches to the use of national-scale infrastructures under remote or robotic control. OPTICON will continue to promote this excellence, global competitiveness and long-term strategic planning.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: CSA | Phase: INFRADEV-02-2016 | Award Amount: 9.05M | Year: 2017

The European Solar Telescope (EST) will be a revolutionary Research Infrastructure that will play a major role in answering key questions in modern Solar Physics. This 4-meter class solar telescope, to be located in the Canary Islands, will provide solar physicists with the most advanced state-of-the-art observing tools to transform our understanding of the complex phenomena that drive the solar magnetic activity. The principal objective of the present Preparatory Phase is to provide both the EST international consortium and the funding agencies with a detailed plan regarding the implementation of EST. The specific objectives of the proposed preparatory phase are: (1) to explore possible legal frameworks and related governance schemes that can be used by agencies to jointly establish, construct and operate EST as a new research infrastructure, with the implementation of an intermediate temporary organisational structure, as a previous step for future phases of the project; (2) to explore funding schemes and funding sources for EST, including a proposal of financial models to make possible the combination of direct financial and in-kind contributions towards the construction and operation of EST; (3) to compare the two possible sites for EST in the Canary Islands Astronomical Observatories and prepare final site agreements; (4) to engage funding agencies and policy makers for a long-term commitment which guarantees the construction and operation phases of the Telescope; (5) to involve industry in the design of EST key elements to the required level of definition and validation for their final production; (6) to enhance and intensify outreach activities and strategic links with national agencies and the user communities of EST. To accomplish the aforementioned goals, this 4-year project, promoted by the European Association for Solar Telescopes (EAST) and the PRE-EST consortium, encompassing 23 research institutions from 16 countries, will set up the Project Office


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-CSA | Phase: Fission-2013-2.1.1 | Award Amount: 10.28M | Year: 2013

Preparing NUGENIA for HORIZON 2020 The objective of the NUGENIA\ project is to support the NUGENIA Association in its role to coordinate and integrate European research on safety of the Gen II and III nuclear installations in order to better ensure their safe long term operation, integrating private and public efforts, and initiating international collaboration that will create added value in its activity fields. The project consists of two parts, the first part being a Coordination and Support Action and the second part a Collaborative Project. The aim of the first part, the Coordination and Support Action, is to establish an efficient, transparent and high quality management structure to carry out the planning and management of R&D including project calls, proposal evaluation, project follow-up dissemination and valorisation of R&D results in the area of safety of existing Gen II and future Gen III nuclear installations. The preparatory work will encompass governance, organizational, legal and financial work, as well as the establishment of annual work plans, with the aim to structure public-public and/or private-public joint programming enabling NUGENIA to develop into the integrator of the research in the respective field in Europe. The management structure will build on the existing organisation of the NUGENIA Association, currently grouping over 70 nuclear organisations from research and industry (utilities, vendors and small and medium enterprises) active in R&D. In the second part, the Collaborative project, one thematic call for research proposals will be organized among the technical areas of plant safety and risk assessment, severe accident prevention and management, core and reactor performance, integrity assessment of systems, structures and components, innovative Generation III design and harmonisation of procedures and methods. The call will take place one year after the start of the project. The call will implement the priorities recognised in the NUGENIA Roadmap, in line with the Sustainable Nuclear Energy Technology Platform (SNETP) and International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) strategies. The research call which is going to be organised within the project is open to all eligible organisations. The NUGENIA\ project will benefit from the experience of the NUGENIA Association member organisations on managing national research programmes and from the track record of the NUGENIA project portfolio.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP | Phase: HEALTH.2010.3.1-1 | Award Amount: 3.86M | Year: 2011

ODHIN is a Europe wide project involving research institutions from nine European countries that will help to optimize the delivery of health care interventions by understanding how better to translate the results of clinical research into every day practice. ODHIN will use the implementation of identification and brief intervention (IBI) programmes for hazardous and harmful alcohol consumption (HHAC) in primary health care (PHC) as a case study. There is strong evidence for the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of IBI in reducing HHAC and its consequences, which include more than 60 clinical diagnoses and conditions. A series of systematic reviews investigating the impact of different behavioural, organizational and financial strategies in changing provider behaviour across a range of clinical lifestyle interventions will be undertaken. The knowledge base of potential barriers and facilitators to implementing IBI will be updated. A stepped cluster randomised controlled trial will be undertaken with five arms and three time phases to test the incremental effect of strategies. Phase A will aim at raising awareness, insight, and acceptance of performance of IBI in PHC. Phases B and C will aim at acceptance, change and maintenance of implementation with financial and organisational strategies used in a different order to test the impact of both separately and in sequence. Modelling studies will test the impact of different IBI approaches on changes in alcohol consumption and the resulting impacts on healthcare costs and health-related quality of life. ODHIN will build a clinical evidence-based database on effective and cost-effective IBI measures for use in PHC and will develop a tool to assess the extent of provision of clinical practice. A project website and a series of scientific publications, reports and fact sheets will widely disseminate the documented and evaluated conceptual models across diverse health care settings throughout Europe.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CSA-SA | Phase: SiS-2010-2.2.1.1 | Award Amount: 4.14M | Year: 2011

Following the recommendations of the Science Education Now: A renewed Pedagogy for the Future of Europe report, the Pathway Supporting Action is bringing together experts in the field of science education research and teachers communities, scientists and researchers involved in pioneering scientific research, policy makers and curriculum developers to promote the effective widespread use of inquiry and problem based science teaching techniques in primary and secondary schools in Europe and beyond. The proposed approach is based on three main axes that could facilitate the uptake of IBSE (Inquiry-Based Science Education): It a) proposes a standard-based approach to teaching science by inquiry that outlines instructional models that will help teachers to organise effectively their instruction, b) deploys a series of methods to motivate teachers to adopt inquiry based techniques and activities in their classrooms and c) offers access to a unique collection of open educational resources and teaching practices (linked with the science curricula) that have proven their efficiency and efficacy in promoting inquiry based education and that are expanding the limitations of classroom instruction. Such an approach enables all stakeholders (teachers, teachers trainers, curriculum developers, policy-makers) to examine their own practices in the light of the best performing approaches that set the standards on what can be achieved and provides them with a unique tool to bring about improvements in their everyday practice.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: LCE-24-2016 | Award Amount: 3.21M | Year: 2016

ROLINCAP will search, identify and test novel phase-change solvents, including aqueous and non-aqueous options, as well as phase-change packed bed and Rotating Packed Bed processes for post-combustion CO2 capture. These are high-potential technologies, still in their infancy, with initial evidence pointing to regeneration energy requirements below 2.0 GJ/ton CO2 and considerable reduction of the equipment size, several times compared to conventional processes . These goals will be approached through a holistic decision making framework consisting of methods for modeling and design that have the potential for real breakthroughs in CO2 capture research. The tools proposed in ROLINCAP will cover a vast space of solvent and process options going far beyond the capabilities of existing simulators. ROLINCAP follows a radically new path by proposing one predictive modelling framework, in the form of the SAFT- equation of state, for both physical and chemical equilibrium, for a wide range of phase behaviours and of molecular structures. The envisaged thermodynamic model will be used in optimization-based Computer-aided Molecular Design of phase-change solvents in order to identify options beyond the very few previously identified phase-change solvents. Advanced process design approaches will be used for the development of highly intensified Rotating Packed Bed processes. Phase-change solvents will be considered with respect to their economic and operability RPB process characteristics. The sustainability of both the new solvents and the packed-bed and RPB processes will be investigated considering holistic Life Cycle Assessment analysis and Safety Health and Environmental Hazard assessment. Selected phase-change solvents, new RPB column concepts and packing materials will be tested at TRL 4 and 5 pilot plants. Software in the form of a new SAFT- equation of state will be tested at TRL 5 in the gPROMS process simulator.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CSA-SA | Phase: SiS.2012.1.2-1 | Award Amount: 4.09M | Year: 2012

The general aim of SIforAGE project will be to strengthen the cooperation mechanisms and tools among the stakeholders working along the value chain of active and healthy ageing, with the aim of improving the performance of the European Union competitiveness and growth, through research and innovative products for more and better lives. The objective is change minds and attitudes for a new vision of ageing. This new way of understanding ageing has been embraced under the concept of active and healthy ageing (AHA), as an inclusive term to framework the transformation of ageing vision. The specific objectives addressed in the project will be: 1. To develop the supporting tools and mechanisms for the Social Innovation Incubator on AHA 2. To engage and empower society and civil society organisations in research on AHA. 3. To introduce evidence-based policymaking, through training activities with policymakers, to address future shaping of ageing research programmes and funding schemes 4. To raise awareness among the scientific community on the importance of social responsibility and ethics in ageing research, and offer practical guidance on how to address them. 5. To analyse and improve the existing mechanisms for accessing the market of innovative products and solutions for older people 6. To actively involve the wide range of stakeholders of the value chain and spread knowledge generated along the project duration The consortium involved in the project is compounded of 20 different partners at EU and International level, representing a remarkable well-balanced consortium with complementary backgrounds and expertise and representing different stakeholders along the value chain of ageing research, from universities, civil society organisations, final users groups, think tanks, public administrations, technology research centers and companies.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-IP | Phase: HEALTH.2013.2.2.1-1 | Award Amount: 39.56M | Year: 2013

Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) is a major cause of death and disability, leading to great personal suffering to victim and relatives, as well as huge direct and indirect costs to society. Strong ethical, medical, social and health economic reasons therefore exist for improving treatment. The CENTER-TBI project will collect a prospective, contemporary, highly granular, observational dataset of 5400 patients, which will be used for better characterization of TBI and for Comparative Effectiveness Research (CER). The generalisability of our results will be reinforced by a contemporaneous registry level data collection in 15-25,000 patients. Our conceptual approach is to exploit the heterogeneity in biology, care, and outcome of TBI, to discover novel pathophysiology, refine disease characterization, and identify effective clinical interventions. Key elements are the use of emerging technologies (biomarkers, genomics and advanced MR imaging) in large numbers of patients, across the entire course of TBI (from injury to late outcome) and across all severities of injury (mild to severe). Improved characterization with these tools will aid Precision Medicine, a concept recently advocated by the US National Academy of Science, facilitating targeted management for individual patients. Our consortium includes leading experts and will bring outstanding biostatistical and neuroinformatics expertise to the project. Collaborations with external partners, other FP7 consortia, and international links within InTBIR, will greatly augment scientific resources and broaden the global scope of our research. We anticipate that the project could revolutionize our view of TBI, leading to more effective and efficient therapy, thus improving outcome and reducing costs. These outcomes reflect the goals of CER to assist consumers, clinicians, health care purchasers, and policy makers to make informed decisions, and will improve healthcare at both individual and population levels.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP | Phase: ENERGY.2012.10.2.1 | Award Amount: 3.91M | Year: 2012

CyanoFactory brings together ten selected leading, highly complementary European partners with the aim to carry out integrated, fundamental research aiming at applying synthetic biology principles towards a cell factory notion in microbial biotechnology. The vision is to build on recent progress in synthetic biology and develop novel photosynthetic cyanobacteria as chassis to be used as self-sustained cell factories in generating a solar fuel. This will include the development of a toolbox with orthogonal parts and devices for cyanobacterial synthetic biology, improvement of the chassis enabling enhanced growth and robustness in challenging environmental conditions, establishment of a data warehouse facilitating the modelling and optimization of cyanobacterial metabolic pathways, and strong and novel bioinformatics for effective data mining. To reach the goal, a combination of basic and applied R&D is needed; basic research to design and construct the cyanobacterial cells efficiently evolving H2 from the endless resources solar energy and water, and applied research to design and construct the advanced photobioreactors that efficiently produce H2. Biosafety is of highest concern and dedicated efforts will be made to address and control cell survival and death. The aim, to develop a (photo)synthetic cell factory, will have an enormous impact on the future options and possibilities for renewable solar fuel production. The consortium includes academic, research institute and industry participants with the direct involvement of two SMEs in the advanced photobioreactor design, construction and use. Purpose-designed, specifically engineered self-sustained cells utilising solar energy and CO2 from the air, may be the mechanisms and processes by which we generate large scale renewable energy carriers in our future societies. CyanoFactory offers Europe the possibility to take a lead, and not only follow, in these very important future and emerging technologies!


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: BSG-SME | Phase: SME-2011-1 | Award Amount: 1.50M | Year: 2011

Biopharmaceuticals have universal importance as effective therapeutics for many human diseases. Biopharmaceutical production employs living cells as production machinery with the selection of the producing cell line, a critical step for an efficient industrial process. Current industry practices for cell selection are expensive and time-consuming. The proposed PM-CELL project will result in the development of a rapid cellular characterisation testing technology. The two-year project will result in an innovative 96-well micro-titre plate containing a unique array of analytes, which can be used to accelerate development and reduce manufacturing costs of biopharmaceuticals synthesised by mammalian cell lines. A successful project would result in cost savings for the SMEs customers in the bioprocessing industry and a more rapid translation of research to efficient drug production for human healthcare. The project would result in generation of a high value (economic and intellectual property) technology which would result in increased sales and assets to the SMEs. The SMES will then be well placed to take advantage of further development opportunities in the biopharmaceutical industry, which is actively looking for innovative solutions for manufacturing-cell selection in drug production.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: JTI-CP-ARTEMIS | Phase: SP1-JTI-ARTEMIS-2009-5 | Award Amount: 32.94M | Year: 2010

The objective of POLLUX is to develop a distributed real time embedded systems platform for next generation electric vehicles, by using a component and programming-based design methodology. Reference designs and embedded systems architectures for high efficiency innovative mechatronics systems will be addressed with regard to requirements on composability, networking, security, robustness, diagnosis, maintenance, integrated resource management, evolvability and self-organization. Next generation EVs will begin the convergence between computer and automotive architectures: future automobiles will be mechatronic systems comprising a multitude of plug-and-play and self configurable peripherals. Peripherals will be embedded systems containing hardware, algorithms, software. The architecture will be based on distributed energy while the propulsion systems will adopt radical new control concepts. Sensing, actuation, signal processing and computing devices will be embedded in the electronic equipment, electrical motors, batteries and the mechanical parts as well. The systems used to control the chassis and the power train will form the computing engine that automates lower level tasks during vehicle use (driver assistance, terrain evaluation, predictive battery management) and will enable future higher level functionalities (auto pilot), by means of novel human-machine interfaces. POLLUX addresses the embedded system needs for the next generation electric vehicles by exploiting the synergy with the ENIAC E3Car project which aims to develop nanoelectronics technologies, devices, circuits, and modules for EVs in preparation for the launch of a massive European EV market by 2015-2020. The project considers both vertical integration and horizontal cooperation between OEMs, hardware/software/silicon providers to build a solid, embedded-systems European industry while establishing standard designs and distributed real-time embedded-systems platforms for EVs. Approved in its amended version (JUGA amendment n 1) on 10/05/2012


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: MG-1.1-2014 | Award Amount: 5.71M | Year: 2015

This project will focus on the development of technologies and methodologies which have the potential to save costs and time across the whole life cycle of the aircraft (design, production, maintenance, overhaul, repair and retrofit), including for certification aspects. Moreover it will also target the integration of additional functions or materials in structural components of the aircraft, the increased use of automation. The first proposed step is the introduction of the -TiAl alloy, a well known promising advanced material for aerospace applications and a revolutionary manufacturing technology. Its specific stiffness and strength, as compared to its low weight, potentially leads to large weight savings (50%), and therefore lower mechanical loads on thermomechanical stressed parts, compared to the common Ni based superalloys. The integration of new material and new manufacturing technology will positively impact several aspects of the manufacturing and maintenance chain, starting from the design, the production, the repair). The aim of this project is twofold: - On one side the work will be focused on the development and integration at industrial of a IPR protected gas atomization process for producing TiAl powders, whose properties must be highly stable from batch to batch. Thanks to the stability of the chemical and granulometric properties of the powders, the application of the Rapid Manufacturing technique to the production of TiAl components will be economically affordable. While this technique is by now well-known, its main drawback resides in the scarce quality of the starting powders. - The other main drawback for the wide industrial application of TiAl components is the integrated optimisation of all the machining steps, that means the setting up of machine tool characteristics and parameters, cutting tool geometry, substrate and coating materials, advanced lubrication technologies.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-IP | Phase: KBBE.2010.1.2-05 | Award Amount: 12.35M | Year: 2011

To meet both the worldwide demand for food security and new environmental needs, agriculture must increase food production and quality while decreasing its ecological footprint. Ensuring sustainability and competitiveness with reduced pesticide inputs is a major challenge. PURE will provide integrated pest management (IPM) solutions and a practical toolbox for their implementation in key European farming systems (annual arable and vegetable, perennial, and protected crops) in which reduction of pesticide use and better control of pests will have major effects. PURE will exploit recent advances in emerging technologies, plant-pest-enemies interactions, soil and landscape ecology and pest evolution to feed IPM solutions with innovative diagnostic and decision support systems, physical devices and bio-products, strategies for ecological pest regulation and improved durability of control methods. For each selected farming system, PURE will combine existing methods with new tools and technologies into novel IPM solutions addressing the biological, agronomical and economical diversity in Europe. IPM solutions will range from easy to adopt combinations of tactical control methods to more ambitious solutions involving strategic changes at farm level. PURE will test the efficacy, practicability and relevance of IPM solutions under the agro-ecosystems and farming conditions of the main broad European regions by on-station and on-farm experiments and will perform a comparative assessment of their environmental, economic and social sustainability. By jointly involving researchers and the key actors of pest management (farmers, advisors, policy makers and actors of the food supply chain) in design and assessment, PURE will facilitate the adoption of these innovative IPM solutions. PURE will thereby contribute to reduce the risks to human health and the environment and the dependence on pesticides and will facilitate the implementation of the pesticides package legislation.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP | Phase: ENV.2012.6.5-1 | Award Amount: 6.97M | Year: 2012

WeSenseIt will develop a citizen-based observatory of water, which will allow citizens and communities to become active stakeholders in information capturing, evaluation and communication. We propose: (i) data collection: (a) a first hard layer consisting of low-cost, static and portable devices that sense and transfer water information when automatically monitored or when initiated by citizens from their mobile devices; (b) a second soft layer consisting of techniques to harness citizens Collective Intelligence, i.e. the information, experience and knowledge embodied within individuals and communities, both in terms of enabling direct messages to the authorities (with mobile-phone pictures, messages, etc.) and in terms of crowd-sourcing (e.g. by mining social networks like Twitter and Facebook, as well as bulletin boards, RSS feeds, etc.). (ii) the development of descriptive and predictive models and decision-making tools integrating sensor and citizen-based data; the data suppliers (physical sensors or people) are seen as nodes of an integrated heterogeneous data collection network which undergoes progressive multi-objective optimization and tuning. (iii) two-way feedback and exchange of environmental knowledge/experience between citizens and authorities for decision-making and governance within an e-collaboration framework ,enabling improved transparency, knowledge management, accountability and responsiveness, as well as facilitating participation in water management. We will test, experiment and demonstrate the citizen observatory of water in three different case studies in water management with civil protection agencies in UK, NL and Italy. The topic is the entire hydrologic cycle with a major focus on variables responsible for floods and drought occurrences. The project results have the potential to fundamentally change the traditional concept of environmental monitoring and forecasting, as well as models of governance.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-IP | Phase: NMP-2010-4.0-3 | Award Amount: 22.10M | Year: 2011

The core concept of Accelerated Metallurgy is to deliver an integrated pilot-scale facility for the combinatorial synthesis and testing of many thousands of unexplored alloy formulations. This facility would be the first of its kind in the world and would represent a significant advance for metallurgy. The novel technology that enables this HTT facility is based on automated, direct laser deposition (DLD). The key feature of this technology is the way in which a mixture of elemental powders is accurately and directly fed into the lasers focal point, heated by the laser beam, and deposited on a substrate in the form of a melt pool, which finally solidifies to create a unique fully-dense alloy button with precise stoichiometry. This robotic alloy synthesis is 1000 times faster than conventional manual methods. Once produced, these discrete mm-sized samples are submitted to a range of automated, standardised tests that will measure chemical, physical and mechanical properties. The vast amount of information will be recorded in a Virtual Alloy Library and coupled with computer codes such as neural network models, in order to extract and map out the key trends linking process, composition, structure and properties. The most promising alloy formulations will be further tested, patented and exploited by the 20 end-users. Industrial interests include: (i) new lightweight fuel-saving alloys (<4.5 g/cm3) for aerospace and automotive applications; (ii) new higher-temperature alloys (stable>1000C) for rockets, gas turbines, jet-engines, nuclear fusion; (iii) new high-Tc superconductor alloys (>30K) that can be wire-drawn for electrical applications; (iv) new high-ZT thermoelectric alloys for converting waste heat directly into electricity; (v) new magnetic and magnetocaloric alloys for motors and refrigeration; and (vi) new phase-change alloys for high-density memory storage. The accelerated discovery of these alloy formulations will have a very high impact on society.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP | Phase: ICT-2009.5.3 | Award Amount: 14.33M | Year: 2011

VPH-Share will develop the organisational fabric (the infostructure) and integrate the optimised services to (1) expose and share data and knowledge, (2) jointly develop multiscale models for the composition of new VPH workflows, (3) facilitate collaborations within the VPH community. Four flagship workflows (from @neurIST, euHeart, VPHOP, Virolab) provide existing data, tools and models, engage with the services developed by VPH-Share to drive the development of the infostructure, and pilot its applications. Data sources are usually clinical data from individual patients - medical images and/or biomedical signals - sometimes with population information. The operations range from secure access and storage through annotation, data inference and assimilation, to complex image processing and physics-based mathematical modelling, to data reduction and representation. The project focuses on a key bottleneck: the interface with the wealth of data from medical research infrastructures and from clinical processes. VPH-Share will provide the essential services, as well as the computational infrastructure, for the sharing of clinical and research data and tools, facilitating the construction and operation of new VPH workflows, and collaborations between the members of the VPH community. Evaluating the effectiveness and fitness-for-purpose of the infostructure and developing a thorough exploitation strategy are key activities, creating confidence in the communities. The consortium, through its optimal mix of medical, mathematical, engineering, software & hardware and industrial knowledge and expertise from the EU and internationally, will make this effort a success, delivering to European citizens clinically useful outcomes that will benefit society. The duration of the project is 4 years, its budget is 14.3M, with an EC contribution of 10.7M.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CSA-CA | Phase: REGIONS-2012-2013-1 | Award Amount: 2.37M | Year: 2013

Reducing CO2, protecting the environment and our resources but also reducing dependency on raw materials are major societal challenges. In this context, the EU has adopted ambitious goals to reduce greenhouse gas emissions to 80-95% below 1990 levels by 2050. So far, most attention from policy makers and industry has been paid to Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) which intends to concentrate CO2 and store it into geological sites. The current SCOT project is focusing on an emerging and insufficiently addressed area presenting strong research, market development and economic growth potential: the recycling / utilization of CO2 through its transformation into valuable products via chemical or biological technologies. In addition to reducing net CO2 emissions, this approach brings the benefit of reducing the consumption of non-renewable resources. Indeed, CO2 is no longer considered as a waste but as an efficient resource enabling industries to: - reduce dependency on fossil fuels and primary raw materials for the production of industrial and transportation fuels, basic chemicals, and building materials; - increase the use of renewable energies from intermittent sources (e.g. solar, photovoltaic, or wind) by providing a solution for electricity storage, via the conversion of CO2 into gaseous or liquid fuels in periods where potential production exceeds demand on the grid and would otherwise be wasted. SCOT is the first ever European initiative in the field of CO2 recycling / utilization. Through a stronger coordination of efforts among the consortium, the SCOT project will enable to: - define a Strategic European Research Agenda aimed at developing new breakthrough solutions and market applications - attract additional EU clusters, regions and investors to participate to multi-disciplinary research programmes and other collaborative actions defined in a Joint Action Plan - propose structural policy measures to favour the transition to a new European society based on the paradigm of CO2-as-a-resource, thereby significantly improving the EUs overall competitive position and environmental performance on the international scene.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: MC-ITN | Phase: FP7-PEOPLE-2010-ITN | Award Amount: 3.45M | Year: 2011

This project will develop innovative in situ remediation concepts for the sustainable management of contaminated land and groundwater, as required by the WFD. The proposal has 18 academic and industry partners, with expertise in groundwater remediation issues, ranging from pore-scale processes to field-scale application, as well as technology development, water management/treatment, regulation and policy. The research links lab-scale studies of processes with field-scale evaluation and demonstration of novel technology applications, using state-of-the-art methods. It will develop new scientific understanding, performance assessment tools and decision-making frameworks which advance the use of sustainable in situ remediation for contaminated land and groundwater. The network is support by comprehensive knowledge transfer activities. The aim is for more sustainable treatment, to optimise resource investment in environmental restoration, considering technical, social and economic factors. The network will create a comprehensive training environment for early career scientists and engineers in this field. Each academic institution, in cooperation with the industry partners, is well positioned to support the training and professional development of fellows, through existing research training packages and new activities proposed herein. In addition to formal graduate-level instruction and directed research, an innovative package of training initiatives is offered. These include workshops, summer schools, web-based sharing of research and key outputs across the network, complementary training at partner institutions, practical work secondments with industry partners, and participation at national and international conferences. Graduating fellows will benefit from interdisciplinary cooperation and interaction with all sectors of the environmental management community, providing them with the best preparation for a successful career in either academia or industry.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-IP | Phase: SSH.2012.3.1-1 | Award Amount: 7.43M | Year: 2013

The starting point for MOPACT is the ambitious goals set by Horizon 2020 and the European Innovation Partnership Pilot Project on Active and Healthy Ageing (EIPAHA). Our response is ambitious too: we aim to provide the research and practical evidence upon which Europe can make longevity an asset for social and economic development. MOPACT will create a high quality, multi-disciplinary critical mass of leading researchers and, in the closest possible partnership with stakeholders and through a carefully planned iterative process, build a compendium of essential state-of-the-art and foresight intelligence upon which to develop the policy, practice, service and product developments and innovations required to meet the goals of Horizon 2020 and, in particular, the EIPAHA. Active and healthy ageing is the primary focus of MOPACT and it will build on the momentum created by EY2012.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP | Phase: INFRA-2011-2.1.1. | Award Amount: 10.17M | Year: 2011

Key questions in physics can be answered only by constructing a giant underground observatory to search for rare events and study terrestrial and astrophysical neutrinos. The Astroparticle Roadmap of ApPEC/ASPERA strongly supports this, recommending that: a new large European infrastructure of 100000-500000 ton for proton decay and low-energy neutrinos be evaluated as a common design study together with the underground infrastructure and eventual detection of accelerator neutrino beams. The latest CERN roadmap also states: a range of very important non-accelerator experiments takes place at the overlap of particle and astroparticle physics exploring otherwise inaccessible phenomena; Council will seek with ApPEC a coordinated strategy in these areas of mutual interest. Reacting to this, uniting scientists across Europe with industrial support to produce a very strong collaboration, the LAGUNA FP7 design study has had a very positive effect. It enabled, via study of seven pre-selected locations (Finland, France, Italy, Poland, Romania, Spain and UK), a detailed geo-technical assessment of the giant underground cavern needed, concluding finally that no geo-technical show-stoppers to cavern construction exist. Building on this, the present design study will address two challenges vital to making a final detector and site choice: (i) to determine the full cost of construction underground, commissioning and long-term operation of the infrastructure, and (ii) to determine the full impact of including long baseline neutrino physics with beams from CERN.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP | Phase: SSH.2011.5.1-2 | Award Amount: 3.38M | Year: 2012

IRISS (Increasing Resilience in Surveillance Societies) will investigate societal effects of different surveillance practices from a multi-disciplinary social science and legal perspective. It will focus on the effects that surveillance practices introduced to combat crime and terrorism can have on citizens in open and democratic societies. It will review surveillance systems used in fighting crime and terrorism and will examine the driving forces that have led to the spread of these practices. It will review current research on public attitudes towards surveillance, the impact of surveillance on civil liberties and citizens trust in political institutions. In a set of case studies, the impact of surveillance on the everyday lives of citizens will be analysed in detail. These studies will focus on the relations between citizens and the state, between citizens and private sector institutions and between citizens. Based on the findings from these case studies, a series of comparative empirical social experiments will be conducted to test different attitudes towards surveillance in different democratic contexts. These experiments will investigate citizens attitudes towards surveillance and the extent to which democratic rights can be exercised under existing regimes of surveillance and how these rights can be strengthened. The empirical research will inform an analysis designed to explore options for increasing social, economic and institutional resilience. IRISS will produce a better understanding of how surveillance affects different types of societies and how different groups react to surveillance. It will produce a comprehensive account of resilience options, focussing on strengthening democratic processes and public discourse about appropriate reactions towards threats against open democratic societies. The consortium will involve stakeholders in expert workshops, an international advisory board and by other means.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP | Phase: ICT-2013.5.5 | Award Amount: 2.69M | Year: 2013

A lack of collective awareness negatively impacts perceived personal efficacy, which hampers efforts to address societal problems. DecarboNet is a multidisciplinary effort to tackle this problem by identifying determinants of collective awareness, translating awareness into behavioural change, and providing novel methods to analyse and visualise the underlying processes. The projects core innovations are built around a context-specific repository of carbon reduction strategies. This decarbonisation methodology will increase awareness not only of existing problems, but also of best-practice solutions and the impact of individual actions. To continuously refine this repository, the collective awareness platform of DecarboNet will utilise citizen-generated content in a societal feedback loop that enables an adaptive process of social innovation.\n\nSupporting and understanding this process at various levels of granularity requires significant technological advances, including (i) generic tools to co-create knowledge with on-the-fly recommendations of related content from multiple sources; (ii) a cross-platform social media application to provide eco-feedback and engage citizens in games with a purpose; and (iii) methods to measure and predict behavioural change, and to capture collective awareness in a quantitative framework based on diffusion models and resonance patterns in public discourse.\n\nTo assess engagement strategies, two use cases will contrast the effectiveness of competition-based and cooperative approaches in a grassroots experiment to measure energy consumption (Energy Quest) and a large-scale awareness campaign (Earth Hour). Analysing the results on the individual and collective level will provide actionable knowledge for a wide range of stakeholders. Associate partners including EEA, NOAA and the World Bank will provide a rich stream of input data and amplify the impact by promoting the adoption of project technologies among large user communities.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP | Phase: ICT-2011.5.2 | Award Amount: 18.10M | Year: 2013

The DementiA Research Enabled by IT project responds to the European Parliaments 2011 resolution for a European Initiative on Alzheimers disease and other dementias, and the EU Year of the Brain 2014 Initiative. It delivers the first patient-specific predictive models for early differential diagnosis of dementias and their evolution. Its mechanistic/phenomenological models of the ageing brain account simultaneously for the patient-specific multiscale biochemical, metabolic and biomechanical brain substrate, as well as for genetic, clinical, demographic and lifestyle determinants. It investigates the effect of metabolic syndrome, diabetes, diets, exercise, and pulmonary conditions on the ageing brain, as environmental factors influencing onset and evolution of dementias.\n\nAn integrated clinical decision support platform will be validated/ tested by access to a dozen databases of international cross-sectional and longitudinal studies, including exclusive access to a population study that has tracked brain ageing in more than 10,000 individuals for over 20 years (Rotterdam Study).\n\nEnabling more objective, earlier, predictive and individualised diagnosis and prognosis of dementias will support health systems worldwide to cope with the burden of 36M patients that, due to ageing societies, will increase to 115M by 2050. Worldwide costs are estimated to 450B annually. In 2012, the WHO declared dementia a global health priority.\n\nOur consortium assembles highly recognised engineering, physical, biomedical and clinical scientists, and industrial partners experienced in exploiting VPH technologies in healthcare. Co-operation with infrastructure projects like VPH-Share, related international Physiome efforts, and other dementia research consortia is assured, allowing European researchers from different disciplines to contribute to share resources, methods and generate new knowledge.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-IP | Phase: SSH-2010-3.2-1 | Award Amount: 10.21M | Year: 2011

ALICE RAP is a Europe wide project of 43 partner research institutions involving 107 researchers from 25 European countries providing 1000 months of a plurality of scientific endeavour to analyse the place and challenges of addictions and lifestyles to the cohesion, organization and functioning of contemporary European society. Through integrated multidisciplinary research, a wide range of factors will be studied through a foresight approach to inform a redesign of effective addictions governance. Ownership will be described by an historical study of addiction through the ages, an analysis of public and private stakeholder views, and through image analyses, of professional and citizenship views. A study of how addictions are classified and defined will be followed by estimates of their health, social and economic impact. Determinants of addiction will be investigated through a coordinated and cohesive social, economic and biological analysis of initiation, transition into problem use and transition into and out of dependence. The business of addiction will be analyzed through studies of revenues, profits and participants in legal and illegal trade, the impact of suppliers on addictive substance use and behaviours, and analyses of webs of influence on policy responses. Addictions governance will be studied by describing the views and forces that determine the ways societies steer themselves and by stock taking of present governance practices to old and emerging addictions. Youth as customers will be analyzed through considering the impacts of new technologies on promoting and mitigating use, by studying the interrelations of culture and biology, and by determining features that promote resilience and nudge young people to reduce problematic use. The programme itself will be professionally managed from a partnership perspective to promote a coordinated and integrated approach to the high volume of research and its policy implications.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP | Phase: ENERGY 2013.2.3.2 | Award Amount: 6.54M | Year: 2013

European Commission plans for wind energy development by 2020, highlights a fully competitive onshore wind power with 20% penetration. One of the better opportunities to fulfil this aim is the integration of small and medium wind turbines into urban and peri-urban environments, due to the potential market given. However, nowadays there are several barriers) that have relegated the Small Wind Turbines (SWTs) sector to stand as a minority choice among the renewable energy options. SWIP project expects to suppose a critical burst to the expansion of SWTs in Europe and worldwide. SWIP aims to develop, implement and test innovative solutions and components for tackling the current barriers the technology have, opening the way for a successful market uptake in the near future. These cutting-edge technology improvements will result in an important reduction of maintenance costs (near 40%), an increase in 9% in SWTs performance, the mitigation and/or elimination of noise and vibrations, likely reducing final users investment. All in all, SWIP will provide a new methodology for wind resource assessment in urban areas with a maximum of 8% RMS error in speed prediction. The whole development performed within the project, will be supported on the basis of aesthetical design and integration into urban environments, as well as scalability of solutions, as main drivers for project success. Three pilots for testing different solutions and different urban applications are envisaged. In order to achieve these goals, a well-balanced consortium, including ten different nationalities is given. The project is industrially driven, mainly by SMEs, which are the main actors in the small wind energy market. These five SMEs will provide their experience and knowledge, supported by a large company with expertise in the sector and 5 best in class research institutions. Finally, a public authority and an European Economic Interest Group closes SWIP competitive consortium.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: MC-ITN | Phase: FP7-PEOPLE-2013-ITN | Award Amount: 4.06M | Year: 2014

The Water Framework Directive (WFD) is the most significant EU legislation concerning surface water management. Programs of Measures are required to ensure water bodies achieve a good ecological status. It is important to predict the impact of interventions on water quality. Man-made and natural processes control surface water quality, these are highly complex with a range of sources, transport and transformation processes. Cost estimates by EU governments indicate that billions of euros will be spent over several decades to implement WFD. There is an increasing level of concern on the implementation cost (financial and carbon). Integrated water quality models designed to predict the quality of water across the linked urban and rural scales in a catchment is seen as a tool to optimise this cost. Integrated Catchment Modelling (ICM) is based on linking numerous empirically calibrated sub-models of water quality processes. Catchment scale WQ predictions are then used to justify investment. Current water quality sub-models contain significant uncertainty. Methods have been developed to quantify uncertainty at a level however little work has been carried out to investigate WQ uncertainty propagation between sub-models. QUICS will develop a generalised catchment wide approach to uncertainty assessment that can then be used in WFD implementation studies. It will address uncertainty propagation at the spatial and temporal scales found in catchments and develop tools to reduce uncertainty by optimising sampling and monitoring and the objective selection of model structure. This will reduce uncertainty in WQ predictions and result in better informed investment decisions and so have a significant impact on WFD implementation. QUICS contains leading water quality scientists, uncertainty experts and private sector water management practitioners and modellers. It will train researchers capable of developing and implementing uncertainty management tools into ICM studies.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP | Phase: SEC-2010.6.5-2 | Award Amount: 4.19M | Year: 2011

Automated recognition of individuals and/or pre-determined traits or risk factors/criteria lies at the basis, indeed is the very raison dtre, of smart surveillance systems. Yet new EU regulations and specifically those on information sharing between police and security forces explicitly prohibit automated decision-taking regarding individuals unless authorised by a law which also lays down measures to safeguard the data subjects legitimate interests (art 7, CFD 2008/977/JHA). Where are these laws, what can these measures be and what else should the laws contain? Can the laws be technology-neutral but sector specific, thus permitting a measured approach to the appropriateness of smart surveillance technologies in key security applications? Can they be extended to all security applications of smart surveillance, even those not covered by CFD 2008/977/JHA or the proposed directive set to replace it? This project (SMART) addresses these and other questions through a comprehensive approach which combines a technical review of key application areas by sector with a review of existing pertinent legislation to then produce a set of guidelines and a model law compliant with CFD 2008/977/JHA and EU Directive 46/95 and the proposed successor legislation. The project first focuses on one meaning of measures i.e. it uses expertise from police and security forces from inside and outside the EU to measure (as in calculate) risk factors in a number of priority application areas for smart surveillance technologies including border control, crowd-control, counter-terrorism and e-government. Bringing together some of Europes leading experts on data protection with senior police officers responsible for using surveillance in the most CCTV-intensive cities in the world, SMART evaluates the appropriateness and available safeguards for on-line surveillance and associated risks inherent in data-sharing and exchange. Having thus identified appropriate instances of application as well as a number of technical, procedural and legal options for safeguards, the project moves on to create a tool-kit which would be useful to system designers, policy makers and legislative draughtsmen across Europe (and hopefully beyond). At this stage the project turns to a second meaning of measures i.e. it would bring to bear significant EU-wide expertise in data protection legislation in order to prepare a draft model law which would contain a number of measures providing adequate safeguards for the data subject and thus rendering use of smart surveillance compliant with CFD 2008/977/JHA and its proposed successor and other applicable regulations.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP | Phase: ICT-2009.4.3 | Award Amount: 10.56M | Year: 2010

In KHRESMOI, we will build a multi-lingual multi-modal search and access system for biomedical information and documents. This will be achieved by:- Effective automated information extraction from biomedical documents, including improvement using crowd sourcing and active learning, and automated estimation of the level of trust and target user expertise- Automated analysis and indexing for medical images in 2D (X-Rays), 3D (MRI, CT), and 4D (fMRI)- Linking information extracted from unstructured or semi-structured biomedical texts and images to structured information in knowledge bases- Support of cross-language search, including multi-lingual queries, and returning machine-translated pertinent excerpts- Adaptive user interfaces to assist in formulating queries and display search results via ergonomic and interactive visualizationsThe research will flow into several open source components, which will be integrated into an innovative open architecture for robust and scalable biomedical information search.The system will be evaluated in use cases by three well-defined user groups:1. Members of the general public want access to reliable and understandable medical information in their own language2. Clinicians and general practitioners need accurate answers rapidly a search on PubMed requires on average 30 minutes, while clinicians typically have 5 minutes available. Furthermore, over 40% of searches fail to provide relevant information3. Radiologists are drowning in images at larger hospitals over 100GB (over 100000 images) are produced per dayRepresentative groups of end users are available for sizable evaluations, accessed through a medical search engine with 11000 queries per day, a professional association of 2700 medical doctors, and two radiology departments with 175 radiologists.KHRESMOI is directed at Objective ICT-2009.4.3: Intelligent Information Management. It will focus on target outcome (a) capturing tractable information.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: MSCA-ITN-ETN | Phase: MSCA-ITN-2014-ETN | Award Amount: 3.95M | Year: 2015

Photonics, nanotechnology, advanced materials, and advanced manufacturing technologies have been identified as key enabling technologies (KETs) for the EU. Today the photonics global market alone is around 300 billion and Europe has established a strong position with a total share of 20%, directly employing about 290,000 people. However, the shortage of sufficient skilled labour and entrepreneurs capable of handling the highly multi-disciplinary nature of KETs remains a major problem in the EU. Tailoring of semiconductors at the nanoscale is an important enabling technology for a wide range of photonics and electronics applications in diverse areas. In the training network proposed here, a cohort of 15 early stage researchers will be trained in the full range of skills required for a career in photonics, including materials growth, device fabrication, characterisation, design, theory, and commercialisation. A carefully-chosen, well-balanced consortium of 8 academic partners, 2 full industry partners and 7 associated partners are well placed to provide the training in these skills, with European and worldwide reputations as leaders in each field. These skills will be developed within four burgeoning research areas; Semiconductor Metamaterials & Plasmonics, Dilute Nitride semiconductor nanostructures, Hydrogenated Semiconductors and Metamorphic structures. The outcomes of this enabling fundamental research are well focused to deliver advances in sources for secure communications, sensitive detectors for security applications, more efficient solar cells for energy generation, LEDs and sensors for environmental gas and bio-sensing. Each researcher will experience both academic and commercial environments thanks to the strong industrial involvement, resulting in multi-skilled, industry-focused graduates. PROMIS therefore directly addresses the need for additional skilled photonics professionals, as identified by the European Technology Platform, Photonics21.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: INT-04-2015 | Award Amount: 3.72M | Year: 2016

This Project aims to address an increasingly pressing global challenge: How to achieve the EUs development goals and the UNs Sustainable Development Goals, while meeting the global target of staying within two degrees global warming and avoid transgressing other planetary boundaries. EU policies must align with sustainable development goals (Article 11 TFEU). The impacts of climate change and global loss of natural habitat undermine the progress achieved by pursuing the Millennium Development Goals and threaten the realisation of EU development policy goals. Our focus is the role of EUs public and private market actors. They have a high level of interaction with actors in emerging and developing economies, and are therefore crucial to achieving the EUs development goals. However, science does not yet cater for insights in how the regulatory environment influences their decision-making, nor in how we can stimulate them to make development-friendly, environmentally and socially sustainable decisions. Comprehensive, ground-breaking research is necessary into the regulatory complexity in which EU private and public market actors operate, in particular concerning their interactions with private and public actors in developing countries. Our Consortium, leading experts in law, economics, and applied environmental and social science, is able to analyse this regulatory complexity in a transdisciplinary and comprehensive perspective, both on an overarching level and in depth, in the form of specific product life-cycles: ready-made garments and mobile phones. We bring significant new evidence-based insights into the factors that enable or hinder coherence in EU development policy; we will advance the understanding of how development concerns can be successfully integrated in non-development policies and regulations concerning market actors; and we provide tools for improved PCD impact assessment as well as for better corporate sustainability assessment.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP | Phase: SST.2013.2-2. | Award Amount: 15.00M | Year: 2013

In 2011, the White Paper on European Transport reasserted how fundamental transport was for society, for the mobility of European citizens and for the growth and vitality of the European economy. CAPACITY4RAIL will deliver research that is innovative, prepares rail for the future and takes into account results from previous research projects and programmes. The project builds on previous useable results and will deliver both technical demonstrations and system wide guidelines and recommendations that will be the basis for future research and investment, increasing the capacities of rail networks in the future. The time used for infrastructure monitoring, maintenance and renewal means down time. New concepts for low maintenance infrastructure, using standardized and plug-and-play concepts will be proposed. Non-intrusive innovative monitoring techniques or self-monitoring infrastructure will be investigated, allowing low or no impact on train operations. The fragility of some key component of the infrastructure system (especially in extreme weather conditions) such as switches may impact the efficiency of the whole system. The resilience of switches to any kind of known failure will be reinforced, as well as the ability of the operation system to recover from incidents. Capacity enhancements will also be achieved by higher speed freight vehicles, allowing an optimized interleaving of freight trains into mixed traffic, and improved planning models for operation. Intermodal integration within the global transport system will be improved through enhanced transhipment of passengers and freight. CAPACITY4RAIL will also look towards 2030/2050, by proposing guidelines for future deployments in the mid-term, recommendations for technologies to de developed and deployed in the long term and investigating the key opportunities for funding these within national and EU funding schemes.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: CSA | Phase: Health | Award Amount: 2.25M | Year: 2015

The European Consortium for Communicating Stem Cell Research (EuroStemCell) unites 33 partner institutions, that collectively represent >400 stem cell research groupings across Europe. Our common goal is to provide trusted high quality information on stem cells accessible to citizens and stakeholders across Europe, through support and further development of the multi-lingual European Stem Cell Information Portal www.eurostemcell.org. To achieve our aims, EuroStemCell will adopt the highly structured system for coordinated information management established by the FP7 Coordination and Support Action (CSA) also called EuroStemCell. From this, we will implement an ambitious programme of online and direct stakeholder engagement with stem cell research and regenerative medicine, aimed at European citizens at all educational levels. This will include provision of resources tailored specifically for decision-making on stem cell-related questions and an extensive programme of dissemination and capacity building in science communications and public engagement. The proposed work centres on an information hub team, which will link to all project partners and to stakeholders in the stem cell and regenerative medicine arenas and wider society, working with these groupings to implement the project. All outputs will be delivered in 6 European languages, to ensure broad accessibility, and will be rigorously evaluated against measurable objectives throughout the project duration. The proposed consortium comprises leading stem cell labs across Europe, including new member states, together with experts in ethical and societal concerns and evaluating clinical outcomes. It thus provides unparalleled European expertise across the fields of stem cell biology and regenerative medicine and is uniquely placed to maintain and further develop www.eurostemcell.org as a world-leading stem cell information resource, thus meeting the challenge outlined in Topic HOA-6-2014.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-IP | Phase: SST.2010.5.2-2. | Award Amount: 9.35M | Year: 2011

A sustainable and efficient freight transport in Europe plays a vital role in having a successful and competitive economy. Freight transport is expected to grow by some 50 % (in tonne-kilometres) by 2020. However rail has, in many areas, been displaced from a dominant position as road transport services have grown and developed in capability and levels of sophistication that have not been matched by rail service providers. SUSTRAIL aims to contribute to the rail freight system to allow it to regain position and market and the proposed solution is based on a combined improvement in both freight vehicle and track components in a holistic approach aimed at achieving a higher reliability and increased performance of the rail freight system as a whole and profitability for all the stakeholders. The SUSTRAIL integrated approach is based on innovations in rolling stock and freight vehicles (with a targeted increased in speed and axle-load) combined with innovations in the track components (for higher reliability and reduced maintenance), whose benefits to freight and passenger users (since mixed routes are considered) are quantified through the development of an appropriate business case with estimation of cost savings on a life cycle basis. In fact, a holistic approach to vehicle and track sustainability has to be taken, since improvements in track design and materials alone are not enough as demands on the rail system increase. Contributions from the different topic areas (vehicles, track, operations) will be demonstrated on real routes, offering geographic dispersion as well as differences in type, speed, and frequency of traffic. A strong multidisciplinary consortium committed to concrete actions aligned toward a common outcome has been grouped for the achievement of the challenging objectives of the project with a balanced combination of Infrastructure managers, freight operators and Industry, including Large and Small enterprises, with support from Academia.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: SGA-RIA | Phase: FETFLAGSHIP | Award Amount: 89.00M | Year: 2016

This project is the second in the series of EC-financed parts of the Graphene Flagship. The Graphene Flagship is a 10 year research and innovation endeavour with a total project cost of 1,000,000,000 euros, funded jointly by the European Commission and member states and associated countries. The first part of the Flagship was a 30-month Collaborative Project, Coordination and Support Action (CP-CSA) under the 7th framework program (2013-2016), while this and the following parts are implemented as Core Projects under the Horizon 2020 framework. The mission of the Graphene Flagship is to take graphene and related layered materials from a state of raw potential to a point where they can revolutionise multiple industries. This will bring a new dimension to future technology a faster, thinner, stronger, flexible, and broadband revolution. Our program will put Europe firmly at the heart of the process, with a manifold return on the EU investment, both in terms of technological innovation and economic growth. To realise this vision, we have brought together a larger European consortium with about 150 partners in 23 countries. The partners represent academia, research institutes and industries, which work closely together in 15 technical work packages and five supporting work packages covering the entire value chain from materials to components and systems. As time progresses, the centre of gravity of the Flagship moves towards applications, which is reflected in the increasing importance of the higher - system - levels of the value chain. In this first core project the main focus is on components and initial system level tasks. The first core project is divided into 4 divisions, which in turn comprise 3 to 5 work packages on related topics. A fifth, external division acts as a link to the parts of the Flagship that are funded by the member states and associated countries, or by other funding sources. This creates a collaborative framework for the entire Flagship.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: CSA | Phase: ICT-35-2014 | Award Amount: 443.60K | Year: 2015

The objective of this project is to create and collate a consensus of agreement from Ambulance Users and Procurers on the core technology-centric features which, if correctly integrated into a suitably re-designed ambulance, would allow them to demonstrate, evaluate and deliver new models of in-community healthcare delivery, with the primary objective of avoiding unnecessary hospital attendances (& thus admissions) and the associated patient distress and hospital costs. Such a consensus would form the basis of a future PCP for the envisaged vehicle, and such a PCP Specification is in fact an output of this proposed work.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP | Phase: ICT-2011.5.2 | Award Amount: 16.43M | Year: 2013

MD-Paedigree is a clinically-led VPH project that addresses both the first and the second actions of part B of Objective ICT-2011.5.2:\n1. it enhances existing disease models stemming from former EC-funded research (Health-e-Child and Sim-e-Child) and from industry and academia, by developing robust and reusable multi-scale models for more predictive, individualised, effective and safer healthcare in several disease areas;\n2. it builds on the eHealth platform already developed for Health-e-Child and Sim-e-Child to establish a worldwide advanced paediatric digital repository.\nIntegrating the point of care through state-of-the-art and fast response interfaces, MD-Paedigree services a broad range of off-the-shelf models and simulations to support physicians and clinical researchers in their daily work. MD-Paedigree vertically integrates data, information and knowledge of incoming patients, in participating hospitals from across Europe and the USA, and provides innovative tools to define new workflows of models towards personalised predictive medicine. Conceived of as a part of the VPH Infostructure described in the ARGOS, MD-Paedigree encompasses a set of services for storage, sharing, similarity search, outcome analysis, risk stratification, and personalised decision support in paediatrics within its innovative model-driven data and workflow-based digital repository. As a specific implementation of the VPH-Share project, MD-Paedigree fully interoperates with it. It has the ambition to be the dominant tool within its purview. MD-Paedigree integrates methodological approaches from the targeted specialties and consequently analyzes biomedical data derived from a multiplicity of heterogeneous sources (from clinical, genetic and metagenomic analysis, to MRI and US image analytics, to haemodynamics, to real-time processing of musculoskeletal parameters and fibres biomechanical data, and others), as well as specialised biomechanical and imaging VPH simulation models.


Hybrid-EVs and Full-EVs on the market are products where the Internal-Combustion-Engine (ICE) is supplemented by an electric-motor (HEV) or replaced by an all-electric power-train (FEV). Both approaches do not address lightweight or modularity inheriting the same disadvantages as conventional ICEV - Electrification of mobility must face a conceptual rEVOLUTION! This project breaks the paradigm of current Body-in-White (BiW) by delegating the whole structural function to a novel BiW archetype made up of a Multifunctional-Rolling-Chassis (MRC) enabled by a new generation of highly-hybridized structural components and complemented by a non-structural upper-body. This MRC will be the common basis for a family of user friendly vehicles differing by changing only the upper-body according to the customer demand. Advanced materials will enable the development of novel super-lightweight hybrid components complying with safety standards and recycling constraints, and enable the design of the innovative MRC for FEV leading to a further weight reduction of 40% over that achieved using the current state of the art in the SuperLIGHT-CAR project. The EVolution goal is to demonstrate the sustainable production of a 600 kg weight FEV by the end of 2015. To this end EVolution addresses the whole vehicle by prototyping, assembling, and disassembling, the most representative components (MRC, crash cross-beam, crash box, suspension sub-frame, side-door, A-pillar, and a multifunctional-hard-top) made from raw polymers and aluminum alloys commonly used in the automotive industry, to ensure compliance with EC Directive 2000/53/EC End-of life vehicle which imposes stringent requirements on the disposal and recycling of motor vehicles. Guaranteeing the safety and regulatory compliance, with a weight saving of 50%, each component chosen will prove, mutatis mutandis, the revolutionary potential of the EV solution in all components employed today in current high volume production.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: EINFRA-1-2014 | Award Amount: 6.07M | Year: 2015

Recent years witness an upsurge in the quantities of digital research data, offering new insights and opportunities for improved understanding. Text and data mining is emerging as a powerful tool for harnessing the power of structured and unstructured content and data, by analysing them at multiple levels and in several dimensions to discover hidden and new knowledge. However, text mining solutions are not easy to discover and use, nor are they easily combinable by end users. OpenMinTeD aspires to enable the creation of an infrastructure that fosters and facilitates the use of text mining technologies in the scientific publications world, builds on existing text mining tools and platforms, and renders them discoverable and interoperablethrough appropriate registriesand a standards-based interoperability layer, respectively. It supports training of text mining users and developers alike and demonstrates the merits of the approach through several use cases identified by scholars and experts from different scientific areas, ranging from generic scholarly communication to literaturerelated tolife sciences, food and agriculture, and social sciences and humanities. Through its infrastructural activities, OpenMinTeDs vision is tomake operational a virtuous cycle in which a) primary content is accessed through standardised interfaces and access rules b) by well-documented and easily discoverable text mining services that process, analyse, and annotate text c) to identify patterns and extract new meaningful actionable knowledge, which will be used d) for structuring, indexing, and searching content and, in tandem, e) acting as new knowledge useful to draw new relations between content items and firing a new mining cycle. To achieve its goals, OpenMinTeD brings together different stakeholders, content providers and scientific communities, text mining and infrastructure builders, legal experts, data and computing centres, industrial players, and SMEs.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP | Phase: ICT-2011.5.1 | Award Amount: 4.64M | Year: 2011

Recent development in robot-mediated rehabilitation has shown the potential of robotic devices for delivering repetitive training thus allowing for a large number of repetitions to be delivered during acute and chronic phases of stroke rehabilitation. While there is growing evidence that such technologies are beneficial to patients recovery of functional and motor outcome, our goals are:\n1: To use such technologies at patients home, enabling better management of chronic stroke as it allows to administer larger repetitions and frequent exercise which can in turn increase the recovery gains. Moreover, it allows objective database of performance for tailoring treatment and follow-up.\n2: To focus on hand and wrist exercise that present the least researched area with the most functional relevance, and potential for contribution to personal independence.\n3: To look at differences between passive and active actuated devices. Inherent safe nature of these devices make them an ideal choice for home use.\n4: To provide an educational, motivational and engaging interaction, which makes a therapy session more enjoyable while having the capabilities to provide feedback to patients and health professional. The provided feedback will be based on heterogeneous data collected during interaction as well as comparisons with models such as minimum jerk model as a performance indicator.\n5: To focus on remote management and support of the patient. It creates a communication platform that will support the remote management allowing to adjust the therapy program remotely thus reducing hospital or home visits frequency. This is facilitated by incorporating the clinical workflows into user interfaces used by patients and clinicians while maintaining a customisable and easy to operate front-end for users. The two-fold objective here enables us to look at aspects of acceptability and compliance as well as data security and confidentiality.\n6: To infer from summative evaluation in this project, impact on health and recovery and its potential cost implications.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: MC-IRSES | Phase: FP7-PEOPLE-2013-IRSES | Award Amount: 277.40K | Year: 2014

Quantum semiconductor microcavities are structures in which photons can be confined within an area whose size is comparable to the wavelength of light. In this scenario, light-matter interactions can be substantially enhanced. A traditional microcavity is composed of two dielectric or semiconductor Bragg reflectors confining an active area which contains a quantum object such as a quantum well. From the initial observation of strong coupling between photons and excitons in such microcavities, the physics of polaritons has developed very quickly demonstrating such fascinating effects as stimulated scattering and Bose-condensation of polariton; room-temperature polariton lasing, superfluidity, bistability and multistability, soliton formation and many others. Recently it was shown that a localized state of light (Tamm Plasmon) can be formed at the interface between a specially designed Bragg mirror and metallic layer. For decades it was assumed that metallic elements are detrimental to optical coherence and lasing, however the intrinsic properties of the spatial distribution of the electric field of the Tamm Plasmon facilitate optical coherence and lasing in a microcavity with an embedded metallic layer. By coupling a microcavity polariton to a Tamm Plasmon, lateral localization can be achieved, opening the way for polaritonic logic elements and polaritonic circuits. This project is aimed at the design, fabrication and investigation of novel optoelectronic structures: hybrid metallic microcavities. These structures will be used for fabrication of lasers and sources of single photons and entangled photon pairs, polaritonic logic circuits as well as for fundamental studies of microcavity polaritons.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-IP | Phase: HEALTH.2010.2.1.2-1 | Award Amount: 11.94M | Year: 2011

Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis is one of the most devastating diseases in neurology affecting in Europe 50,000 individuals at any time, and causing around 10,000 deaths each year. ALS is characterized by progressive degeneration of motor neurons in brain and spinal cord leading to muscle weakness. ALS affects otherwise healthy people at any time in adulthood. The patient becomes paralyzed and dies as the result of respiratory failure on average 3 years after onset of symptoms. There is no cure for ALS. The only available drug (Riluzole) is marginally effective in extending the lifespan of ALS patients with 3 to 6 months. Despite recent scientific breakthroughs in the discovery of (1) multiple ALS associated genes, (2) evidence for metabolic dysregulation, (3) environmental risk factors, and (4) the protein TDP43 in aggregates of 95% of ALS patients, mechanistic models applicable to patients are still unknown. This shows that ALS can best be tackled through a systems biology approach which can only be achieved in a large integrative effort at the European level. Euro-MOTOR unites a multidisciplinary partnership of world-leading experts of clinicians, basic scientists and bioinformaticians, and is able to exploit excellent infrastructures for patient sampling, -omics platforms, disease modelling and bioinformatics. Euro-MOTOR will integrate large quantitative -omics data sets from new functional models and from patients in two prospective European, population-based inception cohorts. By leveraging on the variation in the multilevel -omics data, Euro-MOTOR aims to detect key genetic drivers of disease susceptibility/progression, while parametric modelling of the causal connections in identified molecular networks will generate a model of disease. Major findings will be validated in a second prospective patient cohort and adequate functional models, resulting in robust targets that pave the way for novel therapeutic interventions for this disabling and fatal disease.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: ERC-AG | Phase: ERC-AG-SH3 | Award Amount: 2.42M | Year: 2012

YouCitizen is a comparative, multi-level ethnographic research project that examines the efforts of international organisations, civil society organisations, and states to foster citizenship for youth in divided societies. In their efforts, agents working in such organisations often engage in paradoxical, if not contradictory, acts to promote both cosmopolitanism within civil society and national identities, even when aspects of national identity have been a source of division. A central premise of the research is that the outcomes of these efforts are conditioned by the contexts in which programmes for youth are delivered and enacted. In these contexts which include histories of division and marginalisation, societal and communal norms, family histories, and the spaces of daily life youth interpret and experience citizenship. YouCitizens critical intervention is in extending the examination of citizenship formation to consider the ways in which youth interpret, experience, and potentially remake citizenship that is different to, and may actually challenge, the forms of citizenship that organisations and states attempt to instil. The empirical foci of the study are the networks of organisations promoting citizenship and/or civic engagement, and youth, aged 15-24 in South Africa, Bosnia-Herzegovina and Lebanon who have been involved with those programmes. It explores the goals of those organisations, their funding sources and activities to understand both the vision of citizenship they promote and the traditions and influences from which they draw; particular attention is paid to ideals and values associated with cosmopolitanism vis--vis the nation and the ways in which they address social division. Interviews and participant observation with youth explore the ways in which their experiences and understanding of citizenship are influenced by those programmes, but are also entwined with daily life in their homes and communities.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: MC-ITN | Phase: FP7-PEOPLE-2011-ITN | Award Amount: 4.00M | Year: 2012

This network brings together an exceptionally strong group of world leading experts in nano-science and technology in order to achieve breakthroughs in understanding and successful utilisation of nanoscale systems in future devices. The focus of the consortium is on few spin nano-systems in solid-state materials including III-V semiconductors and Carbon-based structures: carbon nano-tubes, graphene and diamonds. Such wide material base emphasizes the truly intersectoral character of this collaboration opening opportunities for crossing the boundaries between several areas of solid-state physics and technology. In order to ensure the highest impact of this collaboration in the emerging supra-disciplinary field of physics and applications of spin nano-systems, we bring together the expertise of the world top class research institutions and industry from 4 European countries. The network will deliver top international level multidisciplinary training to 11 early stage researchers and 5 experienced researchers, offering them, in particular, an extended program of multinational exchanges and secondments. The research and development under this network will undertake a broad scope of tasks important for implementation of spin nano-systems in future devices, such as non-volatile ultra-compact memories, nano-magnetometers, spin qubits for quantum information, and high-efficiency single photon sources. The objectives of the network include: (1) Realization and optical control of coherent single spins in nanostructures; (2) Spin-orbit interaction and spin-orbit qubits in nanostructures; (3) Advanced techniques for manipulation of nuclear spins on the nanoscale; (4) Generation of long-distance entanglement between single spins.


Grant
Agency: GTR | Branch: Innovate UK | Program: | Phase: Collaborative Research & Development | Award Amount: 2.56M | Year: 2014

Hybrid Air Vehicles Ltd has formed a collaborative industrial research team with Blue Bear Systems Research, Forward Composites, Liverpool University, Sheffield University and Cranfield University. This project team will advance the fundamental and interrelated enabling technologies required to maintain the UKs lead in the field of hybrid air vehicles – a novel aircraft form with substantial worldwide sales potential (against competitors such as Lockheed Martin and EADS). The project will focus on lowering the developmental risks in key technology areas such as novel aircraft aerodynamics, carbon composite structures, avionics monitoring systems and improving rate production to enable launch of production design and manufacture. The project results will be exploited by HAV and the UK aerospace supply chain generating UK jobs and maintaining HAV’s lead in the field of hybrid air vehicles and LTA technology.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-IP | Phase: HEALTH-2009-2.1.1-1 | Award Amount: 15.31M | Year: 2010

In recent years, the zebrafish has emerged as a new vertebrate model organism for biomedical research which offers a unique combination of traits: a short generation time, small size and efficient breeding procedures make it the best choice among vertebrates for forward genetic screening and small-molecule screens, including toxicology, while the transparent embryo and larva offers unique opportunities for imaging of cell movement and gene expression in a developing organism. Building on recent advances in the zebrafish field, we will conduct high-throughput phenotyping of at least a thousand regulatory genes relevant for common human diseases, by behavioural assays (for viable mutants), 3D / 4D imaging and expression profiling (including high-throughput sequencing). We will include mutants generated by TILLING and by the new zinc finger nuclease method, as well as mutants from earlier forward-genetics screens. A phenotyping effort of this scale has never been undertaken before in any vertebrate organism. Complementing the study of mutants relevant for neurological disorders, we will produce an atlas of gene expression in the brain, the most comprehensive one in a vertebrate. We will further perform a genome-wide characterisation of regulatory elements of potential disease genes by a combination of bioinformatics and transgenics. Small-molecule screening for mutant rescue or disease-relevant processes will identify candidate drugs and provide insights into gene function. Our increasing knowledge on the regulators and their interactions with regulatory targets will be integrated with knowledge at cellular and organismic level. By capitalising on the virtues of the zebrafish system, this systems biology approach to the regulome will gain unique knowledge complementing ongoing work in mammalian systems, and provide important new stimuli for biomedical research.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: ERC-AG | Phase: ERC-AG-PE9 | Award Amount: 3.49M | Year: 2014

When stars die, they form white dwarfs, neutron stars or black holes. These are key objects in astrophysics as their extreme gravities, densities and pressures allow us to test our theories of fundamental physics at the limits of their predictive powers. One of the best ways of studying white dwarfs, neutron stars and black holes is via their variations in brightness. Unfortunately, due to the small physical sizes of these objects, they are extremely faint and their variability occurs on timescales of milliseconds to seconds, too fast to be recorded by the current generation of astronomical instruments on the worlds largest telescopes. What is required is a new type of astronomical instrument with the capability to take high-speed exposures with no noise from either the detector or the atmosphere. Such an instrument would enable us to answer some of the most important questions in astrophysics, such as: What are the progenitors of type Ia supernovae? What is the equation of state of the degenerate matter found in white dwarfs and neutron stars? What is the nature of the flow of matter close to the event horizon of black holes? What gravitational wave signals are likely to be detected by the next generation of space and ground-based detectors? My aim is to answer the above questions by building and exploiting a new astronomical instrument: HiPERCAM. HiPERCAM will be by far the best high-speed camera in the world, giving an order of magnitude improvement in performance over what has come before. It will be mounted on the worlds best telescopes, including the 8.2-m VLT in Chile and the 10.4-m GTC on La Palma. This revolutionary new camera will incorporate a novel scintillation-correction mechanism and the latest in low-noise, high-speed detector technology. Although challenging, my track record with previous related instruments (e.g. ULTRACAM) and my preceding technology demonstration projects shows that my proposed research programme is feasible.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: CSA | Phase: CO-CREATION-09-2016 | Award Amount: 2.00M | Year: 2017

KNOWMAK project aims at developing a web-based tool, which provides interactive visualisations and state-of-the-art indicators on knowledge co-creation in the European Research Area (ERA). It is structured around three integrative elements: Research topics, by developing ontologies around Societal Grand Challenges and Key Enabling Technologies. Actors, with a focus on the quadruple helix and the involvement of societal actors in knowledge co-creation. Geographical spaces, with a focus on multiple level metropolitan, regional, national and European spaces and their interconnectedness. The tool combines three main data sources: established indicators of scientific and technological knowledge production based on scientific publications and patents; information on knowledge in the making derived from research projects descriptions; information on social innovation projects and user attention to knowledge production derived from the Internet and from social media. The integrative elements (topics, actors, space) allow for the interlinking of data items, to produce a characterisation of different dimensions of knowledge in the making. KNOWMAK will be tailored to the needs of specific user groups with a focus on four groups: policy-makers, regional actors and representatives of the civil society, business sector, and managers of public research organisations and universities. User groups will be involved in the design of the system, the specification of the indicators and of the visualisations to be provided. This user-centred approach will ensure responsiveness of the tool to (changing) needs of relevant stakeholders in the ERA. Moving beyond the existing approaches to S&T indicators, the project will design and implement a consistent infrastructure where different types of data sources are interlinked and mobilized to produce a rich set of indicators and visualisations responding to the needs of specific user groups, thanks to experienced consortium.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: MSCA-ITN-ETN | Phase: MSCA-ITN-2015-ETN | Award Amount: 3.97M | Year: 2016

This network brings together world-leading experts in nano-science and technology from 6 European countries in order to achieve breakthroughs in understanding and successful utilization of nanoscale solid-state spin systems in emerging quantum technologies. The proposed innovative science in the supra-disciplinary field of physics and applications of spin nano-systems will underpin breakthrough developments in quantum computing, quantum communications and networks, and nano-imaging. Important innovative step consolidating the joint effort of the whole consortium is the focus on crystalline solids where magnetic interactions of electron spins with lattice nuclei are negligible and well-controlled. We will develop electrically-controlled spin-quantum-bits (qubits) in Si-Ge quantum dots and nanowires; will optically manipulate spin impurities in diamond in applications for quantum computing and networks and in nano-magnetometry; will achieve new understanding of quantum phenomena due to the spin-valley coupling in atomically thin 2D semiconductors, an emerging class of materials with a promise for quantum technologies. Research training to 15 early stage researchers will be delivered by 14 academic and 7 industrial groups. Network-wide training course in transferable skills will be specially developed and delivered by the Think Ahead (Sheffield), an award winning initiative at the University of Sheffield (award by the Times Higher Education, 2014). Current proposal is designed to advance this multi-disciplinary research field significantly beyond the state-of-the-art, and train a new cohort of researchers capable of developing spin-based solid-state quantum technologies towards real-life applications in the next 5 to 10 years.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: GV-2-2014 | Award Amount: 8.00M | Year: 2015

Innovation in the automotive industry is of pivotal importance for Europeans prosperity. OSEM-EV will provide solutions for better autonomy and predictable range to address todays car buyers concern about electro mobility. Just increasing the battery capacity is not a viable option because the expectation is to have a familiar level of comfort and safe, eco and human oriented mobility at affordable costs. OSEM-EV will translate the foreseen project innovations into a customer value proposition. The highest priority is improved mileage and predictable range without adding further cost and weight. The negative impact of high and low ambient temperatures will be limited. Cars autonomy will be increased due to a reduction of at least 50% of energy used for passenger comfort and at least 30% for component cooling in extreme conditions compared to current FEVs. The consortium will focus on thermal and coupled electro-thermal energy substitution and harvesting and smart energy usage for cooling and heating of the passenger compartment and in-car infrastructure. OSEM-EV goes for novel electro-thermal architectures and control algorithms including thermal insulation, thermal storage, innovative heating and cooling approaches applied to the powertrain (battery, inverter and motor), battery life duration enhancement as a side effect of thermal management, electronic control of energy and power flows, energy efficiency of electrified accessories, energy substitution and harvesting functions. The consortium will take a radical approach, which does not only rely on improving the efficiency of subsystems but also focuses on their interoperability. By creating an electro-thermal network, most of the energy shall be reutilized, no matter if stored in mechanical, electrical or thermal form.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP | Phase: ENV.2013.WATER INNO&DEMO-1 | Award Amount: 10.04M | Year: 2014

European water utilities face many problems related to their 3,5 million kms of distribution networks. Large parts of water distribution networks have to be rehabilitated requiring investments of 20 billion/year. Prioritization and optimization of investments is needed urgently. In many countries, water quality needs improvement in order to reduce health risks and resources for water production and distribution must be used more efficiently. The European Innovation Partnership on Water has established priority areas related to the challenges in water supply distribution networks, focusing on resource efficiency, Smart Water Management and decision support systems. Although the technology components for Smart Water Management are available, the route to application is still uncertain. The main hurdles are: lack of integrated and open solutions; difficulty to comply with user and integration requirements; lack of clear and validated business cases for solutions; lack of business intelligence awareness and lack of political and regulatory support. Project aims 1) To integrate and demonstrate 12 innovative solutions 2) To demonstrate 4 integrated solutions 3) To establish and guard integration and standardisation aspects 4) To establish business cases, deployment potential and market uptake routes Solution This project will overcome the hurdles by developing and demonstrating in 4 important Smart Water Management themes (water quality management, leak management, energy optimization and customer interaction). 12 innovative theme oriented solutions and 4 integrated (technological, financial, ICT, organisation, management) solutions will be demonstrated at 4 well-scaled and real-life demonstration sites in France, United Kingdom, Spain and The Netherlands. These solutions will be tested, validated and evaluated and business cases will be generated. Consortium 12 innovative SMEs, 3 water utilities, 3 research institutes, 1 company and 2 platform organisations.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: FoF-14-2015 | Award Amount: 5.60M | Year: 2015

Europe is the worlds largest manufacturer of machine tools but this position is threatened due to the emergence of Asian countries. However, Europe has world-class capabilities in the manufacture of high-value parts for such competitive sectors like aerospace & automotive and this has led to the creation of a high-technology, high-skill industry. European machine tool builders, part manufacturers and other agents have to work together to increase the competitiveness of European manufacturing industry. Simulation tools are currently a key complement to European machine tool industry expertise but new integrated approaches are needed. The main objective of Twin-Control is the development of a simulation and control system that integrates the different aspects that affect machine tool and machining performance. This holistic approach will allow a better estimation of machining performance than single featured simulation packages, including lifecycle concepts like energy consumption and end-life of components. This integrated concept will also enhance the necessary collaboration between machine tool builders and part manufacturers. The specific industrial objectives are: Getting machines that work as designed faster (10% reduction) Getting production processes that work as planned faster (20% reduction) To get a first-time-right part manufacturing (75%) To increase production time trough model-based control (increase of 1-2%) To reduce energy consumption (25-50%) Improve machine reliability and increase machine up-time due to a proactive maintenance (2-4.5%) All these will contribute to reduce machine tool life cycle costs (15 %) with a reduction of O&M costs in the range of 25%. The project considers the validation and demonstrator in real production scenarios in aerospace and automotive industries. Added to this, 3 demonstrators will be set-up in three pilot lines for spreading results beyond the project end


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-IP | Phase: FoF.NMP.2011-1 | Award Amount: 7.22M | Year: 2011

Todays manufacturing plants provide a number of different processing possibilities for manufacturing a specific product. Each one of these processing possibilities poses different advantages and limitations that are function of both geometry and lot size of the part to be manufactured. However, one of the main driving forces in todays production is the environmental friendliness and the energy efficiency of the production itself. Additionally, the manufacturing processes are needed to be able to quickly shift between diverse manufacturing operations with short transfer, program and set-up times without compromises to quality, reliability and life-cycle costs. In the proposed project the main object is the development of manufacturing systems that will be highly flexible, and, at the same time, closely adapted to the single product. These manufacturing systems need for an engineering tool able to cover the whole plant operation, from the overall planning of the plant operation (such as the routes that the product follow within the plant and the scheduling of the production) down to the individual process programming (such as process operation, energy efficiency etc). The process planning approach of today is based on expert systems that are able to propose alternative process plans for the manufacturing of a specific product. Additionally there are tools able to simulate the operation of each machine station both from technological (process parameters, energy efficiency, etc) and economical point of view. All of the available systems though are able to cover only portion of the production, requiring exchange of data between different systems and thus making the overall optimization of the plant operation a hard task. The proposed project will deliver a manufacturing planning decision support tool for the optimization of the plant operation that will be able to be used from the conceptual phase of the product to the final dispatch of the product to the customer.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP | Phase: ICT-2011.4.1 | Award Amount: 2.00M | Year: 2012

ANNOMARKET aims to revolutionise the text annotation market, by delivering an affordable, open market place for pay-as-you-go, cloud-based extraction resources and services, in multiple languages. This project is is driven by a commercially-dominated consortium, from 3 EU countries and with 43% of the budget assigned to SMEs.The key differentiating feature of ANNOMARKET is its open marketplace concept. In addition, the Software-as-a-Service (SaaS) model reduces the complexity of deployment, maintenance, customisation, and sharing of text processing resources and services, making them affordable to SMEs both users and resource providers. The main beneficiaries will be the SME providers of text analysis resources and services, who will be able to deploy their custom components/applications and receive revenue via the AnnoMarket marketplace. There will be a mixture of paid-for proprietary resources and services and free open-source ones, in different languages. AnnoMarket will also promote customisation and re-targetting to new vertical domains and languages. The open-source nature of the underlying infrastructure will foster a strong developer community and enable easy deployment on private and public cloud infrastructures. Pricing will be transparent (based on data volumes) and the business model self-sustainable.The techniques will be generic with many business applications, e.g. large-volume multi-lingual information management, business intelligence, social media monitoring, customer relations management. The project will also benefit society and ordinary citizens by enabling affordable enrichment of government data archives and health-related web content. The marketplace architecture will be refined and evaluated with early adopters from our focus group, covering these vertical domains, in five target languages.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: MC-ITN | Phase: FP7-PEOPLE-2012-ITN | Award Amount: 3.88M | Year: 2012

Scanning probe microscopy(SPM) has now evolved to the point where not only is imaging and manipulation with single atom resolution achievable but the state of the art in the field involves sub-molecular and sub-atomic resolution: individual chemical bonds can be resolved, their properties measured, and their spatial symmetry exploited. SPM is, however, increasingly a victim of its own success. The wide availability of commercial instruments means that the technique is now very commonly seen as a routine imaging and characterisation tool. This unfortunately engenders a mindset amongst young researchers where they see an SPM as a black box and typically have a superficial understanding of the operating principles, theoretical principles, and current (or ultimate) limits of the technique. In turn, this black box mentality has severe implications for the health and competitiveness of the SPM - and, by extension nanoscience and nanotechnology - sectors in the ERA which rely fundamentally on creative innovation. ACRITAS directly counters this decline in the skills base and creativity of young researchers by providing an exciting and challenging environment for SPM training, spanning the public and private sectors and redefining the state of the art. A defining aspect of the network is its integration of scanning probe groups whose research is carried out under what might be termed `extreme conditions (ultrahigh vacuum, cryogenic temperatures) with teams of scientists who focus on interactions and control in biologically relevant environments. Although both communities use the same types of experimental techniques, there has traditionally been rather little communication between the two, largely because of different disciplinary biases. ACRITAS will act as a new and important bridge between the physical- and life sciences in advanced SPM and will thus be unique in the training it provides in a field which underpins a vast amount of 21st century science


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: ICT-16-2015 | Award Amount: 5.57M | Year: 2016

Around 50% of the global population lives in metropolitan areas, and this is expected to grow to 75% by 2050. Mobility within these areas is complex as it involves multiple modalities of transport, multiple managing authorities, as well as several millions of citizens. The cost of inefficiency in transport and mobility are enormous. For example, inefficiency costs the UK economy 5.8 billion each year. 583 million is wasted on fuel (e.g. traffic congestion) alone each year, which attributes to increased urban pollution and CO2. Hold-ups to business or freight vehicles amounts to 1.5bn annually. Mobility generates huge amounts of data thought thousands of sensors, city cameras, and connected cars, as well as millions of citizens connected through their mobile devices. If properly managed, this data can be used to understand, optimise and manage mobility and make it more efficient, sustainable and resilient. SETA will address this challenge, creating a technology and methodology able to use this wealth of data to change the way mobility is organised, monitored and planned in large metropolitan areas. The solution will be able to collect, process, link and fuse high-volume, high-velocity, multi-dimensional, heterogeneous, cross-media, cross-sectorial data and to use it to model mobility with a precision, granularity and dynamicity that is impossible with todays technologies. Such models will be the basis of pervasive services to citizens and business, as well as decision makers to support safe, sustainable, effective, efficient and resilient mobility. The project has the potential to impact the everyday lives of millions of people, their health and the environment with enormous financial and social impact. SETAs solution will be evaluated rigorously by citizens, business and decision makers in 3 cities across Europe. The proposal includes a commercialisation plan and describes the economy of managing the SETA ecosystem in a metropolitan area.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: SC1-PM-21-2016 | Award Amount: 4.26M | Year: 2017

Screening for vision and hearing disorders in children has shown to be highly effective. EU-directive 16620/11 invites EU-member states to give priority to such screening programmes. Early detection and treatment of a lazy eye (prevalence 3%) prevents lifelong visual impairment. Early detection and treatment of hearing impairment (prevalence 0.15%) prevents delayed speech and language development. Across Europe inequity exists in the provision of childhood vision and hearing screening programmes (VAHSPs). High-Income Countries (HICs) have VAHSPs, but they vary with regard to age and frequency of testing, tests used, uptake, screening professionals, referral pathway and funding. This makes it difficult for healthcare providers and policy makers to decide what VAHSP to implement in Low- to Middle-Income Countries (LMICs) and how. In this study, cost-optimised, evidence-based VAHSPs will be implemented in two LMICs, based on collated evidence from existing VAHSPs in Europe. Data on VAHSPs, demography, administration, general screening, screening professions, uptake and treatment availability will be gathered in an established network of professionals in 41 European countries and used in a disease/health system modelling framework to predict benefits and cost in the most optimal health system, taking regional diversity and organisational and resource requirements into account. Model-developed VAHSPs will be tested in the county of Cluj in Romania for vision, and in three counties in Albania for hearing screening. A generic strategy for implementation will be developed by detailed tracking, and from identified requirements, facilitators and barriers. The decision-analytic modelling framework and the strategy for implementation will be packed into a transferable TOOLKIT that will assist healthcare providers and policy makers worldwide in their decisions to introduce or modify VAHSPs, and increase effectiveness, efficiency and equity of child healthcare.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: CSA | Phase: INFRADEV-03-2016-2017 | Award Amount: 4.97M | Year: 2017

The INFRAFRONTIER RI integrates European Mouse Clinics and the European Mouse Mutant Archive with the common goal to ensure access to mouse models for basic research of human health and disease, and to translate this knowledge into therapeutic approaches for the benefit of the European society. The expanded INFRAFRONTIER2020 network, coordinated by the INFRAFRONTIER GmbH, includes 3 SMEs and is strategically responding to the INFRADEV3 call with aligned objectives to advance the long-term sustainability which are 1) development of business models and a stable legal framework; 2) raise awareness of the INFRAFRONTIER RI; 3) provide bespoke services aligned with user demands; 4) promote best practices in mouse phenogenomics; 5) enhance robustness of the INFRAFRONTIER IT infrastructure and use of the EMMA strain resource; and 6) improve business processes. Towards achieving these objectives key INFRAFRONTIER2020 project deliverables are: INFRAFRONTIER Business Plan2.0, and business models for all services Stable legal framework built on the INFRAFRONTIER legal entity INFRAFRONTIER annual stakeholder conferences Customised mouse model and secondary phenotyping pilot services INFRAFRONTIER advanced training schools in mouse phenogenomics Reengineered EMMA Database2.0 system Annotated mouse models of human diseases Quality management system for the legal entity INFRAFRONTIER2020 will 1) enhance the sustainable operation of the INFRAFRONTIER RI; 2) continue to structure the ERA, 3) foster innovation, and 4) address major societal challenges in human health by customised service pilots supporting research into common and rare diseases. A sustainable INFRAFRONTIER RI will ensure the quality of deposited mice and support the reproducibility of biological results. Outreach efforts will raise awareness of resources and services and facilitate sustainable engagement with industry and global consortia such as the International Mouse Phenotyping Consortium


Grant
Agency: GTR | Branch: Innovate UK | Program: | Phase: Collaborative Research & Development | Award Amount: 7.86M | Year: 2012

The VARCITY project delivers new vehicle body architectures for the premium city car of 2020 which will utilise the structural performance and weight advantanges of advanced Carbon Fibre Reinforced Plastic based composites whilst delivering a sustainable and economically viable proposition for volume production. The project targets a series of technology developments and innovations that currently prohibit wide-scale, volume implementation of CFRP based composites for vehicle body construction. A major goal of the project is the establishment of leading UK supply chain comprising the core industry partners. VARCITY drives the technical capability development of this fully integrated supply chain and will deliver major commercial benefits for wider market opportunities. Furthermore, the project also acts as a catalyst to stimulate the science, engineering and technology base to support the C02 and sustainability challenges facing the UKs automotive industry.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: ERC-SG | Phase: ERC-SG-PE8 | Award Amount: 1.50M | Year: 2011

The influence of mechanical stimuli on cell behaviour also known as mechanobiology has led to the development of mechano-regulation theories and finite element simulations that predict tissue formation in regenerative medicine. Computer simulations can explore mechanotransduction processes on the cellular level which are not possible to measure experimentally. However, most studies are limited to continuum macroscopic description of the tissues and therefore are inadequate to relate macroscopic loading to microscopic mechanical stimuli. The main objective of this project is to reach new frontiers in mechanobiology with the development of a new approach in the modelling of tissue engineering with an integration of the microscopic modelling of cells with the macroscopic modelling of the scaffold. A discrete approach to model the porous scaffold will be combined with a multitude analyses of single cell biomechanics attached onto the scaffold. In order to validate the overall methodology, each of the different modelling steps will be modelled through the development of in vitro experiments on adult human mesenchymal stem cells. The breakthrough of this project will change considerably the methodology used previously by the scientific community in this field and in the development of the biomedical field regarding computer modelling. The impact of this project will bring a better understanding of the local mechanical stimuli on cells and the understanding of the translation of mechanical macroscopic loading onto microscopic loading.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: MC-ITN | Phase: FP7-PEOPLE-2011-ITN | Award Amount: 3.80M | Year: 2012

Traffic noise pollution in urban areas is a major environmental problem within the European Union. Creating an acceptable acoustic outdoor environment is a big challenge of high need. Creating as well as preserving environments, which are supportive for health and well-being in a sustainable manner is an even bigger but unavoidable task. In order to succeed, specialists are required with a broad research competence covering areas such as acoustic prediction methods, noise control and soundscaping, but also aspects of city and traffic planning. However, specialists equipped with such a competence spectrum are hardly found. Therefore, the goal of SONORUS is to close this gap and bring together universities, enterprises and public organizations that aim to offer training to ESRs in an arena of trans-disciplinary research. The training is designed around real-life urban test sites that are characterized by a poor acoustic environment due to noise from road, rail or air traffic. These test sites are provided by three major European cities (Berlin, Rome and Antwerp). To these test sites, the ESRs will apply their knowledge and skills gained from individual acoustics related research projects, in-depth courses on acoustics as well as on different aspects of spatial planning. The ESRs will, in teams, design a long-term plan for the development of the acoustic environment on the test sites. This activity will also give the opportunity to train complementary skills such as communication and outreach skills. From SONORUS a new generation of researchers will emerge with the profile adapted to the supra-disciplinary approach needed to reverse the negative trend of a deteriorating acoustic outdoor environment in urban areas. SONORUS has been designed with the intension that these researchers will be best prepared to further develop and above all to apply the new integrated concepts into practical urban planning processes and their effective coordination.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CSA | Phase: ICT-2011.9.5 | Award Amount: 1.63M | Year: 2011

The coordination action CA-RoboCom will design and describe the FET Flagship initiative Robot Companions for Citizens (RCC) including its: S&T framework, governance, financial and legal structure, RTD organization, funding scheme, competitiveness strategy and risk analysis. FET-Fi RCC will realize a multi-disciplinary science and engineering program supporting a radically new approach towards machines and how we deploy them in our society. RCC is an ecology of soft and sentient machines that will help and assist humans in the broadest possible sense to support and sustain our welfare. RCC will have soft bodies based on the novel integration of solid articulated structures with flexible properties and display soft behavior based on new levels of perceptual, cognitive and emotive capabilities. RCC will be cognizant and aware of their physical and social world and respond accordingly. RCC will attain these properties because of their grounding in the most advanced sentient machines we know: animals. Conversely, RCC will validate our understanding of the general design principles underlying biological bodies and brains, establishing a positive feedback between science and engineering. The driving metaphor of RCC is that of the robot dancing partner who will be able to autonomously dance together with a human at a high-level of performance a range of styles. Driven by the vision and ambition of RCC, CA-RoboCom will by means of an appropriate outreach strategy, involve all pertinent stakeholders: science and technology, society, finance, politics and industry. Other than the commitment of its Consortium, CA-RoboCom will involve a wide range of external experts in its working groups, its advisory board, and in its European and International Cooperation board. The CA-RoboCom consortium believes that given the potential transformative and disruptive effects of RCC in our society their development and deployment has to be based on a the broadest possible support platform.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: ERC-AG | Phase: ERC-AG-SH6 | Award Amount: 2.49M | Year: 2014

This project explores the concept of agricultural spread as analogous to enforced climate change and asks how cereals adapted to new environments when agriculture was introduced into Europe. Archaeologists have long recognized that the ecological pressures placed on crops would have had an impact on the spread and subsequent development of agriculture, but previously there has been no means of directly assessing the scale and nature of this impact. Recent work that I have directed has shown how such a study could be carried out, and the purpose of this project is to exploit these breakthroughs with the goal of assessing the influence of environmental adaptation on the spread of agriculture, its adoption as the primary subsistence strategy, and the subsequent establishment of farming in different parts of Europe. This will correct the current imbalance between our understanding of the human and environmental dimensions to the domestication of Europe. I will use methods from population genomics to identify loci within the barley and wheat genomes that have undergone selection since the beginning of cereal cultivation in Europe. I will then use ecological modelling to identify those loci whose patterns of selection are associated with ecogeographical variables and hence represent adaptations to local environmental conditions. I will assign dates to the periods when adaptations occurred by sequencing ancient DNA from archaeobotanical assemblages and by computer methods that enable the temporal order of adaptations to be deduced. I will then synthesise the information on environmental adaptations with dating evidence for the spread of agriculture in Europe, which reveals pauses that might be linked to environmental adaptation, with demographic data that indicate regions where Neolithic populations declined, possibly due to inadequate crop productivity, and with an archaeobotanical database showing changes in the prevalence of individual cereals in different regions.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CSA-SA | Phase: INCO.2011-7.5 | Award Amount: 2.12M | Year: 2012

The general objective of the project is to use the Nansen International Environmental and Remote Sensing Centre (NIERSC) established in St. Petersburg, Russia, and funded by Norway and Germany, as the joint research facility to extend, consolidate and strengthen scientific cooperation between researchers from the EU Member States and Associated Countries with those from Russia through the joint studies of climate and environmental changes in the Arctic and Sub-Arctic in the 21st century and their socio-economic impact. NIERSC research facilities, enhanced and expanded in the frame of the project, will be opened to the researchers from other Member States, specifically from Austria, Finland, France, Sweden and UK, additionally to researchers from Germany, Norway and Russia, founders of NIERSC. Increasing and extending scientific cooperation between researchers from the Member States and Associated Countries with Russian researchers will be organized through involvement of additional researchers in the NIERSC ongoing projects and preparation of new future joint scientific projects in the area of environmental and climate research in the Arctic and Sub-Arctic including socio-economic issues via organization of joint scientific workshops and seminars. Since 1992 NIERSC has built a wide network with Russian research institutions, universities and governmental agencies which will serve in the future for further enhancement of European-Russian cooperation in proposed research area far beyond the completion of EuRuCAS. To sustain this cooperation in the future, young generation of researchers will be greatly involved in the project through research periods at NIERSC and organizing Summer School with the focus on environmental and climate research in the Arctic and Sub-Arctic including socio-economic impact. Within EuRuCAS implementation the ways for opening NIERSC institutional arrangements for new members from EU Member States and/or Associated Countries will be defined.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP | Phase: ICT-2009.4.1 | Award Amount: 3.07M | Year: 2011

Significant amounts of cultural heritage material are now available through online digital library portals. However, this vast amount of cultural heritage material can also be overwhelming for many users who are provided with little or no guidance on how to find and interpret this information. The situation is very different in museums and galleries where items are organised thematically and users guided through the collection.\n\n\nThe PATHS project will create a system that acts as an interactive personalised tour guide through existing digital library collections. The system will offer suggestions about items to look at and assist in their interpretation. Navigation will be based around the metaphor of a path through the collection. A path can be based around any theme, for example artist and media (paintings by Picasso), historic periods (the Cold War), places (Venice) and famous people (Muhammad Ali). Users will be able to construct their own paths or follow pre-defined ones.\n\n\nThe PATHS project will provide users with innovative ways to access and utilise the contents of digital libraries that enrich their experiences of these resources. This will be achieved by extending the state-of-the-art in user-driven information access and by applying language technologies to analyse and enrich online content. The project will take a user-centred approach to development to accommodate the needs, interests and preferences of different types of users.\n\n\nThe PATHS consortium contains six partners. Two academic institutions, Sheffield University and Universidad del Pais Vasco, and two SMEs, i-sieve technologies Ltd. and Asplan Viak Internet Ltd., bring experience in several technical areas (the presentation and processing digital content; understanding user profiles and requirements; search and language processing technologies) which is complemented with expertise in the cultural heritage domain provided by MDR Partners and Alinari 24 Ore Spa.\n\n\nThe PATHS project will make use of content from the European Digital Library, Europeana, and contribute to the i2010: Digital Libraries Initiative.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: NMP-06-2015 | Award Amount: 4.65M | Year: 2015

The concept behind MOZART is to develop a library of inorganic nanomatrices to be used as smart platforms for effective, non-invasive and highly targeted therapies. MOZART will address, as proof of concept, nanomatrices to treat delayed bone healing and non-healing chronic skin wounds, which are both characterised by an inflammation and often infection. Mesoporous therapeutic glasses (MTGs), doped with selected ions (e.g. Ag\, Li\, Cu2\, Sr2\, Ce3\, B3\) and having nanopores of adjustable size within 2-50 nm, will be synthesised and then loaded with the chosen payload. Ordered mesoporous carbons (OMCs) will also be manufactured to host a wide range of biomolecules and higher payload. As in an orchestra, where the integration among the different participants allows a harmonious symphony to be created, in MOZART the synergistic release of ions and drugs will be directed to achieve a radically improved therapeutic effect. The exploitation of the response of self-immolative polymer coatings upon pH changes will be used as an elegant and effective way for triggering the payload release. The (coated) nanomatrices will be incorporated in a thermosensitive gel that is liquid at room temperature and undergoes sol-gel transition in the physiological environment. These gels are perfect candidates to develop non-invasive procedures to introduce MOZART nanomatrices to the pathological site and keep them in place for the required time. Clinical and societal impacts of MOZART will be enormous, considering the extraordinarily high number of pathological cases potentially involved. Only in EU, 350 000 patients per year are affected by non-union bone fractures and 2.2 million people suffer from chronic wounds. We expect that MOZART approaches will significantly reduce the healing time of non-union bone fractures (within 4 months vs. a minimum of 12 months) and will allow at least 50% of people suffering from chronic wounds to heal fully.


Grant
Agency: GTR | Branch: NERC | Program: | Phase: Research Grant | Award Amount: 286.07K | Year: 2012

The Arctic is undergoing rapid climatic change, with dramatic consequences for the Frozen World (the cryosphere), including reductions in the depth, extent and duration of sea ice, and seasonal snow cover on land, retreat of ice sheets/glaciers, and melting of permafrost (ground that remains at or below 0 degrees C for at least two consecutive years). This is important not only for local and regional ecosystems and human communities, but also for the functioning of the entire earth system. Evidence is growing that organic matter frozen in permafrost soils (often for many millennia) is now thawing, making it available for decomposition by soil organisms, with the release of carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4), both greenhouse gases (GHGs), as by-products. A major concern now is that, because permafrost soils contain 1672 petagrams (1 Pg = 1 billion tonnes) of organic carbon (C), which is about 50% of the total global below-ground pool of organic C, and permafrost underlies ~ 25% (23 million km2) of the N hemisphere land surface, a melting-induced release of GHGs to the atmosphere from permafrost soils could result in a major acceleration of global warming. This is called a positive biogeochemical feedback on global change; in other words, an unintentional side-effect in the global C cycle and climate system. Unfortunately, the interacting biological, chemical and physical controls on CO2 and CH4 emissions from permafrost (and melting permafrost) environments to the atmosphere are the subject of much speculation because the scientific community does not know enough about the interactions between C and water cycling in permafrost systems. Warmer and drier soils may release more CO2, while warmer/wetter soils might release more CH4. Permafrost thawing also causes changes in the way water flows though the landscape (because frozen ground if often impermeable to water), and some areas may become drier, while others wetter. How the relative proportions of CO2 and CH4 emissions change, and their absolute amount, is critical for the overall global warming potential (GWP) because these two gases have different potency as GHGs. Release of C from soils into freshwaters also needs to be taken into account because down-stream de-gassing and decomposition of organic materials also influences releases of CO2 and CH4 from freshwater, or delivery of C to lakes/oceans. All-in-all, predicting the GWP of permafrost regions is scientifically challenging, and the interactions between the water (hydrological) and C cycles are poorly known. In this project we recognise the key role that hydrological processes play in landscape-scale C fluxes in arctic and boreal regions. In permafrost catchments in NW Canada (including areas where permafrost is known to be thawing) we will measure the capture of C from the atmosphere (through photosynthesis), its distribution in plants and soils, and the biological, physical and chemical controls of C transport and delivery from soils to freshwaters, and ultimately to the atmosphere as CO2 and CH4. In essence we wish to close the C cycle. Field-based measurements of key processes in the water and C cycles, including geochemical tracer and state-of-the-art C, hydrogen and oxygen isotope approaches, will be linked by computer modelling. The project team, together with partners in Canada, the US and UK, is in a unique position to link the water and C cycles in permafrost environments, and we will deliver essential scientific knowledge on the potential consequences of climate warming, and permafrost thawing, for GHG emissions from northern high latitudes. Both for local peoples directly dependent on arctic tundra/boreal forest ecosystems for their livelihoods and cultural identity, and for the global community who must respond to, and anticipate, potential consequences of climate and environmental change, this project will represent a significant step forward in understanding/predictive capacity.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP | Phase: HEALTH.2012.2.1.1-3 | Award Amount: 4.68M | Year: 2012

High-throughput sequencing (HTS) is a powerful and rapidly evolving family of technologies with a multitude of applications. They include genetics of rare and common diseases, understanding of disease mechanism and progression through transcriptome and epigenome profiling, cancer stratification, personalised medicine and molecular systems biology of gene regulation. The genome, epigenome, transcriptome and interactome are all intricately connected, and modern HTS technology can probe all of these -omic levels. Statistical analysis is a crucial component of many experiments and studies, and the quality and efficiency of the analysis often determines the success of a project. In this collaborative project we will develop a range of new statistical analysis tools to solve open problems in HTS data analysis, ranging from low-level processing of sequence reads up to systems-level modelling of disease associated and cellular processes. We will provide to a wide audience an integrated computational framework for HTS data analysis and interpretation that is robust, efficient and user-friendly. We will establish improved procedures for the publishing of statistical software as an integral part of the scientific publication process, within the framework of the Bioconductor project. We will provide tools to benchmark experimental protocols and statistical methods, and we will provide training materials and a extensive training programme to rapidly disseminate these new tools to the broader biomedical community. SME partners will integrate these new tools within their analysis pipelines with associated user-friendly commercial software providing access to their additional proprietary tools. SMEs will benefit from basic methodology development done in a public, pre-competitive arena and will be able to use these technologies to enhance their products and services.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-CSA-Infra | Phase: INFRA-2010-1.1.33 | Award Amount: 26.09M | Year: 2011

AIDA (http://cern.ch/aida) addresses the upgrade, improvement and integration of key research infrastructures in Europe, developing advanced detector technologies for future particle accelerators, as well as transnational access to facilities that provide these research infrastructures. In line with the European Strategy for Particle Physics, AIDA targets the infrastructures needed for R&D, prototyping and qualification of detector systems for the major particle physics experiments currently being planned at future accelerators. By focusing on common development and use of such infrastructure, the project integrates the entire detector development community, encouraging cross-fertilization of ideas and results, and providing a coherent framework for the main technical developments of detector R&D. This project includes a large consortium of 37 beneficiaries, covering much of the detector R&D for particle physics in Europe. This collaboration allows Europe to remain at the forefront of particle physics research and take advantage of the world-class infrastructures existing in Europe for the advancement of research into detectors for future accelerator facilities. The infrastructures covered by the AIDA project are key facilities required for an efficient development of future particle physics experiments, such as: test beam infrastructures (at CERN, DESY and LNF), specialised equipment, irradiation facilities (in several European countries), common software tools, common microelectronics and system integration tools and establishment of technology development roadmaps with a wide range of industrial partners.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP | Phase: ICT-2013.4.1 | Award Amount: 4.27M | Year: 2014

Social media poses three major computational challenges, dubbed by Gartner the 3Vs of big data: volume, velocity, and variety. Content analytics methods have faced additional difficulties, arising from the short, noisy, and strongly contextualised nature of social media. In order to address the 3Vs of social media, new language technologies have emerged, e.g. using locality sensitive hashing to detect breaking news stories from media streams (volume), predicting stock market movements from microblog sentiment (velocity), and recommending blogs and news articles based on user content (variety).PHEME will focus on a fourth crucial, but hitherto largely unstudied, challenge: veracity. It will model, identify, and verify phemes (internet memes with added truthfulness or deception), as they spread across media, languages, and social networks.PHEME will achieve this by developing novel cross-disciplinary social semantic methods, combining document semantics, a priori large-scale world knowledge (e.g. Linked Open Data) and a posteriori knowledge and context from social networks, cross-media links and spatio-temporal metadata. Key novel contributions are dealing with multiple truths, reasoning about rumour and the temporal validity of facts, and building longitudinal models of users, influence, and trust.Results will be validated in two high-profile case studies: healthcare and digital journalism. The techniques will be generic with many business applications, e.g. brand and reputation management, customer relationship management, semantic search and knowledge management. In addition to its high commercial relevance, PHEME will also benefit society and citizens by enabling government organisations to keep track of and react to rumours spreading online.PHEME addresses Objective ICT-2013.4.1 Content analytics and language technologies; a) cross-media analytics.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: MC-ITN | Phase: FP7-PEOPLE-2013-ITN | Award Amount: 3.87M | Year: 2013

The growth of advanced composites in construction in recent years has been spectacular, doubling in size in the last 10 years. This expansion has been largely due to the use of Fibre Reinforced Polymer reinforcement in structural applications and, although the current economic climate has seen a slowdown of the general construction market, the demand of composite products within the European construction market is estimated to grow and reach 3.1 billion by 2013. The on-going requirement for more durable structures and more efficient rehabilitation solutions is the key driving force behind the introduction of FRPs in the construction industry as reinforcing or strengthening material for concrete and masonry structures. In Europe alone, the annual cost of repair and maintenance of the infrastructure is estimated to be about 50% of the construction budget. Composite materials are readily used in a large number of applications and yet, a set of accepted design guidelines does not exist and most construction professionals are unaware of what composites are and rely on specialists who often use their own standards and guidelines. Moreover, little interaction exists between academia and industry and practical applications are time and again a reflection of a design approach instructed by conservative guidelines, which hinder innovation. The aim of the Network is to train researchers in the use of advanced composites for construction so as to develop and maintain a critical mass of research groups that will address the main scientific challenges in the field, enable the development of advanced material standards and design guidelines, co-ordinate European research, and offer a link between academia and industry. The Network will strengthen the European Research Area on composite reinforcements and will contribute to increase the competitiveness of the European construction industry worldwide.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP | Phase: ICT-2011.4.2 | Award Amount: 3.68M | Year: 2011

The recent massive growth in online media and the rise of user-authored content (e.g weblogs, Twitter, Facebook) has lead to challenges of how to access and interpret these strongly multilingual data, in a timely, efficient, and affordable manner. Scientifically, streaming online media pose new challenges, due to their shorter, noisier, and more colloquial nature. Moreover, they form a temporal stream strongly grounded in events and context. Consequently, existing language technologies fall short on accuracy, scalability and portability.The goal of this project is to deliver. innovative, portable open-source real-time methods for cross-lingual mining and summarisation of large-scale stream media.TrendMiner will achieve this through an inter-disciplinary approach, combining deep linguistic methods from text processing, knowledge-based reasoning from web science, machine learning, economics, and political science. No expensive human annotated data will be required due to our use of time-series data (e.g. financial markets, political polls) as a proxy. A key novelty will be weakly supervised machine learning algorithms for automatic discovery of new trends and correlations. Scalability and affordability will be addressed through a cloud-based infrastructure for real-time text mining from stream media.Results will be validated in two high-profile case studies: financial decision support (with analysts, traders, regulators, and economists) and political analysis and monitoring (with politicians, economists, and political journalists).The techniques will be generic with many business applications: business intelligence, customer relations management, community support. The project will also benefit society and ordinary citizens by enabling enhanced access to government data archives, summarisation of online health information , and tracking of hot societal issues.TrendMiner addresses Objective ICT-2011.4.2 Language Technologies, target outcome b) Information access and mining.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CSA-SA | Phase: AAT.2013.7-7. | Award Amount: 534.35K | Year: 2013

As mentioned in the Executive Summary of the Strategic Research & Innovation Agenda, Aviation has an important role to play in reducing greenhouse gas emissions as well as noise and local air quality issues. The continuous increase of air passenger transport generates an increasing use of hydrocarbon fuel with excessive emission of CO2 and NOX (greenhouse gases, pollutants and noise). It is well known that commercial aircraft operations impact the atmosphere by the emissions of greenhouse gases and greenhouse gas precursors, and also through the formation of contrails and cirrus clouds. In 2011, during the Aerodays in Madrid, the EC launched the future of Aeronautics in the ACARE Flight Path 2050 Vision for the Aircraft report containing the ambitious goals on the environmental impact with 90% reduction in NOx emissions, 75% reduction in CO2 emissions per passenger kilometer, and the reduction of the noise in by 65%, all relative to year 2000. To achieve the ACARE Strategic Research & Innovation Agenda green aeronautics technologies will play a more and more dominant role in mastering the challenge on Protecting the environment and the energy supply. GRAIN2 Supported Action, based on the same collaborative and win-win spirit introduced in former EU-China GRAIN project, will provide inputs and roadmaps for the development of large scale simulation strategies for greener technologies to meet the above future requirements on emissions, fuel consumption and noise. To reach these targets, green technologies efforts will have to be collected and prospected in three major lines: Air vehicle, Air Transport System and Sustainable Energies. Three folds to be investigated as future greening technologies: 1) Greening the aircraft and the aero engine 2) Greening the operational environment 3) Reducing the carbon foot print of aviation via sustainable alternative fuels


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: PHC-13-2014 | Award Amount: 6.51M | Year: 2015

Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal degenerative disorder of the brain and spinal cord affecting some 40,000 individuals in Europe, causing 11,000 deaths each year. Our pioneering work on riluzole showed that it is possible to modify ALS progression but all subsequent trials of potential neuroprotective agents have failed. Thus, drug development in ALS, including trial design, patient selection, and outcome measures must be re-engineered to break the current impasse. Nerve cell death in ALS is associated with inflammation, which contributes to cell damage, and is a logical target for therapy. Although therapeutic attempts to modify this have failed so far, the discovery of regulatory T cells (Tregs) as key players in controlling inflammatory processes opens new possibilities since defective Treg function is important in ALS. In fact, Treg numbers and function predict rates of disease progression and survival. Low-dose interleukin-2 (ld IL-2) safely and specifically increases and activates Tregs in conditions such as type 1 diabetes, HBc-vasculitis and chronic graft-versus-host disease, so ld IL-2 has the potential to significantly improve survival and deliver a therapeutic breakthrough in ALS. We also integrate biomarkers for nerve cell damage into the trial design to provide proof of concept/mechanism. Modifying Immune Response and OutComes in ALS (MIROCALS) will test the hypothesis that ld IL-2-induced increases in Tregs result in decreased rates of nerve cell damage and that this effect can be detected early in the course of the disease using a range of blood and cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers. Our ambition is to develop a new therapy for ALS and through this novel trial design break the impasse in drug development of other disease-modifying agents in ALS. The impact will be to enhance quality of life and care for people with ALS, and provide a robust model for Industry to encourage investment in ALS and other neurodegenerative diseases.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: MC-ITN | Phase: FP7-PEOPLE-2012-ITN | Award Amount: 3.94M | Year: 2012

Automatic translation is an undeniable need in a globalized world where communication using several languages becomes increasingly more relevant. Translation Memory (TM) and Machine Translation (MT) systems are the two most elaborate technologies to support human translation. Recent developments in the area of Example-based and Statistical Machine Translation (EBMT and SMT), in particular, have shown the potential of data-driven approaches for producing fast and low cost translations. A number of user studies have however established shortcomings in the state-of-the-art of these technologies, including poor quality translations for low resource languages, interfaces that do not take into account user requirements and user feedback, etc. We propose the creation of an Initial Training Network to train young researchers on ways to improve current data-driven MT technologies (TM, SMT and EBMT) by exploiting their individual strengths through their combination and by addressing some of the main limitations of each of these technologies. Leading academic and industrial partners in all data-driven translation technologies, along with both professional translators and end-users of translation technologies will support young researchers of the network during the whole research and development cycle, providing guidance, core and complementary training skills and evaluating the resulting technologies. A comprehensive set of training materials on core and complementary skills developed during this project will be made freely available to other researchers interested in the field. We expect the training of researchers in the new skills required for the development and use of technologies that can increase productivity and reduce costs in the translation sector, as well as facilitate reliable communication and content creation in multiple languages, will contribute to several aspects of Europes ICT development.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: IA | Phase: ICT-15-2014 | Award Amount: 3.89M | Year: 2015

The overall objective of the KConnect project is to create a medical text Data-Value Chain with a critical mass of participating companies using cutting-edge commercial cloud-based services for multilingual Semantic Annotation, Semantic Search and Machine Translation of Electronic Health Records and medical publications. The commercial cloud-based services will be the result of productisation of the multilingual medical text processing tools developed in the Khresmoi FP7 project, allowing wide adoption of these tools by industry. The critical mass will be created by the KConnect Professional Services Community, which will consist of at least 30 companies by the end of the project. These companies will be trained to build solutions based on the KConnect Services, hence serving as multipliers for commercial exploitation of the KConnect services. The KConnect project will facilitate the straightforward adaptation of the commercialised services to new languages by providing toolkits enabling the adaptation to be done by by people having a software engineering skillset, as opposed to the rarer language engineering skillset. The KConnect services will also be adapted to handle text in Electronic Health Records, which is particularly challenging due to misspellings, neologisms, organisation-specific acronyms, and heavy use of negation and hedging. The consortium is driven by a core group of four innovative SMEs following complementary business perspectives related to medical text analysis and search. These companies will build solutions for their customers based on KConnect technology. Two partners from the medical domain will use KConnect services to solve their medical record analysis challenges. Two highly-used medical search portal providers will implement the KConnect services to innovate the services offered by their search portals. Through these search portals, the KConnect technologies will be used by over 1 million European citizens before the end of the project


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: PROTEC-1-2014 | Award Amount: 2.36M | Year: 2015

The smooth functioning of the European economy and the welfare of its citizens depends upon an ever-growing set of services and facilities that are reliant on space and ground based infrastructure. Examples include communications (radio, TV, mobile phones), navigation of aircraft and private transport via GPS, and service industries (e.g. banking). These services, however, can be adversely affected by the space weather hazards. The forecasting of space weather hazards, driven by the dynamical processes originating on the sun, is critical to the mitigation of their negative effects. This proposal brings world leading groups in the fields of space physics and systems science in order to develop an accurate and reliable forecast system for space weather. It combines their individual strengths to significantly improve the current modelling capabilities within Europe and to produce a set of forecast tools to accurately predict the occurrence and severity of space weather events. Within project PROGRESS we will develop an European tool to forecast the solar wind parameters just upstream of the Earths magnetosphere. We will develop a comprehensive set of forecasting tools for geomagnetic indices. We will combine the most accurate data based forecast of electron fluxes at GEO with the most comprehensive physics based model of the radiation belts currently available to deliver a reliable forecast of radiation environment in the radiation belts. This project will deliver these individual forecast tools together with a unified tool that combines the forecasting tools with the prediction of the solar wind parameters at L1 to substantially increase the lead-time of space weather forecasts.


Grant
Agency: GTR | Branch: EPSRC | Program: | Phase: Fellowship | Award Amount: 721.30K | Year: 2016

My proposed Fellowship will revolutionise the use of High Performance Computing (HPC) within The University of Sheffield by changing perceptions of how people utilise software and are trained and supported in writing code which scales to increasingly large computer systems. I will provide leadership by demonstrating the effectiveness of specific research software engineer roles, and by growing a team of research software engineer at The University of Sheffield in order to accommodate our expanding programme of research computing. I will achieve this by: 1) developing the FLAME and FLAME GPU software to facilitate and demonstrate the impact of Graphics Processing Unit (GPU) computing on the areas of complex systems simulation; 2) vastly extending the remit of GPUComputing@Sheffield to provide advanced training and research consultancy, and to embed specific software engineering skills for high-performance data parallel computing (with GPUs and Xeon Phis) across EPSRC-remit research areas at The University of Sheffield. My first activity will enable long-term support of the extensive use of FLAME and FLAME GPU for EPSRC, industry and EU-funded research projects. The computational science and engineering projects supported will include those as diverse as computational economics, bioinformatics and transport simulation. Additionally, my software will provide a platform for more fundamental computer science research into complexity science, graphics and visualisation, programming languages and compilers, and software engineering. My second activity will champion GPU computing within The University of Sheffield (and beyond to its collaborators and industrial partners). It will demonstrate how a specific area of research software engineering can be embedded into The University of Sheffield, and act as a model for further improvement in areas such as research software and data storage. I will change the way people develop and use research software by providing training to students and researchers who can then embed GPU software engineering skills across research domains. I will also aid researchers who work on computationally demanding research by providing software engineering consultancy in areas that can benefit from GPU acceleration, such as, mobile GPU computing for robotics, deep neural network simulation for machine learning (including speech, hearing and Natural language processing) and real time signal processing. The impact of my Fellowship will vastly expand the scale and quality of research computing at The University of Sheffield, embed skills within students and researchers (with long-term and wide-reaching results) and ensure energy-efficient use of HPC. This will promote the understanding and wider use of GPU computing within research, as well as transitioning researchers to larger regional and national HPC facilities. Ultimately my research software engineer fellowship will facilitate the delivery of excellent science whilst promoting the unique and important role of the Research Software Engineer.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP | Phase: ICT-2009.5.3 | Award Amount: 3.94M | Year: 2011

Treatment and prognosis of spinal disc degeneration are still based on trial and error clinical decisions from the surgeon leading to numerous post treatment complications and eventual morbidity. A rational engineering approach based on advanced ICT and patient-specific predictive systems to treat various spinal pathologies needs to be developed to guide clinicians and improve long-term clinical outcomes. In silico virtual assessment of the evolution of treatments for patient-specific lumbar spine geometries, tissue properties, and loading histories is the cornerstone of such predictive system. Focus must be made on functional patient-specific models that have mechanobiological predictive capabilities. The objective of My SPINE is to adapt and integrate existing generic finite element (FE) models and use them as ICT tools in a clinical setting. The predictive system will consist in a set of specialized computing platforms. A geometrical and mechanical patient-specific model will be built, involving specialized processes such as image segmentation and analysis, mesh morphing, FE simulations, and optimizations. Based on the analysis of each integrated biomechanical and mechanobiological model, results will be evaluated in a probabilistic way, helping clinician to safely assess the risks and benefits of each simulated treatment. The main outputs of the project are the creation of a prototype computing platform with a graphical user interface for clinical settings and a patient-specific database of the lumbar spine. This interface will give clinicians the ability to virtually explore patient-specific treatment outcomes of disc degeneration, from short-term biomechanical ending to long-term mechanobiological tissue evolution. The project will impact ehealth by bringing new engineering rationale in the clinical decision-process. Impact is thus directly linked to ICT companies for clinical software development and hospital for the development of new clinical protocols.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-TP | Phase: NMP.2013.2.2-1 | Award Amount: 4.36M | Year: 2014

Peripheral nerves are basic communication structures guiding motor and sensitive information from CNS to effector or receptor units. Severe nerve injuries include axon bundles section and Schawnn cells destruction, which results in loss of motion control and sensorial perception. After the lesion, cells present in damaged nerves activate spontaneously self-regeneration programs that might facilitate further treatment. Nerve autograft is the gold standard surgical intervention that demands autologous tissue extraction and corresponding function loss. The goal of the project is the validation of biomaterials structural plasticity and those compatible manufacturing technologies that will enable the generation of a tubular structure containing an intraluminal microstructure based on an array of aligned channels or fibers. The regenerative properties of this prototype will be also validated in vivo in a sciatic nerve section animal model. This project proposal will take advantage of partners experience in the design of medical devices composed of natural and synthetic biomaterials and in scaled-up production mechanization technologies for the generation of the most effective peripheral nerve implant.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP | Phase: ICT-2011.4.3 | Award Amount: 9.09M | Year: 2013

While preservation of digital content is now well established in memory institutions such as national libraries and archives, it is still in its infancy in most other organizations, and even more so for personal content. ForgetIT combines three new concepts to ease the adoption of preservation in the personal and organizational context, each overcoming major obstacles:\n\nFirst, Managed Forgetting models resource selection as a function of attention and significance dynamics. It is inspired by the important role of forgetting in human memory and focuses on characteristic signals of reduction in salience. For this purpose it relies on multi-faceted information assessment and offers customizable preservation options such as full preservation, removing of redundancy, resource condensation, and also complete digital forgetting.\n\nSecondly, Synergetic Preservation crosses the chasm that exists between active information use and preservation management by making intelligent preservation processes an integral part of the content lifecycle in information management and by developing solutions for smooth bi-directional transitions.\n\nThirdly, Contextualized Remembering targets keeping preserved content meaningful and useful. It will be based on a process of dynamic evolution-aware contextualization, which combines context extraction and packaging with evolution detection and intelligent re-contextualization.\n\nTo achieve these goals ForgetIT brings together an interdisciplinary team of experts in preservation, information management, information extraction, multimedia analysis, personal information management, storage computing, and cloud computing, as well as in cognitive psychology, law, and economics, who together will develop the innovative methods for realizing the ForgetIT approach.\n\nThe main expected outcomes are the flexible Preserve-or-Forget Framework for intelligent preservation management and, on top of it, two application pilots: one for personal preservation focussing on multimedia coverage of personal events and one for organizational preservation targeted at smooth preservation in organizational content management.\n\nThe ForgetIT project is expected to have different forms of socio-economic impact: a) The ForgetIT technology increases organizational productivity by enabling more concise forms of organizational memory, thus reducing the risk of work duplication and easing knowledge digestion; b) In addition, the project creates new economic opportunities for actors in technology development and consultation by opening up new application domains for preservation technology such as personal preservation as a service; c) The ForgetIT technology is an important building block for managing and preserving new bottom up forms of community memory and cultural history; and d) the managed forgetting approach provides the first step towards a promising alternative to the prevailing keep it all approach in our digital society.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: EINFRA-9-2015 | Award Amount: 7.64M | Year: 2015

OpenDreamKit will deliver a flexible toolkit enabling research groups to set up Virtual Research Environments, customised to meet the varied needs of research projects in pure mathematics and applications and supporting the full research life-cycle from exploration, through proof and publication, to archival and sharing of data and code. OpenDreamKit will be built out of a sustainable ecosystem of community-developed open software, databases, and services, including popular tools such as LinBox, MPIR, Sage(sagemath.org), GAP, PariGP, LMFDB, and Singular. We will extend the Jupyter Notebook environment to provide a flexible UI. By improving and unifying existing building blocks, OpenDreamKit will maximise both sustainability and impact, with beneficiaries extending to scientific computing, physics, chemistry, biology and more and including researchers, teachers, and industrial practitioners. We will define a novel component-based VRE architecture and the adapt existing mathematical software, databases, and UI components to work well within it on varied platforms. Interfaces to standard HPC and grid services will be built in. Our architecture will be informed by recent research into the sociology of mathematical collaboration, so as to properly support actual research practice. The ease of set up, adaptability and global impact will be demonstrated in a variety of demonstrator VREs. We will ourselves study the social challenges associated with large-scale open source code development and of publications based on executable documents, to ensure sustainability. OpenDreamKit will be conducted by a Europe-wide demand-steered collaboration, including leading mathematicians, computational researchers, and software developers long track record of delivering innovative open source software solutions for their respective communities. All produced code and tools will be open source.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: EINFRA-5-2015 | Award Amount: 4.94M | Year: 2016

This Centre of Excellence will advance the role of computationally based modelling and simulation within biomedicine. Three related user communities lie at the heart of the CoE: academic, industrial and clinical researchers who all wish to build, develop and extend such capabilities in line with the increasing power of high performance computers. Three distinct exemplar research areas will be pursued: cardiovascular, molecularly-based and neuro-musculoskeletal medicine. Predictive computational biomedicine involves applications that are comprised of multiple components, arranged as far as possible into automated workflows in which data is taken, from an individual patient, processed, and combined into a model which produces predicted health outcomes. Many of the models are multiscale, requiring the coupling of two or more high performance codes. Computational biomedicine holds out the prospect of predicting the effect of personalised medical treatments and interventions ahead of carrying them out, with all the ensuing benefits. Indeed, in some cases, it is already doing so today. The CoE presents a powerful consortium of partners and has an outward facing nature and will actively train, disseminate and engage with these user communities across Europe and beyond. Because this field is new and growing rapidly, it offers numerous innovative opportunities. There are three SMEs and three enterprises within the project, as well as eight associate partners drawn from across the biomedical sector, who are fully aware of the vast potential of HPC in this domain. We shall work with them to advance the exploitation of HPC and will engage closely with medical professionals through our partner hospitals in order to establish modeling and simulation as an integral part of clinical decision making. Our CoE is thus user-driven, integrated, multidisciplinary, and distributed; presenting a vision that is in line with the Work Programme.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: IA | Phase: FOF-02-2016 | Award Amount: 7.26M | Year: 2016

COROMA project proposes to develop a cognitively enhanced robot that can execute multiple tasks for the manufacturing of metal and composite parts. COROMA will therefore provide the flexibility that European metalworking and advanced material manufacturing companies require to compete in the rapidly evolving global market. The main output of COROMA project will be a modular robotic system that will perform multitude of different manufacturing tasks in an autonomous way to adapt to the production requirements. The robot will be capable of performing drilling, trimming, deburring, polishing, sanding, non-destructive inspection and adaptive fixturing operations. Using a simple interface the robot will receive basic commands that require a minimum programming effort from the human operator. The robot will autonomously navigate in the workshop and will automatically perceive the manufacturing scene and locate the part that must be manufactured and even handle some of the required tools. Learning from previous experiences during displacement, tool grasping, part localisation and the manufacturing process itself, the robot will improve its performance. It will be able to interact with other machines in the shop floor and to work on a part even while other manufacturing operations are being performed by these other machines. Safe human-robot and machine-robot collaborations will be paramount and the robot will automatically react to the presence of both humans and other machines. The modularity of the COROMA robot will permit to customize it to meet specific requirements from different manufacturing companies. These challenges require a project consortium where the latest robotic technologies meet knowledge from manufacturing experts, including both industry and academia. COROMA project consortium presents a perfect balance between manufacturing and robotics sectors players.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: ERC-ADG | Phase: ERC-ADG-2015 | Award Amount: 2.50M | Year: 2016

Speciation is a central process in evolution that involves the origin of barriers to gene flow between populations. Species are typically isolated by several barriers and assembly of multiple barriers separating the same populations seems to be critical to the evolution of strong reproductive isolation. Barriers resulting from direct selection can become coincident through a process of coupling while reinforcement can add barrier traits that are not under direct selection. In the presence of gene flow, these processes are opposed by recombination. While recent research using the latest sequencing technologies has provided much increased knowledge of patterns of differentiation and the genetic basis of local adaptation, it has so far added little to understanding of the coupling and reinforcement processes. In this project, I will focus on the accumulation of barriers to gene exchange and the processes underlying increasing reproductive isolation. I will use the power of natural contact zones, combined with novel manipulative experiments, to separate the processes that underlie patterns of differentiation and introgression. The Littorina saxatilis model system allows me to do this with both local replication and a contrast between distinct spatial contexts on a larger geographic scale. I will use modelling to determine how processes interact and to investigate the conditions most likely to promote coupling and reinforcement. Overall, the project will provide major new insights into the speciation process, particularly revealing the requirements for progress towards complete reproductive isolation.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: MSCA-ITN-EJD | Phase: MSCA-ITN-2016 | Award Amount: 1.57M | Year: 2017

CATMEC is a multi-partner European Joint Doctorate (EJD) Programme offering research training in state-of-the-art sustainable chemical synthesis, catalysis, computational chemistry and bioactive molecule design on both traditional and non-traditional (eg flow) platforms. This Doctoral Training Programme integrates complementary, interdisciplinary and intersectoral training and together with enhanced European mobility through planned secondments of researchers, will contribute to EU policy objectives in scientific training and degree assessment. The researchers will be supervised and mentored by internationally recognised experts and have access to state-of-the-art equipment. Hands-on training will be supplemented by formal training courses in relevant and related fields, and a wide variety of complementary training courses, workshops and seminars. The training of researchers will benefit from secondments to industrial partners, gaining exposure to commercial and complementary environments. Overall, it is anticipated that the CATMEC project will provide Early Stage Researchers (ESRs) with an outstanding training experience, through extensive technical and complementary skills development.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: MSCA-ITN-ETN | Phase: MSCA-ITN-2016 | Award Amount: 3.90M | Year: 2017

We propose to forge a partnership between the leading European groups working on the next generation of solid state quantum emitters based on novel growth methods such as Droplet Epitaxy. Future, practical Nano-photonics and Quantum Circuits applications demand semiconductor quantum dots that can be grown on substrates with different lattice parameters (Si, Ge, GaAs), different substrate orientations (such as (001) and (111)) and tuneable optical, electrical and spin properties. All these requirements are met by high quality quantum dots grown with Droplet based Epitaxy techniques, circumventing the limitations of currently available systems based on strain-driven dot self-assembly. This vast novel research area at the crossroads of photonics, material science, quantum physics and nano-scale device fabrication will allow delivering top level multidisciplinary training to 15 early stage researcher (ESRs). The successful training of the ESRs by leading academic and 3 full industrial partners will be crucial for achieving the headline goals of this first ever consortium on droplet dot devices: (1) Entangled light emitting diodes with droplet dots grown on (111) substrates (2) Electrically triggered, droplet dot based single photon sources on Si/Ge substrates (3) Strain tuning in droplet dots without wetting layer: photon polarization and single spin control (4) Droplet Dot based single photon sources for non- classical light storage devices based on hybrid quantum systems (dots & laser-cooled atoms). The training and research progress will be discussed and monitored during the 4 project meetings, 3 summer schools and the final international conference on Droplet Dot Devices, all of which are open to the whole scientific community. We expect this network, based on the solid collaboration between growth groups, microscopists, quantum optics experimentalists and theorists to explore the full potential of this emerging technology.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: NFRP-06-2014 | Award Amount: 5.95M | Year: 2015

The HORIZON 2020 EURATOM Collaborative Project Cement-based materials, properties, evolution, barrier functions (Cebama) is developed with the overall objective to support implementation of geological disposal of nuclear waste by improving the knowledge base for the Safety Case. Cement-based materials are highly relevant in this context, being used as waste forms, liners and structural components or sealing materials in different types of host rocks and disposal concepts. Specific objectives of Cebama are (i) experimental studies of interface processes between cement based materials and host rocks or bentonite, and assessing the specific impact on transport properties, (ii) quantifying radionuclide retention under high pH cement conditions, and (iii) developing comprehensive modeling approaches. Modeling will support interpretation of results and prediction of the long-term evolution of key transport characteristics such as porosity, permeability and diffusion parameters especially in the interface between cement based materials and the engineered and natural barriers. Further objectives cover dissemination of results to scientific and non-scientific stakeholders as well as training and education of young professionals for carrying over the expertise into future implementation programms. To a large extent, the experimental and modelling work will be part of PhD theses, aiming at high scientific-technical impact and quality with respect to peer-reviewed publications. The 4 years project is implemented by a consortium of 27 partners consisting of large Research Institutions, Universities, one TSO and one SME from 9 EURATOM Signatory States, Switzerland and Japan. National Waste Management Organizations support Cebama by co-developing the work plan, participation in the End-User Group, granting co-funding to some beneficiaries, and providing for knowledge and information transfer.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-IP | Phase: FoF.NMP.2011-1 | Award Amount: 7.09M | Year: 2011

REFORM focuses on more resource-efficiency and cleaner manufacturing technologies for composite components to be exploited in different industrial sectors (e.g. Transport, Energy, Construction, ..). Fibre reinforced polymer (FRP) composites are becoming very popular as their use reduces weight and allow innovative designs for energy-saving products during service-life. Nevertheless, service-life does not represent the total solution. A total life cycle view must be taken including manufacturing and end of life reuse, recyclability and/or disposal. The central idea of REFORM is to focus on the manufacturing processes of FRP components considering, with an holistic view, the whole manufacturing cycle. The environmental friendly process technologies for Forming, Machining (cutting & trimming), Assembly and Recycling are specifically considered, as well methods to integrate the proposed technologies into the eco-factory of the future. REFORM considers specific RTD and Demonstration activities capable to provide advances towards full green economically viable manufacturing.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: CSA | Phase: ICT-17-2014 | Award Amount: 1000.00K | Year: 2015

The European machine translation (MT) research community is experiencing increased pressure for rapid success from the legal and political frameworks and schedules of the EU, such as the Digital Single Market, but also from the globalising business world. At the same time, the research community has to cope with a striking disproportion between the scope of the challenges and the available resources, especially for translation to and from languages that have only fragmentary or no technological support at all. CRACKER pushes towards an improvement of MT research in terms of efficiency and effectiveness by implementing the successful example of other disciplines where massively collaborative research on shared resources guided by interoperability, standardisation, agreed major challenges and comprehensive success metrics has led to breakthroughs that would have been impossible otherwise. The nucleus of this new research, development, and innovation strategy towards high-quality MT is the group of projects funded through H2020-ICT-17a/b (partly extending to relevant FP7 actions such as QTLeap, LIDER and MLi), that will be supported by CRACKER (ICT-17c) in coordination, evaluation and resources. In order to achieve its challenging goals efficiently, CRACKER will build upon, consolidate and extend initiatives for collaborative MT research supported by earlier EU-funded actions. These include evaluation campaigns such as the Workshop on Statistical Machine Translation (WMT) and the International Workshop on Spoken Language Translation (IWSLT), the META-SHARE open infrastructure for sharing language resources and technologies with extensions for MT assembled by QTLaunchPad, and open-source tool building and training (MT Marathons). Coordination, communication and outreach to user communities will build upon existing networks and communication infrastructures such as the META-FORUM event series and strong involvement of industrial associations such as GALA and TAUS.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP | Phase: GC-SST.2010.7-5. | Award Amount: 2.94M | Year: 2011

The automotive industry has not yet decided which the optimum architecture solution for electric vehicles is; this and the fact that requirements and constraints deriving from an electrical powertrain are much less stringent in several areas make necessary to study new solutions specifically designed for the particularities of electric vehicles. Therefore E-LIGHT proposal aims at exploring all the aspects and requirements for optimal electric vehicle architectures. These particularities will be studied in E-Light project, focussing on: Modularity of components Ergonomic designs Innovative safety concepts Better aerodynamic performance and lesser weight which will decrease the overall power consumption and consequently will increase the range. The main objective of E-Light project is to develop an innovative multi-material modular architecture specifically designed for electric vehicles, achieving optimal light weight and crashworthy performances while ensuring ergonomic on board. In order to achieve this objective, the following scientific and technical objectives have been defined Identification of architectural requirements for future EV, focussing on lightweight for different battery and electric motor configurations (front or rear stand alone, wheel in hub). Identification of optimal multi-materials solution to become part of the EV architectures. The optimal geometries and designs for the EV architectures, taking into account previously studied architectural requirements and materials. Definition of design methodology and testing procedures in order to develop general design guidelines and testing procedures towards more sustainable, lightweight, modular concepts of the design process.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP | Phase: ICT-2009.4.1 | Award Amount: 8.01M | Year: 2011

ARCOMEM is about memory institutions like archives, museums, and libraries in the age of the\nSocial Web. Memory institutions are more important now than ever: as we face greater\neconomic and environmental challenges we need our understanding of the past to help us\nnavigate to a sustainable future. This is a core function of democracies, but this function faces\nstiff new challenges in face of the Social Web, and of the radical changes in information\ncreation, communication and citizen involvement that currently characterise our information\nsociety (e.g., there are now more social network hits than Google searches). Social media are\nbecoming more and more pervasive in all areas of life. In the UK, for example, it is now not\nunknown for a government minister to answer a parliamentary question using Twitter, and this\nmaterial is both ephemeral and highly contextualised, making it increasingly difficult for a\npolitical archivist to decide what to preserve.\nThis new world challenges the relevance and power of our memory institutions. To answer these\nchallenges, ARCOMEMs aim is to:\n help transform archives into collective memories that are more tightly integrated with\ntheir community of users\n exploit Social Web and the wisdom of crowds to make Web archiving a more selective\nand meaning-based process\nTo do this we will provide innovative tools for archivists to help exploit the new media and\nmake our organisational memories richer and more relevant. We will do this in three ways:\n first we will show how social media can help archivists select material for inclusion,\nproviding content appraisal via the social web\n second we will show how social media mining can enrich archives, moving towards\nstructured preservation around semantic categories\n third we will look at social, community and user-based archive creation methods\nAs results of this activity the outcomes of the ARCOMEM project will include:\n innovative models and tools for Social Web driven content appraisal and selection, and\nintelligent content acquisition\n novel methods for Social Web analysis, Web crawling and mining, event and topic\ndetection and consolidation, and multimedia content mining\n reusable components for archive enrichment and contextualization\n two complementary example applications, the first for media-related Web archives and\nthe second for political archives\n a standards-oriented ARCOMEM demonstration system\nThe impact of these outcomes will be to a) reduce the risk of losing irreplaceable ephemeral web\ninformation, b) facilitate cost-efficient and effective archive creation, and c) support the creation\nof more valuable archives. In this way we hope to strengthen our democracies understanding of\nthe past, in order to better direct our present towards viable and sustainable modes of living, and\nthus to make a contribution to the future of Europe and beyond.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: MG-1.10-2015 | Award Amount: 1.83M | Year: 2016

The proposed project Drag Reduction via Turbulent Boundary Layer Flow Control (DRAGY) will approach the problem of turbulent drag reduction through the investigation of active/passive flow-control techniques to manipulate the drag produced by the flow structures in turbulent boundary layers. In addition, the project aims to improve the understanding of the underlying physics behind the control techniques and its interaction with the boundary layer to maximize their efficiency. Turbulent Boundary Layer Control (TBLC) for skin-friction drag reduction is a relatively new technology made possible through the advances in computational-simulation capabilities, which have improved our understanding of the flow structures of turbulence. Advances in micro-electronic technology have enabled the fabrication of actuation systems capable of manipulating these structures. The combination of simulation, understanding and micro-actuation technologies offer new opportunities to significantly decrease drag, and by doing so, increase fuel efficiency of future aircraft. The literature review that follows will show that the application of active control turbulent skin-friction drag reduction is considered of prime importance by industry, even though it is still at a very low Technology Readiness Level (TRL =1). Given the scale of the Flightpath 2050 challenge, now is the appropriate time to investigate the potential of this technology and attempt to raise the TRL to 2 or possibly 3 in some particular branches of the subject. DRAGY proposes a European R&T collaborative effort specifically focused on active and passive control for turbulent skin-friction drag reduction. The project will result in mutual benefits for industry and scientific European as well as Chinese communities, in a topic of growing concern, namely drag-reduction technologies.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: MC-IRSES | Phase: FP7-PEOPLE-2012-IRSES | Award Amount: 611.10K | Year: 2012

In cellular networks, it is estimated that 2/3 of the calls and 90% of data services take place indoors. Smart meters are being and will be deployed across the world. Smart meters are connected with other meters and appliances wirelessly at homes. Smart buildings, e-health, assisted living applications also rely on quality in-building wireless communications. Thus pervasive wireless communications are very important. There still remain many challenges to achieve high quality pervasive indoor wireless communications, for example, it is not well understood how various indoor wireless networks will interfere each other, how traffic models look like in smart homes/buildings, which new frequency bands can be used to meet exponential traffic growth indoors and how to make use of various wireless technologies with consideration of energy consumption, and so on. The main objectives of the project are as follows: To characterise material properties (permittivity, permeability, transmission, reflection loss, etc) for new and existing building/insulation materials that are used in Europe and China for frequencies up to 65GHz To investigate indoor and indoor-outdoor wireless propagation channels To investigate how different indoor wireless networks will interfere each other and the interference to and from wireless networks in the neighbourhood To identify new frequency bands that can be used to meet the exponential traffic growth indoors To investigate traffic models for indoor networks, e.g., in smart homes/buildings To investigate how to reduce energy consumption of indoor wireless networks To explore the synergy of complementary competences at the project partners and establish and/or strengthen the long-term collaborations between them. The methodology of this project will adopt a combination of theoretical research that will be verified by experiment and simulation. The interactions between academia and industry will also be promoted. It is expected that the project will benefit more than 15 early stage researchers. The project partners will disseminate the project results in journals, conferences and workshops organised by the project partners.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP | Phase: HEALTH.2011.2.2.2-1 | Award Amount: 13.07M | Year: 2012

As the European population is ageing rapidly, the growing number of seniors with age-related chronic diseases poses a challenge on European societies and health care systems. Therapeutic interventions that are effective, affordable and well-tolerated in the prevention of chronic disease are urgently needed and will have an outstanding impact on public health as a whole. Among the most promising interventions that meet these requirements are vitamin D, marine omega-3 fatty acids and physical exercise. However, their individual and combined effects have yet to be confirmed in a clinical trial. The DO-HEALTH will close this knowledge gap in a large 3-year multi-centre clinical trial that will establish long-term efficacy and safety data for the 3 interventions in the prevention of age-related diseases in seniors. The DO-HEALTH trial will enrol 2152 community-dwelling men and women aged 70 and older, when chronic diseases increase substantially. The randomized-controlled trial will test the individual and the combined benefit of 2000 IU vitamin D/day, 1 g of omega-3 fatty acids/day and a simple home exercise program in an efficient factorial trial design. DO-HEALTH will establish evidence in 5 primary endpoints: the risk of incident non-vertebral fractures; the risk of functional decline; the risk of blood pressure increase; the risk of cognitive decline; and the rate of any infection. Key secondary endpoints include risk of hip fracture, rate of falls, pain in symptomatic knee osteoarthritis, glucose tolerance, gastro-intestinal symptoms, mental and oral health, quality of life, and mortality. Follow-up will be in-person, in 3-monthly intervals (4 clinical visits and 9 phone calls). DO-HEALTH will further assess the comparative effectiveness of the interventions by evaluating reasons why or why not seniors adhere to them, and will assess their cost-benefit in a health economic model based on documented health care utilization and observed incidence of chronic disease.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: FETOPEN-1-2014 | Award Amount: 3.74M | Year: 2016

Currently there is no truly sustainable pathway for the production of plastics, an industry which in the EU employs 1.45M people, has a turnover of 89B but consumes ~778GWh of energy per annum. This is an opportunity for industry with pressure increasing to develop low energy, high-quality, wet-processing techniques for consumer products. Here Nature may provide us with inspiration, as over hundreds of millions of years, it has evolved numerous strategies for efficient processing of its materials. One such solution has been recently hypothesised in natural silk spinning: FLIPT: FLow Induced Phase Transitions, a disruptive process which we believe could hold the key to a new low energy paradigm for polymer processing. Our research is promising, as it has already shown that silk is at least 1000 times more efficient at processing than a standard polymer (HDPE). To address these challenges our consortia will combine the expertise of world-leading groups in natural materials, polymer synthesis and material processing alongside practical input from 2 SME partners and larger European companies. Taking inspiration from the spider and silkworm, novel functionalised polymers (aquamelts) will be created that utilise FLIPT; enabling controlled solidification with minimal energy input. We firmly believe that there is huge potential in uncovering silks hidden functionality and applying it to enhance the processing of a range of polymeric materials. It is our goal to develop a platform technology to generate novel, bespoke, naturally derived, low embodied-energy materials, which would be competitive with current petroleum-based polymers in terms of performance and economics while well exceeding such materials in terms of sustainability.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: MSCA-ITN-ETN | Phase: MSCA-ITN-2014-ETN | Award Amount: 3.70M | Year: 2015

VPH-CaSE is focused on state-of-the-art developments in personalised cardiovascular support, underpinned by simulation and experimentation, building on the foundations of the Virtual Physiological Human (VPH) Initiative. The Individual Research Projects of 14 ESRs provide knowledge exchange across three research clusters (i) Cardiac tissue function and cardiac support (ii) Cardiovascular haemodynamics - pathology and intervention (iii) Image-based diagnosis and imaging quality assurance. The work will be directed by the needs of industrial and clinical Beneficiaries and Partners, providing a truly multi-disciplinary, multi-sectoral environment for the ESRs. This will combine the expertise of nine core Beneficiaries (5 academic, 4 industrial) and 10 Partners (5 clinical, 4 industrial, 1 academic) to provide scientific support, secondments and training. VPH-CaSE will foster the development of ESRs within a collaborative environment. The recruited researchers will find themselves in an enviable position to leverage the expertise of a strategic sector of the European medical devices/simulation industry and engage with the issues faced by clinical experts in the domain of cardiac medicine and cardiovascular support. Their postgraduate studies will be informed by a translational bias that delivers a competitive skill-set, equipping them to address the challenges presented by a career at the cutting edge of technological innovation in healthcare delivery. The inclusion of a technology translation SME within the consortium is designed to promote the delivery of novel, tangible research outputs, providing benefits to a breadth of European sectors (eg. biomedical, clinical, VPH). The ultimate vision is the production of VPH-capable scientists with experience of tight integration of academic/industrial/clinical areas, able to apply their skills to real life scenarios, accelerating the acceptance of innovative and effective healthcare in the clinic.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: MC-ITN | Phase: FP7-PEOPLE-2013-ITN | Award Amount: 4.13M | Year: 2013

In todays society, massive amounts of electronic sensors surround us that are tracking objects for the purpose of healthcare, surveillance, retail oriented commercial purposes and many others. Modern sensors generate very large amounts of data, however, due to current technical limitations, it is nearly impossible to integrate large scale data from many different and complex sensors to track very large groups of objects and people. Major advancements in various important areas in our society, such as traffic and crowd management, movement science in healthcare, smart surveillance, security and defense are hindered by this limitation, slowing down European industrial growth. The Training programme on Tracking in Complex Sensor Systems (TRAX) project aims to investigate and design innovative algorithms and techniques for dealing with raw data from complex and advanced tracking systems. This will be achieved through the establishment of a novel research training programme on Tracking in Complex Sensor Systems, covering interdisciplinary and intersectoral aspects in this newly emerging supra-disciplinary field. The TRAX consortium comprises two large companies (Thales Nederland B.V., Ericsson A.B.); two SMEs (Rinicom Limited, Xsens Technologies B.V.); a research institute ( Fraunhofer) and three universities (University of Lancaster, Linkping University and University of Twente); and is supported by two associated partners: SME SenionLab A.B. and University of Bonn. 12 early stage researches and 3 experienced researchers get the opportunity to work on the state-of-the-art complex tracking field. The uniqueness of TRAX is that while all research is being performed under one umbrella, it is being exploited by different branches of industry and implemented in various applications, resulting in significant benefits for EU industry and society and delivering highly wanted, currently scarcely available, young researchers in the multidisciplinary field of complex tracking.

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