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Sfax, Tunisia

The University of Sfax is a university located in Sfax, Tunisia. It was founded in 1986 and is organized in 8 Faculties.The University of Sfax is a university based in Sfax .It was founded in 1986 under the name University of the South and then covers all academic institutions in the South. It is divided into three universities, including the current University of Sfax, with the creation of the University of Gabes in 2003 and the University of Gafsa in 2004. Wikipedia.

Simons F.E.R.,University of Sfax
Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology | Year: 2010

Anaphylaxis occurs commonly in community settings. The rate of occurrence is increasing, especially in young people. Understanding potential triggers, mechanisms, and patient-specific risk factors for severity and fatality is the key to performing appropriate risk assessment in those who have previously experienced an acute anaphylactic episode. The diagnosis of anaphylaxis is based primarily on clinical criteria and is valid even if the results of laboratory tests, such as serum total tryptase levels, are within normal limits. Positive skin test results or increased serum specific IgE levels to potential triggering allergens confirm sensitization but do not confirm the diagnosis of anaphylaxis because asymptomatic sensitization is common in the general population. Important patient-related risk factors for severity and fatality include age, concomitant diseases, and concurrent medications, as well as other less well-defined factors, such as defects in mediator degradation pathways, fever, acute infection, menses, emotional stress, and disruption of routine. Prevention of anaphylaxis depends primarily on optimal management of patient-related risk factors, strict avoidance of confirmed relevant allergen or other triggers, and, where indicated, immunomodulation (eg, subcutaneous venom immunotherapy to prevent Hymenoptera sting-triggered anaphylaxis, an underused, potentially curative treatment). The benefits and risks of immunomodulation to prevent food-triggered anaphylaxis are still being defined. Epinephrine (adrenaline) is the medication of first choice in the treatment of anaphylaxis. All patients at risk for recurrence in the community should be equipped with 1 or more epinephrine autoinjectors; a written, personalized anaphylaxis emergency action plan; and up-to-date medical identification. Improvements in the design of epinephrine autoinjectors will help to optimize ease of use and safety. Randomized controlled trials of pharmacologic agents, such as antihistamines and glucocorticoids, are needed to strengthen the evidence base for treatment of acute anaphylactic episodes. © 2010 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology.

Sonnewald U.,Norwegian University of Science and Technology | Sonnewald U.,University of Sfax
Journal of Neurochemistry | Year: 2014

The central process in energy production is the oxidation of acetyl-CoA to CO2 by the tricarboxylic acid (TCA, Krebs, citric acid) cycle. However, this cycle functions also as a biosynthetic pathway from which intermediates leave to be converted primarily to glutamate, GABA, glutamine and aspartate and to a smaller extent to glucose derivatives and fatty acids in the brain. When TCA cycle ketoacids are removed, they must be replaced to permit the continued function of this essential pathway, by a process termed anaplerosis. Since the TCA cycle cannot act as a carbon sink, anaplerosis must be coupled with cataplerosis; the exit of intermediates from the TCA cycle. The role of anaplerotic reactions for cellular metabolism in the brain has been studied extensively. However, the coupling of this process with cataplerosis and the roles that both pathways play in the regulation of amino acid, glucose, and fatty acid homeostasis have not been emphasized. The concept of a linkage between anaplerosis and cataplerosis should be underscored, because the balance between these two processes is essential. The hypothesis that cataplerosis in the brain is achieved by exporting the lactate generated from the TCA cycle intermediates into the blood and perivascular area is presented. This shifts the generally accepted paradigm of lactate generation as simply derived from glycolysis to that of oxidation and might present an alternative explanation for aerobic glycolysis. © 2014 International Society for Neurochemistry.

Hawkins C.L.,University of Sfax | Davies M.J.,Heart Research Institute
Biochimica et Biophysica Acta - General Subjects | Year: 2014

Background: Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy (also known as electron spin resonance, ESR, spectroscopy) is widely considered to be the "gold standard" for the detection and characterisation of radicals in biological systems. Scope of review: The article reviews the major positive and negative aspects of EPR spectroscopy and discusses how this technique and associated methodologies can be used to maximise useful information, and minimise artefacts, when used in biological studies. Consideration is given to the direct detection of radicals (at both ambient and low temperature), the use of spin trapping and spin scavenging (e.g. reaction with hydroxylamines), the detection of nitric oxide and the detection and quantification of some transition metal ions (particularly iron and copper) and their environment. Major conclusions: When used with care this technique can provide a wealth of valuable information on the presence of radicals and some transition metal ions in biological systems. It can provide definitive information on the identity of the species present and also information on their concentration, structure, mobility and interactions. It is however a technique that has major limitations and the user needs to understand the various pitfalls and shortcoming of the method to avoid making errors. General significance: EPR remains the most definitive method of identifying radicals in complex systems and is also a valuable method of examining radical kinetics, concentrations and structure. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Current methods to study reactive oxygen species - pros and cons and biophysics of membrane proteins. Guest Editor: Christine Winterbourn. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Zhani K.,University of Sfax
Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews | Year: 2013

The present paper deals with a theoretical and experimental study of a new generation of water desalination unit by solar energy using the humidification and dehumidification (HD) principle is constructed at the national engineering school of Sfax (34N, 10E), Tunisia. The good quality of distilled water obtained by this new concept favours its use for producing water for drinking and irrigation. A mathematical model based on heat and mass transfers in each component of the unit is developed. The resulting ordinary differential systems of equations are transformed into a system of algebraic equations using the orthogonal collocation method (OCM) and simulated using C++ software in a steady state regime. The numerical model is used to investigate the thermal performance of this kind of installation exposed to a variation of the control parameters. The thermal performance was evaluated by the gained output ratio (GOR) and the efficiency of the water solar collector. A series of experiments was conducted and compared with the simulation results to validate the developed models. As a result, the proposed models can be used for sizing and testing the behaviour of such a type of desalination unit. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

Bougatef A.,University of Sfax
Journal of Cleaner Production | Year: 2013

Today, there is an increasing demand for fish proteolytic enzymes in food industries. During processing, large quantities of waste are generated and discarded. These wastes, which represent an environmental problem to the fishing industry, constitute an important source of proteolytic enzymes and protein. The most important digestive enzymes from fish and aquatic invertebrate viscera are trypsins. These enzymes have a high activity over a wide range of pH and temperature conditions and exhibit high catalytic activity at relatively low concentration. These characteristics have made them suitable for different applications in many food processing operations. Considering the specific characteristics of these enzymes, fish processing by-products are currently used for trypsins extraction. This review describes the characteristics and various applications of fish trypsins in detergents, carotenoproteins extraction from shrimp waste, and protein hydrolysates production. Considering their biological significance and their increasing importance in biotechnology, a thorough understanding of fish trypsins functioning is needed.

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