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The University of Seville is a university in Seville, Spain. Founded under the name of Colegio Santa María de Jesús in 1505, it has a present student body of over 65,000, and is one of the top-ranked universities in the country. Seville is the 2000-year-old artistic, cultural, and financial capital of Andalusia in southern Spain; it is situated on the plain of the River Guadalquivir. Wikipedia.

Gonzalez-Prida V.,General Dynamics Corporation | Crespo Marquez A.,University of Seville
Computers in Industry | Year: 2012

The objective of this paper is to suggest a management framework for a better organization of warranty assistance, using engineering techniques already developed for similar processes and according to a process-based quality management system. Therefore, a generic framework is presented that integrates management methodologies which will be gathered in four sequential steps, where each different technique will play a crucial role. Following this scheme, a supporting framework for the management of a warranty program is defined. This offers a practical vision of the set of activities that each warranty management process consists of and focuses on the relationship between manufacturer and user. By reengineering managerial processes and/or by the application of a correct warranty management system it is possible to have a greater influence on product design and manufacturing, increasing product quality by sharing and boosting the information flow about product defects, their sources and possible solutions. The result of the study is, in short, a classification of different engineering tools, focused mainly on warranty and product management. In addition to this it also demonstrates how aspects of maintenance and manufacturing can be enhanced before finally discussing briefly the proper use of each tool according to the available data or information. All this is illustrated through a comprehensive representation that will help the reader to understand in a practical way, the different information inputs/outputs among the proposed steps. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

Valverde J.M.,University of Seville
European Physical Journal E | Year: 2015

Abstract: Convection and fluidization phenomena in vibrated granular beds have attracted a strong interest from the physics community since the last decade of the past century. As early reported by Faraday, the convective flow of large inertia particles in vibrated beds exhibits enigmatic features such as frictional weakening and the unexpected influence of the interstitial gas. At sufficiently intense vibration intensities surface patterns appear bearing a stunning resemblance with the surface ripples (Faraday waves) observed for low-viscosity liquids, which suggests that the granular bed transits into a liquid-like fluidization regime despite the large inertia of the particles. In his 1831 seminal paper, Faraday described also the development of circulation air currents in the vicinity of vibrating plates. This phenomenon (acoustic streaming) is well known in acoustics and hydrodynamics and occurs whenever energy is dissipated by viscous losses at any oscillating boundary. The main argument of the present paper is that acoustic streaming might develop on the surface of the large inertia particles in the vibrated granular bed. As a consequence, the drag force on the particles subjected to an oscillatory viscous flow is notably enhanced. Thus, acoustic streaming could play an important role in enhancing convection and fluidization of vibrated granular beds, which has been overlooked in previous studies. The same mechanism might be relevant to geological events such as fluidization of landslides and soil liquefaction by earthquakes and sound waves. Graphical abstract: [Figure not available: see fulltext.] © 2015, EDP Sciences, SIF, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

Kazmierkowski M.P.,Polish Academy of Sciences | Franquelo L.G.,University of Seville | Rodriguez J.,Federico Santa Maria Technical University | Perez M.A.,Federico Santa Maria Technical University | Leon J.I.,University of Sevilles
IEEE Industrial Electronics Magazine | Year: 2011

This article reviews the present state and trends in the development of key parts of controlled induction motor drive systems: converter topologies, modulation methods, as well as control and estimation techniques. Two- and multilevel voltage-source converters, current-source converters, and direct converters are described. The main part of all the produced electric energy is used to feed electric motors, and the conversion of electrical power into mechanical power involves motors ranges from less than 1 W up to several dozen megawatts. © 2011 IEEE.

Molina-Venegas R.,University of Seville | Roquet C.,CNRS Alpine Ecology Laboratory
Ecography | Year: 2014

Recent years have seen an increasing effort to incorporate phylogenetic hypotheses to the study of community assembly processes. The incorporation of such evolutionary information has been eased by the emergence of specialized software for the automatic estimation of partially resolved supertrees based on published phylogenies. Despite this growing interest in the use of phylogenies in ecological research, very few studies have attempted to quantify the potential biases related to the use of partially resolved phylogenies and to branch length accuracy, and no work has examined how tree shape may affect inference of community phylogenetic metrics. In this study, we tested the influence of phylogenetic resolution and branch length information on the quantification of phylogenetic structure, and also explored the impact of tree shape (stemminess) on the loss of accuracy in phylogenetic structure quantification due to phylogenetic resolution. For this purpose, we used 9 sets of phylogenetic hypotheses of varying resolution and branch lengths to calculate three indices of phylogenetic structure: the mean phylogenetic distance (NRI), the mean nearest taxon distance (NTI) and phylogenetic diversity (stdPD) metrics. The NRI metric was the less sensitive to phylogenetic resolution, stdPD showed an intermediate sensitivity, and NTI was the most sensitive one; NRI was also less sensitive to branch length accuracy than NTI and stdPD, the degree of sensitivity being strongly dependent on the dating method and the sample size. Directional biases were generally towards type II errors. Interestingly, we detected that tree shape influenced the accuracy loss derived from the lack of phylogenetic resolution, particularly for NRI and stdPD. We conclude that well-resolved molecular phylogenies with accurate branch length information are needed to identify the underlying phylogenetic structure of communities, and also that sensitivity of phylogenetic structure measures to low phylogenetic resolution can strongly vary depending on phylogenetic tree shape. © 2013 The Authors.

Liu B.,Catholic University of Leuven | Fernandez F.V.,University of Seville | Gielen G.G.E.,Catholic University of Leuven
IEEE Transactions on Computer-Aided Design of Integrated Circuits and Systems | Year: 2011

In nanometer complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor technologies, worst-case design methods and response-surface-based yield optimization methods face challenges in accuracy. Monte-Carlo (MC) simulation is general and accurate for yield estimation, but its efficiency is not high enough to make MC-based analog yield optimization, which requires many yield estimations, practical. In this paper, techniques inspired by computational intelligence are used to speed up yield optimization without sacrificing accuracy. A new sampling-based yield optimization approach, which determines the device sizes to optimize yield, is presented, called the ordinal optimization (OO)-based random-scale differential evolution (ORDE) algorithm. By proposing a two-stage estimation flow and introducing the OO technique in the first stage, sufficient samples are allocated to promising solutions, and repeated MC simulations of non-critical solutions are avoided. By the proposed evolutionary algorithm that uses differential evolution for global search and a random-scale mutation operator for fine tunings, the convergence speed of the yield optimization can be enhanced significantly. With the same accuracy, the resulting ORDE algorithm can achieve approximately a tenfold improvement in computational effort compared to an improved MC-based yield optimization algorithm integrating the infeasible sampling and Latin-hypercube sampling techniques. Furthermore, ORDE is extended from plain yield optimization to process-variation-aware single-objective circuit sizing. © 2011 IEEE.

Van Ditmarsch H.,University of Seville
Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics) | Year: 2012

We review several logics with propositional quantification. © 2012 Springer-Verlag.

Valverde J.M.,University of Seville
Contemporary Physics | Year: 2015

Chemical and metallurgical processes enhanced by high intensity acoustic waves, thermoacoustic engines and refrigerators, fuel rods in nuclear reactors, heat exchanger tubes, offshore and vibrating structures, solar thermal collectors, acoustic levitators, microfluidic devices, cycling, musical acoustics, blood flow through veins/arteries, hearing in the mammalian ear, carbon nanotube loudspeakers, etc. The evolution of a myriad of processes involving the oscillation of viscous fluids in the presence of solid boundaries is up to a certain extent influenced by acoustic streaming. In addition to the sound field, viscous energy dissipation at the fluid–solid boundary causes a time-independent fluid circulation, which can lead to a significant enhancement of heat, mass and momentum transfer at large oscillation amplitudes. A particularly relevant phenomenon that can be notably affected by acoustic streaming is the promotion of sound waves by temperature gradients or viceversa (thermoacoustics), which is at the basis of potentially efficient and environmental friendly engines and refrigerators that have attracted a renewed interest in the last years. In the present manuscript, historical developments and the underlying basic physics behind acoustic streaming and thermoacoustics are reviewed from an unifying perspective. © 2015 Taylor & Francis.

Cancers of unknown primary site are metastatic cancers for which primary tumors are not found after detailed investigations. In many cases, the site of origin is not identified even on postmortem examination. These cancers are the fourth most common cause of cancer death. The biological events involved in the development of this type of cancers remain unknown. This manuscript discusses that, like metastatic cells, stem cells have a natural ability to migrate. A cancer of unknown primary site would form when deregulated, premalignant or cancerous stem cells migrated away from their natural tissue and gave rise to a cancer in a new site before or without generating a tumor in their original tissue. It is important to realize that forming a tumor in a tissue is not a prerequisite for stem cells to migrate away from that tissue. This view is in accordance with recent observations that strongly support the tumorigenesis model in which cancer arises from normal stem cells. Evidence has accumulated that cancer stem cells may play a key role in cancer progression and resistance to therapy. Successful treatment of cancer, including that of unknown primary site, may therefore require the development of therapies against cancer stem cells.

Lozano S.,University of Seville
Fuzzy Sets and Systems | Year: 2014

In this paper, a new approach to compute estimations of the process efficiencies in two-stage systems with fuzzy data is presented. The first step is to compute the upper and lower limits of the α-cuts of the system efficiency using the corresponding models in Kao and Liu (2011) [14]. The second step consists in computing the upper and lower limits of the α-cuts of the efficiency of each of the processes. The upper limit of the α-cuts of the efficiency of each process is computed subject to the upper limit of the system efficiency while the lower limit of the process efficiency is computed subject to the lower limit of the system efficiency. The proposed approach takes into account the inherent uncertainty regarding the process efficiencies even in the crisp data case. The approach is illustrated with a dataset from the literature. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

Chalco-Cano Y.,University of Tarapaca | Roman-Flores H.,University of Tarapaca | Jimenez-Gamero M.D.,University of Seville
Information Sciences | Year: 2011

In this paper we study the generalized derivative and the π-derivative for interval-valued functions. We show the connections between these derivatives. Some illustrative examples and applications to interval differential equations and fuzzy functions are presented. © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Paun G.,Romanian Academy of Sciences | Paun G.,University of Seville
Journal of Logic and Algebraic Programming | Year: 2010

Membrane computing is a branch of natural computing inspired from the architecture and the functioning of biological cells. The obtained computing models are distributed parallel devices, called P systems, processing multisets of objects in the compartments defined by hierarchical or more general arrangements of membranes. Many classes of P systems were investigated - mainly from the point of view of computing power and computing efficiency; also, a series of applications (especially in modeling biological processes) were reported. This note is a short and informal introduction to this research area, introducing a few basic notions, research topics, types of results, and pointing out to some relevant references. © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

D'Hulst C.,Lille University of Science and Technology | Merida A.,University of Seville
New Phytologist | Year: 2010

Starch is the main polymer in which carbon and energy are stored in land plants, algae and some cyanobacteria. It plays a crucial role in the physiology of these organisms and also represents an important polymer for humans, in terms of both diet and nonfood industry uses. Recent efforts have elucidated most of the steps involved in the synthesis of starch. However, the process that initiates the synthesis of the starch granule remains unclear. Here, we outline the similarities between the synthesis of starch and the synthesis of glycogen, the other widespread and abundant glucose-based polymer in living cells. We place special emphasis on the mechanisms of initiation of the glycogen granule and current knowledge concerning the initiation of the starch granule. We also discuss recent discoveries regarding the function of starch synthases in the priming of the starch granule and possible interactions with other elements of the starch synthesis machinery. © The Authors (2010). Journal compilation © New Phytologist Trust (2010).

Tallon-Ballesteros A.J.,University of Seville | Hervas-Martinez C.,University of Cordoba, Spain
Expert Systems with Applications | Year: 2011

This paper presents a procedure to add broader diversity at the beginning of the evolutionary process. It consists of creating two initial populations with different parameter settings, evolving them for a small number of generations, selecting the best individuals from each population in the same proportion and combining them to constitute a new initial population. At this point the main loop of an evolutionary algorithm is applied to the new population. The results show that our proposal considerably improves both the efficiency of previous methodologies and also, significantly, their efficacy in most of the data sets. We have carried out our experimentation on twelve data sets from the UCI repository and two complex real-world problems which differ in their number of instances, features and classes. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Malrieu J.P.,CNRS Laboratory for Quantum Chemistry and Physics | Caballol R.,Rovira i Virgili University | Calzado C.J.,University of Seville | De Graaf C.,Rovira i Virgili University | And 2 more authors.
Chemical Reviews | Year: 2014

The use of accurate model Hamiltonians is crucial to extract information on the magnetic interactions from the raw data obtained from magnetic susceptibility measurements, EPR, or NMR spectroscopy. Combining information from different experimental techniques can be used to propose topologies and magnitudes of the magnetic couplings in the system. It provides a rigorous and rational way to study the magnetic interactions in molecular complexes and extended systems without the need of fitting a set of parameters of an a priori defined model Hamiltonian. Theoretical treatments, able to discriminate between different physical effects, permit one to understand the various mechanisms involved in the magnetic couplings and to establish magneto-structural correlations. It has enabled theoreticians to discriminate between through space and through ligand interactions and to establish the balance between direct exchange, kinetic exchange, and spin polarization contributions to the magnetic coupling.

Gekle S.,University of Twente | Peters I.R.,University of Twente | Gordillo J.M.,University of Seville | Van Der Meer D.,University of Twente | Lohse D.,University of Twente
Physical Review Letters | Year: 2010

A solid object impacting on liquid creates a liquid jet due to the collapse of the impact cavity. Using visualization experiments with smoke particles and multiscale simulations, we show that in addition, a high-speed air jet is pushed out of the cavity. Despite an impact velocity of only 1m/s, this air jet attains supersonic speeds already when the cavity is slightly larger than 1 mm in diameter. The structure of the air flow closely resembles that of compressible flow through a nozzle-with the key difference that here the "nozzle" is a liquid cavity shrinking rapidly in time. © 2010 The American Physical Society.

Guevorkian K.,University Pierre and Marie Curie | Colbert M.-J.,McMaster University | Durth M.,Ecole Polytechnique - Palaiseau | Durth M.,University of Seville | And 2 more authors.
Physical Review Letters | Year: 2010

Spherical cellular aggregates are in vitro systems to study the physical and biophysical properties of tissues. We present a novel approach to characterize the mechanical properties of cellular aggregates using a micropipette aspiration technique. We observe an aspiration in two distinct regimes: a fast elastic deformation followed by a viscous flow. We develop a model based on this viscoelastic behavior to deduce the surface tension, viscosity, and elastic modulus. A major result is the increase of the surface tension with the applied force, interpreted as an effect of cellular mechanosensing. © 2010 The American Physical Society.

Lozano S.,University of Seville
Expert Systems with Applications | Year: 2011

In this paper a simple way of computing technical, scale, cost and allocative efficiency scores for homogeneous networks of processes is presented. The system Production Possibility Set (PPS) is formed through the composition of the PPS of the individual processes, which, in turn, are modelled in the conventional, axiomatic way using observed data. Firstly, the overall system scale and technical efficiency are computed using the relational network DEA approach. Local Returns To Scale (RTS) can also be estimated with these models. Secondly, assuming the prices of exogenous inputs are known, a minimum cost network DEA model is solved, from which cost and allocative efficiencies are derived. The proposed approach is illustrated with a two-stage problem from the literature, showing the usefulness of a more detailed problem assessment both in terms of technical and scale efficiency and RTS and in terms of cost and allocative efficiency. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Calzado C.J.,University of Seville | Evangelisti S.,CNRS Laboratory for Quantum Chemistry and Physics
Dalton Transactions | Year: 2014

This paper reports a theoretical analysis of the electronic structure and magnetic properties of a ferromagnetic Cu(ii) [2 × 2] grid. The calculations confirm a quintet (S = 2) ground state and an energy-level distribution of the magnetic states in accordance with Heisenberg behaviour. The whole set of first- and second-neighbour magnetic coupling constants has been evaluated, all in agreement with the structure and arrangement of the Cu 3dx2 - y2 magnetic orbitals. The results indicate that the dominant interaction in the system is the ferromagnetic coupling between the nearest Cu sites. The calculated J values suggest a C2v spin-spin interaction pattern, instead of the D4h model employed in the magnetic data fit. However, both spin models provide similar plots of the thermal dependence of the susceptibility and magnetic moment data. This study highlights the fact that the spin models resulting from the fittings can be just effective models, capable of correctly reproducing the macroscopic properties, although not always in accordance with the microscopic interactions governing these properties. © 2014 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

Mendez F.J.C.,University of Seville
Journal of Music, Technology and Education | Year: 2015

This study analyses the influence that new tools and resources in popular sequencing software have over the composition process. An analysis of the different resources of a software sequencer (Cubase 7) has been combined with a field study among 220 musicians from different countries that use this sequencer. A specially designed questionnaire has been used to collect information about the frequency use of different tools, the stage of use of them and the way the use of the sequencer influences their personal and professional development. The study has evidenced that certain tools have been fully incorporated into the composition process, while others are practically not used, or its use relies on different factors. The use of the sequencer has also clear positive effects on musicians and their creative process. Finally, the field research has helped to define and characterize different kinds of workflows in the composition process. © 2015 Intellect Ltd Article.

Here is reported the draft genome sequence of Methanobacterium formicicum DSM 3637, which was isolated from the methaneproducing amoeba Pelomyxa palustris. This bacterium was determined to be an endosymbiont living in the cytoplasm of P. palustris and the source of methane; however, the global characteristics of its genome suggest a free-living lifestyle rather than an endosymbiotic one. © 2012, American Society for Microbiology.

Gonzalez A.,University of Zaragoza | Bes M.T.,University of Zaragoza | Valladares A.,University of Seville | Peleato M.L.,University of Zaragoza | Fillat M.F.,University of Zaragoza
Environmental Microbiology | Year: 2012

Knowledge on the regulatory mechanisms controlling iron homeostasis in cyanobacteria is limited. In Anabaena sp. PCC 7120, the ferric uptake regulator FurA is a constitutive and essential protein whose expression is induced under iron deprivation. Our previous analyses have shown that this protein acts as a global transcriptional regulator, controlling the expression of several genes belonging to different functional categories, including schT, a gene coding for a TonB-dependent schizokinen transporter. In the present study we analysed the impact of FurA overexpression and iron availability on the transcriptional modulation of a broad range of Anabaena iron uptake, transport, storage and cellular iron utilization mechanisms, including enzymes involved in siderophore biosynthesis, TonB-dependent siderophore outer membrane transporters, siderophore periplasmic binding proteins, ABC inner membrane permeases, ferritin Dps family proteins, and enzymes involved in tetrapyrrole biosynthesis. By combining reverse transcription-PCR analyses, electrophoretic mobility shift assays and DNase I footprinting experiments, we defined a variety of novel direct iron-dependent transcriptional targets of this metalloregulator, including genes encoding at least five enzymes involved in the tetrapyrrole biosynthesis pathway. The results unravel the role of FurA as the master regulator of iron homeostasis in Anabaena sp. PCC 7120, providing new insights into the Fur regulons in cyanobacteria. © 2012 Society for Applied Microbiology and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

Perales F.,University of Queensland | Del Pozo-Cruz J.,University of Seville | Del Pozo-Cruz B.,University of Auckland
American Journal of Public Health | Year: 2014

Methods. We used 3 waves of panel data from the Household, Income and Labour Dynamics in Australia Survey, consisting of 34 000 observations from 17 000 individuals and covering 2007, 2009, and 2011. We used fixed-effects panel regression models accounting for observable and unobservable confounders to examine the relationships between the weekly frequency of MVPA and summary measures of psychological distress based on the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale.Results. We found substantial and highly statistically significant associations between the frequency of MVPA and different indicators of psychological distress. Frequent participation in MVPA reduces psychological distress and decreases the likelihood of falling into a high-risk category.Conclusions. Our findings underscore the importance of placing physical activity at the core of health promotion initiatives aimed at preventing and remedying psychological discomfort.Objectives. We analyzed the individual-level associations between participation in moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and psychological distress levels using a large, nationally representative, longitudinal sample and multivariable panel regression models. © 2013 American Public Health Association.

Groth P.,University of Stockholm | Groth P.,A-Life Medical | Orta M.L.,University of Seville | Elvers I.,University of Stockholm | And 3 more authors.
Nucleic Acids Research | Year: 2012

Ionizing radiation (IR) produces direct two-ended DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) primarily repaired by non-homologous end joining (NHEJ). It is, however, well established that homologous recombination (HR) is induced and required for repair of a subset of DSBs formed following IR. Here, we find that HR induced by IR is drastically reduced when post-DNA damage replication is inhibited in mammalian cells. Both IR-induced RAD51 foci and HR events in the hprt gene are reduced in the presence of replication polymerase inhibitor aphidicolin (APH). Interestingly, we also detect reduced IR-induced toxicity in HR deficient cells when inhibiting post-DNA damage replication. When studying DSB formation following IR exposure, we find that apart from the direct DSBs the treatment also triggers formation of secondary DSBs peaking at 7-9h after exposure. These secondary DSBs are restricted to newly replicated DNA and abolished by inhibiting post-DNA damage replication. Further, we find that IR-induced RAD51 foci are decreased by APH only in cells replicating at the time of IR exposure, suggesting distinct differences between IR-induced HR in S- and G2-phases of the cell cycle. Altogether, our data indicate that secondary replication-associated DSBs formed following exposure to IR are major substrates for IR-induced HR repair. © The Author(s) 2012.

Schaffler I.,University of Bayreuth | Balao F.,University of Seville | Dotterl S.,University of Bayreuth
Annals of Botany | Year: 2012

Background and AimsUnrelated plants pollinated by the same group or guild of animals typically evolve similar floral cues due to pollinator-mediated selection. Related plant species, however, may possess similar cues either as a result of pollinator-mediated selection or as a result of sharing a common ancestor that possessed the same cues or traits. In this study, visual and olfactory floral cues in Lysimachia species exhibiting different pollination strategies were analysed and compared, and the importance of pollinators and phylogeny on the evolution of these floral cues was determined. For comparison, cues of vegetative material were examined where pollinator selection would not be expected.MethodsFloral and vegetative scents and colours in floral oil- and non-floral oil-secreting Lysimachia species were studied by chemical and spectrophotometric analyses, respectively, compared between oil- and non-oil-secreting species, and analysed by phylogenetically controlled methods.Key ResultsVegetative and floral scent was species specific, and variability in floral but not vegetative scent was lower in oil compared with non-oil species. Overall, oil species did not differ in their floral or vegetative scent from non-oil species. However, a correlation was found between oil secretion and six floral scent constituents specific to oil species, whereas the presence of four other floral compounds can be explained by phylogeny. Four of the five analysed oil species had bee-green flowers and the pattern of occurrence of this colour correlated with oil secretion. Non-oil species had different floral colours. The colour of leaves was similar among all species studied.ConclusionsEvidence was found for correlated evolution between secretion of floral oils and floral but not vegetative visual and olfactory cues. The cues correlating with oil secretion were probably selected by Macropis bees, the specialized pollinators of oil-secreting Lysimachia species, and may have evolved in order to attract these bees. © The Author 2012. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company. All rights reserved.

Liu J.,University of California at Los Angeles | Chen X.,University of California at Los Angeles | De La Pena D.M.,University of Seville | Christofides P.D.,University of California at Los Angeles
IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control | Year: 2012

In this work, we focus on iterative distributed model predictive control (DMPC) of large-scale nonlinear systems subject to asynchronous, delayed state feedback. The motivation for studying this control problem is the presence of asynchronous, delayed measurement samplings in chemical processes and the potential use of networked sensors and actuators in industrial process control applications to improve closed-loop performance. Under the assumption that there exist upper bounds on the time interval between two successive state measurements and on the maximum measurement delay, we design an iterative DMPC scheme for nonlinear systems via Lyapunov-based control techniques. Sufficient conditions under which the proposed distributed MPC design guarantees that the state of the closed-loop system is ultimately bounded in a region that contains the origin are provided. The theoretical results are illustrated through a catalytic alkylation of benzene process example. © 2011 IEEE.

Bengoechea C.,University of Seville | Peinado I.,Polytechnic University of Valencia | McClements D.J.,University of Massachusetts Amherst
Food Hydrocolloids | Year: 2011

Lactoferrin is a globular protein from milk that has considerable potential as a functional ingredient in food, cosmetic and pharmaceutical applications. In this study, we examined the possibility of preparing food-grade bovine lactoferrin (bLf) nanoparticles using a simple thermal processing method. Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC), light scattering, and ζ-potential techniques were used to provide information about the conformational changes, aggregation, and electrical charge of bLf in aqueous solutions. DSC studies indicated that the protein had two thermal denaturation temperatures (61 and 93 °C), which were associated with two different lobes of the protein. Protein denaturation was found to be irreversible, which was attributed to the formation of protein nanoparticles, whose size depended on the temperature and duration of the thermal treatment. Higher holding temperatures produced faster protein aggregation and larger protein nanoparticles: 85 > 80 > 75 > 70 °C. The protein nanoparticles produced by thermal treatment were resistant to subsequent changes in pH (from 3 to 11) and to salt addition (0-200 mM NaCl). The lactoferrin nanoparticles produced in this study may be useful as function ingredients in commercial products. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

Martin-Molina V.,University of Seville
International Journal of Geometric Methods in Modern Physics | Year: 2015

We study a remarkable class of paracontact metric manifolds which have no contact metric counterpart: the paracontact metric (-1,μ)-spaces which are not paraSasakian (i.e. haveh = 0). We present explicit examples with h of every possible constant rank and some with non-constant rank, which were not known to exist until recently. © 2015 World Scientific Publishing Company.

De La Rosa J.M.,University of Seville
IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems I: Regular Papers | Year: 2011

This paper presents a tutorial overview of ΣΔ modulators, their operating principles and architectures, circuit errors and models, design methods, and practical issues. A review of the state of the art on nanometer CMOS implementations is described, giving a survey of cutting-edge ΣΔ architectures, with emphasis on their application to the next generation of wireless telecom systems. © 2010 IEEE.

Muro-Pastor A.M.,University of Seville | Hess W.R.,Albert Ludwigs University of Freiburg
Trends in Microbiology | Year: 2012

There are several instances of cellular differentiation in prokaryotes, including the formation of spores in Bacillus, the fruiting bodies of Myxococcus, and the stalked cells of Caulobacter. The vegetative cells of particular filamentous cyanobacteria can differentiate into three different cell types: N2-fixing heterocysts, spore-like akinetes, and motile hormogonia. Heterocysts are crucial for the ability of these photosynthetic bacteria to fix N2 because they keep the oxygen-labile nitrogenase away from the photosynthetically produced O2. Heterocysts are morphologically and functionally distinct from vegetative cells in the filament. Their differentiation relies on sophisticated intercellular communication and is tightly regulated. Analyzed by classical mutagenesis for decades, heterocyst differentiation is now being approached by large-scale methodologies, leading to the identification of new elements that might be important in the process. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

Covenas R.,University of Salamanca | Munoz M.,University of Seville
Histology and Histopathology | Year: 2014

The substance P (SP)/neurokinin (NK)-1 receptor system plays an important role in cancer. After binding to the NK-1 receptor, SP induces tumor cell proliferation, migration of tumor cells (invasion, infiltration and metastasis) and angiogenesis. In contrast, NK-1 receptor antagonists inhibit tumor cell proliferation (tumor cells die by apoptosis), block the migratory activity of tumor cells, and exert antiangiogenic properties. The induction of apoptosis offers an appropriate method for cancer treatment. The NK-1 receptor can be considered as a target in cancer treatment. A common mechanism for cancer cell proliferation mediated by SP and the NK-1 receptor occurs and NK-1 receptor antagonists are broadspectrum antineoplastic drugs. The NK-1 receptor antagonist aprepitant is used in clinical practice and exerts an antitumor action against a large number of different human tumor cells. In the future, such antitumor action should be tested in human clinical trials.

Rosa Diaz I.M.,University of Seville
International Journal of Consumer Studies | Year: 2013

Among the numerous factors that influence decisions on prices, consumer behaviour has special significance. This paper reviews and analyses relevant studies conducted during the last few decades. On the basis of our analysis, four categories of factors that determine consumer behaviour have been identified. Additionally, we have developed an experimental research design to analyse the influence that the following factors have on price perception: price structure (i.e. price level, order of presentation and price differences), purchase context (i.e. reason for purchase or product use) and demographic characteristics (i.e. gender). Results reveal a significant influence of these variables on consumer behaviour. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

Idnurm A.,University of Missouri - Kansas City | Verma S.,University of Missouri - Kansas City | Corrochano L.M.,University of Seville
Fungal Genetics and Biology | Year: 2010

Virtually all organisms exposed to light are capable of sensing this environmental signal. In recent years the photoreceptors that mediate the ability of fungi to " see" have been identified in diverse species, and increasingly characterized. The small sizes of fungal genomes and ease in genetic and molecular biology manipulations make this kingdom ideal amongst the eukaryotes for understanding photosensing. The most widespread and conserved photosensory protein in the fungi is White collar 1 (WC-1), a flavin-binding photoreceptor that functions with WC-2 as a transcription factor complex. Other photosensory proteins in fungi include opsins, phytochromes and cryptochromes whose roles in fungal photobiology are not fully resolved and their distribution in the fungi requires further taxon sampling. Additional unknown photoreceptors await discovery. This review discusses the effects of light on fungi and the evolutionary processes that may have shaped the ability of species to sense and respond to this signal. © 2010 Elsevier Inc.

Corrochano L.M.,University of Seville | Garre V.,University of Murcia
Fungal Genetics and Biology | Year: 2010

Light is an environmental signal that modulates many aspects of the biology of zygomycete fungi. Light regulation has been investigated in the zygomycetes Phycomyces blakesleeanus, Mucor circinelloides and Pilobolus crystallinus. Examples of light regulation include the phototropism of the fruiting bodies, the regulation of the development of reproductive structures, and the activation of the biosynthesis of β-carotene. In fungi blue light is perceived by proteins homologous to WC-1, a Neurospora crassa photoreceptor and Zn finger protein that interacts with WC-2 to form a photoresponsive transcription factor complex. Unlike ascomycete and basidiomycete fungi that usually have one wc-1 and one wc-2 gene, several studies have uncovered an unexpected multitude of genes similar to wc-1 and wc-2 in the genomes of several zygomycete fungi. Some of these genes are required for fungal photoresponses, but the function of many of them remains unknown. The presence of multiple wc-1 genes confirms previous suggestions of multiple blue-light photoreceptors in Phycomyces. © 2010 Elsevier Inc.

Avalos J.,University of Seville | Estrada A.F.,University of Basel
Fungal Genetics and Biology | Year: 2010

The genus Fusarium stands out as research model for pathogenesis and secondary metabolism. Light stimulates the production of some Fusarium metabolites, such as the carotenoids, and in many species it influences the production of asexual spores and sexual fruiting bodies. As found in other fungi with well-known photoresponses, the Fusarium genomes contain several genes for photoreceptors, among them a set of White Collar (WC) proteins, a cryptochrome, a photolyase, a phytochrome and two presumably photoactive opsins. The mutation of the opsin genes produced no apparent phenotypic alterations, but the loss of the only WC-1 orthologous protein eliminated the photoinduced expression of the photolyase and opsin genes. In contrast to other carotenogenic species, lack of the WC photoreceptor did not impede the light-induced accumulation of carotenoids, but produced alterations in conidiation, animal pathogenicity and nitrogen-regulated secondary metabolism. The regulation and functional role of other Fusarium photoreceptors is currently under investigation. © 2010 Elsevier Inc.

Nepomuceno-Chamorro I.A.,University of Seville
AI Communications | Year: 2016

We propose a novel methodology to infer gene association networks from gene expression profiles (microarray data) based on the application of model tree. We first build a regression tree for each gene and second, we build a graph from all the linear relationships among output and input genes taking into account whether the pair of genes is statistically significant. Then, we apply a statistical procedure to control the false discovery rate. Part of this methodology is a key component in a predictionbased method for a cardiovascular problem based on the discovery of clinically relevant transcriptional association networks. The aim of this second method is to apply the information encoded in gene networks for prognostic purpose which is one of the crucial objectives of systems biomedicine. © 2016 - IOS Press and the authors. All rights reserved.

Aldaz S.,University of Cambridge | Escudero L.M.,University of Cambridge | Escudero L.M.,University of Seville | Freeman M.,University of Cambridge
Nature Communications | Year: 2013

The motor protein non-muscle myosin II is a major driver of the movements that sculpt three-dimensional organs from two-dimensional epithelia. The machinery of morphogenesis is well established but the logic of its control remains unclear in complex organs. Here we use live imaging and ex vivo culture to report a dual role of myosin II in regulating the development of the Drosophila wing. First, myosin II drives the contraction of a ring of cells that surround the squamous peripodial epithelium, providing the force to fold the whole disc through about 90. Second, myosin II is needed to allow the squamous cells to expand and then retract at the end of eversion. The combination of genetics and live imaging allows us to describe and understand the tissue dynamics, and the logic of force generation needed to transform a relatively simple imaginal disc into a more complex and three-dimensional adult wing. © 2013 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

Queralto R.,University of Seville
Science and Engineering Ethics | Year: 2013

This article explores the transformation of ethics in a globalizing technological society. After describing some basic features of this society, particularly the primacy it gives to a special type of technical rationality, three specific influences on traditional ethics are examined: (1) a change concerning the notion of value, (2) the decreasing relevance of the concept of axiological hierarchy, and (3) the new internal architecture of ethics as a net of values. These three characteristics suggest a new pragmatic understanding of ethics. From a pragmatic perspective, the process of introducing ethical values into contemporary society can be regarded as a beneficial Trojan horse, a metaphor that will be developed further. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

Antinolo G.,University of Seville
BMC pregnancy and childbirth | Year: 2014

BACKGROUND: Indications for the ex utero intrapartum therapy (EXIT) procedure have evolved and nowadays in addition to secure the airway, obtain vascular access, administer surfactant and other resuscitation medications, EXIT is used to resect cervical or thoracic masses, for extracorporeal membrane circulation (ECMO) cannulation, as well as to rescue maximum intra-thoracic space for ventilation of the remaining functional lung tissue or in cases in which resuscitation of the neonate may be compromised. EXIT procedure in twin pregnancy has been rarely reported and some doubts have been raised about its strategy and safety in such cases.METHODS: We reviewed the medical records of 3 twin pregnancy cases where the EXIT procedure have been performed in our center.RESULTS: The mean gestational age at EXIT procedure was 34 + 4 weeks. In two out the three EXIT procedures, the affected twin was delivered first. The average time on placental bypass was 9 minutes. There were no fetal or maternal complications related to the EXIT procedure. All newborns are currently doing well.CONCLUSION: In twin pregnancies, prenatal diagnosis combined with the EXIT procedure permits the formulation of a controlled delivery strategy to secure both newborns outcome. In those pregnancies, if intervention can be accomplished without compromise of the normal twin, EXIT can be considered. Our results support that EXIT procedure, if properly planned, safely provides a good outcome for both the fetuses as well as the mother.

Abstract Nowadays, solar thermophotovoltaic systems constitute a platform in which sophisticated optical material designs are put into practice with the aim of achieving the long sought after dream of developing an efficient energy conversion device based on this concept. Recent advances demonstrate that higher efficiencies are at reach using photonic nanostructures amenable to mass production and scale-up. Thermal cylinders eat light: Efficient utilization of sunlight can be regarded as the solution to future energy crises. In particular, solar thermophotovoltaics has long borne the promise to convert solar light into electricity in the most efficient way. However, they have not fulfilled their potential up to now, mainly due to the lack of large-scale materials that can absorb and emit light at high temperatures. Herein, a new approach to improving light harvesting of such devices is highlighted. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

Law J.Y.,Nanyang Technological University | Franco V.,University of Seville | Ramanujan R.V.,Nanyang Technological University
Applied Physics Letters | Year: 2011

The magnetic entropy change (Δ SM), temperature of peak Δ SM (Tpk) and refrigerant capacity (RC) in Fe (RE)80 B12 Cr8 (RE=La, Ce, or Gd) alloys were studied. Increasing La, Ce, and Gd content led to relatively constant, decrease, and increase in Tpk, respectively. Both the phenomenologically constructed universal curve for Δ SM and field dependence power laws demonstrated that these alloys exhibited similar critical exponents at Curie temperature. With 5% Ce added to Fe80 B12 Cr 8, Tpk could be tuned near room temperature with relatively constant peak Δ SM. Fe79 B12 Cr8 La1 exhibited enhanced RC compared to Gd5 Si2 Ge1.9 Fe0.1. The tunable Tpk and enhanced RC are needed in active magnetic regenerators. © 2011 American Institute of Physics.

Lapine M.,University of Sydney | Jelinek L.,Czech Technical University | Marques R.,University of Seville
Optics Express | Year: 2012

While the effective medium treatment of unbounded metamaterials appears to be well established and firmly proven, related phenomena in finite structures have not received sufficient attention. We report on mesoscopic effects associated with the boundaries of finite discrete metamaterial samples, which can invalidate an effective medium description. We show how to avoid such effects by proper choice of boundary configuration. As all metamaterial implementations are naturally finite, we are confident that our findings are crucial for future metamaterial research. © 2012 Optical Society of America.

Morales-Conde S.,University of Seville
Hernia | Year: 2012

Introduction Laparoscopic techniques are being used increasingly in the repair of ventral hernias, but different incidences and complications have been described as potential risks of this approach. Seroma formation has been documented as one of the most common complication, although most of the time remains asymptomatic and it can be considered just an incident. The incidence of seroma after laparoscopic ventral hernia repair has not been properly documented and analyzed since the definitionused by different authors is not the same from one series to another. We present a new classification of clinical seroma in order to try to establish the real incidence of this potential complication. Clinical classification Clinical seromas could be detected during physical examination in many patients after LVHR, but in most of the cases they do not cause any problem or just a minimum discomfort that allows normal activity. Based on this fact and on the need of carrying out a medical or an invasive therapy to treat them, five groups can be established in order to classified this entity: Type 0, no clinical seroma (being 0a no seroma after clinical examination and radiological examinations and 0b those detected radiologically but not detected clinically); Type I, clinical seroma lasting less than 1 month; Type II (seroma with excessive duration), clinical seroma lasting more than 1 month (being IIa between 1 and 3 months and IIb between 3 and 6 months); Type III (symptomatic seromas that may need medical treatment), minor seromarelated complications (seroma lasting more than 6 month, esthetic complaints of the patient due to seroma, discomfort related to the seroma that does not allow normal activity to the patient, pain, superficial infection with cellulites); and Type IV (seroma that need to be treated), mayor seroma-related complications (need to puncture the seroma, seroma drained spontaneously, applicable to open approach, deep infection, recurrence and mesh rejection). It is important to differentiate between a complication and an incident, being considered seroma as an incident if it is classified as seroma Type I or II, and a complication if it is included in group III and IV. The highest classification is the one that should be used in order to describe the type of seroma. Conclusions Seroma is one of the most common complications after laparoscopic ventral hernia repair although its real clinical incidence is variable since it has been described in the literature following different parameters. It is observed in almost all cases by radiological examinations, but it is not determined if must be considered an incident or a complication. For these reasons, a new classification of seroma has been proposed in order to unify criteria among surgeons when describing their experience. This classification could be also used in the future to measure the effect of new methods proposed to reduce seroma formation to evaluate the incidence of seroma depending on the mesh used, and it could be also proposed to be used to describe the incidence of seroma after open ventral hernia repair. © Springer-Verlag 2012.

Liu J.,University of California at Los Angeles | Munoz de la Pena D.,University of Seville | Christofides P.D.,University of California at Los Angeles
Automatica | Year: 2010

In this work, we design distributed Lyapunov-based model predictive controllers for nonlinear systems that coordinate their actions and take asynchronous measurements and delays explicitly into account. Sufficient conditions under which the proposed distributed control designs guarantee that the state of the closed-loop system is ultimately bounded in a region that contains the origin are provided. The theoretical results are demonstrated through a chemical process example. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Gonzalez-Varo J.P.,University of Seville | Traveset A.,CSIC - Mediterranean Institute for Advanced Studies
Annals of Botany | Year: 2010

Background and Aims: Variation in inbreeding depression (δ) among individual plants is considered to play a central role in mating system evolution and population genetics. Moreover, such variation could be linked to individual susceptibility to pollen limitation (PL) because those individuals strongly affected by δ for seed production will require more outcross pollen for setting a given number of fruits or seeds. However, no study has tested explicitly for associations between PL and δ at the individual plant level. This study assesses the extent of among-individual variation in PL and δ, the consistency of δ across life stages, and the relationships between individual PL and δ in the mixed-mating shrub Myrtus communis. Methods Controlled hand-pollinations were performed in a natural M. communis population. Marked flowers were monitored until fruit production and a greenhouse experiment was conducted with the seeds produced.Key Results Compared with selfing, outcross-pollination enhanced seed number per fruit, germination rate and seedling growth, but did not enhance fruit-set. Only seed number per fruit was pollen limited and, thus, cumulative pollen limitation depended more on pollen quality (outcross pollen) than on quantity. The effects of δ varied considerably across life stages and individual plants. Cumulative δ was high across individuals (mean δ = 0·65), although there were no positive correlations between δ values at different life stages. Interestingly, maternal plants showing stronger δ for seed production were more pollen limited, but they were also less affected by δ for seedling growth because of a seed size/number trade-off. Conclusions Results show a general inconsistency in δ across life stages and individuals, suggesting that different deleterious loci are acting at different stages. The association between δ and PL at the individual level corroborates the idea that pollen limitation may be 'genotype-dependent' regardless of other factors. © The Author 2010. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company. All rights reserved.

Gallego-Fernandez Juan B. J.B.,University of Seville | Sanchez I.A.,University of Castilla - La Mancha | Ley C.,Ecologia Litoral S.L.
Ecological Engineering | Year: 2011

The coastal dunes of the Basque Country have suffered a significant anthropic process of regional-scale destruction and fragmentation. This has led to the loss of seven, and endangerment of 14, of the 37 species of plants recognized as exclusive to these dunes. In response to this situation, the restoration of one of the lost dune systems, the Laida Dune, began in 2002 with the installation of sand trapping devices and the plantation of two dune-building species of plants. This study shows the results of a program that monitored the process of natural colonization of plant species in the restored dune over a period of seven years, until the loss of the dune by the action of storms in 2008. The results show that the vegetation dynamics in the restored dune followed a process of primary succession, with a progressive increase in species number, coverage and heterogeneity. The establishment of species was driven by the strong environmental gradient present perpendicular to the coastline. The results indicate that natural colonization in this coastal sector is now possible due to the large number of dune species present, and in spite of the isolation of the restored dune system and the loss and fragmentation of the dune habitats in the region. Over the seven years, 42 plant species became established on the dune, of which 18 were dune-exclusive species, representing 62.1% of the total number of species of the same type in the region. Five of these species are considered to be rare or threatened. Comparison with reference data allowed the evaluation of the trajectory of the plant community assembly. The results indicate that the highest similarity to a reference dune system was to the one located closest to the restored dune. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

Carnero A.,University of Seville
Biochimica et Biophysica Acta - Reviews on Cancer | Year: 2012

Reactive oxygen species, ROS, are beneficially involved in many signaling pathways that control development and maintain cellular homeostasis. In physiological conditions, a tightly regulated redox balance protects cells from injurious ROS activity, but if the balance is altered, it promotes various pathological conditions including cancer. Understanding the duality of ROS as cytotoxic molecules and key mediators in signaling cascades may provide novel opportunities for improved cancer therapy.MAP17 is a small 17-kDa non-glycosylated membrane protein that is overexpressed in many tumors of different origins, including carcinomas. Immunohistochemical analysis of MAP17 during cancer progression demonstrates that overexpression of the protein strongly correlates with the progression of most types of tumor. Tumor cells that overexpress MAP17 show an increased tumoral phenotype associated with an increase in ROS. However, in non-tumor cells MAP17 increases ROS, resulting in senescence or apoptosis. Therefore, in tumor cells, MAP17 could be a marker for increased oxidative stress and could define new therapeutic approaches. Here, we review the role of MAP17 as a putative oncogene, as well as its role in cancer and anticancer therapies. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

Talkner P.,University of Augsburg | Morillo M.,University of Seville | Yi J.,Pusan National University | Hanggi P.,University of Augsburg
New Journal of Physics | Year: 2013

Work performed on a system in a microcanonical state by changes in a control parameter is characterized in terms of its statistics. The transition probabilities between eigenstates of the system Hamiltonians at the beginning and the end of the parameter change obey a detailed balance-like relation from which various forms of the microcanonical fluctuation theorem are obtained. As an example, sudden deformations of a two-dimensional harmonic oscillator potential are considered, and the validity of the microcanonical Jarzynski equality connecting the degrees of degeneracy of energy eigenvalues before and after the control parameter change is confirmed. © IOP Publishing and Deutsche Physikalische Gesellschaft.

Vazquez R.,University of Seville | Krstic M.,University of California at San Diego
IEEE Transactions on Control Systems Technology | Year: 2010

In this paper, we consider a 2-D model of thermal fluid convection that exhibits the prototypical Rayleigh-Bernard convective instability. The fluid is enclosed between two cylinders, heated from above, and cooled from below, which makes its motion unstable for a large enough Rayleigh number. We design an stabilizing output feedback boundary control law for a realistic collocated setup, with actuation and measurements located at the outer boundary. Actuation is through rotation (direct velocity actuation) and heat flux (heating or cooling) of the outer cylinder, while measurements of friction and temperature are obtained at the same boundary. Though only a linearized version of the plant is considered in the design, an extensive closed loop simulation study of the nonlinear model shows that our design works for reasonably large initial conditions. A highly accurate approximation to the control kernels and observer output injection gains is found in closed form. © 2009 IEEE.

Valverde J.M.,University of Seville
Chemical Engineering Journal | Year: 2013

The CaO conversion of CO2 sorbents subjected to repeated series of carbonation/calcination cycles is investigated as affected by thermal pretreatment. The behavior of nonpretreated sorbents is characterized by the progressive sintering of the initial CaO skeleton derived from a quick preheating of its precursor. As a consequence, CaO conversion suffers a drastic decrease in the first cycles and gradually converges towards a residual value. The evolution of conversion in the first cycles for pretreated sorbents is determined by a diverse mechanism, which is mainly characterized by the growth of a renewed soft skeleton due to promoted solid-state diffusive carbonation, which leads to an increase of conversion with the cycle number up to a maximum value. A mathematical model is proposed based on the balance between the surface area loss due to sintering in the calcination stage of each cycle and the surface area gain due to regeneration of the skeleton. A key feature to describe self-reactivation is that renovation of the soft skeleton becomes progressively less efficient as the number of cycles builds up. An extensive series of data reported in the literature has been analyzed in the light of the proposed model, which has served to quantify the level of self-reactivation as affected by a wide variety of experimental conditions such as preheating temperature and duration, hydration, calcination under a CO2 enriched atmosphere, grinding, addition of thermally stable dopants, and presence of foreign ions in the limestone. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

Cordoba-Fernandez A.,University of Seville
Journal of the American Podiatric Medical Association | Year: 2012

Interphalangeal joint dislocations of the lesser toes are relatively rare in clinical practice. Most nonreducible interphalangeal joint dislocations occur as a result of rupture or interposition of the plantar plate or of the collateral ligament in the joint space, thus hindering a closed reduction and, in most cases, compelling an open reduction. A post-reduction radiologic exploration is then essential to identify such an entity and proceed consequently. In some cases, such as the one introduced herein, a misdiagnosis, along with an inadequate surgical correction may lead to recurrence of the deformity and, ultimately, to a salvage arthrodesis.

Aparicio R.,CSIC - Instituto de la Grasa | Morales M.T.,University of Seville | Garcia-Gonzalez D.L.,CSIC - Instituto de la Grasa
European Journal of Lipid Science and Technology | Year: 2012

The rich flavor of virgin olive oil (VOO) is one of the reasons why it stands out as a gourmet product. The classification of olive oils into quality categories basically relies on the sensory assessment, together with some chemical indices that do not provide information about aroma or taste. Some analytical techniques attempt to analyze the volatile compounds of olive oil, which are actually responsible for the aroma, and give objective chemical information that can explain the sensory perception. They are based on gas chromatography (GC) and gas sensor, such as metal oxide semiconductor (MOS) sensors. In both cases, the chemical data should be interpreted from a sensory perspective, considering the impact of each compound on aroma and trying to get as much information as possible with new data processing. In the case of MOS sensors, the coupling of a GC column allows gaining more information on aroma. Despite the extensive knowledge on the volatile compounds of olive oil, these techniques still fail in reproducing some results of the panellists. The physiological processes implied in the olfaction needs to be explored with new approaches to understand the sensory perception. These new approaches will support the alternatives to sensory assessment. © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

Guzman H.,University of Malaga | Barrero F.,University of Seville | Duran M.J.,University of Malaga
IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics | Year: 2015

Multiphase machine drives are gaining importance in high-reliability applications due to their fault-tolerance capability and their ability to cope with the postfault operation without any extra electronic components. Predictive current controllers have been recently proposed for managing postfault operation of these drives when an open-phase fault is considered. However, the faulty situation assumes zero stator current while freewheeling diodes can continue conducting in a noncontrolled mode. This work analyzes the postfault operation of the five-phase drive when the freewheeling diodes of the faulty phase are still conducting. Experimental results are provided using a conventional insulated-gate bipolar transistor (IGBT)-based multiphase power converter to quantify the effect of the freewheeling diodes, when an IGBT-gating fault occurs, on the model-based predictive current-controlled drive. © 1982-2012 IEEE.

Santolina impressa (2n = 2x = 18) is an endemic species of Portugal, with restricted geographical distribution. The present study aimed to explore its chromosomal variation in respect to chromosome morphology, meiotic behaviour, and effects on pollen stainability and fecundity. Its karyotype formula was found to be either 12m + 2msat + 2smsat + 2st (75% of the individuals) or 12m + 2msat + 3sm + 1smsat (25% of the individuals). Univalents were observed in 29.21% of the meiocytes. Chromosome fragments due to breakage in the chromosome arm were observed in 10 meiocytes only (11.23% of the meiocytes). Chains and rings of trivalents were observed in 14.60% of the meiocytes (one trivalent per meiocyte was observed). Chains and rings of quadrivalents were observed in 21.34% and 11.23% of the meiocytes, respectively, with a range of 0-1 per cell. Nine plants (40.90% of the total) with 2n = 2x = 18 + 2B showed a quadrivalent configuration in diakinesis. Twenty abnormal anaphases with delayed disjunction of the four non-homologous and the two homologous chromosomes were observed. Simple chromosome bridges without fragments and interchromosomal adhesions were observed in 35.95% of the anaphases analyzed. B chromosomes showed bivalent association in diakinesis and their segregation at anaphase I was normal. Pollen was found to be fertile (mean ± s.d. = 89.57 ± 47.14%); the effect of univalent frequency and frequency of abnormal anaphase I on pollen stainability was strong and statistically significant. © Institute of Botany, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic 2009.

Torres-Lagares D.,University of Seville
Journal (Canadian Dental Association) | Year: 2011

A large maxillary cyst was treated for 3 months with marsupialization and decompression, followed by surgical endodontic therapy of the affected teeth and cystectomy. Although small cystic lesions will typically heal with nonsurgical endodontic therapy, larger lesions may need additional treatment. Surgical enucleation of a large cystic lesion may lead to damage of other teeth or anatomic structures. Therefore, treatment should begin with the more conservative approach of decompression, to reduce the size of the lesion, followed by apicoectomy and cystectomy.

Munoz M.,University of Seville | Covenas R.,University of Salamanca
Peptides | Year: 2013

Many data suggest the deep involvement of the substance P (SP)/neurokinin (NK)-1 receptor system in cancer: (1) Tumor cells express SP, NK-1 receptors and mRNA for the tachykinin NK-1 receptor; (2) Several isoforms of the NK-1 receptor are expressed in tumor cells; (3) the NK-1 receptor is involved in the viability of tumor cells; (4) NK-1 receptors are overexpressed in tumor cells in comparison with normal ones and malignant tissues express more NK-1 receptors than benign tissues; (5) Tumor cells expressing the most malignant phenotypes show an increased percentage of NK-1 receptor expression; (6) The expression of preprotachykinin A is increased in tumor cells in comparison with the levels found in normal cells; (7) SP induces the proliferation and migration of tumor cells and stimulates angiogenesis by increasing the proliferation of endothelial cells; (8) NK-1 receptor antagonists elicit the inhibition of tumor cell growth; (9) The specific antitumor action of NK-1 receptor antagonists on tumor cells occurs through the NK-1 receptor; (10) Tumor cell death is due to apoptosis; (11) NK-1 receptor antagonists inhibit the migration of tumor cells and neoangiogenesis. The NK-1 receptor is a therapeutic target in cancer and NK-1 receptor antagonists could be considered as broad-spectrum antitumor drugs for the treatment of cancer. It seems that a common mechanism for cancer cell proliferation mediated by SP and the NK-1 receptor is triggered, as well as a common mechanism exerted by NK-1 receptor antagonists on tumor cells, i.e. apoptosis. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Lozano S.,University of Seville
Computers and Industrial Engineering | Year: 2015

Abstract In this paper a slacks-based measure (SBM) model for general networks of processes is presented. The proposed model differs from existing SBM Network Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) approaches in that it considers the exogenous inputs and outputs at the system level instead of at the process level. It also relaxes the constraints for both the fixed-link and the free-link cases, thus enhancing the discriminating power of the model. To assess the performance of the individual processes an external efficiency model is presented. The proposed approach projects the system operation point onto the efficient frontier so that the target operation points of the different processes are externally efficient. The approach is illustrated with a problem from the literature. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.

Cruces S.,University of Seville
IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing | Year: 2015

Our paper addresses the problem of the bounded component analysis of the observations in noisy mixtures. We present an original set of assumptions that guarantee the identifiability of the mixture in underdetermined mixtures and the separability of the sources in overdetermined mixtures. These assumptions are especially well suited for the blind identification of communication channels. Our proof of the identifiability of the mixing system is non-constructive. Thus, we develop a novel blind identification criterion for underdetermined and overdetermined mixtures, which is based on the least square fit of the perimeter of a set of projections of the observations. For the optimization of this criterion we propose the BCA-PM algorithm, which implements the natural gradient descent, along with an acceleration of the convergence designed for the neighbourhood of the solution. In situations of isotropic Gaussian noise and for reasonable signal to noise ratio, BCA-PM compares favorably with respect to other state-of-the-art methods, such as the ICA simultaneous diagonalization algorithms for underdetermined and overdetermined mixtures. The simulations also corroborate the advantages of using bounded component analysis for the blind identification of the channel with small datasets or when the transmitters cannot be regarded as statistically independent. © 2015 IEEE.

Romero-Gomez M.,University of Seville | Montagnese S.,University of Padua | Jalan R.,University College London
Journal of Hepatology | Year: 2015

Hepatic encephalopathy in a hospitalized cirrhotic patient is associated with a high mortality rate and its presence adds further to the mortality of patients with acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF). The exact pathophysiological mechanisms of HE in this group of patients are unclear but hyperammonemia, systemic inflammation (including sepsis, bacterial translocation, and insulin resistance) and oxidative stress, modulated by glutaminase gene alteration, remain as key factors. Moreover, alcohol misuse, hyponatremia, renal insufficiency, and microbiota are actively explored. HE diagnosis requires exclusion of other causes of neurological, metabolic and psychiatric dysfunction. Hospitalization in the ICU should be considered in every patient with overt HE, but particularly if this is associated with ACLF. Precipitating factors should be identified and treated as required. Evidence-based specific management options are limited to bowel cleansing and non-absorbable antibiotics. Ammonia lowering drugs, such as glycerol phenylbutyrate and ornithine phenylacetate show promise but are still in clinical trials. Albumin dialysis may be useful in refractory cases. Antibiotics, prebiotics, and treatment of diabetes reduce systemic inflammation. Where possible and not contraindicated, large portalsystemic shunts may be embolized but liver transplantation is the most definitive step in the management of HE in this setting. HE in patients with ACLF appears to be clinically and pathophysiologically distinct from that of acute decompensation and requires further studies and characterization. © 2014 European Association for the Study of the Liver.

Garcia Rivero D.,University of Seville | O'Brien M.J.,University of Missouri
PLoS ONE | Year: 2014

Prehistoric material culture proposed to be symbolic in nature has been the object of considerable archaeological work from diverse theoretical perspectives, yet rarely are methodological tools used to test the interpretations. The lack of testing is often justified by invoking the opinion that the slippery nature of past human symbolism cannot easily be tackled by the scientific method. One such case, from the southwestern Iberian Peninsula, involves engraved stone plaques from megalithic funerary monuments dating ca. 3,500-2,750 B.C. (calibrated age). One widely accepted proposal is that the plaques are ancient mnemonic devices that record genealogies. The analysis reported here demonstrates that this is not the case, even when the most supportive data and techniques are used. Rather, we suspect there was a common ideological background to the use of plaques that overlay the southwestern Iberian Peninsula, with little or no geographic patterning. This would entail a cultural system in which plaque design was based on a fundamental core idea, with a number of mutable and variable elements surrounding it. © 2014 García Rivero, O'Brien.

Abril Hernandez J.-M.,University of Seville
Journal of Environmental Radioactivity | Year: 2016

Unsupported 210Pb (210Pbexc) vs. mass depth profiles do not contain enough information as to extract a unique chronology when both, 210Pbexc fluxes and mass sediment accumulation rates (SAR) independently vary with time. Restrictive assumptions are needed to develop a suitable dating tool. A statistical correlation between fluxes and SAR seems to be a quite general rule. This paper builds up a new 210Pb-based dating tool by using such a statistical correlation. It operates with SAR and initial activities that closely follow normal distributions, what leads to the expected correlation between fluxes and SAR. An intelligent algorithm solves their best arrangement downcore to fit the experimental 210Pbexc vs. mass depth profile, generating then solutions for the chronological line, and for the histories of SAR and fluxes. Parametric maps of a χ-function serve to find out the solution and to support error estimates. Optionally, the model's answers can be better constrained through the use of time markers. The performance of the model is illustrated with a synthetic core, and with real cases using published data for varved sediment cores. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.

Lopez-Lazaro M.,University of Seville
Molecular Medicine | Year: 2010

During the last few decades, cancer research has focused on the idea that cancer is caused by genetic alterations and that this disease can be treated by reversing or targeting these alterations. The small variations in cancer mortality observed during the previous 30 years indicate, however, that the clinical applications of this approach have been very limited so far. The development of future gene-based therapies that may have a major impact on cancer mortality may be compromised by the high number and variability of genetic alterations recently found in human tumors. This article reviews evidence that tumor cells, in addition to acquiring a complex array of genetic changes, develop an alteration in the metabolism of oxygen. Although both changes play an essential role in carcinogenesis, the altered oxygen metabolism of cancer cells is not subject to the high genetic variability of tumors and may therefore be a more reliable target for cancer therapy. The utility of this novel approach for the development of therapies that selectively target tumor cells is discussed. © 2010 The Feinstein Institute for Medical Research.

Lai L.B.,Ohio State University | Vioque A.,University of Seville | Kirsebom L.A.,Uppsala University | Gopalan V.,Ohio State University
FEBS Letters | Year: 2010

For an enzyme functioning predominantly in a seemingly housekeeping role of 5′ tRNA maturation, RNase P displays a remarkable diversity in subunit make-up across the three domains of life. Despite the protein complexity of this ribonucleoprotein enzyme increasing dramatically from bacteria to eukarya, the catalytic function rests with the RNA subunit during evolution. However, the recent demonstration of a protein-only human mitochondrial RNase P has added further intrigue to the compositional variability of this enzyme. In this review, we discuss some possible reasons underlying the structural diversity of the active sites, and use them as thematic bases for elaborating new directions to understand how functional variations might have contributed to the complex evolution of RNase P. © 2009 Federation of European Biochemical Societies.

This thesis introduces three contributions to train feed-forward neural network models based on evolutionary computation for a classification task. The new methodologies have been evaluated in three-layered neural models, including one input, one hidden and one output layer. Particularly, two kind of neurons such as product and sigmoidal units have been considered in an independent fashion for the hidden layer. Experiments have been carried out in a good number of problems, including three complex real-world problems, and the overall assessment of the new algorithms is very outstanding. Statistical tests shed light on that significant improvements were achieved. The applicability of the proposals is wide in the sense that can be extended to any kind of hidden neuron, either to other kind of problems like regression or even optimization with special emphasis in the two first approaches. © 2016-IOS Press and the authors. All rights reserved.

This study presents a systematized method for predicting water content, fat content and free acidity in olive fruits by on-line NIR Spectroscopy combined with chemometric techniques (PCA, LDA and PLSR). Three cultivar varieties of Olea europaea - Hojiblanca cv., Picual cv. and Arbequina cv. - were monitored. Five olive cultivation areas of Southern Spain (Andalucia) and Southern Portugal (Alentejo) were studied in 2011 and 2012. 465 olive samples were collected during the ripening process (non-mature olives) and compared with other 203 samples of mature olives collected at the final ripening stage. NIR spectra were measured directly in the olive fruits in the wavelength region from 1000 to 2300 nm in reflectance mode. The reference analyses were performed on the olive paste by oven drying for the moisture, by mini-Soxhlet extraction for the fat content and by acid titration of the oil extracted from the olive paste. Calibrations and predictive models were developed by Partial Least Square Regression (PLSR) previous Principal Component and Linear Discriminant analyses (PCA and LDA) were employed as exploratory and clean-up tools of data sets. The final models obtained for the total samples showed acceptable statistics of prediction with R2=0.88, RMSEV%=4.88 and RMSEP%=4.98 for water content, R2=0.76, RMSECV%=19.5 and RMSEP%=20.0 for fat content and R2=0.83, RMSECV%=36.8 and RMSEP%=38.8 for free acidity. Regression coefficients were better for only one maturity state (ripe period) than for olive fruit with different composition (ripening period). All models obtained were applied to predict LQPs on a new set of samples with satisfactory results, a good prediction potential of the models. © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Garnacho-Montero J.,Hospital Universitario Virgen Del Rocio | Garnacho-Montero J.,University of Seville | Ferrandiz-Millon C.,Hospital Universitario Virgen Del Rocio
Critical Care | Year: 2014

Few antimicrobials are currently active to treat infections caused by extremely resistant Gram-negative bacilli (ERGNB), which represent a serious global public health concern. Tigecycline, which covers the majority of these ERGNB (with the exception of Pseudomonas aeruginosa), is not currently approved for hospital-acquired pneumonia, and several meta-analyses have suggested an increased risk of death in patients receiving this antibiotic. Other studies suggest that the use of high-dose tigecycline may represent an alternative in daily practice. De Pascale and colleagues report that the clinical cure rate in patients with ventilator-associated pneumonia is significantly higher with a high dose of tigecycline than with the conventional dose, although mortality was unaffected. This high dose is safe; no patients required discontinuation or dose reduction. © 2014 Garnacho-Montero and Ferrándiz-Millón; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

Goder V.,University of Seville
Current Protein and Peptide Science | Year: 2012

In the secretory pathway, quality control for the correct folding of proteins is largely occurring in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), at the earliest possible stage and in an environment where early folding intermediates mix with terminally misfolded species. An elaborate cellular mechanism aims at dividing the former from the latter and promotes the selective transport of misfolded species back into the cytosol, a step called retrotranslocation. During retrotranslocation proteins will become ubiquitinated on the cytosolic side of the ER membrane by dedicated machineries and will be targeted to the proteasome for degradation. The entire process, from protein recognition to final degradation, has been named ER-associated protein degradation, or simply ERAD. Ubiquitin has well known functions in aiding late steps of substrate retrotranslocation and in targeting substrates to the proteasome. Recent results show that several cytosolic machineries allow ubiquitinated substrates to undergo extensive remodeling, or processing, on their poly-ubiquitin chains (PUCs). Although still ill-defined, PUC processing might have a unique function for ERAD in that it might provide a mechanism to generate optimal PUCs for recognition by proteasomal ubiquitin receptors. Ubiquitination might also have a previously unanticipated role in quality control of ER membrane proteins. This review recapitulates the current knowledge and recent findings about ERAD-specific roles of ubiquitin. © 2012 Bentham Science Publishers.

James G.,French National Center for Scientific Research | Kevrekidis P.G.,University of Massachusetts Amherst | Cuevas J.,University of Seville
Physica D: Nonlinear Phenomena | Year: 2013

We prove nonexistence of breathers (spatially localized and time-periodic oscillations) for a class of Fermi-Pasta-Ulam lattices representing an uncompressed chain of beads interacting via Hertz's contact forces. We then consider the setting in which an additional on-site potential is present, motivated by the Newton's cradle under the effect of gravity. We show the existence of breathers in such systems, using both direct numerical computations and a simplified asymptotic model of the oscillator chain, the so-called discrete p-Schrödinger (DpS) equation. From a spectral analysis, we determine breather stability and explain their translational motion under very weak perturbations. Numerical simulations demonstrate the excitation of traveling breathers from simple initial conditions corresponding to small perturbations at the first site of the chain. This regime is well described by the DpS equation, and is found to occur for physical parameter values in granular chains with stiff local oscillators. In addition, traveling breather propagation can be hindered or even suppressed in other parameter regimes. For soft on-site potentials, a part of the energy remains trapped near the boundary and forms a surface mode. For hard on-site potentials and large to moderate initial excitations, one observes a "boomeron", i.e. a traveling breather displaying spontaneous direction-reversing motion. In addition, dispersion is significantly enhanced when a precompression is applied to the chain. Depending on parameters, this results either in the absence of traveling breather excitation on long time scales, or in the formation of a "nanopteron" characterized by a sizable wave train lying at both sides of the localized excitation. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Balcerzyk M.,University of Seville
Medical Physics | Year: 2013

Physics aims at explaining and describing as many processes of nature as possible. In this book the authors show several examples of its usefulness in the medical environment. The authors start from basic processes like bacterial diffusion, eye vision, through preclinical applications, to radiation treatment planning. This sampling allows profound examination of powerful tools, which physics provide for medical field. This book is intended for medical students at the doctoral or postdoctoral level, students of medical physics of master level or higher, or for medical doctors who want to have a deeper insight into their specialty. © 2013 by Nova Science Publishers, Inc. All rights reserved.

Ruiz-Adame Reina M.,University of Seville
Educational Gerontology | Year: 2016

There has been an increase in the aging population in developed countries. This has led to a need for trained people in the gerontological field. The most common academic way of specializing in this field in Spain is via a master's program. It is well known that investing in human capital increases knowledge, productivity, and the probability of getting a job. The question is if these kinds of educational programs are useful to provide real preparation for students and if the programs are useful for getting into the job market. We asked graduates to supply the answers. A survey was completed by 144 graduates from the Universities of Salamanca and Seville. Most graduates selected these master's programs to increase their probability of getting a job. A total of 64.6% reported that they had got a job, 38.8% of which got one in the first 2 years after graduating. A total of 55.6% felt that they had got a job thanks to having done the master's program. The usefulness of the acquired knowledge (47.9%) and social networks (28.8%) was seemingly high when getting a job. A high percentage of students (67%) found a job in this field after completing the master's program, and they got their first experience in a relatively short period after graduating. Investment in human capital is considered useful by graduates. The labor market is interested in highly qualified specialists. To have a postgraduate degree is still an advantage in getting a job, even after the 2008 economic crisis. © 2016 Taylor & Francis

Gutierrez Ortiz F.J.,University of Seville
Applied Thermal Engineering | Year: 2011

In fire-tube boilers, the flue gas passes inside boiler tubes, and heat is transferred to water on the shell side. A dynamic model has been developed for the analysis of boiler performance, and Matlab has been applied for integrating it. The mathematical model developed is based on the first principles of mass, energy and momentum conservations. In the model, the two parts of the boiler (fire/gas and water/steam sides), the economizer, the superheater and the heat recovery are considered. The model developed can capture the dynamics of the boiler level and boiler pressure with confidence, and it is adequate to approach the boiler performance and, hence, to design and test a control strategy for such boilers. Furthermore, it gives insight of dynamics performance not only during nominal operating conditions, or transient behavior when a parameter is changed, but also for the start-up. The model proposed can be easily implemented and thus, it is useful to assist plant engineers and even for training future operators. A case study of an 800 HP fire-tube boiler burning fuel-oil has been simulated to test the boiler performance by varying operating conditions using a pulse and a step change in fuel and steam flow-rate as well as simulating a start-up form the beginning up to achieve the steady state. The results match qualitatively well when compared to results from the literature. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

Garcia-Torres F.,Simulation and Control Unit | Bordons C.,University of Seville
IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics | Year: 2015

The electricity market rules determine the energy prices in the day-ahead market, matching offers from generators to bids from consumers. The unpredictability of renewable energy combined with the penalty deviations used in the regulation market makes it difficult for clean energy to play an important role in the electricity market. The high density of hydrogen as an energy storage system (ESS) appears to be one solution to the problems outlined. There is still not a perfect ESS, everyone has different limitations from the point of view of time autonomy, time response, degradation issues, or acquisition cost. The design of a hybrid energy storage management system emerges as a technological solution to the problems commented. The development of an optimal control for renewable energy microgrids with hybrid ESS is carried out using model predictive control (MPC). The MPC techniques allow maximizing the economical benefit of the microgrid, minimizing the degradation causes of each storage system, and fulfilling the different system constraints. In order to capture both continuous/discrete dynamics and switching between different operating conditions, the plant is modeled with the framework of mixed logic dynamic. The MPC problem is solved within mixed-integer quadratic programming. © 2015 IEEE.

Fernandez-Mar M.I.,Institute Investigacion y Formacion Agraria y Pesquera IFAPA | Mateos R.,Institute Ciencia Y Tecnologia Of Alimentos Y Nutricion Csic | Garcia-Parrilla M.C.,University of Seville | Puertas B.,Institute Investigacion y Formacion Agraria y Pesquera IFAPA | Cantos-Villar E.,Institute Investigacion y Formacion Agraria y Pesquera IFAPA
Food Chemistry | Year: 2012

Regular moderate wine consumption is often associated with reduced morbidity and mortality from a variety of chronic diseases in which inflammation is the root cause. This review is focused on three of the numerous bioactive compounds present in wine: resveratrol, hydroxytyrosol and melatonin. Resveratrol and hydroxytyrosol are polyphenols. Melatonin, recently described in wine, is an indoleamine. Their structures, concentrations in wine, bioavailability, pharmacokinetic and health promoting properties are reviewed. Resveratrol seems to be one of the most promising compounds due to its bioactivity, with wine being the main source of resveratrol in diet. Hydroxytyrosol, which its main source in diet is olive oil has been also found in both red and white wine in considerable amounts. Melatonin has been found in wine in low amounts. However, both high bioactivity and bioavailability have been attributed to it. They show antioxidant, cardioprotective, anticancer, antidiabetic, neuroprotective and antiaging activities. However, human studies are still in the initial stages and therefore further studies are needed. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Framinan J.M.,University of Seville | Ruiz R.,Polytechnic University of Valencia
International Journal of Production Research | Year: 2012

It has frequently been stated that there exists a gap between production scheduling theory and practice. In order to put theoretical findings into practice, advances in scheduling models and solution procedures should be embedded into a piece of software - a scheduling system - in companies. This results in a process that entails (1) determining its functional features, and (2) adopting a successful strategy for its development and deployment. In this paper we address the latter question and review the related literature in order to identify descriptions and recommendations of the main aspects to be taken into account when developing such systems. These issues are then discussed and classified, resulting in a set of guidelines that can help practitioners during the process of developing and deploying a scheduling system. In addition, identification of these issues can provide some insights to drive theoretical scheduling research towards those topics more in demand by practitioners, and thus help to close the aforementioned gap. © 2012 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.

Herrada M.,University of Seville | Shtern V.,Shtern Research and Consulting
Physics of Fluids | Year: 2014

A sealed cylindrical container is filled with air and water. The container rotation and the axial gradient of temperature induce the steady axisymmetric meridional circulation of both fluids due to the thermal buoyancy and surface-tension (Marangoni) effects. If the temperature gradient is small, the water circulation is one-cellular while the air circulation can be one- or two-cellular depending on water fraction Wf. The numerical simulations are performed for the cylinder length-to-radius ratio l = 1 and l = 4. The l = 4 results and the analytical solution for l → ∞ agree in the cylinder's middle part. As the temperature gradient increases, the water circulation becomes one-, two-, or three-cellular depending on Wf. The results are of fundamental interest and can be applied for bioreactors. © 2014 AIP Publishing LLC.

del Castillo J.M.,University of Seville | del Castillo J.M.,Polytechnic University of Valencia
Transportmetrica | Year: 2012

Three new models for the flow-density relationship are proposed in this work. The resulting flow-density curves are concave in the whole range of feasible values for the parameters. These models have four parameters, three of them being the jam density, the free-flow speed and the kinematic wave speed. The fourth parameter is a shape parameter. The models allow for a great flexibility for fitting of real traffic flow and density data. A remarkable property of these models is the fact that they yield a bilinear fundamental diagram when the shape parameter tends to infinity. The models have been tested with freeway data and urban data. The results demonstrate that the models achieve an excellent goodness of fit and yield realistic estimates of the parameters. The models proposed in this work are a valuable tool not only for fitting flow-density data but also for its use in traffic flow dynamic models. © 2012 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.

Fuentes Rodriguez C.,University of Seville
Journal of Pragmatics | Year: 2014

This study focuses on a construction, lo que es más, whose English equivalent, what's more, has been regarded as a "comment clause" (Brinton, 2008) or a "conjunct" (Quirk et al., 1972), implying that it belongs to the category of "discourse marker". Having traced the development of lo que es más in the history of Spanish, the author argues that the construction is still in the process of evolving: a free syntactic construction (lo que es más+. adjective), a parenthetical with evaluative meaning, coexists with two argumentative operators (lo que es mejor and lo que es peor) and the elaborative connectives lo que es más and es más, this latter is found to be more frequent in speech, according to the corpus. The evolution of lo que es más helps us to understand the grammaticalization of discourse markers, and the syntactic function of comment clauses and parentheticals expressing speaker evaluation, as well as the hierarchy of the arguments in the text. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

In the phase III PARAMOUNT trial, pemetrexed continuation maintenance therapy reduced the risk of disease progression versus placebo (hazard ratio [HR], 0.62; 95% CI, 0.49 to 0.79; P < .001). Here we report final overall survival (OS) and updated safety data. In all, 939 patients with advanced nonsquamous non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) received four cycles of pemetrexed-cisplatin induction therapy; then, 539 patients with no disease progression and Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status 0 or 1 were randomly assigned (2:1) to maintenance pemetrexed (500 mg/m(2) on day 1 of 21-day cycles; n = 359) or placebo (n = 180). Log-rank test compared OS between arms as measured from random assignment (α = .0498). The mean number of maintenance cycles was 7.9 (range, one to 44) for pemetrexed and 5.0 (range, one to 38) for placebo. After 397 deaths (pemetrexed, 71%; placebo, 78%) and a median follow-up of 24.3 months for alive patients (95% CI, 23.2 to 25.1 months), pemetrexed therapy resulted in a statistically significant 22% reduction in the risk of death (HR, 0.78; 95% CI, 0.64 to 0.96; P = .0195; median OS: pemetrexed, 13.9 months; placebo, 11.0 months). Survival on pemetrexed was consistently improved for all patient subgroups, including induction response: complete/partial responders (n = 234) OS HR, 0.81; 95% CI, 0.59 to 1.11 and stable disease (n = 285) OS HR, 0.76; 95% CI, 0.57 to 1.01). Postdiscontinuation therapy use was similar: pemetrexed, 64%; placebo, 72%. No new safety findings emerged. Drug-related grade 3 to 4 anemia, fatigue, and neutropenia were significantly higher in pemetrexed-treated patients. Pemetrexed continuation maintenance therapy is well-tolerated and offers superior OS compared with placebo, further demonstrating that it is an efficacious treatment strategy for patients with advanced nonsquamous NSCLC and good performance status who did not progress during pemetrexed-cisplatin induction therapy.

Gonzalez Montesinos M.T.,University of Seville | Ortegon Gallego F.,University of Cadiz
Nonlinear Analysis: Real World Applications | Year: 2014

We study the existence of weak solutions to a nonlinear coupled parabolic-elliptic system arising in the heating industrial process of a steel workpiece. The unknowns are the electric potential, the magnetic vector potential and the temperature. The different time scales related to the electric potential and the magnetic vector potential versus the temperature lead us to introduce the harmonic regime. This yields to a new system of nonlinear partial differential equations. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Cabello A.,University of Seville
Physical Review A - Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics | Year: 2014

We show that, for general probabilistic theories admitting sharp measurements, the exclusivity principle together with two assumptions exactly singles out the Tsirelson bound of the Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt Bell inequality. © 2014 American Physical Society.

Prados A.,University of Seville | Prados A.,University Paris - Sud | Trizac E.,University Paris - Sud
Physical Review Letters | Year: 2014

While memory effects have been reported for dense enough disordered systems such as glasses, we show here by a combination of analytical and simulation techniques that they are also intrinsic to the dynamics of dilute granular gases. By means of a certain driving protocol, we prepare the gas in a state where the granular temperature T coincides with its long time limit. However, T does not subsequently remain constant but exhibits a nonmonotonic evolution before reaching its nonequilibrium steady value. The corresponding so-called Kovacs hump displays a normal behavior for weak dissipation (as observed in molecular systems) but is reversed under strong dissipation, where it, thus, becomes anomalous. © 2014 American Physical Society.

Rodriguez-Bano J.,Hospitales Universitarios Virgen Macarena and Virgen del Rocio | Rodriguez-Bano J.,University of Seville
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy | Year: 2015

Several antimicrobial agents are being investigated as alternatives to carbapenems in the treatment of infections caused by ESBLproducing Enterobacteriaceae, which may be useful in avoiding overuse of carbapenems in the context of recent global spread of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae. The most promising candidates for invasive infections so far are β-lactam/β-lactamase inhibitor combinations and cephamycins. © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

Although the representation of the Earth’s surface in plan has been used since antiquity, the first and most important uses of these representations come from the Renaissance. As a result of the discovery of the new American territories, many topographic surveys were performed during the sixteenth century. These maps developed various empirical methods to represent terrain and relief. In this comprehensive corpus, we find three maps with surprising representations of terrain that depart from pictorial methods, such as hill profiles or aligned or grouped mounds (sugar loaf hills), that were used from the origins of cartography until the eighteenth century. The procedure used on these maps is, to a certain extent, an intuitive anticipation of the scientific method used by modern surveying, in which the land relief is represented in an orthogonal view by the contour lines. This method was not developed and systematized until two hundred years after the three maps analysed in this study were produced. © 2016, © The British Cartographic Society 2016.

Penate B.,Canary Islands Institute of Technology ITC | Garcia-Rodriguez L.,University of Seville
Desalination | Year: 2012

Seawater reverse osmosis technology is fully mature at industrial scale which has been installed in all coastal areas around the world with limited natural hydrological resources. There are many technological advances and innovations which are trying to improve the reverse osmosis desalination process. In particular, all pursue to reduce the process energy consumption, as well as to minimize the harmful effects of scaling and fouling on membranes and to obtain higher water flux membranes. This paper presents a comprehensive review of the main innovations and future trends in the design of seawater reverse osmosis desalination technology. These are intended to improve the process performance and the efficiency of this technique for high production. Special focus is placed on the use of renewable energies as an innovation in the medium-term for medium and large production capacities. It supports desalination with renewable energies as an attractive combination in many regions with the possibility of reducing stress on existing water supplies. © 2011 Elsevier B.V..

Martinez-Torres M.R.,University of Seville
Expert Systems with Applications | Year: 2012

This paper proposes the identification of patterns of behaviour of open source software (OSS) communities using factor analysis and their social network analysis (SNA) features. OSS communities can be modelled as a social network in which nodes represent the community members and arcs represent the social interactions among them, and factor analysis is able to provide the factors that explain the latent patterns of behaviour. Due to the complexity of the problem and the high number of SNA features that can be extracted, this paper proposes a genetic search of an optimum subset of indicators leading to a group of latent patterns of behaviour maximizing the explained data variance and the interpretation of factors. Obtained results illustrate the feasibility of the proposed framework to extract relevant information from a large set of data. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Garcia I.G.,University of Seville | Leguillon D.,University Pierre and Marie Curie
International Journal of Solids and Structures | Year: 2012

The failure criterion for v-notched specimens developed for mixed-mode loadings by Yosibash et al. [Yosibash, Z.; Priel, E.; Leguillon, D.; 2006. A failure criterion for brittle elastic materials under mixed mode loading. Int. J. Fract. 141(1), 289-310.] is generalised in order to consider the influence of the shear stresses and the mode-dependence of the toughness. This is demonstrated to be important in some cases with adhesive joints under complex loadings for instance. The original criterion assumes that an abrupt onset of a crack with a finite extension occurs when two conditions are fulfilled simultaneously: first the normal traction all along the presupposed crack path reaches a critical value, and second the onset is energetically allowed. The influence of the shear stresses is now considered through a mixed law involving critical shear and tensile stresses as well as the mode-dependent toughness introducing a new equivalent SIF. This extended criterion is applied to the simulation of an Arcan test on v-notched compact tension shear (CTS) specimens made of two parts bonded together along the geometric plane of symmetry of the specimen. The competition between two modes of failure is studied: crack initiation along the weak joint which may constitute a privileged fracture surface and initiation in the homogeneous material at an optimum angle that minimizes the critical load to failure. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

RET is the major gene associated to Hirschsprung disease (HSCR) with differential contributions of its rare and common, coding and noncoding mutations to the multifactorial nature of this pathology. In the present study, we have performed a comprehensive study of our HSCR series evaluating the involvement of both RET rare variants (RVs) and common variants (CVs) in the context of the disease. RET mutational screening was performed by dHPLC and direct sequencing for the identification of RVs. In addition Taqman technology was applied for the genotyping of 3 RET CVs previously associated to HSCR, including a variant lying in an enhancer domain within RET intron 1 (rs2435357). Statistical analyses were performed using the SPSS v.17.0 to analyze the distribution of the variants. Our results confirm the strongest association to HSCR for the "enhancer" variant, and demonstrate a significantly higher impact of it in male versus female patients. Integration of the RET RVs and CVs analysis showed that in 91.66% of cases with both kinds of mutational events, the enhancer allele is in trans with the allele bearing the RET RV. A gender effect exists on both the transmission and distribution of rare coding and common HSCR causing mutations. In addition, these RET CVs and RVs seem to act in a synergistic way leading to HSCR phenotype.

Narlik-Grassow M.,Spanish National Cancer Research Center | Blanco-Aparicio C.,Spanish National Cancer Research Center | Carnero A.,University of Seville
Medicinal Research Reviews | Year: 2014

The proviral insertion site in Moloney murine leukemia virus, or PIM proteins, are a family of serine/threonine kinases composed of three different isoforms (PIM1, PIM2, and PIM3) that are highly evolutionarily conserved. These proteins are regulated primarily by transcription and stability through pathways that are controlled by Janus kinase/Signal transducer and activator of transcription, JAK/STAT, transcription factors. The PIM family proteins have been found to be overexpressed in hematological malignancies and solid tumors, and their roles in these tumors were confirmed in mouse tumor models. Furthermore, the PIM family proteins have been implicated in the regulation of apoptosis, metabolism, cell cycle, and homing and migration, which has led to the postulation of these proteins as interesting targets for anticancer drug discovery. In the present work, we review the importance of PIM kinases in tumor growth and as drug targets. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Petermann E.,University of Oxford | Orta M.L.,University of Oxford | Orta M.L.,University of Seville | Issaeva N.,University of Stockholm | And 3 more authors.
Molecular Cell | Year: 2010

Faithful DNA replication is essential to all life. Hydroxyurea (HU) depletes the cells of dNTPs, which initially results in stalled replication forks that, after prolonged treatment, collapse into DSBs. Here, we report that stalled replication forks are efficiently restarted in a RAD51-dependent process that does not trigger homologous recombination (HR). The XRCC3 protein, which is required for RAD51 foci formation, is also required for replication restart of HU-stalled forks, suggesting that RAD51-mediated strand invasion supports fork restart. In contrast, replication forks collapsed by prolonged replication blocks do not restart, and global replication is rescued by new origin firing. We find that RAD51-dependent HR is triggered for repair of collapsed replication forks, without apparent restart. In conclusion, our data suggest that restart of stalled replication forks and HR repair of collapsed replication forks require two distinct RAD51-mediated pathways. © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Di Meglio F.,University of California at San Diego | Vazquez R.,University of Seville | Krstic M.,University of California at San Diego
IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control | Year: 2013

We solve the problem of stabilization of a class of linear first-order hyperbolic systems featuring n rightward convecting transport PDEs and one leftward convecting transport PDE. We design a controller, which requires a single control input applied on the leftward convecting PDE's right boundary, and an observer, which employs a single sensor on the same PDE's left boundary. We prove exponential stability of the origin of the resulting plant-observer-controller system in the spatial ℒ2-sense. © 1963-2013 IEEE.

Garcia-Archilla B.,University of Seville
Computer Methods in Applied Mechanics and Engineering | Year: 2013

A new stabilization procedure is presented. It is based on a simulation of the interaction between the coarse and fine parts of a Shishkin mesh, but can be applied on coarse and irregular meshes and on domains with nontrivial geometries. The technique, which does not require adjusting any parameter, can be applied to different stabilized and non stabilized methods. Numerical experiments show it to obtain oscillation-free approximations on problems with boundary and internal layers, on uniform and nonuniform meshes and on domains with curved boundaries. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

Arias-De-reyna E.,University of Seville
Wireless Personal Communications | Year: 2013

This paper deals with range-based localization in ultra wideband sensor networks, allowing for the possibility of large range measurement errors because of a failure to detect the direct paths between some nodes. A novel algorithm is proposed that uses only partial knowledge of the service area topology, particularly of the positions of objects which are capable of causing undetected direct path (UDP) propagation conditions. Although the spirit of the proposed approach, because of the lack of information on the range error statistics, is to remove measurements performed under UDP conditions from the computation of the location estimate, these measurements are used implicitly by the algorithm to contribute to the erroneous trial locations being discarded. A cooperative stage is included that allows the probability of localization of a target with an insufficient initial number of accurate range measurements to increase. The proposed algorithm outperforms a variety of alternative positioning techniques, and thus illustrates the capability of this topology knowledge to mitigate the UDP problem, even in the absence of any knowledge about the range error statistics. © Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013.

Martinez-Torres M.R.,University of Seville
Expert Systems with Applications | Year: 2013

Open innovation represents an emergent paradigm by which organizations make use of internal and external resources to drive their innovation processes. The growth of information and communication technologies has facilitated a direct contact with customers and users, which can be organized as open innovation communities through Internet. The main drawback of this scheme is the huge amount of information generated by users, which can negatively affect the correct identification of potentially applicable ideas. This paper proposes the use of evolutionary computation techniques for the identification of innovators, that is, those users with the ability of generating attractive and applicable ideas for the organization. For this purpose, several characteristics related to the participation activity of users though open innovation communities have been collected and combined in the form of discriminant functions to maximize their correct classification. The right classification of innovators can be used to improve the ideas evaluation process carried out by the organization innovation team. Besides, obtained results can also be used to test lead user theory and to measure to what extent lead users are aligned with the organization strategic innovation policies. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Zych I.,University of Cordoba, Spain | Ortega-Ruiz R.,University of Cordoba, Spain | Del Rey R.,University of Seville
Aggression and Violent Behavior | Year: 2015

Bullying and cyberbullying are studied all over the world. Nevertheless, even though prevalence rates are extremely high in the poor countries, not much attention is paid to them. Similarly, unequal attention is being paid to different topics. Thus, this work is a review of the studies with the highest impact on the field, pointing out what is already broadly recognized and raising concern about issues which still need more attention. With this purpose, the ten most cited articles on bullying and also on cyberbullying in each year published throughout the whole history of research in the field were analyzed. In total 309 articles were analyzed in categories such as the number of authors, country of origin, international collaboration, journal, field and main topic. Results show that most of the highly cited papers come from Northern Europe and Northern America, that teamwork and international collaboration increased with time and that the highest percentage of articles were published in the field of psychology. The vast majority of articles focused on the nature and dynamics of the phenomena and also on related variables. More studies are needed in relation to involvement of minorities and, above all, on prevention and intervention in bullying and cyberbullying. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.

Diaz-Torres A.,ECT | Moro A.M.,University of Seville
Physics Letters, Section B: Nuclear, Elementary Particle and High-Energy Physics | Year: 2014

Recent measurements of low-energy (quasi)elastic-scattering angular distribution of halo nuclei have shown a strong suppression of the Coulomb-nuclear interference peak. Examining the components of the elastic-scattering differential cross sections for 11Be+64Zn and 6He+208Pb at energies near the Coulomb barrier, this appears to be caused by a dramatic phase-change (destructive) of the reduced Coulomb-nuclear interference term due to continuum couplings. © 2014 The Authors.

Gonzalez de Molina F.J.,University of Barcelona | Leon C.,University of Seville | Ruiz-Santana S.,University of Las Palmas de Gran Canaria | Saavedra P.,University of Las Palmas de Gran Canaria
Critical Care | Year: 2012

Introduction: Candidemia in critically ill patients is usually a severe and life-threatening condition with a high crude mortality. Very few studies have focused on the impact of candidemia on ICU patient outcome and attributable mortality still remains controversial. This study was carried out to determine the attributable mortality of ICU-acquired candidemia in critically ill patients using propensity score matching analysis.Methods: A prospective observational study was conducted of all consecutive non-neutropenic adult patients admitted for at least seven days to 36 ICUs in Spain, France, and Argentina between April 2006 and June 2007. The probability of developing candidemia was estimated using a multivariate logistic regression model. Each patient with ICU-acquired candidemia was matched with two control patients with the nearest available Mahalanobis metric matching within the calipers defined by the propensity score. Standardized differences tests (SDT) for each variable before and after matching were calculated. Attributable mortality was determined by a modified Poisson regression model adjusted by those variables that still presented certain misalignments defined as a SDT > 10%.Results: Thirty-eight candidemias were diagnosed in 1,107 patients (34.3 episodes/1,000 ICU patients). Patients with and without candidemia had an ICU crude mortality of 52.6% versus 20.6% (P < 0.001) and a crude hospital mortality of 55.3% versus 29.6% (P = 0.01), respectively. In the propensity matched analysis, the corresponding figures were 51.4% versus 37.1% (P = 0.222) and 54.3% versus 50% (P = 0.680). After controlling residual confusion by the Poisson regression model, the relative risk (RR) of ICU- and hospital-attributable mortality from candidemia was RR 1.298 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.88 to 1.98) and RR 1.096 (95% CI 0.68 to 1.69), respectively.Conclusions: ICU-acquired candidemia in critically ill patients is not associated with an increase in either ICU or hospital mortality. © 2012 González de Molina et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

Anguiano M.,University of Seville
International Journal of Bifurcation and Chaos | Year: 2015

The existence of minimal pullback attractors in L2(ω) for a nonautonomous reaction-diffusion equation, in the frameworks of universes of fixed bounded sets and that given by a tempered growth condition, is proved in this paper, when the domain ω is a general nonempty open subset of RN, and h Lloc2(H-1(ω)). The main concept used in the proof is the asymptotic compactness of the process generated by the problem. The relation among these families is also discussed. © 2015 World Scientific Publishing Company.

Calderon Sandubete E.,University of Seville
Revista cubana de medicina tropical | Year: 2011

INTRODUCTION: Pneumocystis jirovecii is one of the most important opportunistic pathogens affecting AIDS individuals and immunodepressive patients. In spite of the fact that it was observed one hundred years ago for the first time, many fundamental aspects of its biology and the morbidity it causes are still unknown. Objective: this paper was aimed at presenting updating on the main aspects of the history, the epidemiology and the biology of P. jirovecii and the disease it causes. CONCLUSIONS: a number of review articles have been published since the discovery, all of which provide details and novel elements of the microorganism. However, few original papers dealing with this problem have been found in the Spanish literature.

Abril J.-M.,University of Seville | Brunskill G.J.,84 Alligator Creek Road
Journal of Paleolimnology | Year: 2014

Most 210Pb dating models assume that atmospheric flux of excess 210Pb (210Pbexc) to the sediment–water interface remains constant over time. We revisited this assumption using statistical analysis of a database of laminated sediments and evaluated the implications for radiometric dating of recent deposits. A bibliographic survey enabled us to create a database with 10 annually laminated sediment cores from a variety of aquatic systems. The database has records of 210Pbexc flux, initial 210Pbexc activity, and sediment accumulation rate (SAR). 210Pbexc flux to sediments varied with time, and 1/3 of the data had relative deviations from the mean value >25 %. There was no statistically significant correlation between activities at the core top and SAR, whereas a statistically significant (p < 0.01) linear regression between 210Pbexc flux and SAR was found for nine of the ten cores. Thus, in most of the studied aquatic systems, 210Pbexc flux to the sediment was governed primarily by flux of matter, rather than by direct atmospheric 210Pbexc deposition. Errors in chronology and SAR, attributable to varying 210Pbexc flux and estimated by the constant rate of supply (CRS) model, were evaluated from its analytical solutions, and tested against SAR values from this database that were derived independently from varves. We identified several constraints for general application of the CRS model, which must be taken into account to avoid its misuse. © 2014, Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.

Iranzo A.,AICIA | Boillat P.,Paul Scherrer Institute | Rosa F.,University of Seville
International Journal of Hydrogen Energy | Year: 2014

This work presents the validation carried out for a three dimensional CFD 50 cm2 PEM fuel cell model, particularly focus on the prediction of liquid water distributions within the cell. The CFD model was previously validated against a set of experimental polarization curves, where model results adequately matched the experimental curves. An extension of the validation is presented in this work, by performing a comparison of the local liquid water distributions predicted by the model with the liquid water distributions of the real cell. The experimental measurements were obtained by means of Neutron Imaging, where a set of different cell operating conditions was tested. Although the exact quantitative results are not directly comparable due to differences in the cell setup, qualitative results show a very good agreement between the model results and the water distributions observed in the neutron radiographs. A model validation approach using local variable distributions (such as liquid water in this case) in addition to the integral quantities (i.e. polarization curves) is necessary to ensure the validity of models. © 2014, Hydrogen Energy Publications, LLC. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Vazquez R.,University of Seville | Krstic M.,University of California at San Diego
Systems and Control Letters | Year: 2014

We find the exact analytical solution to a Goursat PDE system governing the kernels of a backstepping-based boundary control law that stabilizes a constant-coefficient 2×2 system of first-order hyperbolic linear PDEs. The solution to the Goursat system is related to the solution of a simpler, explicitly solvable Goursat system through a suitable infinite series of powers of partial derivatives which is summed explicitly in terms of special functions, including Bessel functions and the generalized Marcum Q-functions of the first order. The Marcum functions are common in certain applications in communications but have not appeared previously in control design problems. The dependence of the explicit solutions with respect to system parameters is analyzed through several examples, including the stabilization of a constant equilibrium for a quasi-linear plant. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Casado A.M.,University of Seville | Pelaez J.I.,University of Malaga
Expert Systems with Applications | Year: 2014

During the last decade it has been observed that companies have dedicated more effort and resources to developing policies for the management of intangibles in their models of corporate management, which would allow them to improve their position in the market place with respect to their public, and thereby guarantee sustainability through time. This tendency has noticeably increased over the last years owing to the growth in new technologies, the appearance of different monitors and tools that deal with weighing the impact of the aforementioned intangibles, particularly that of corporate reputation. The objective of this paper is to analyse the different monitors and tools used by companies to manage corporate reputation, and define new trends which will be generated in the management of intangibles within multinationals during the forthcoming years and in what direction to develop their management skills. To this end, in the first place, an analysis and comparison is made of the main management monitors and tools of corporate reputation. In second place, a study is carried out of multinational companies that have the best reputation in order to identify which monitors and tools they more frequently use for their intangible management. Finally, it is discussed how to cover the future requirements of these multinationals towards the proactive management of their relational capital by means of intelligent tools that contribute to guarantee their sustainability with their publics; and consider within their design, the new global framework where information, communication, the prescriptions closest to the different stakeholders, share and impact in the social and economic sphere worldwide. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Rodriguez-Rodriguez R.,University of Seville | Simonsen U.,University of Aarhus
Current Analytical Chemistry | Year: 2012

Vascular generation of nitric oxide (NO) plays an important role in the regulation of blood flow, and is counterbalanced by the formation of radical oxygen species (ROS). Thus, an imbalance in vascular NO and ROS production contributes to endothelial dysfunction, which is associated with cardiovascular disease. Here we review the main and commonly used methods that have been applied to determine vascular NO and ROS. Only NO microsensors, electron spin resonance (ESR), and NO sensitive fluorescent probes allow real time measurement of NO levels in cell suspensions, cell cultures, and isolated vascular segments in vitro, and of these techniques only NO microsensors have so far been developed for real time detection of NO in vivo. ROS formation has been detected in cell cultures by lucigenin-enhanced fluorescence, fluorescent probes e.g. 2',7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein and dihydroethidium, by use of ESR, and also by electrochemical detection. The limitations of the electrochemical microsensors include interference from other substances, physical force on the sensors, and influence of temperature and changes in pH that may lead to artifactual changes in current. Therefore, specificity testing and calibration are pivotal, and in case of ROS, application of more than one technique is recommendable. Technical advances have allowed simultaneous detection of both NO and superoxide anion by use of electrochemical microsensors. Miniaturizing the sensors may also allow incorporation of those in lab-on-a-chip and may lead to real time measurements of NO and ROS in the coronary circulation in situ, and hence provide direct evaluation of endothelial and vascular function in cardiovascular disease. © 2012 Bentham Science Publishers.

Dominguez E.,University of Malaga | Heredia-Guerrero J.A.,University of Seville | Heredia A.,University of Malaga
New Phytologist | Year: 2011

The outer surfaces of epidermal cell walls are impregnated with an extracellular matrix called the cuticle. This composite matrix provides several functions at the interface level that enable plants to thrive in different habitats and withstand adverse environmental conditions. The lipid polymer cutin, which is the main constituent of the plant cuticle, has some unique biophysical properties resulting from its composition and structure. This review summarizes the progress made towards understanding the biophysical significance of this biopolymer with special focus on its structural, thermal, biomechanical, and hydric properties and relationships. The physiological relevance of such biophysical properties is discussed in light of existing knowledge on the plant cuticle. © 2010 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2010 New Phytologist Trust.

Valverde F.,University of Seville
Journal of Experimental Botany | Year: 2011

A network of promoting and inhibiting pathways that respond to environmental and internal signals controls the flowering transition. The outcome of this regulatory network establishes, for any particular plant, the correct time of the year to flower. The photoperiod pathway channels inputs from light, day length, and the circadian clock to promote the floral transition. CONSTANS (CO) is a central regulator of this pathway, triggering the production of the mobile florigen hormone FT (FLOWERING LOCUS T) that induces flower differentiation. Because plant reproductive fitness is directly related to its capacity to flower at a precise time, the photoperiod pathway is present in all known plant species. Recent findings have stretched the evolutionary span of this photophase signal to unicellular algae, which show unexpected conserved characteristics with modern plant photoperiodic responses. In this review, a comparative description of the photoperiodic systems in algae and plants will be presented and a general role for the CO family of transcriptional activators proposed. © The Author [2011].

Cuevas J.,University of Seville | Kevrekidis P.G.,University of Massachusetts Amherst | Saxena A.,Los Alamos National Laboratory | Khare A.,Indian Institute of Science
Physical Review A - Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics | Year: 2013

We provide a systematic analysis of a prototypical nonlinear oscillator system respecting PT symmetry i.e., one of them has gain and the other an equal and opposite amount of loss. Starting from the linear limit of the system, we extend considerations to the nonlinear case for both soft and hard cubic nonlinearities identifying symmetric and antisymmetric breather solutions, as well as symmetry-breaking variants thereof. We propose a reduction of the system to a Schrödinger-type PT-symmetric dimer, whose detailed earlier understanding can explain many of the phenomena observed herein, including the PT phase transition. Nevertheless, there are also significant parametric as well as phenomenological potential differences between the two models and we discuss where these arise and where they are most pronounced. Finally, we also provide examples of the evolution dynamics of the different states in their regimes of instability. © 2013 American Physical Society.

Velazquez-Quesada F.R.,University of Seville
Journal of Logic, Language and Information | Year: 2014

Epistemic logic with its possible worlds semantic model is a powerful framework that allows us to represent an agent's information not only about propositional facts, but also about her own information. Nevertheless, agents represented in this framework are logically omniscient: their information is closed under logical consequence. This property, useful in some applications, is an unrealistic idealisation in some others. Many proposals to solve this problem focus on weakening the properties of the agent's information, but some authors have argued that solutions of this kind are not completely adequate because they do not look at the heart of the matter: the actions that allow the agent to reach such omniscient state. Recent works have explored how acts of observation, inference, consideration and forgetting affect an agent's implicit and explicit knowledge; the present work focuses on acts that affect an agent's implicit and explicit beliefs. It starts by proposing a framework in which these two notions can be represented, and then it looks into their dynamics, first by reviewing the existing notion of belief revision, and then by introducing a rich framework for representing diverse forms of inference that involve both knowledge and beliefs. © 2014 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.

Parejo J.A.,University of Seville
AI Communications | Year: 2015

Many problems that we face nowadays can be expressed as optimization problems. Finding the best solution for real-world instances of such problems is hard or even infeasible. Metaheuristic algorithms have been used for decades to guide the search for satisfactory solutions in hard optimization problems at an affordable cost. However, despite its many benefits, the application of metaheuristics requires overcoming numerous obstacles. First, the implementation of efficient metaheuristic programs is a complex and error-prone process. Second, since there is no analytical method to choose a suitable metaheuristic program for a given problem, experiments must be performed. Besides this, experiments are usually performed ad-hoc, with generic tools and no clear guidelines, introducing threats to validity, and making them hard to automate and reproduce. Our aim is to reduce the cost of applying metaheuristics for solving optimization problems. To that purpose, a set of tools to support the selection, configuration and evaluation of metaheuristic-based applications is presented. © 2016 - IOS Press and the authors. All rights reserved.

Garcia-Gutierrez J.,University of Seville
AI Communications | Year: 2015

This work proposes novel methodologies to improve the use of Light Detection And Ranging (LiDAR) for environmental purposes, especially for thematic mapping (LiDAR only or fused with other remote sensors) and the estimation of forest variables. The methodologies make use of well-known techniques from soft computing (machine learning and evolutionary computation) and their adaptation to develop LiDAR-derived products. © 2016 - IOS Press and the authors. All rights reserved.

Asuero A.G.,University of Seville | Michalowski T.,Cracow University of Technology
Critical Reviews in Analytical Chemistry | Year: 2011

This article provides extensive and exhaustive mathematical description of titration curves related to acid-base systems with mixtures of mono- and polyprotic acids and their salts and bases involved. The related curves are presented in compact forms facilitating further operations made for particular needs. Some derivative properties of the curves, such as buffer capacity and inflection points, are also discussed. The "windowed" (BV) buffer capacity is interrelated with "dynamic" (βV) buffer capacity, introduced for dynamic (titration) systems. The equations useful for searching the inflection points on titration curves are derived. A kind of "homogenization" of complex acid-base systems, with polyprotic acids with defined and/or undefined (e.g., fulvic acids) composition, with use of an approach based on Simms constants principle, has been considered in context with buffer capacity and alkalinity. The new concepts of total alkalinity (TAL) and total acidity (TAC), unlike ones considered hitherto, has been introduced. The TAL is determined according to curve-fitting method with use of iterative computer program, applied to nonlinear regression equation involving Simms or Hill constants. Searching the best fit of the related function is involved with addition of consecutive hyperbolic terms. © Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.

Alvarez-Morales L.,University of Seville | Martellotta F.,Polytechnic of Bari
Applied Acoustics | Year: 2015

Historical churches represent an important cultural heritage that nowadays is often used in different ways compared to the original design. In fact, both the "new style" of the celebration (introduced after the Second Vatican Council) and the frequent use as multifunctional spaces ask for different acoustic conditions, also changing the nature and the position of the sound sources compared with the original usage. Most of the available measurement campaigns were carried out using conventional sound positions and unoccupied conditions. However, due to the widespread use of scarcely sound absorbing surfaces, the presence of congregation may change dramatically the acoustical conditions inside the churches, and further variations can be introduced by changes in source placement. In order to analyze such effects, acoustic simulations were carried out using a commercial software, and starting from calibrated models of six different churches. The presence of the congregation determined a significant improvement in monaural acoustical parameters, especially in reverberation which was strongly reduced in all cases. Conversely, spatial parameters showed negligible variations. As variations in reverberation time were predicted with good accuracy by Sabine's formula and variations in center time were in agreement with diffuse field theory, a simplified method to estimate occupied parameters from unoccupied values was proposed. Finally, the original acoustic conditions were simulated by placing a source with human talker directivity in front of the altar facing both the congregation and the main altar, and, where available, on the pulpit facing the congregation. When the priest turned his back to the congregation speech intelligibility dropped in all the churches, particularly where the reflecting surfaces of the apse were at greater distance. The pulpit position provided better results, however in most of the cases they were simply due to the shorter source-receiver distance. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Cabello A.,University of Seville | Cabello A.,Federal University of Minas Gerais | Cunha M.T.,Federal University of Minas Gerais
Physical Review A - Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics | Year: 2013

It has been recently conjectured that the state-independency of quantum contextuality may be lost when the indistinguishability of identical particles is taken into account. Here, we show that quantum state-independent contextuality exists for any system of more than one identical bosonic qudit, and for most systems of fermionic qudits. The only exception is the case of d fermionic qudits, since there the dimension of the antisymmetric subspace is 1, which is insufficient for contextuality. For all the other cases, either the symmetry precludes the existence of physical states or we provide an explicit method to produce quantum state-independent contextual correlations. © 2013 American Physical Society.

Zhang G.,Southwest Jiaotong University | Gheorghe M.,University of Sheffield | Pan L.,Huazhong University of Science and Technology | Perez-Jimenez M.J.,University of Seville
Information Sciences | Year: 2014

Evolutionary membrane computing is an important research direction of membrane computing that aims to explore the complex interactions between membrane computing and evolutionary computation. These disciplines are receiving increasing attention. In this paper, an overview of the evolutionary membrane computing state-of-the-art and new results on two established topics in well defined scopes (membrane-inspired evolutionary algorithms and automated design of membrane computing models) are presented. We survey their theoretical developments and applications, sketch the differences between them, and compare the advantages and limitations. © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Anguiano M.,University of Seville
International Journal of Bifurcation and Chaos | Year: 2015

In this paper, we prove the existence of pullback and uniform attractors for a nonautonomous Liénard equation. The relation among these attractors is also discussed. After that, we consider that the Liénard equation includes forcing terms which belong to a class of functions extending periodic and almost periodic functions recently introduced by Kloeden and Rodrigues [2011]. Finally, we estimate the Hausdorff dimension of the pullback attractor. We illustrate these results with a numerical simulation: we present a simulation showing the pullback attractor for the nonautonomous Van der Pol equation, an important special case of the nonautonomous Liénard equation. © 2015 World Scientific Publishing Company.

Olmedo E.,University of Seville
Journal of Forecasting | Year: 2016

In this paper we confirm the existence of nonlinear dynamics in a time series of airport arrivals. We subsequently propose alternative non-parametric forecasting techniques to be used in a travel forecasting problem, emphasizing the difference between the reconstruction and learning approach. We compare the results achieved in point prediction versus sign prediction. The reconstruction approach offers better results in sign prediction and the learning approach in point prediction. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Gordillo J.M.,University of Seville | Gekle S.,University of Twente | Gekle S.,Technische University Mnchen
Journal of Fluid Mechanics | Year: 2010

The capillary breakup of the high-speed Worthington jets ejected after a cavity collapse in water occurs due to the high-Reynolds-number version of the capillary end-pinching mechanism first described, in the creeping flow limit, by Stone & Leal (J. Fluid Mech., vol. 198, 1989, p. 399). Using potential flow numerical simulations and theory, we find that the resulting drop ejection process does not depend on external noise and can be described as a function of a single dimensionless parameter, WeS = R30 2S2o/σ, which expresses the ratio of the capillary time to the inverse of the local strain rate, S0. Here,ρ and σ indicate the liquid density and the interfacial tension coefficient, respectively, and R0 is the initial radius of the jet. Our physical arguments predict the dimensionless size of the drops to scale as Ddrop/R0 ∼ WeS-1/7 and the dimensionless time to break up as TS0 ∼ We2/7S. These theoretical predictions are in good agreement with the numerical results. © 2010 Cambridge University Press.

Gekle S.,University of Twente | Gekle S.,Technische University Mnchen | Gordillo J.M.,University of Seville
Journal of Fluid Mechanics | Year: 2010

At the beginning of the last century Worthington and Cole discovered that the high-speed jets ejected after the impact of an axisymmetric solid on a liquid surface are intimately related to the formation and collapse of an air cavity created in the wake of the impactor. In this paper, we combine detailed boundary-integral simulations with analytical modelling to describe the formation of such Worthington jets after the impact of a circular disk on water. We extend our earlier model in Gekle et al. (Phys. Rev. Lett., vol. 102, 2009a, 034502), valid for describing only the jet base dynamics, to describe the whole jet. We find that the flow structure inside the jet may be divided into three different regions: the axial acceleration region, where the radial momentum of the incoming liquid is converted to axial momentum; the ballistic region, where fluid particles experience no further acceleration and move constantly with the velocity obtained at the end of the acceleration region; and the jet tip region, where the jet eventually breaks into droplets. From our modelling of the ballistic region we conclude that, contrary to the case of other physical situations where high-speed jets are also ejected, the types of Worthington jets studied here cannot be described using the theory of hyperbolic jets of Longuet-Higgins (J. Fluid Mech., vol. 127, 1983, p. 103). Most importantly, we find that the velocity and the shape of the ejected jets can be well predicted at any instant in time with the only knowledge of quantities obtained before pinch-off occurs. This fact allows us to provide closed expressions for the jet velocity and the sizes of the ejected droplets as a function of the velocity and the size of the impactor. We show that our results are also applicable to Worthington jets emerging after the collapse of a bubble growing from an underwater nozzle, although this system creates thicker jets than the disk impact. © 2010 Cambridge University Press.

Cabello A.,University of Seville
Physical Review Letters | Year: 2013

We show that the maximum quantum violation of the Klyachko-Can- Binicioǧlu-Shumovsky (KCBS) inequality is exactly the maximum value satisfying the following principle: The sum of probabilities of pairwise exclusive events cannot exceed 1. We call this principle "global exclusivity," since its power shows up when it is applied to global events resulting from enlarged scenarios in which the events in the inequality are considered jointly with other events. We identify scenarios in which this principle singles out quantum contextuality, and show that a recent proof excluding nonlocal boxes follows from the maximum violation imposed by this principle to the KCBS inequality. © 2013 American Physical Society.

Neves D.,University of Aveiro | Neves D.,Chalmers University of Technology | Thunman H.,Chalmers University of Technology | Matos A.,University of Aveiro | And 2 more authors.
Progress in Energy and Combustion Science | Year: 2011

In this study some literature data on the pyrolysis characteristics of biomass under inert atmosphere were structured and analyzed, constituting a guide to the conversion behavior of a fuel particle within the temperature range of 200-1000 °C. Data is presented for both pyrolytic product distribution (yields of char, total liquids, water, total gas and individual gas species) and properties (elemental composition and heating value) showing clear dependencies on peak temperature. Empirical relationships are derived from the collected data, over a wide range of pyrolysis conditions and considering a variety of fuels, including relations between the yields of gas-phase volatiles and thermochemical properties of char, tar and gas. An empirical model for the stoichiometry of biomass pyrolysis is presented, where empirical parameters are introduced to close the conservation equations describing the process. The composition of pyrolytic volatiles is described by means of a relevant number of species: H2O, tar, CO2, CO, H2, CH4 and other light hydrocarbons. The model is here primarily used as a tool in the analysis of the general trends of biomass pyrolysis, enabling also to verify the consistency of the collected data. Comparison of model results with the literature data shows that the information on product properties is well correlated with the one on product distribution. The prediction capability of the model is briefly addressed, with the results showing that the yields of volatiles released from a specific biomass are predicted with a reasonable accuracy. Particle models of the type presented in this study can be useful as a submodel in comprehensive reactor models simulating pyrolysis, gasification or combustion processes. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Fernandez J.M.G.,University of Seville
Topics in Current Chemistry | Year: 2010

This review provides an overview of the current status of the chemistry and biology of di-d-fructose dianhydrides (DFAs) with a focus on their potential as functional foods. The history of this family of cyclic ketodisaccharides has expanded for almost 100 years and offers a paradigmatic example of artificial synthetic molecules that were identified as natural products later on and finally encountered in our own table. Issued from fundamental investigations on the reactivity of carbohydrates in strongly acidic media, DFAs remained laboratory curiosities for decades. Early reports on their isolation from plants raised doubts, until the formation of some DFA representatives by the action of microorganisms on fructans was reported in the middle 1980s. Since then, research on DFAs has run in parallel in the areas of microbiology and carbohydrate chemistry. Evidence of the potential of these compounds as functional food was accumulated from both sides, with the development of biotechnological processes for mass production of selected candidates and of chemical methodologies to prepare DFA-enriched products from sucrose or inulin. In 1994 a decisive discovery in the field took place in the laboratory of Jacques Defaye in Grenoble, France: the presence of DFAs in a commercial sucrose caramel was evidenced in a quite significant 18% mass proportion! The development of an efficient analytical protocol for DFAs and the stereoselective synthesis of individual standards allowed one to demonstrate that DFAs and their glycosylated derivatives (glycosyl-DFAs) are universally formed during caramelization reactions. They are not potential food products; they have actually always been in our daily food. Most important, they seem to exert beneficial effects: they are acariogenic, low-caloric, and promote the growth of beneficial microflora in the gut. Most recent evidence indicates that DFAs can even protect the intestinal tract against agressive agents favor the assimilation of antioxidants, and act as a drug-like food for the treatment of colon ailments such as inflammatory bowel disease (Crohn disease). The development of efficient methodologies for the preparation of DFA-enriched caramels, compatible with the food and agricultural industry regulations, may lead to new natural functional foods and nutraceuticals based on DFAs in the near future. © 2010 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

Escrig F.,University of Seville
Structures and Architecture: Concepts, Applications and Challenges - Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Structures and Architecture, ICSA 2013 | Year: 2013

Emilio Pérez Piñero, who died in a car accident in 1972, was able to create more different structural inventions along ten years of intense activity than any other structural designer in Spain. His activity in deployable, modular and space structures in general, was materialized in patents, models and full scale constructions that we are going to describe along the text. He was admired by the most important structural designers and artists as Fuller, Candela, Dalí and many others who collaborated with him in some cases. Nevertheless this talent has been mispriced and ignored even in our academic classes. It is time to recover now the memory of someone who merits being the main consideration as inventor, designer and international architect. © 2013 Taylor & Francis Group.

Alvarez-Galvez J.,University of Seville | Salvador-Carulla L.,University of Sydney
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013

Introduction:Studies have shown that perceived discrimination has an impact on our physical and mental health. A relevant part of literature has highlighted the influence of discrimination based on race or ethnicity on mental and physical health outcomes. However, the influence of other types of discrimination on health has been understudied. This study is aimed to explore how different types of discrimination are related to our subjective state of health, and so to compare the intensity of these relationships in the European context.Methods:We have performed a multilevel ordered analysis on the fifth wave of the European Social Survey (ESS 2010). This dataset has 52,458 units at individual level that are grouped in 26 European countries. In this study, the dependent variable is self-rated health (SRH) that is analyzed in relationship to ten explanatory variables of perceived discrimination: color or race, nationality, religion, language, ethnic group, age, gender, sexuality, disability and others.Results:The model identifies statistically significant differences in the effect that diverse types of perceived discrimination can generate on the self-rated health of Europeans. Specifically, this study identifies three well-defined types of perceived discrimination that can be related to poor health outcomes: (1) age discrimination; (2) disability discrimination; and (3) sexuality discrimination. In this sense, the effect on self-rated health of perceived discrimination related to aging and disabilities seems to be more relevant than other types of discrimination in the European context with a longer tradition in literature (e.g. ethnic and/or race-based).Conclusion:The present study shows that the relationship between perceived discrimination and health inequities in Europe are not random, but systematically distributed depending on factors such as age, sexuality and disabilities. Therefore the future orientation of EU social policies should aim to reduce the impact of these social determinants on health equity. © 2013 Alvarez-Galvez et al.

Avrigeanu M.,Horia Hulubei National Institute of Physics and Nuclear Engineering | Moro A.M.,University of Seville
Physical Review C - Nuclear Physics | Year: 2010

Experimental elastic-scattering angular distributions for deuteron interaction with Cu63 and Nb93 targets are compared with calculations performed within the continuum-discretized coupled-channels (CDCC) method, in which coupling to breakup channels is explicitly taken into account. The calculated elastic breakup cross sections are compared with the predictions of an empirical parametrization for a wide range of deuteron incident energies. The good agreement between the calculations and the systematics at the energies where data are available indicates that the CDCC method permits a useful assessment of empirical parametrizations and provides useful guidance for the extrapolation of these parametrizations beyond the energies formerly considered. © 2010 The American Physical Society.

Madrid F.,Institute Recursos Naturales y Agrobiologia CSIC | Florido M.C.,University of Seville
Journal of Hazardous Materials | Year: 2010

The influence of a composted biosolid from urban wastewater treatment on the retention and solubility of Cu, Pb or Zn added to a soil was studied by batch adsorption/desorption experiments, equilibrating both materials and their mixtures with solutions containing various metal concentrations. The composted biosolid adsorbed less Cu or Pb and slightly more Zn than the soil, and thus caused a noticeable decrease in the retention of Cu or Pb and an increase in Zn adsorption by soil-biosolid mixtures, but these effects in the mixtures were not additive for any metal. The pH effects were studied by means of (log metal concentration)/pH diagrams. It was shown that Cu behaviour was different from that of the other metals: the relation between pH and Cu concentrations suggested similar solubilities in the presence of the biosolid and the mixtures, whereas the biosolid-free soil gave data located on a region of the diagram corresponding to slightly lower solubility. In the case of Pb or Zn, the data for the biosolid were located in a region of the diagram corresponding to clearly lower solubilities than those for the biosolid/soil mixtures. It was concluded that the biosolid has little effect on metal solubility when it is mixed with the soil in the proportions used here. © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Maynar P.,University of Seville | Trizac E.,University Paris - Sud
Physical Review Letters | Year: 2011

In its continuous version, the entropy functional measuring the information content of a given probability density may be plagued by a "measure" problem that results from improper weighting of phase space. This issue is addressed considering a generic collision process whereby a large number of particles or agents randomly and repeatedly interact in pairs, with prescribed conservation law(s). We find a sufficient condition under which the stationary single-particle distribution function maximizes an entropylike functional, that is free of the measure problem. This condition amounts to a factorization property of the Jacobian associated with the binary collision law, from which the proper weighting of phase space directly follows. © 2011 American Physical Society.

Cabello A.,University of Seville | Cunha M.T.,Federal University of Minas Gerais
Physical Review Letters | Year: 2011

It has been argued that any test of quantum contextuality is nullified by the fact that perfect orthogonality and perfect compatibility cannot be achieved in finite precision experiments. We introduce experimentally testable two-qutrit violations of inequalities for noncontextual theories in which compatibility is guaranteed by the fact that measurements are performed on separated qutrits. The inequalities are inspired by the basic building block of the Kochen-Specker proof of quantum contextuality for a qutrit, despite the fact that their proof is completely independent of it. © 2011 American Physical Society.

Rubio-Escudero C.,University of Seville
AI Communications | Year: 2012

We propose a novel methodology to extract gene expression profiles from microarray experiments based on the application of an AI process (multiobjective optimization) to establish relationships between each profile and the most suitable existing technique to discover it. We first determine a space of potential hypothesis (techniques) aggregating well-known and widely used methods. Then, for each profile, we perform a multiobjective search over the space of hypothesis in order to find the technique (or aggregation of them) that better finds it. © 2012 - IOS Press and the authors. All rights reserved.

Sanchez-de-la-Torre M.,Hospital Universitari Arnau Of Vilanova Santa Maria | Sanchez-de-la-Torre M.,Research Center Biomedica En Red Of Enfermedades Respiratorias Ciberes | Campos-Rodriguez F.,University of Seville | Barbe F.,Hospital Universitari Arnau Of Vilanova Santa Maria | Barbe F.,Research Center Biomedica En Red Of Enfermedades Respiratorias Ciberes
The Lancet Respiratory Medicine | Year: 2013

Obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) is a common health concern caused by repeated episodes of collapse of the upper airway during sleep. The events associated with OSA lead to brain arousal, intrathoracic pressure changes, and intermittent episodes of hypoxaemia and reoxygenation. These events activate pathways such as oxidative stress, sympathetic activation, inflammation, hypercoagulability, endothelial dysfunction, and metabolic dysregulation that predispose patients with OSA to hypertension and atherosclerosis. OSA is a common cause of systemic hypertension and should be suspected in hypertensive individuals, especially those with resistant hypertension. In patients with OSA, continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) treatment reduces blood pressure, and its effects are related to compliance and baseline blood pressure. Evidence suggests that OSA is a risk factor for stroke and heart failure. An association between coronary heart disease and OSA seems to be limited to middle-aged men (30-70 years). Cardiac rhythm disorders occur in about half of patients with OSA, but their clinical relevance is still unknown. The association of OSA with cardiovascular risk is mainly based on studies in men, and an association has yet to be established in women. Data on older patients is similarly scarce. Currently, there is not enough evidence to support treatment with CPAP for primary or secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

Garcia-Sanchez P.,University of Twente | Ramos A.,University of Seville | Mugele F.,University of Twente
Physical Review E - Statistical, Nonlinear, and Soft Matter Physics | Year: 2010

Mixing within sessile drops can be enhanced by generating internal flow patterns using ac electrowetting. While for low ac frequencies, the flow patterns have been attributed to oscillations of the drop surface, we provide here the driving mechanism of the hitherto unexplained high-frequency flows. We show that: (1) the electric field in the liquid bulk becomes important, leading to energy dissipation due to Joule heating and a temperature increase of several degrees Celsius, and (2) the fluid flow at these frequencies is generated by electrothermal effect, i.e., gradients in temperature give rise to gradients in conductivity and permittivity, the electric field acting on these inhomogeneities induces an electrical body force that generates the flow. We solved numerically the equations for the electric, temperature and flow fields. The temperature is obtained from a convection-diffusion equation where Joule heating is introduced as a source term. From the solution of the electric field and the temperature, we compute the electrical force that acts as a body force in Stokes equations. Our numerical results agree with previous experimental observations. © 2010 The American Physical Society.

Vetter M.,Ludwig Maximilians University of Munich | Sousa A.,University of Seville
Fundamental and Applied Limnology | Year: 2012

In the past decades, nutrient concentrations in several pre-Alpine lakes in central Europe have increased due to human activity in the catchment area. Here, we examine whether this trend will continue in the future, through our analysis of the development of the trophic status, over a period of 25 years (1984 - 2009), of the pre-Alpine, dimictic tempered Lake Ammersee (South-Eastern Germany). The lake showed signs of an elevated eutrophic status until the 1990s. Immense management activities in the catchment area led to a reduction in the nutrient load in the tributaries. The study of dissolved oxygen, total phosphorus (TP) and chlorophyll-a revealed a substantial improvement in the trophic conditions of the lake. We identified a transition period in the development of trophic levels during the years 1996/1997. Therefore, our investigation is divided into two periods: 1984 -1996 and 1997- 2009. By comparing values during these two periods, we found that the annual mean TP concentrations of the complete water column declined from 18.2 μg l -1 (1984 -1996) to 8.8 μg l-1 (1997-2009). During this period the chlorophyll-a values are in relationship to other trophic variables such as TP, dissolved oxygen and sight depths (R2 between 0.41 and 0.56). At the same time, during the summer months, the surface temperature in the epilimnion increased (by about 0.8 K per decade), which was approximately in line with the thermal increase (about 0.6 K per decade) in the northern hemisphere (Pearson's correlation coefficient, omitting 2006, of 0.81). In conclusion, in the case of Lake Ammersee, a decrease in nutrient input has led, most recently (1997- 2009), to a substantial improvement in the trophic state. This improvement is fundamentally a result of measures taken to correct any anthropogenic impact. Nevertheless, we show that the thermal stability of the lake reacts to climate-triggered alterations. Therefore it seems that the impact of recent climate change on trophic conditions will have to be monitored closely in the future. © 2012 E. Schweizerbart'sche Verlagsbuchhandlung, Stuttgart, Germany.

Chalco-Cano Y.,University of Tarapaca | Silva G.N.,Sao Paulo State University | Rufian-Lizana A.,University of Seville
Fuzzy Sets and Systems | Year: 2015

In this article we consider optimization problems where the objectives are fuzzy functions (fuzzy-valued functions). For this class of fuzzy optimization problems we discuss the Newton method to find a non-dominated solution. For this purpose, we use the generalized Hukuhara differentiability notion, which is the most general concept of existing differentiability for fuzzy functions. This work improves and corrects the Newton method previously proposed in the literature. © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Tierra G.,Charles University | Guillen-Gonzalez F.,University of Seville
Archives of Computational Methods in Engineering | Year: 2015

In this paper, we review some numerical methods presented in the literature in the last years to approximate the Cahn–Hilliard equation. Our aim is to compare the main properties of each one of the approaches to try to determine which one we should choose depending on which are the crucial aspects when we approximate the equations. Among the properties that we consider desirable to control are the time accuracy order, energy-stability, unique solvability and the linearity or nonlinearity of the resulting systems. In particular, we concern about the iterative methods used to approximate the nonlinear schemes and the constraints that may arise on the physical and computational parameters. Furthermore, we present the connections of the Cahn–Hilliard equation with other physically motivated systems (not only phase field models) and we state how the ideas of efficient numerical schemes in one topic could be extended to other frameworks in a natural way. © 2014, CIMNE, Barcelona, Spain.

Talero E.,University of Seville
Mediators of inflammation | Year: 2012

Adrenomedullin (AM) is a 52 amino acid peptide that has shown predominant anti-inflammatory activities. In the present study, we evaluated the possible therapeutic effect of this peptide in an experimental model of acute inflammation, the carrageenan- (CAR-) induced pleurisy. Pleurisy was induced by injection of CAR into the pleural cavity of mice. AM (200 ng/kg) was administered by intraperitoneal route 1 h after CAR, and the animals were sacrificed 4 h after that. AM treatment attenuated the recruitment of leucocytes in the lung tissue and the generation and/or the expression of the proinflammatory cytokines as well as the expression of the intercellular cell adhesion molecules. Moreover, AM inhibited the induction of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), thereby abating the generation of nitric oxide (NO) and prevented the oxidative and nitroxidative lung tissue injury, as shown by the reduction of nitrotyrosine, malondialdehyde (MDA), and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) levels. Finally, we demonstrated that these anti-inflammatory effects of AM were associated with the inhibition of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) activation. All these parameters were markedly increased by intrapleural CAR in the absence of any treatment. We report that treatment with AM significantly reduces the development of acute lung injury by downregulating a broad spectrum of inflammatory factors.

Casadesus J.,University of Seville
Future Microbiology | Year: 2011

Salmonella is a human pathogen that causes various types of infections, ranging from mild gastroenteritis to life-threatening typhoid fever. For decades, research on Salmonella has attracted not just clinical microbiologists and epidemiologists but also geneticists and molecular biologists who use Salmonella as a model organism. Hence, meetings dealing with Salmonella can be truly interdisciplinary. Such was the case in the ESCMID-FEMS Conference held in Villars-sur-Ollon (Switzerland) in October 2010. The meeting fostered interactive views of Salmonella biology and prompted the discussion of strategies to prevent and combat Salmonella infections. © 2011 Future Medicine Ltd.

Heterocyst differentiation is orchestrated by the N control transcriptional regulator NtcA and the differentiation-specific factor HetR. In Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120, the devBCA operon is expressed from two different promoters activated upon N stepdown. The distal devB promoter (transcription start point [TSP] located at position -704) represents a canonical class II NtcA-activated promoter, including a consensus NtcA-binding site centered 39.5 nucleotides upstream from the TSP. Transcription activation from a second TSP (-454) requires NtcA and is impaired in hetR mutants. In a wild-type background, three different DNA fragments, including both or each individual promoter, directed gfp expression localized mainly to proheterocysts and heterocysts. Expression was undetectable in an ntcA background and, for the fragment including the proximal promoter alone, also in a hetR background. In spite of the absence of consensus NtcA-binding sequences between the two TSPs, NtcA was shown to interact with this DNA region, and NtcA and its effector, 2-oxoglutarate, were necessary and sufficient for in vitro transcription from the -454 TSP. No HetR binding to the DNA or in vitro transcription from the proximal devB TSP promoted by HetR alone were detected. However, a moderate positive effect of HetR on NtcA binding to the DNA between the two devB TSPs was observed. The proximal devB promoter appears to represent a suboptimal NtcA-activated promoter for which HetR may act as a coactivator, with the physiological effect of restricting gene activation to conditions of prevalence of high NtcA and HetR levels, such as those taking place during heterocyst differentiation.

Gonzalez-Ovejero D.,Catholic University of Louvain | Mesa F.,University of Seville | Craeye C.,Catholic University of Louvain
IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation | Year: 2013

An efficient technique is presented for the analysis of finite printed antenna arrays made of identical elements. It is based on a closed-form expression for the spatial-domain Green's function (GF) given as a finite sum of cylindrical waves (obtained through rational function fitting) plus one spherical wave. From there, a multipole expansion can be obtained for planar layered medium GFs. The macro basis function (MBF) technique is applied to the method of moments (MoM) solution of a mixed-potential integral equation, this reduces the size of the MoM impedance matrix and allows for a direct solution. However, the evaluation of the entries of this reduced matrix becomes the dominant contribution to the total computation time. The aforementioned multipole expansion is exploited to provide a fast construction of the reduced MoM matrix, whose elements are the reaction integrals between the MBFs considered to characterize the currents on the array element. The complexity of evaluating the interactions between MBFs is found to be dominated by the calculations related to the spherical wave term. Thus, taking into account the layered medium does not increase the order of the complexity with respect to a multipole-accelerated computation of reaction integrals in a homogeneous medium. © 1963-2012 IEEE.

Sharaf M.A.,Suez Canal University | Nafey A.S.,Suez Canal University | Garcia-Rodriguez L.,University of Seville
Energy | Year: 2011

Solar power assisted different techniques of MED-VC (multi effect distillation-vapor compression) processes is thermo-economically analyzed and evaluated. In this work, two techniques of solar power cycles are considered to power on MED-PF-TVC, MVC (multi effect distillation thermal and mechanical vapor compressions). In the first technique, the developed solar thermal power is directly transmitted from the solar collector field via boiler heat exchanger unit toward the steam ejector of the MED-PF-TVC process. In the second technique, the electrical power generated from the SORC (Solar Organic Rankine Cycle) is used to power on the vapor compressor of the MED-PF-MVC process. The comparison is implemented according to the operation of PTC (parabolic trough collector) with Toluene organic oil and Water working fluids (2nd technique). Therminol-VP1 HTO (Heat Transfer Oil) is considered across the solar field and water is considered for boiler heat exchanger (1st technique). A case study is performed according to 4545 m3/day of distillate product. As a result, reducing the value of compression ratio with increasing the evaporator's numbers would reduce the specific power consumption, solar field area, and thermo-economic costs. Also it is clear that the operation of steam ejector would increase the gain ratio instead of increasing the evaporator's numbers. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

Galan E.,University of Seville | Ferrell R.E.,Louisiana State University
Developments in Clay Science | Year: 2013

The origin of clay minerals is an important topic in applied clay science because the properties of any clay, and particularly those of kaolin, smectite, palygorskite and sepiolite, are origin dependent. Knowledge of clay mineral genesis from studies of existing deposits also contributes to improved exploration, mining, and processing. This chapter describes the geological environments for clay minerals (weathering crusts and soils, continental and marine sediments, hydrothermal alteration, diagenesis, and very low grade metamorphism), and the Martian clays, and their importance to understand the processes occurred on the Mars surface. The use of clay minerals as palaeogeothermometers and the importance of mixed-layer clays in exploration for oil and gas in sedimentary basins are particularly reported. Finally, statistical analysis of geochemical and mineralogical data and the geochemistry of stable and radioactive isotopes in clay minerals are commented because these investigative methods provide additional clues to the genesis of clay minerals. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

Michalowski T.,Cracow University of Technology | Asuero A.G.,University of Seville
Critical Reviews in Analytical Chemistry | Year: 2012

Alkaline measurements (carbonate alkalinity and total alkalinity) are of great importance in analyses of ocean, marine, lake and river waters, and other samples. Carbonate alkalinity (CA) refers to the cases in which only bicarbonate and carbonate species are considered. Total alkalinity (Alk) implies additional species having acid-base properties. Biochemical processes give rise to the organic alkalinity (OA) in natural waters. The value of these topics is obvious if we refer to the plethora of publications in this field. As a matter of fact, the approaches towards Alk provide ambiguous results and those for CA arouse some reservations as well. Having this in mind, a new approach for alkalinity determination, presented in recent review paper published in this journal (Crit. Rev. Anal. Chem. 2011, 41, 151), was developed in a more systematic and complete way, and new acronyms, TAL for total alkalinity and CAM for carbonate alkalinity, were introduced in that article. The methods proposed there and here are based on potentiometric pH titration, as the most common method applied for studying acid-base properties of humic substances (humic and fulvic acids). The parameters involved with CAM are resolved with the use of an Excel spreadsheet for the resolution of linear equations, whereas the parameters of a nonlinear regression equation referring to the TAL method are obtainable according to a more advanced, iterative computer program. A compact approach to CAM, based on the modified Gran II method, is carried out, but in a manner quite different and more thorough than the ones presented hitherto. Except for equivalence volumes, the CAM method enables evaluating the activity coefficient of hydrogen ions and values for (hybrid and concentration) dissociation constants of carbonic acid and ionic product of water. The possibilities and limitations of this method are tested by using a simulation procedure. The results obtained from simulated titrations provide the reference level related to error-free V and pH values at the points of titration curve ph = ph(V), ph = - log h, h - activity of hydrogen ions. The TAL model with Simms constants involved allows "homogenizing" the treatment of mono- and polyprotic acids and bases, especially those of undefined composition, i.e., carbonate species, fulvic acids, and their soluble complexes with metal ions. The TAL model may also be extended to the option where an approach based on a pre-dose addition is applied. pH and acid-base equilibria are very important topics and some aspects of them have been treated in this journal. Alkalinity determinations are of value in anaerobic digesters and anaerobic wastewater treatment, mine drainage and associated water, coastal seawater, marine aquaculture, estuarine water, and food and beverages, to point out a few recent examples. © 2012 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.

Cabello A.,University of Seville | Badziag P.,University of Stockholm | Terra Cunha M.,Federal University of Minas Gerais | Bourennane M.,University of Stockholm
Physical Review Letters | Year: 2013

Contextuality and nonlocality are two fundamental properties of nature. Hardy's proof is considered the simplest proof of nonlocality and can also be seen as a particular violation of the simplest Bell inequality. A fundamental question is: Which is the simplest proof of contextuality? We show that there is a Hardy-like proof of contextuality that can also be seen as a particular violation of the simplest noncontextuality inequality. Interestingly, this new proof connects this inequality with the proof of the Kochen-Specker theorem, providing the missing link between these two fundamental results, and can be extended to an arbitrary odd number n of settings, an extension that can be seen as a particular violation of the n-cycle inequality. © 2013 American Physical Society.

Cabello A.,University of Seville | Severini S.,University College London | Winter A.,Autonomous University of Barcelona
Physical Review Letters | Year: 2014

Correlations in Bell and noncontextuality inequalities can be expressed as a positive linear combination of probabilities of events. Exclusive events can be represented as adjacent vertices of a graph, so correlations can be associated to a subgraph. We show that the maximum value of the correlations for classical, quantum, and more general theories is the independence number, the Lovász number, and the fractional packing number of this subgraph, respectively. We also show that, for any graph, there is always a correlation experiment such that the set of quantum probabilities is exactly the Grötschel-Lovász-Schrijver theta body. This identifies these combinatorial notions as fundamental physical objects and provides a method for singling out experiments with quantum correlations on demand. © 2014 American Physical Society.

Mateos-Naranjo E.,University of Seville | Castellanos E.M.,University of Huelva | Perez-Martin A.,CSIC - Institute of Natural Resources and Agriculture Biology of Seville
Environmental and Experimental Botany | Year: 2014

The research on species with capacity to tolerate and accumulate zinc is of paramount importance for phytoremediation purposes. An experiment was designed to investigate the effect of Zn from 0 to 100mmoll-1 on the growth, photosynthetic apparatus and nutrient uptake of the halophytic species Juncus acutus. Gas exchange, chlorophyll fluorescence and photosynthetic pigments concentration were measured. We also determined total zinc, magnesium, potassium, phosphorus and sodium concentrations, as well as C/N ratio. J. acutus showed high tolerance to Zn-induced stress, since all plants survived and none of them showed any toxicity symptoms, such as chlorosis, necrosis or growth reduction at concentrations up to 100mmoll-1 Zn. The integrity and functionality of the photosynthetic apparatus were unaffected even at zinc concentrations greater than 500mgkg-1 on tillers. Likewise, nutrient absorption was relatively unaffected. Zn tolerance was associated with the capacity to accumulate Zn in roots (with values up to 2500mgkg-1) and largely avoid its transport to tillers. These characteristics, along with its ability to establish in a wide variety of ecosystems, render this species a useful phytostabilizer for revegetation of Zn-contaminated lands. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.

Kurzynski P.,National University of Singapore | Kurzynski P.,Adam Mickiewicz University | Cabello A.,University of Seville | Kaszlikowski D.,National University of Singapore
Physical Review Letters | Year: 2014

We show that the no-disturbance principle imposes a tradeoff between locally contextual correlations violating the Klyachko-Can-Binicioǧlu- Shumovski inequality and spatially separated correlations violating the Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt inequality. The violation of one inequality forbids the violation of the other. We also obtain the corresponding monogamy relation imposed by quantum theory for a qutrit-qubit system. Our results show the existence of fundamental monogamy relations between contextuality and nonlocality that suggest that entanglement might be a particular form of a more fundamental resource. © 2014 American Physical Society.

Marquez de Aracena R.,University of Seville
Recent Patents on Regenerative Medicine | Year: 2012

The use of blood derivatives has been one of the most important advances in Ophthalmology in recent decades. Their successful application in Ophthalmology has led to the development of new methods and techniques, opening up many treatment options for pathologies of the ocular surface, and facilitating and improving the maintenance of its integrity and regeneration. In concrete, in regenerative medicine blood derivates have been proven to be effective in tissue repair, in the form of stem cell transplants, artificial tissues and organs, or as part of matrices and as culture media. The wide range of uses and the rapid innovation of these techniques mean that it is important to keep up to date. We will therefore, briefly review the main concepts, their development, different types of treatment and applications, and the present and future situation concerning this subject, highlighting the most important innovations and the future of blood derivatives in the treatment of the ocular surface. © 2012 Bentham Science Publishers.

Tejada M.,University of Seville | Masciandaro G.,National Research Council Italy
Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety | Year: 2011

In this paper we studied the bioremediation effects of a soil artificially contaminated by benzo(a)pyrene with and without two organic wastes (organic municipal solid waste, MSW, and poultry manure, PM) and with and without worms (Eisenia fetida) over 90 days. For the organic treatments, soil samples were mixed with MSW at a rate of 10% or PM at a rate of 7.6%, in order to apply the same amount of organic matter to the soil. An unamended and non-polluted soil was used as control. Cellulase and glutathione-S-transferase activities in worms and the earthworms' weight were measured at four different incubation times (3, 15, 60 and 90 days). Cocoon numbers, average weight per cocoon and number of juveniles per cocoon were measured 30 days after the benzo(a)pyrene exposure. Extractable benzo(a)pyrene in soils and E. fetida was determined during the incubation period. To observe the effects of bioremediation of the contaminated soil, ATP, urease and phosphatase activities were measured. At the end of the incubation period and when compared with the polluted soil without worms and organic matter, the extractable benzo(a)pyrene decreased by 41.2% for the unamended polluted soil and without worms, by 45.8% for the organic-PM polluted soil and without worms, 48.3% for the organic-MSW polluted soil and without worms, 55.4% for the organic-PM polluted soil and with worms, and 66.3% for the organic-MSW polluted soil and with worms. This meant that worm hydrocarbon absorption was lowest in the contaminated soil amended with MSW and with worms, causing an increase in catabolic activity of the soil. These results suggested that the co-application of organic wastes and E. fetida for the bioremediation of benzo(a)pyrene polluted soil is potentially advantageous. © 2010 Elsevier Inc.

Rappaport J.,University of Maryland University College | Garnacho C.,University of Seville | Muro S.,University of Maryland University College
Molecular Pharmaceutics | Year: 2014

Drugs often use endocytosis to achieve intracellular delivery, either by passive uptake from the extracellular fluid or by active targeting of cell surface features such as endocytic receptors. An example is enzyme replacement therapy, a clinically practiced treatment for several lysosomal storage diseases where glycosylated recombinant enzymes naturally target the mannose-6-phosphate receptor and are internalized by clathrin mediated endocytosis (CME). However, lysosomal substrate accumulation, a hallmark of these diseases, has been indirectly linked to aberrant endocytic activity. These effects are poorly understood, creating an obstacle to therapeutic efficiency. Here we explored endocytic activity in fibroblasts from patients with type A Niemann-Pick disease, a lysosomal storage disease characterized by acid sphingomyelinase (ASM) deficiency. The uptake of fluid phase markers and clathrin-associated ligands, formation of endocytic structures, and recruitment of intracellular clathrin to ligand binding sites were all altered, demonstrating aberrant CME in these cells. Model polymer nanocarriers targeted to intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), which are internalized by a clathrin-independent route, enhanced the intracellular delivery of recombinant ASM more than 10-fold compared to free enzyme. This strategy reduced substrate accumulation and restored clathrin endocytic activity to wild-type levels. There appears to be a relationship between lysosomal storage and diminished CME, and bypassing this pathway by targeting ICAM-1 may enhance future therapies for lysosomal storage diseases. © 2014 American Chemical Society.

Lizarralde C.,University of Seville | Cano S.J.D.,Kings College
Histology and Histopathology | Year: 2013

Background: Head and neck arterio-venous malformations (AVM) are not frequent lesions and no thyroid cases have been reported to date; as hypervascular nodular lesions, they can be misdiagnosed as malignant. Findings: We present two patients with palpable thyroid nodules with suspicions of malignancy based on the hypervascular imaging findings. Histologically, these lesions were well-defined adenomatous nodules with multiple interconnected blood vessels of variable size, many of them dilated and arranged predominantly at the periphery of the lesions. These findings characterize thyroid AVM in the background of adenomatous nodules. Age-matched euthyroid benign non-infiltrative follicular lesions without vascular component, adenomatous hyperplastic nodules (37) and follicular adenomas (21), during the same period (2 years) were retrieved to evaluate vascular markers. Compared with the non-nodular tissues and controls, the hyperplastic nodules with vascular malformation displayed significant mRNA overexpression for VEGF-A, PDGFA, PDGF-B, and eNOS. Conclusions: Vascular lesions of thyroid gland are rare and they can present as palpable nodules revealing well-defined edges, zonal blood vessel distribution and up-regulation of VEGF-related pathway and eNOS. These findings can help identify the true nature of these lesions.

Olmedo E.,University of Seville
Computational Economics | Year: 2014

In this paper, alternative non-parametric forecasting techniques are analysed, with emphasis placed on the difference between the reconstruction and learning approaches. The former is based on Takens' Theorem, which recovers unknown dynamic properties of a system; it is appropriate in deterministic systems. The latter is a powerful instrument in noisy systems. Both techniques are applied to the forecasting of Spanish unemployment, first one step -forecasting and second using a longer time horizon of prediction. To assess the robustness and generality of the methods we have employed unemployment time series of different European countries. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media New York.

Neila J.,University of Seville | Soyer H.P.,University of Queensland
Journal of Dermatology | Year: 2011

Early diagnosis and prompt surgical excision are the most important aims in the secondary prevention of cutaneous melanoma. Dermoscopy has increased the accuracy in the detection of melanoma because of dermoscopic-specific features that can be easily detected by trained dermoscopists. However, the classical melanoma-specific criteria such as multicomponent pattern, atypical pigmented network, irregular dots/globules, irregular streaks, multiple colors, blue-whitish veil or regression structures may not be present in all of these lesions. For some early melanomas change, as evidenced by sequential dermoscopic monitoring, may be the only feature suggesting malignancy. At present, even with dermoscopy, the diagnosis of these early melanomas remains to be a challenge for dermatologist. Patient education, digital dermoscopic follow up and consensus diagnosis have been proposed to overcome this problem. © 2011 Japanese Dermatological Association.

Martin-Banderas L.,University of Seville
International journal of nanomedicine | Year: 2012

CB13 (1-Naphthalenyl[4-(pentyloxy)-1-naphthalenyl]methanone)-loaded poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) nanoparticles (NPs) were produced by nanoprecipitation and tested for their in vitro release behavior and in vitro cytotoxicity assays. The effects of several formulation parameters such as polymer type, surfactant concentration, and initial drug amount were studied. NPs had a particle size 90-300 nm in diameter. Results obtained show that the main influence on particle size was the type of polymer employed during the particle production: the greater the hydrophobicity, the smaller the particle size. In terms of encapsulation efficiency (%), high values were achieved (∼68%-90%) for all formulations prepared due to the poor solubility of CB13 in the external aqueous phase. Moreover, an inverse relationship between release rate and NP size was found. On the other hand, low molecular weight and low lactide content resulted in a less hydrophobic polymer with increased rates of water absorption, hydrolysis, and erosion. NPs showed no cytotoxicity and may be considered to be appropriate for drug-delivery purposes.

Two-component systems have been extensively described in the control of gene expression in response to different environmental signals in the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803. The Hik34-Rre1 two-component system has been shown to regulate a set of genes under certain stress conditions. Some evidence indicates that another histidine kinase, probably Hik2, is acting upstream of Rre1 in the regulation of some genes in response to hyperosmotic and salt stress. In the present study, a mis-annotation of the Rre1 protein has been identified and the correct version has been functionally characterized in vitro. By using EMSA assays, we have demonstrated that phosphorylation of Rre1 by Hik2 increases the affinity of the response regulator for the adhA promoter region, a gene that has been demonstrated previously to be specifically regulated by the Hik34-Rre1 system. These results suggest that Hik2 might cooperate with Hik34 in the regulation of the adhA gene by transferring the phosphoryl group to Rre1 under salt and hyperosmotic stress conditions. © FEMS 2015.

Paez A.M.,University of Seville
Educacion Quimica | Year: 2013

There is no other woman in the history of science better known than Marie Curie. She was the first woman Professor at the Sorbonne, the University of Paris, after more than six hundreds years, the first woman to obtain a Nobel Prize, the first scientist to obtain a second. But above all these honours, Marie was a passionate person, whose curiosity and spirit of adventure kept her alive beyond the limits of her strength. It is astonishing how there are still some persons, usually men, that still consider her as an assistant of her husband, neglecting the relevance of her discovery, the radioactivity. It is even more difficult to understand how distorted is the picture of her that had reached us, that of a sad women, wearing always black dresses. And Marie was just the opposite: a lively and passionate woman, who devoted her life to science as everybody knows, but did many other things as well: fought to defend her country and loved passionately her daughters and the men she felt in love with, specially her husband. © Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México.

Droughts are recurrent climatic hazards that cause major environmental, economic and social impacts, and increase the conflict potential between countries sharing transboundary river basins. The shared river basins of the Iberian Peninsula, and the Guadiana in particular, are of major significance for Mediterranean Europe, as examples of basins marked by aridity, water scarcity, and drought risk. A political agreement (the Albufeira Convention) regulates water issues between Portugal and Spain but an exception regime is applied under drought conditions, and the Convention looses its effectiveness. The two countries have different planning and management policies to tackle droughts, based on distinctive administrative and socio-economic structures. This paper analyses each country's framework, and assesses the level of cooperation and compliance with the basic pillars of transboundary water governance, identifying the potential and constraints for shared and effective transboundary drought planning and management. The analysis conducted shows how both countries fail to identify common benefits and goals, based on a shared process of public participation (which still does not exist). The paper concludes that, before aiming for a shared or joint planning process, both countries need to incorporate adaptive and precautionary management procedures into their planning systems and cooperation structures. © IWA Publishing 2012.

Accurate estimates of how soil water stress affects plant transpiration are crucial for reliable land surface model (LSM) predictions. Current LSMs generally use a water stress factor, β, dependent on soil moisture content, θ, that ranges linearly between β=. 1 for unstressed vegetation and β=. 0 when wilting point is reached. This paper explores the feasibility of replacing the current approach with equations that use soil water potential as their independent variable, or with a set of equations that involve hydraulic and chemical signaling, thereby ensuring feedbacks between the entire soil-root-xylem-leaf system. A comparison with the original linear θ-based water stress parameterization, and with its improved curvi-linear version, was conducted. Assessment of model suitability was focused on their ability to simulate the correct (as derived from experimental data) curve shape of relative transpiration versus fraction of transpirable soil water. We used model sensitivity analyses under progressive soil drying conditions, employing two commonly used approaches to calculate water retention and hydraulic conductivity curves. Furthermore, for each of these hydraulic parameterizations we used two different parameter sets, for 3 soil texture types; a total of 12 soil hydraulic permutations. Results showed that the resulting transpiration reduction functions (TRFs) varied considerably among the models. The fact that soil hydraulic conductivity played a major role in the model that involved hydraulic and chemical signaling led to unrealistic values of β, and hence TRF, for many soil hydraulic parameter sets. However, this model is much better equipped to simulate the behavior of different plant species. Based on these findings, we only recommend implementation of this approach into LSMs if great care with choice of soil hydraulic parameters is taken. © 2014.

Sanchez-Franco M.J.,University of Seville
Computers and Education | Year: 2010

Perceived affective quality is an attractive area of research in Information System. Specifically, understanding the intrinsic and extrinsic individual factors and interaction effects that influence Information and Communications Technology (ICT) acceptance and adoption - in higher education - continues to be a focal interest in learning research. In this regard, one type of affective reactions toward ICT (in our study, the WebCT), perceived affective quality, is an essential dimension in user technology acceptance. A structural equation modelling, specifically partial least square (PLS), is proposed to assess the relationships between the constructs together with the predictive power of the research model. The results demonstrate that the research model significantly predicts the intention to use the WebCT. The results provide strong support for the proposals that (a) perceived usefulness, ease of use and flow lead the learners towards developing high intention to use the WebCT; and (b) perceived affective quality exhibits a relevant interaction effect on the model. This study, therefore, represents a "crucial test" of non-utilitarian influences on use of Web-based applications. The model and results can thus be used to assess motivational design aspects during electronic learning process. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Garcia-Rodriguez L.,University of Seville
Desalination | Year: 2011

A Hybrid membrane Inter-stage Design (HID) combines membranes of different nominal flux and salt rejection - i.e. different models -, in the same pressure vessel of seawater reverse osmosis racks. The HID experiences reported in the literature show there are no quantitative analysis published and very few seawater reverse osmosis plants have used it to date. The main objective of this paper is to present the results of a thorough computer assessment of this innovative design for conventional seawater reverse osmosis installations. Two types of analysis have been conducted for all representative models of membranes. Firstly, membrane replacement with a view to reduce the energy consumption due to lower working pressures while the plant capacity remains unchanged. Secondly, to increase plant capacity by reducing the specific energy consumption while maintaining the power consumption of the plant. A general HID design criterion has been defined for the three main membrane manufacturers - i.e. Filmtec, Hydranautics and Toray. Moreover, the quantitative results are useful for retrofitting plants thanks to membrane replacement. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

Sharaf M.A.,Suez Canal University | Nafey A.S.,Suez Canal University | Garcia-Rodriguez L.,University of Seville
Desalination | Year: 2011

Solar energy with different configurations of multi-effect distillation process is thermo-economically evaluated. In this work, two different combined solar cycles with different configurations of multi effect distillation (MED) processes are considered. In the first technique, the solar energy is directly utilized from the solar collector field via evaporator heat exchanger to the first effect of the MED process. This technique produces only potable water. In the second technique, the exhausted energy from the organic Rankine cycle (ORC) turbine is used in the first effect of the MED process. The second technique produces power electricity and desalted water. The comparison is implemented according to the operation of Parabolic Trough Collector (PTC) with toluene organic oil and water working fluids. Therminol-VP1 Heat Transfer Oil (HTO) is considered for indirect vapor generation operation across the solar field and evaporator heat exchanger. The comparisons are manipulated according to 100m3/day of distillate product as a case study. As a result, only desalination technique is considered more attractive than desalination and power technique due to higher gain ratio and lower solar field area needed. Parallel feed configuration is dominated against the forward feed with feed heater configuration while increasing the number of effects to more than 12 effects. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

Penate B.,Canary Islands Institute of Technology ITC | Garcia-Rodriguez L.,University of Seville
Desalination | Year: 2011

Water resources available in the island of Lanzarote, the furthest east of the Canary Islands Archipelago, come mostly from sea water desalination. Desalted water demand in the island has grown considerably in the last decade forcing managers to adapt desalinated water supply constantly. Additionally, the energy dependence of the water cycle in the island is relevant, so any corrective measures over the water supplies will be welcome if it gets more resource with the lowest energy cost. In this way, the authors described in detail and simulate the possible use of hybrid interstage element design of pressure vessels and Pelton retrofits in the Lanzarote IV SWRO plant by comparing the current situation. This desalination plant, one of the largest public desalination plants of the island, has an installed capacity of 30,000m3/day and more than 8years of operation. It is an excellent example to propose changes in order to reduce the process energy consumption, as well as to obtain another series of operation and maintenance advantages. This paper is focused on capital costs savings through the use of new generation membranes and replacing the existing Pelton turbines by other more efficient energy recovery systems based on isobaric chambers. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.

Facci A.L.,University of Tuscia | Sanchez D.,University of Seville | Jannelli E.,Parthenope University of Naples | Ubertini S.,University of Tuscia
Applied Energy | Year: 2015

Energy storage is a cutting edge front for renewable and sustainable energy research. In fact, a massive exploitation of intermittent renewable sources, such as wind and sun, requires the introduction of effective mechanical energy storage systems.In this paper we introduce the concept of a trigenerative energy storage based on a compressed air system. The plant in study is a simplified design of the adiabatic compressed air energy storage and accumulates mechanical and thermal (both hot and cold) energy at the same time. We envisage the possibility to realize a relatively small size trigenerative compressed air energy storage to be placed close to the energy demand, according to the distributed generation paradigm. Here, we describe the plant concept and we identify all the relevant parameters influencing its thermodynamic behavior. Their effects are dissected through an accurate thermodynamic model. The most relevant technological issues, such as the guidelines for a proper choice of the compressor, expander and heat exchangers are also addressed. Our results show that T-CAES may have an interesting potential as a distributed system that combines electricity storage with heat and cooling energy production. We also show that the performances are significantly influenced by some operating and design parameters, whose feasibility in real applications must be considered. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.

Pouzols F.M.,Aalto University | Barros A.B.,University of Seville
Neurocomputing | Year: 2010

We analyze the use of clustering methods for the automatic identification of fuzzy inference models for autoregressive prediction of time series. A methodology that combines fuzzy methods and residual variance estimation techniques is followed. A nonparametric residual variance estimator is used for a priori input and model selection. A simple scheme for initializing the widths of the input membership functions of fuzzy inference systems is proposed for the Improved Clustering for Function Approximation algorithm (ICFA), previously introduced for initializing RBF networks. This extension to the ICFA algorithm is shown to provide the most accurate predictions among a wide set of clustering algorithms. The method is applied to a diverse set of time series benchmarks. Its advantages in terms of accuracy and computational requirements are shown as compared to least-squares support vector machines (LS-SVM), the multilayer perceptron (MLP) and two variants of the extreme learning machine (ELM). © 2010 Elsevier B.V.

Cabello A.,University of Seville | Cabello A.,University of Stockholm | Sciarrino F.,University of Rome La Sapienza
Physical Review X | Year: 2012

A loophole-free violation of Bell inequalities is of fundamental importance for demonstrating quantum nonlocality and long-distance device-independent secure communication. However, transmission losses represent a fundamental limitation for photonic loophole-free Bell tests. A local precertification of the presence of the photons immediately before the local measurements may solve this problem.We show that local precertification is feasible by integrating three current technologies: (i) enhanced single-photon down-conversion to locally create a flag photon, (ii) nanowire-based superconducting single-photon detectors for a fast flag detection, and (iii) superconducting transition-edge sensors to close the detection loophole. We carry out a precise space-time analysis of the proposed scheme, showing its viability and feasibility.

Castillo-Manzano J.I.,University of Seville
Journal of Air Transport Management | Year: 2010

This article, examines differences between the behavior of passengers of low-cost and network airlines when choosing their transport mode for travel to airports. It is found that a passenger flying with a low-cost carrier is 6% less likely to take a taxi to the airport, but more than 4% more likely to drive a rented car and 2% more likely to use public transport than a user of a network carrier. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

Moro A.M.,University of Seville | Crespo R.,University of Lisbon
Physical Review C - Nuclear Physics | Year: 2012

We investigate the phenomenon of core excitation in the inelastic and breakup of two-body halo nuclei, composed by a valence nucleon and a core. To evaluate the importance of this effect we propose a simple reaction model based on an extension of the standard distorted wave Born approximation (DWBA) method. The model takes into account core-excited admixtures in the states of the composite projectile, as well as the possibility of dynamic core excitation due to the interaction of the core with the target. As an application of the model, we present calculations for the breakup of 11Be on a proton target at an incident energy of 63.7 MeV/nucleon, comparing it with the available data for this reaction. We find that the data are well reproduced by the model and that the effect of dynamic core excitation is essential to explain the observed cross section. © 2012 American Physical Society.

Nagali E.,University of Rome La Sapienza | D'Ambrosio V.,University of Rome La Sapienza | Sciarrino F.,University of Rome La Sapienza | Cabello A.,University of Seville | Cabello A.,University of Stockholm
Physical Review Letters | Year: 2012

Quantum resources outperform classical ones for certain communication and computational tasks. Remarkably, in some cases, the quantum advantage cannot be improved using hypothetical postquantum resources. A class of tasks with this property can be singled out using graph theory. Here we report the experimental observation of an impossible-to-beat quantum advantage on a four-dimensional quantum system defined by the polarization and orbital angular momentum of a single photon. The results show pristine evidence of the quantum advantage and are compatible with the maximum advantage allowed using postquantum resources. © 2012 American Physical Society.

Bleibel J.,Max Planck Institute For Intelligente Systeme | Bleibel J.,Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz | Dietrich S.,Max Planck Institute For Intelligente Systeme | Dietrich S.,University of Stuttgart | And 2 more authors.
Physical Review Letters | Year: 2011

Using Brownian dynamics simulations, density functional theory, and analytical perturbation theory we study the collapse of a patch of interfacially trapped, micrometer-sized colloidal particles, driven by long-ranged capillary attraction. This attraction is formally analogous to two-dimensional (2D) screened Newtonian gravity with the capillary length λ̂ as the screening length. Whereas the limit λ̂→∞ corresponds to the global collapse of a self-gravitating fluid, for finite λ̂ we predict theoretically and observe in simulations a ringlike density peak at the outer rim of a disclike patch, moving as an inbound shock wave. Possible experimental realizations are discussed. © 2011 American Physical Society.

Morphological variation within and between taxa of the Santolina rosmarinifolia L. aggregate were studied. This work demonstrates that polyploidy and hybridization may be effective evolutionary mechanisms of speciation, promoting the persistence and survival of new species, and ultimately increasing the diversity of plant species. The patterns of morphological variation of the S. rosmarinifolia aggregate indicate a recent diversification process for these taxa; as a consequence they are poorly differentiated. The intriguing taxonomic complexity of the taxa of the S. rosmarinifolia aggregate can probably be explained to a large degree by recurrent hybridization and subsequent interbreeding of the resulting genotypes, and by the absence of karyotypic divergence and of spatial isolation (except for S. impressa) between diploid taxa. Quantitative and qualitative data support two evolutionary lines that are not yet strongly differentiated in this aggregate. On one hand are the diploid and tetraploid cytotypes of S. pectinata and S. ageratifolia, and on the other the remaining taxa. Two new subspecies, S. rosmarinifolia subsp. castellana and S. pectinata subsp. montiberica, are described from the Iberian Peninsula. © Copyright 2011 by the American Society of Plant Taxonomists.

This historical, conceptual, and cultural review of the concept of recovery within the realm of mental health discusses the last decade's research into the subjective experiences of people in the process of recovering from serious mental disorders and analyzes the differences between the notions of rehabilitation, integration, and recovery. After presenting a historical introduction, the article describes recovery experiences from three angles: identity and control over one's own life; personal and community relationships; and material resources, work, and other social activities. The concept of recovery entails new challenges and tensions that must be taken into account in the reform of mental health systems in Europe and the Americas.

Cukier C.D.,UK National Institute for Medical Research | Hollingworth D.,UK National Institute for Medical Research | Martin S.R.,UK National Institute for Medical Research | Kelly G.,Medical Research Council Biomedical | And 3 more authors.
Nature Structural and Molecular Biology | Year: 2010

The far upstream element (FUSE) regulatory system promotes a peak in the concentration of c-Myc during cell cycle. First, the FBP transcriptional activator binds to the FUSE DNA element upstream of the c-myc promoter. Then, FBP recruits its specific repressor (FIR), which acts as an on/off transcriptional switch. Here we describe the molecular basis of FIR recruitment, showing that the tandem RNA recognition motifs of FIR provide a platform for independent FUSE DNA and FBP protein binding and explaining the structural basis of the reversibility of the FBP-FIR interaction. We also show that the physical coupling between FBP and FIR is modulated by a flexible linker positioned sequentially to the recruiting element. Our data explain how the FUSE system precisely regulates c-myc transcription and suggest that a small change in FBP-FIR affinity leads to a substantial effect on c-Myc concentration. © 2010 Nature America, Inc. All rights reserved.

Reynoso A.A.,University of Sydney | Frustaglia D.,University of Seville
Physical Review B - Condensed Matter and Materials Physics | Year: 2013

Quantum wires subject to the combined action of spin-orbit and Zeeman coupling in the presence of s-wave pairing potentials (superconducting proximity effect in semiconductors or superfluidity in cold atoms) are one of the most promising systems for the developing of topological phases hosting Majorana fermions. The breaking of time-reversal symmetry is essential for the appearance of unpaired Majorana fermions. By implementing a time-dependent spin rotation, we show that the standard magnetostatic model maps into a nonmagnetic one where the breaking of time-reversal symmetry is guaranteed by a periodical change of the spin-orbit coupling axis as a function of time. This suggests the possibility of developing the topological superconducting state of matter driven by external forces in the absence of magnetic fields and magnetic elements. From a practical viewpoint, the scheme avoids the disadvantages of conjugating magnetism and superconductivity, even though the need of a high-frequency driving of spin-orbit coupling may represent a technological challenge. We describe the basic properties of this Floquet system by showing that finite samples host unpaired Majorana fermions at their edges despite the fact that the bulk Floquet quasienergies are gapless and that the Hamiltonian at each instant of time preserves time-reversal symmetry. Remarkably, we identify the mean energy of the Floquet states as a topological indicator. We additionally show that the localized Floquet Majorana fermions are robust under local perturbations. Our results are supported by complementary numerical Floquet simulations. © 2013 American Physical Society.

Sanchez-Fernandez E.M.,University of Seville
Chemistry (Weinheim an der Bergstrasse, Germany) | Year: 2012

The synthesis of mimics of the α(1→6)- and α(1→4)-linked disaccharides isomaltose and maltose featuring a bicyclic sp(2)-iminosugar nonreducing moiety O-, S-, or N-linked to a glucopyranoside residue is reported. The strong generalized anomeric effect operating in sp(2)-iminosugars determines the α-stereochemical outcome of the glycosylation reactions, independent of the presence or not of participating protecting groups and of the nature of the heteroatom. It also imparts chemical stability to the resulting aminoacetal, aminothioacetal, or gem-diamine functionalities. All the three isomaltose mimics behave as potent and very selective inhibitors of isomaltase and maltase, two α-glucosidases that bind the parent disaccharides either as substrate or inhibitor. In contrast, large differences in the inhibitory properties were observed among the maltose mimics, with the O-linked derivative being a more potent inhibitor than the N-linked analogue; the S-linked pseudodisaccharide did not inhibit either of the two target enzymes. A comparative conformational analysis based on NMR and molecular modelling revealed remarkable differences in the flexibility about the glycosidic linkage as a function of the nature of the linking atom in this series. Thus, the N-pseudodisaccharide is more rigid than the O-linked derivative, which exhibits conformational properties very similar to those of the natural maltose. The analogous pseudothiomaltoside is much more flexible than the N- or O-linked derivatives, and can access a broader area of the conformational space, which probably implies a strong entropic penalty upon binding to the enzymes. Together, the present results illustrate the importance of taking conformational aspects into consideration in the design of functional oligosaccharide mimetics. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

Cabello A.,University of Seville
Physical Review A - Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics | Year: 2016

Contextuality provides a unifying paradigm for nonclassical aspects of quantum probabilities and resources of quantum information. Unfortunately, most forms of quantum contextuality remain experimentally unexplored due to the difficulty of performing sequences of projective measurements on individual quantum systems. Here we show that two-point correlations between binary compatible observables are sufficient to reveal any form of contextuality. This allows us to design simple experiments that are more robust against imperfections and easier to analyze, thus opening the door for observing interesting forms of contextuality, including those requiring quantum systems of high dimensions. In addition, it allows us to connect contextuality to communication complexity scenarios and reformulate a recent result relating contextuality and quantum computation. © 2016 American Physical Society.

Lopez-Maury L.,University of Seville
Plant signaling & behavior | Year: 2012

Copper is essential for all living organisms but is toxic when present in excess. Therefore organisms have developed homeostatic mechanism to tightly regulate its cellular concentration. In a recent study we have shown that CopRS two-component system is essential for copper resistance in the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp PCC 6803. This two-component regulates expression of a heavy-metal RND type copper efflux system (encoded by copBAC) as well as its own expression (in the copMRS operon) in response to an excess of copper in the media. We have also observed that both operons are induced under condition that reduces the photosynthetic electron flow and this induction depends on the presence of the copper-protein, plastocyanin. These findings, together with CopS localization to the thylakoid membrane and its periplasmic domain being able to bind copper directly, suggest that CopS could be involved in copper detection in both the periplasm and the thylakoid lumen.

Cubero D.,University of Seville | Renzoni F.,University College London
Physical Review Letters | Year: 2016

The operation of Brownian motors is usually described in terms of out-of-equilibrium and symmetry-breaking settings, with the relevant spatiotemporal symmetries identified from the analysis of the equations of motion for the system at hand. When the appropriate conditions are satisfied, symmetry-related trajectories with opposite current are thought to balance each other, yielding suppression of transport. The direction of the current can be precisely controlled around these symmetry points by finely tuning the driving parameters. Here we demonstrate, by studying a prototypical Brownian ratchet system, the existence of hidden symmetries, which escape identification by the standard symmetry analysis, and which require different theoretical tools for their revelation. Furthermore, we show that system instabilities may lead to spontaneous symmetry breaking with unexpected generation of directed transport. © 2016 American Physical Society.

Clinical Management Unit (CMU) is currently set in the Andalusian health institutions as the model reference management. This management model aims to make all healthcare professionals a powerful idea: the best performance of health resources is performed to drive clinical practice using the least number of diagnostic and therapeutic resources. The CMU not only aims at saving money, in the Clinical Management Agreement [1] are measured all the dimensions that make up the UGC: research, training, clinical process, the portfolio of services, objectives, financial management and indicators to control and security. The CMU is to transfer more responsibilities to Health Care Professionals, involving them in the management of the Unit. The CMU sets new approaches that directly affect health professionals and presents advantages and disadvantages for the Doctors and the Nurses, involved in achieving excellence in care work. Nurse Practitioners shows expectant before the changes are generated in health institutions and appears a discussion of skills derived from the CMU. Some Nurses believe that the bur, den of care to which they are subjected in public institutions has increased since the onset of the CMU and yet others believe that they are motivated and rewarded for the results obtained with this model of management. In health institutions, some professionals are more motivated than others and this is found in the outcome of health care activity [2]. Given the positive and negative perceptions that arise in the CMU Professional Nurses, it is considered appropriate to focus the objective of this work in the search for factors that influence job satisfaction of nurses in the CMU. There are few studies about the CMU [3] but are absent when linked with nursing, so the pursuit of scientific knowledge related to nursing management model based on Clinical and Quality Care can lead to establish new concepts around the nursing profession, a profession in which major changes are foreseen when the Grade is effective.

Garcia-Moya I.,University of Seville
The Spanish journal of psychology | Year: 2013

The aim of this study was to analyse the effect of the SOC on the main components of biopsychosocial health separately, thereby contributing to a better understanding of the relationship between the SOC and health in adolescence. The sample consisted of 7,580 Spanish adolescents aged 13 to 18 who had participated in the 2009/10 edition of the WHO international survey Health Behaviour in School-aged Children. Using multivariate analysis of variance, the effects of the SOC and demographic variables (including interaction effects between them) on different health components were analysed. A higher SOC was associated with better self-rated health, lower frequency of somatic and psychological complaints and higher quality of life and life satisfaction. Thus, results support the association between SOC and positive health outcomes, especially for the psychological components of health. In addition, the effect of SOC on the various health components was homogeneous among all of the adolescents, regardless of gender and age.

Castillo-Manzano J.I.,University of Seville
Tourism Management | Year: 2010

This paper examines the implications of passenger consumer behavior at airports, focusing specifically on the likelihood of merchandise being purchased at airport stores and food/beverages being consumed at airport catering facilities. Our results are of relevance to airport managers and local tourism policy managers. The variables that determine the amount spent once the passenger has made the decision to consume at the airport are also analyzed. A sample of over 20 000 passengers at seven different regional airports was used in our study. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd.

Regional Studies. This paper estimates the determinants of investments in port infrastructure in the Spanish regions made by the central administration. It is found that the use of the infrastructure in relation to capacity has some influence on the amount of investment received by a region. Furthermore, specialization in containers is also relevant for receiving more resources. However, it is found that when greater political decentralization does not go hand in hand with greater financial decentralization, the importance of tactical political aspects increases. Overall, efficiency plays a more relevant role in the regional allocation of investments in ports than in other transport infrastructures. © 2012 Regional Studies Association.

Gallego-Fernandez J.B.,University of Seville | Martinez M.L.,Institute Ecologia
Ecoscience | Year: 2011

Ecological theory suggests that environmental filtering (the survival or elimination of species in the community in response to environmental constraints) is a key process in the species assemblages of communities. Environmental filters, such as sand movement and soil salinity in coastal dunes and beaches, may result in shared ecological tolerances and functional types, independently of phylogenetic and evolutionary history. In 19 beach-foredune sites located along the coast of the Gulf of Mexico we studied plant functional composition and diversity of vascular plants. Functional groups were determined with a classification analysis. Relative importance values and diversity indices of species and functional groups were compared with ANOVA tests. We distinguished 5 groups: a group of species tolerant to soil salinity and burial, most abundant on accreting beaches; a group of species tolerant only to burial, which were abundant on all coasts; and 3 groups that lacked specific responses to burial and soil salinity and were most abundant on stable and erosive coasts. Accreting foredunes showed the lowest species richness and functional diversity, because only a few species were tolerant to burial and soil salinity. In the foredune environment, sediment dynamics and geomorphological processes act as environmental filters that largely determine the floristic and functional composition of the community.

Munoz M.,University of Seville | Covenas R.,University of Salamanca
World Journal of Gastroenterology | Year: 2014

Pancreatic cancer is the fourth leading cause of cancer related-death for both men and women and the 1- and 5-year relative survival rates are 25% and 6%, respectively. Thus, it is urgent to investigate new antitumor drugs to improve the survival of pancreatic cancer patients. The peptide substance P (SP) has a widespread distribution throughout the body. After binding to the neurokinin-1 (NK-1) receptor, SP regulates biological functions related to cancer, such as tumor cell proliferation, neoangiogenesis, the migration of tumor cells for invasion, infiltration and metastasis, and it exerts an antiapoptotic effects on tumor cells. It is known that the SP/NK-1 receptor system is involved in pancreatic cancer progression: (1) pancreatic cancer cells and samples express NK-1 receptors; (2) the NK-1 receptor is overexpressed in pancreatic cancer cells in comparison with non-tumor cells; (3) nanomolar concentrations of SP induce pancreatic cancer cell proliferation; (4) NK-1 receptor antagonists inhibit pancreatic cell proliferation in a concentration-dependent manner, at a certain concentration, these antagonists inhibit 100% of tumor cells; (5) this antitumor action is mediated through the NK-1 receptor, and tumor cells die by apoptosis; and (6) NK-1 receptor antagonists inhibit angiogenesis in pancreatic cancer xenografts. All these data suggest that the SP/NK-1 receptor system could play an important role in the development of pancreatic cancer; that the NK-1 receptor could be a new promising therapeutic target in pancreatic cancer, and that NK-1 receptor antagonists could improve the treatment of pancreatic cancer. © 2014 Baishideng Publishing Group Co., Limited. All rights reserved.

Braza R.,University of Seville | Garcia M.B.,CSIC - Pyrenean Institute of Ecology
Plant Ecology | Year: 2011

Seedling establishment is one of the most vulnerable life cycle stages, and a key component for the population dynamics in short-lived plants. In unpredictable environments, timing of emergence is critical for the success of plant performance, and different adaptive bet-hedging strategies have evolved to reduce the risk of failure in recruitment. In this study we describe the spatio-temporal pattern of seedling emergence (overall rate and timing) and survival in four contrasting Mediterranean habitats for Plantago coronopus, a small herb with dimorphic seeds. We then explore the importance of spreading germination within years, as well as the role of the two types of seeds from a broader temporal perspective. Populations strongly differed for all recruitment components analyzed in a given year, but this spatial differentiation diluted when a longer period was considered. Apical (smaller) seeds germinated later and in a significantly lower proportion than basal (larger) seeds. Both late emergents and seedlings from apical seeds had lower survival probability in a rainy year. However, our results suggest that in a population having the lowest production of apical seeds, late emergents coming from apical seeds may constitute a large fraction of yearly recruitment and that their performance was non-significantly different from that of early emergents over the 4-year study period. This study provides evidence of the importance of two related traits (spreading seedling emergence through time by producing dimorphic seeds) as bet-hedging strategies to cope with environmental unpredictability. This is at least partly accomplished by increasing the potential of recruitment in favourable years, instead of buffering such important process in extremely bad years. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

Farooqi A.A.,Rashid Latif Medical College | ur Rehman Z.,Kohat University of Science and Technology | Muntane J.,University of Seville | Muntane J.,CIBER ISCIII
OncoTargets and Therapy | Year: 2014

There is increasing progress in translational oncology and tremendous breakthroughs have been made as evidenced by preclinical and clinical trials. Data obtained from high-throughput technologies are deepening our understanding about the molecular and gene network in cancer cells and rapidly emerging in vitro and in vivo evidence is highlighting the role of antisense agents as specific inhibitors of the expression of target genes, thus modulating the response of cancer cells to different therapeutic strategies. Much information is continuously being added into various facets of molecular oncology and it is now understood that over expression of antiapoptotic proteins, oncogenes, oncogenic microRNAs (miRNA), and fusion proteins make cancer cells difficult to target. Delivery of antisense oligonucleotides has remained a challenge and technological developments have helped in overcoming hurdles by improving the ability to penetrate cells, effective and targeted binding to gene sequences, and down regulation of target gene function. Different delivery systems, including stable nucleic acid lipid particles, have shown potential in enhancing the delivery of cargo to the target site. In this review, we attempt to summarize the current progress in the development of antisense therapeutics and their potential in medical research. We partition this multi component review into introductory aspects about recent breakthroughs in antisense therapeutics. We also discuss how antisense therapeutics have shown potential in resensitizing resistant cancer cells to apoptosis by targeted inhibition of antiapoptotic proteins, oncogenic miRNAs, and BCR-ABL. © 2014 Farooqi et al.

Leon C.,University of Seville | Ostrosky-Zeichner L.,University of Houston | Schuster M.,University of Pennsylvania
Intensive Care Medicine | Year: 2014

Invasive candidiasis (IC) is a severe complication in the ICU setting. A high proportion of ICU patients become colonized with Candida species, but only 5-30 % develop IC. Progressive colonization and major abdominal surgery are well-known risk factors for Candida infection. IC is difficult to predict and early diagnosis remains a major challenge. In addition, microbiological documentation often occurs late in the course of infection. Delays in initiating appropriate treatment have been associated with increased mortality. In an attempt to decrease Candida-related mortality, an increasing number of critically ill patients without documented IC receive empirical systemic antifungal therapy, leading to concern for antifungal overuse. Scores/predictive rules permit the stratification and selection of IC high-risk patients who may benefit from early antifungal therapy. However, they have a far better negative predictive value than positive predictive value. New IC biomarkers [mannan, anti-mannan, (1,3)-b-D-glucan, and polymerase chain reaction] are being increasingly used to enable earlier diagnosis and, ideally, to provide prognostic information and/or therapeutic monitoring. Although reasonably sensitive and specific, these techniques remain largely investigational, and their clinical usefulness has yet to be established. © 2014 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg and ESICM.

Lazaro A.,Technical University of Madrid | Valverde F.,University of Seville | Pineiro M.,Technical University of Madrid | Jarillo J.A.,Technical University of Madrid
Plant Cell | Year: 2012

The Arabidopsis thaliana early in short days6 (esd6) mutant was isolated in a screen for mutations that accelerate flowering time. Among other developmental alterations, esd6 displays early flowering in both long- and short-day conditions. Fine mapping of the mutation showed that the esd6 phenotype is caused by a lesion in the HIGH EXPRESSION OF OSMOTICALLY RESPONSIVE GENES1 (HOS1) locus, which encodes a RING finger-containing E3 ubiquitin ligase. The esd6/hos1 mutation causes decreased FLOWERING LOCUS C expression and requires CONSTANS (CO) protein for its early flowering phenotype under long days. Moreover, CO and HOS1 physically interact in vitro and in planta, and HOS1 regulates CO abundance, particularly during the daylight period. Accordingly, hos1 causes a shift in the regular long-day pattern of expression of FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) transcript, starting to rise 4 h after dawn in the mutant. In addition, HOS1 interacts synergistically with CONSTITUTIVE PHOTOMORPHOGENIC1, another regulator of CO protein stability, in the regulation of flowering time. Taken together, these results indicate that HOS1 is involved in the control of CO abundance, ensuring that CO activation of FT occurs only when the light period reaches a certain length and preventing precocious flowering in Arabidopsis. © 2012 American Society of Plant Biologists. All rights reserved.

Nagasawa F.,Tohoku University | Frustaglia D.,University of Seville | Saarikoski H.,University of Regensburg | Richter K.,University of Regensburg | Nitta J.,Tohoku University
Nature Communications | Year: 2013

Since the formulation of the geometric phase by Berry, its relevance has been demonstrated in a large variety of physical systems. However, a geometric phase of the most fundamental spin-1/2 system, the electron spin, has not been observed directly and controlled independently from dynamical phases. Here we report experimental evidence on the manipulation of an electron spin through a purely geometric effect in an InGaAs-based quantum ring with Rashba spin-orbit coupling. By applying an in-plane magnetic field, a phase shift of the Aharonov-Casher interference pattern towards the small spin-orbit-coupling regions is observed. A perturbation theory for a one-dimensional Rashba ring under small in-plane fields reveals that the phase shift originates exclusively from the modulation of a pure geometric-phase component of the electron spin beyond the adiabatic limit, independently from dynamical phases. The phase shift is well reproduced by implementing two independent approaches, that is, perturbation theory and non-perturbative transport simulations. © 2013 Macmillan Publishers Limited.

Gallego-Gomez F.,CSIC - Institute of Materials Science | Morales-Florez V.,University of Seville | Blanco A.,CSIC - Institute of Materials Science | De La Rosa-Fox N.,University of Cadiz | Lopez C.,CSIC - Institute of Materials Science
Nano Letters | Year: 2012

Here we show the suitability of nanoindentation to study in detail the micromechanical response of silica colloidal crystals (CCs). The sensitivity to displacements smaller than the submicrometer spheres size, even resolving discrete events and superficial features, revealed particulate features with analogies to atomic crystals. Significant robustness, long-range structural deformation, and large energy dissipation were found. Easily implemented temperature/rate-dependent nanoindentation quantified the paramount role of adsorbed water endowing silica CCs with properties of wet granular materials like viscoplasticity. A novel "nongranular" CC was fabricated by substituting capillary bridges with silica necks to directly test water-independent mechanical response. Silica CCs, as specific (nanometric, ordered) wet granular assemblies with well-defined configuration, may be useful model systems for granular science and capillary cohesion at the nanoscale. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

Vila J.,University of Barcelona | Pachon J.,University of Seville
Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy | Year: 2012

Introduction: Although the clinical importance of Acinetobacter pittii and Acinetobacter nosocomialis has increased in the nosocomial setting in the last decade, infections caused by Acinetobacter baumannii still have the highest clinical relevance. The most important features of this latter species are the ability to persist in the hospital environment and the multi-drug, extended-drug or pandrug resistance they may present which compromises the treatment of infections caused by this microorganism. Areas covered: In the present review, the authors describe the molecular bases of the acquisition of resistant mechanisms as well as different current and potential future strategies to treat infections caused by multi-drug resistant A. baumannii. Expert opinion: With the increase in resistance to carbapenems, colistin has been extensively used, however some data suggest that the doses recommended are insufficient before a steady state is reached, suggesting that the administration of a loading dose on initiation of treatment may be beneficial. Combinations of antibacterial agents such as impenem plus sulbactam or imipenem plus colistin have been successfully used to treat VAP. Nonetheless, future alternatives for treating A. baumannii infections should be explored. © 2012 Informa UK, Ltd.

Maldonado-Valderrama J.,UK Institute of Food Research | Patino J.M.R.,University of Seville
Current Opinion in Colloid and Interface Science | Year: 2010

The distribution of proteins and surfactants at fluid interfaces (air-water and oil-water) is determined by the competitive adsorption between the two types of emulsifiers and by the nature of the protein-surfactant interactions, both at the interface and in the bulk phase, with a pronounced impact on the interfacial rheological properties of these systems. Therefore, the interfacial rheology is of practical importance for food dispersion (emulsion or foam) formulation, texture, and stability. In this review, the existence of protein-surfactant interactions, the mechanical behaviour and/or the composition of emulsifiers at the interface are indirectly determined by interfacial rheology of the mixed films. The effect on the interfacial rheology of protein-surfactant mixed films of the protein, the surfactant, the interface and bulk compositions, the method of formation of the interfacial film, the interactions between film forming components, and the displacement of protein by surfactant have been analysed. The last section tries to understand the role of interfacial rheology of protein-surfactant mixed films on food dispersion formation and stability. The emphasis of the present review is on the interfacial dilatational rheology. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd.

Suarez-de Vivero J.L.,University of Seville
Ocean and Coastal Management | Year: 2013

The delimitation of the outer edge of the continental margin beyond 200 nautical miles is paving the way for areas where States exercise rights of sovereignty to be extended when their geographical locations with respect to the continental margin allows it. Sixty-one submissions and forty-five preliminary reports, involving a total of ninety-one States (submitted to 31.07.2001), enable some of the geopolitical consequences to be outlined. Amongst those that can be highlighted are sometimes substantial changes in States' territorial bases and economic potential, and the global balance between national and international jurisdictions. This article uses regional and global scale maps based on national reports deposited with the Commission on the Limits of the Continental Shelf (CLCS) to present the main geographical and geopolitical findings. The geographical analysis similarly enables a quantitative estimation to be made of the effects of jurisdictional expansion on the " global commons" of insularity and of the territorial gains made by the States concerned. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

Ortuno M.A.,Autonomous University of Barcelona | Conejero S.,University of Seville | Lledos A.,Autonomous University of Barcelona
Beilstein Journal of Organic Chemistry | Year: 2013

Although four-coordinate square-planar geometries, with a formally 16-electron counting, are absolutely dominant in isolated Pt(II) complexes, three-coordinate, 14-electron Pt(II) complexes are believed to be key intermediates in a number of platinum-mediated organometallic transformations. Although very few authenticated three-coordinate Pt(II) complexes have been characterized, a much larger number of complexes can be described as operationally three-coordinate in a kinetic sense. In these compounds, which we have called masked T-shaped complexes, the fourth position is occupied by a very weak ligand (agostic bond, solvent molecule or counteranion), which can be easily displaced. This review summarizes the structural features of the true and masked T-shaped Pt(II) complexes reported so far and describes synthetic strategies employed for their formation. Moreover, recent experimental and theoretical reports are analyzed, which suggest the involvement of such intermediates in reaction mechanisms, particularly C-H bond-activation processes.© 2013 Ortuño et al; licensee Beilstein-Institut.

Valverde J.M.,University of Seville
Soft Matter | Year: 2013

An increasing number of applications rely on the use of gas-fluidized beds of small particles to enhance processes based on the mass/heat transfer between a gas and a solid. On the other hand, experimental studies have shown that application of high-intensity acoustic fields serves to further intensify fluidized bed processes. It is well known that the fluid streaming developed around the surface of a solid body subjected to a sound wave leads to a notable increase of the mass/heat transfer. However, several additional phenomena are observed in sonoprocessed fluidized beds requiring a close examination. In a sonoprocessed fluidized bed, acoustic streaming is superposed on the fluidizing gas flow, which exhibits large fluctuations within the bed at a local level due to long-range hydrodynamical interactions. Attenuation due to viscous friction and thermal conduction on the surface of the small particles is expected to play a relevant role. Fine particles may be entrained by the acoustic flow field whereas acoustic streaming on the surface of not entrained particles gives rise to an increased drag. Entrainment of fine particles in the sound wave may serve to improve fluidization uniformity in dense beds or to induce particle agglomeration in diluted beds. Acoustic streaming leads also to a large-scale fluid recirculation characterized by velocities sufficiently high as to affect the fluidized bed dynamics. A substantial modification of the dynamics of fluidized beds may thus occur depending on intervening physical parameters such as particle size and density, sound wave intensity and frequency, fluid properties, fluidization regime and system size. In this manuscript, the main features of acoustic streaming and the associated phenomena due to the application of high-intensity acoustic fields on fluidized beds are analyzed from a review on the fundamentals of acoustic streaming and observations on sonoprocessed fluidized beds. Results inferred from this analysis are expected to help assess the optimum conditions under which sound assisted process intensification would be maximized in each particular application. © 2013 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

Kucuk Y.,University of Surrey | Kucuk Y.,Giresun University | Moro A.M.,University of Seville
Physical Review C - Nuclear Physics | Year: 2012

An analysis of the elastic and exclusive breakup of 17F on 58Ni and 208Pb targets is presented. The study is undertaken using the continuum-discretized coupled-channels (CDCC) method, assuming a core+valence model for the 17F projectile. The results are compared with recent data published for these reactions. The calculations show that the exclusive breakup cross sections contain contributions from high multipoles, as well as a complicated interplay between Coulomb and nuclear couplings. This makes it difficult to extract radiative capture cross sections or structure information from the analyzed data. © 2012 American Physical Society.

Yki-Jarvinen H.,University of Helsinki | Rosenstock J.,Dallas Diabetes and Endocrine Center at Medical City | Duran-Garcia S.,University of Seville | Pinnetti S.,Boehringer Ingelheim | And 4 more authors.
Diabetes Care | Year: 2013

Objective-To evaluate the efficacy and long-term safety of linagliptin added to basal insulins in type 2 diabetes inadequately controlled on basal insulin with or without oral agents. Research design and methods-A total of 1,261 patients (HbA1c ≥7.0% [53 mmol/mol] to ≤10.0%[86mmol/mol] ) on basal insulin alone or combined withmetformin and/or pioglitazonewere randomized (1:1) to double-blind treatmentwith linagliptin 5 mg once daily or placebo for ≥52 weeks. The basal insulin dose was kept unchanged for 24 weeks but could thereafter be titrated according to fasting plasma glucose levels at the investigators' discretion. The primary end point was the mean change in HbA1c from baseline to week 24. The safety analysis incorporated data up to a maximum of 110 weeks. Results-At week 24, HbA1c changed from a baseline of 8.3% (67 mmol/mol) by 20.6% (26.6 mmol/mol) and by 0.1% (1.1 mmol/mol) with linagliptin and placebo, respectively (treatment difference 20.65% [95%CI20.74 to 20.55] [-7.1 mmol/mol]; P < 0.0001). Despite the option to uptitrate basal insulin, it was adjusted only slightly upward (week 52, linagliptin 2.6 IU/day, placebo 4.2 IU/day; P < 0.003), resulting in no further HbA1c improvements. Frequencies of hypoglycemia (week 24, linagliptin 22.0%, placebo 23.2%; treatment end, linagliptin 31.4%, placebo 32.9%) and adverse events (linagliptin 78.4%, placebo 81.4%) were similar between groups. Mean body weight remained unchanged (week 52, linagliptin -0.30 kg, placebo -0.04 kg). Conclusions-Linagliptin added to basal insulin therapy significantly improved glycemic control relative to placebo without increasing hypoglycemia or body weight. © 2013 by the American Diabetes Association.

Puerto J.,University of Seville | Rodriguez-Chia A.M.,University of Cadiz
Mathematical Programming | Year: 2011

This paper analyzes continuous single facility location problems where the demand is randomly defined by a given probability distribution. For these types of problems that deal with the minimization of average distances, we obtain geometrical characterizations of the entire set of optimal solutions. For the important case of total polyhedrality on the plane we derive efficient algorithms with polynomially bounded complexity. We also develop a discretization scheme that provides ε -approximate solutions of the original problem by solving simpler location problems with points as demand facilities. © 2009 Springer and Mathematical Programming Society.

Castro A.,Ecole Normale Superieure de Paris | Cordoba D.,Institute Ciencias Matematicas | Fefferman C.,Princeton University | Gancedo F.,University of Seville
Archive for Rational Mechanics and Analysis | Year: 2013

In this paper we show that there exists analytic initial data in the stable regime for the Muskat problem such that the solution turns to the unstable regime and later breaks down, that is, no longer belongs to C4. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

Valverde J.M.,University of Seville
Journal of Materials Chemistry A | Year: 2013

The Ca-looping process shows a considerable potential for reducing postcombustion CO2 emissions from power plants in the short-term as demonstrated by the recent success of a 1.7 MWt pilot plant. This process involves the carbonation reaction of CaO to capture CO2 and the subsequent calcination of limestone (CaCO3) to regenerate the sorbent. Yet the capture capacity of natural limestones decreases with the increasing number of calcination/carbonation cycles, which is mainly attributed to a decrease of the reactive surface area with the number of cycles as a result of material sintering during calcination. A number of techniques have been developed in the last few years to improve the durability of Ca-based sorbents and minimize their loss in adsorption capacity. The goal is to increase the active surface area and the stability of the pore structure of the sorbent, which would enhance their efficiency for CO2 capture. Material chemistry methods oriented to this objective are generally focused on the use of rigid porous materials as carriers of the Ca-based sorbents, use of additives to improve the sorbent thermal stability, reduction of the sorbent particle size down to the nanometer scale, and use of synthetic precursors to produce novel sorbents with a rich micropore structure. Besides enhancing the thermal stability in newly developed synthetic sorbents, an issue of concern is to promote their mechanical stability. Attrition of natural limestone particles is a main problem affecting the sorbent performance in the Ca-looping process. This paper is devoted to a critical review on the novel Ca-based sorbents developed in the last few years with improved thermal and mechanical stability. This journal is © 2013 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

Coq-Huelva D.,University of Seville
Antipode | Year: 2013

The secondary circuit is a central element in the processes of capital accumulation, and its relevance has become more acute in recent years as urban planning, housing, and real estate have become privileged arenas of the territoriality "variegated" processes of neoliberalisation. This paper explores three theoretical concepts, all closely associated with neoliberalisation: the rescaling of the state, urban entrepreneurialism and financialisation. The paper uses these three theoretical concepts to explain, on the one hand, the increasing relevance of housing and real estate and, on the other hand, their connection with two of the major manifestations of the current financial crisis: excessive private indebtedness and the credit crunch. Analysing the Spanish case is particularly revealing because of the intensity of construction work until 2007, the severity of the subsequent economic crisis, and the wide range of agents involved in the growth of a neoliberalised and financialised secondary circuit of capital in Spain. © 2013 Antipode Foundation Ltd.

Leal-Egana A.,Friedrich - Alexander - University, Erlangen - Nuremberg | Leal-Egana A.,CEA Grenoble | Diaz-Cuenca A.,University of Seville | Diaz-Cuenca A.,CIBER ISCIII | Boccaccini A.R.,Friedrich - Alexander - University, Erlangen - Nuremberg
Advanced Materials | Year: 2013

Which mechanisms mediate cell attachment to biomaterials? What role does the surface charge or wettability play on cell-material anchorage? What are the currently investigated strategies to modify cell-matrix adherence spatiotemporally? Considering the development of scaffolds made of biocompatible materials to temporarily replace the structure and/or function of the extracellular matrix, focus is given to the analysis of the specific (i.e., cell adhesive peptide sequences) and unspecific (i.e., surface charge, wettability) mechanisms mediating cell-matrix interactions. Furthermore, because natural tissue regeneration is characterized by the dynamic attachment/detachment of different cell populations, the design of advanced scaffolds for tissue engineering, based in the spatiotemporal tuning of cell-matrix anchorage is discussed. Focus is given on the analysis of the specific and unspecific mechanisms mediating cell-matrix interactions. Furthermore, because natural tissue regeneration is characterized by the dynamic attachment/detachment of different cell populations, the advanced design of scaffolds for tissue engineering, based in the spatiotemporal tuning of cell-matrix anchorage, is discussed. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

Anguiano M.,University of Seville
Mathematical Methods in the Applied Sciences | Year: 2016

We prove the existence of pullback and uniform attractors for the process associated to a non-autonomous SIR model, with several types of non-autonomous features. The Hausdorff dimension of the pullback attractor is also estimated. We illustrate some examples of pullback attractors by numerical simulations. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

van Ommen J.R.,Technical University of Delft | Valverde J.M.,University of Seville | Pfeffer R.,Arizona State University
Journal of Nanoparticle Research | Year: 2012

Nanoparticles (NPs) are applied in a wide range of processes, and their use continues to increase. Fluidization is one of the best techniques available to disperse and process NPs. NPs cannot be fluidized individually; they fluidize as very porous agglomerates. The objective of this article is to review the developments in nanopowder fluidization. Often, it is needed to apply an assistance method, such as vibration or microjets, to obtain proper fluidization. These methods can greatly improve the fluidization characteristics, strongly increase the bed expansion, and lead to a better mixing of the bed material. Several approaches have been applied to model the behavior of fluidized nanopowders. The average size of fluidized NP agglomerates can be estimated using a force balance or by a modified Richardson and Zaki equation. Some first attempts have been made to apply computational fluid dynamics. Fluidization can also be used to provide individual NPs with a thin coating of another material and to mix two different species of nanopowder. The application of nanopowder fluidization in practice is still limited, but a wide range of potential applications is foreseen. © 2012 The Author(s).

Carner A.,University of Seville
Current Molecular Medicine | Year: 2012

The scaffold protein spinophilin (SPN) is a regulatory subunit of phosphatase 1a (PP1a) located at 17q21.33. This region is frequently associated with microsatellite instability and LOH and contains a relatively high density of known tumor suppressor genes, and several unidentified candidate tumor suppressor genes located distal to BRCA1. Spn is located in this locus and proposed to be a new tumor suppressor. Loss of Spn induces a proliferative response by increasing pRb phosphorylation, which in turn activates p53, thereby, neutralizing the proliferative response. The absence of p53 bypasses this barrier and enhances the malignant phenotype. Furthermore, the ectopic expression of SPN in human tumor cells from different types of malignancies greatly reduced cell growth. Spn knock-out mice had decreased lifespan with increased cellular proliferation in tissues such as the mammary ducts and early appearance of tumors. Furthermore, the combined loss of Spn and mutant p53 activity led to increased mammary carcinomas, confirming the functional relationship between p53 and Spn. In human tumors, Spn is absent in 20% and reduced in another 37% of human lung tumors. Spn reduction correlates with malignant grade and p53 mutations. Furthermore, Spn mRNA is lost in a percentage of renal carcinomas and lung adenocarcinomas. Finally, lower levels of Spn mRNA correlate with higher grade of ovarian carcinoma and chronic myelogenous leukemia. Therefore, Spn may be the tumor suppressor gene that is located at 17q21.33 and that its tumor suppressive function is dependent on the absence of p53. © 2012 Bentham Science Publishers.

Valverde J.M.,University of Seville
Journal of Geophysical Research B: Solid Earth | Year: 2015

Dynamical weakening of granular materials plays a critical role on diverse geological events such as seismic faulting and landslides. A common feature in the dynamics of these processes is the development of fluid-solid relative flows, which could lead to fluidization by hydrodynamic viscous stresses. This work is focused on analyzing hydrodynamic fluidization under oscillatory viscous flows as a possible driving mechanism for dynamical weakening. The theoretical estimations and experimental observations presented and reviewed suggest that fluidization can be greatly promoted by oscillatory viscous flows, which are usually expected in geological events involving vibration of granular materials in viscous fluids. Fluidization under oscillatory viscous flows may occur at not excessively large vibration velocities of fine particles in gases or relatively larger particles in liquids or supercritical fluids. In particular, the enhancement of fluidization by high-frequency vibrations would be a powerful mechanism to promote dynamical weakening of fine powders in dry fault gouges, failure of liquid- (or supercritical fluid-) saturated beds, and sustained fluidization of pyroclastic flows and lahars. ©2015. American Geophysical Union. All Rights Reserved.

Gil H.A.,University of Seville | Lin J.,PJM Interconnection LLC
IEEE Transactions on Power Systems | Year: 2013

Increased deployment of wind-power generation is changing the landscape of power supply around the world. When integrated with electricity markets, wind power is also widely known to influence the prices cleared at the market. This paper examines the effect of wind-power generation on the day-ahead market prices in the PJM electricity market using robust econometric models and statistical inference. Results show that the quantified expected benefits to wholesale market participants may be substantial despite the relatively low wind-power penetration levels still observed within the PJM jurisdiction relative to other markets. The quantified unitary benefits outweigh, by a great margin, the renewable energy credits given to qualifying wind farms across the market. When benefits outweigh the costs incurred to generate them, welfare is accrued. To this end, benefit allocation mechanisms are proposed, which may contribute to the continued development of wind power on the roadmap to a cleaner power industry of the future. © 2013 IEEE.

Brigatti M.F.,University of Modena and Reggio Emilia | Galan E.,University of Seville | Theng B.K.G.,Landcare Research
Developments in Clay Science | Year: 2013

Phyllosilicates, and among them clay minerals, are of great interest not only for the scientific community but also for their potential applications in many novel and advanced areas. However, the correct application of these minerals requires a thorough knowledge of their crystal chemical properties. This chapter provides crystal chemical and structural details related to phyllosilicates and describes the fundamental features leading to their different behaviour in different natural or technical processes, as also detailed in other chapters of this book. Phyllosilicates, described in this chapter, are minerals of the (i) kaolin-serpentine group (e.g. kaolinite, dickite, nacrite, halloysite, hisingerite, lizardite, antigorite, chrysotile, amesite, carlosturanite, greenalite); (ii) talc and pyrophyllite group (e.g. pyrophyllite, ferripyrophyllite); (iii) mica group, with particular focus to illite; (iv) smectite group (e.g. montmorillonite, beidellite, nontronite, saponite, hectorite, sauconite); (v) vermiculite group; (vi) chlorite group; (vii) some 2:1 layer silicates involving a discontinuous octahedral sheet and a modulated tetrahedral sheet such as kalifersite, palygorskite and sepiolite; (viii) allophane and imogolite and (ix) mixed layer structures with particular focus on illite-smectite. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

Cabello A.,University of Seville
Physical Review Letters | Year: 2015

Quantum n-body correlations cannot be explained with (n-1)-body nonlocality. However, this genuine n-body nonlocality cannot surpass certain bounds. Here we address the problem of identifying the principles responsible for these bounds. We show that, for any n≥2, the exclusivity principle, as derived from axioms about sharp measurements, and a technical assumption give the exact bounds predicted by quantum theory. This provides a unified explanation of the bounds of single-body contextuality and n-body nonlocality, and connects two programs towards understanding quantum theory. © 2015 American Physical Society.

De La Rosa J.M.,University of Seville
Proceedings - IEEE International Symposium on Circuits and Systems | Year: 2013

This paper examines and compares the state of the art in ΣΔ Modulators from an empirical but systematic perspective. Statistical data extracted from more than 300 cutting-edge integrated circuits have been exhaustively analyzed to identify trends, design challenges, as well as the most efficient solutions proposed for different application scenarios in the frontiers of the ΣΔ modulation technique. The results of this study are presented as design guidelines in order to help designers to select the optimum ΣΔ architecture and circuit implementation for a given set of specifications1. © 2013 IEEE.

Ramirez-Cobo P.,University of Seville | Vidakovic B.,Georgia Institute of Technology
Computational Statistics and Data Analysis | Year: 2013

A wavelet-based multifractal spectrum (MFS) for the analysis of images that possess an erratically changing oscillatory behavior at various scales is constructed and estimated. The methodology is applied to the analysis of mammograms. The key contribution is that the analysis is not focused on microcalcifications, but on the background of the image, thus presenting a new modality to be combined with other diagnostic tools. Differences in image backgrounds between malignant and normal cases are found, in terms of multifractal descriptors. The new tool is compared with another spectral method, based on monofractal descriptors. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Chalco-Cano Y.,University of Tarapaca | Lodwick W.A.,University of Colorado at Denver | Rufian-Lizana A.,University of Seville
Fuzzy Optimization and Decision Making | Year: 2013

This paper addresses the optimization problems with interval-valued objective function. For this we consider two types of order relation on the interval space. For each order relation, we obtain KKT conditions using of the concept of generalized Hukuhara derivative (gH-derivative) for interval-valued functions. The gH-derivative is a concept more general of derivative for this class of functions than other concepts of derivative. We make some comparison with previous result given by other authors and we show some advantages of our result. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media New York.

del Castillo J.M.,University of Seville | Benitez F.G.,Camino de los Descubrimientos
Transportmetrica A: Transport Science | Year: 2013

The quality of public transport systems may be directly observed through user surveys by collecting ratings given by the users to specific aspects such as network coverage, transfers between lines and waiting time, among others. Besides these specific satisfaction ratings, an overall global satisfaction rating of the service is required. This way of proceeding, by asking questions on a limited number of disaggregated aspects, makes it easier to analyse the factors involved in the quality of a means of public transport and to rank these factors according to their contribution to the global satisfaction. This article presents a methodology to determine the relationship between the global satisfaction rating and the specific satisfaction ratings. This methodology employs three types of models for such a relationship: weighted means, a multivariate discrete distribution and a generalised linear model. These models allow the identification of the contribution of the specific satisfaction ratings to the global satisfaction rating. This information may be used by transit companies to improve their service quality. © 2013 Hong Kong Society for Transportation Studies Limited.

In order to estimate the prevalence of self-reported risk factors and cardiovascular events in an adult immigrant Latin American population of District 2 (Macarena) in Seville, we conducted a pilot study using cross-sectional descriptive research. We used an anonymous questionnaire with self-reported risk factors and cardiovascular events. 34 people participated (18% of the sample); mean age: 31.8 years, mean residence: 6.5 years, women: 52.9%. Prevalence of risk factors: diabetes 8.8%, high cholesterol 14.7% and high blood pressure 23.5%. Prevalence of coronary events was 8.8%; angina pectoris, myocardial infarction and stroke, 2.9% each. The conclusion is that self-reported prevalence of cardiovascular events was higher than in the literature, this issue deserving the attention of health agencies. This knowledge should be considered by nurses to develop culturally appropriate care plans of the context of immigrants.

Gutierrez Ortiz F.J.,University of Seville
Chemical Engineering Journal | Year: 2010

A model of wet limestone flue gas desulfurization (WLFGD) system has been developed based on the use of the number of transfer units (NTU) and height of transfer unit (HTU) focused to full-scale coal-fired power plants. The model describes the process occurring in the absorber as the most important step in the WLFGD system by establishing what increase in SO2 removal can be achieved as the higher levels of nozzles come progressively into service when initially the first spray header is operating alone, and keeping the other operating conditions under control. This relative improvement of the SO2 removal can be obtained from only one datum: the number of mass transfer units when only the first spray level is on service (N1). The model computes the gains in both the volumetric overall mass transfer coefficient and the number of transfer units. The model can be used to evaluate data or changes in an existing full-scale system as well as to evaluate proposed system designs and even as a pre-design tool in relation to the number of spray levels on service under controlled operating conditions. The model is tested on the basis of some data taken from a power plant and from the literature. The model results agree well with the real and published data. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.

Valverde J.M.,University of Seville
Chemical Engineering Science | Year: 2015

The study of limestone calcination under high CO2 pressure and high temperature has gained an extraordinary practical importance due to the recently emerged Ca-looping technology for post-combustion CO2 capture, which uses natural limestone (CaCO3) as precursor of the CO2 solid sorbent (CaO). A critical issue of this promising process is the necessity of producing CaO by calcination of limestone under high CO2 partial pressure. Experimental measurements on the kinetics of limestone calcination usually show that the rate of the endothermic calcination reaction is increased with temperature according to an Arrhenius law with an activation energy similar to the reaction enthalpy change. In situ microscopic observations have demonstrated that the reaction involves a crystallographic structural transformation of CaO. Calcination is started by chemical decomposition leading to the development of metastable CaO* nanocrystals after which CO2 is desorbed while stable CaO cubic crystals grow. In calcination environments with low CO2 partial pressure P (as compared to the equilibrium pressure: P/Peq≪1), desorption of CO2 and the exothermic structural transformation of CaO* to its stable CaO form occur extremely fast and do not play a role on the reaction kinetics, which is just determined by chemical decomposition. However, at high values of P/Peq the reaction rate may be significantly influenced by the structural transformation above a critical temperature. As a main consequence, the reaction mechanism proposed in the present paper shows that, above a critical temperature, limestone calcination is characterized by a negative activation energy in agreement with the experimental results shown. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.

Fernandez-Caliani J.C.,University of Huelva | Barba-Brioso C.,University of Seville
Journal of Hazardous Materials | Year: 2010

A one-year field trial was conducted at the abandoned mine site of Tharsis (Spain) in order to assess the potential value of waste sludge generated during the processing of marble stone, as an additive for assisting natural remediation of heavily contaminated acid mine soils. An amendment of 22cmolc of lime per kilogram of soil was applied to raise the pH level from 3.2 to above 6. The amendment application was effective in reducing concentrations of Al, Fe, Mn, sulfate and potentially hazardous trace elements (mainly Cu, Pb, Zn and Cd) in the most labile metal pools (water-soluble and EDTA-extractable fractions). Geochemical equilibrium calculations indicate that sulfate complexes and free metal ions were the dominant aqueous species in the soil solution. Metal coprecipitation with nanocrystalline ferric oxyhydroxides may be the major chemical mechanism of amendment-induced immobilization. The alleviating effect of the soil amendment on the metal bioavailability and phytotoxicity showed promise for assisting natural revegetation of the mine land. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.

Pelechano V.,University of Valencia | Chavez S.,University of Seville | Perez-Ortin J.E.,University of Valencia
PLoS ONE | Year: 2010

The amount of mRNA in a cell is the result of two opposite reactions: transcription and mRNA degradation. These reactions are governed by kinetics laws, and the most regulated step for many genes is the transcription rate. The transcription rate, which is assumed to be exercised mainly at the RNA polymerase recruitment level, can be calculated using the RNA polymerase densities determined either by run-on or immunoprecipitation using specific antibodies. The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is the ideal model organism to generate a complete set of nascent transcription rates that will prove useful for many gene regulation studies. By combining genomic data from both the GRO (Genomic Run-on) and the RNA pol ChIP-on-chip methods we generated a new, more accurate nascent transcription rate dataset. By comparing this dataset with the indirect ones obtained from the mRNA stabilities and mRNA amount datasets, we are able to obtain biological information about posttranscriptional regulation processes and a genomic snapshot of the location of the active transcriptional machinery. We have obtained nascent transcription rates for 4,670 yeast genes. The median RNA polymerase II density in the genes is 0.078 molecules/kb, which corresponds to an average of 0.096 molecules/gene. Most genes have transcription rates of between 2 and 30 mRNAs/hour and less than 1% of yeast genes have < 1 RNA polymerase molecule/ gene. Histone and ribosomal protein genes are the highest transcribed groups of genes and other than these exceptions the transcription of genes is an infrequent phenomenon in a yeast cell. © 2010 Pelechano et al.

Romero-Gomez M.,University of Seville | Berenguer M.,University of Valencia | Molina E.,Complejo Hospitalario Universitario Of Santiago Of Compostela | Calleja J.L.,Autonomous University of Madrid
Journal of Hepatology | Year: 2013

The addition of protease inhibitors, boceprevir or telaprevir, to peginterferon + ribavirin (PegIFN/RBV) increases the frequency as well as the severity, and hence, clinical relevance of anemia, which has now become one of the major complications associated with triple therapy. Most significant factors associated with anemia in patients receiving triple therapy include older age, lower body mass index (BMI), advanced fibrosis, and lower baseline hemoglobin. The variability in inosine triphosphate pyrophosphatase (ITPA) gene, which encodes a protein that hydrolyses inosine triphosphate (ITP), has been identified as an essential genetic factor for anemia both in dual and triple therapy. The correct management of anemia is based on anticipation, characterization and therapeutic management. Basically, anemia can be characterized in 3 types: ferropenic (mostly in fertile women), thalassemic type hemolytic anemia, and anemia from chronic processes. Functional deficit of iron should also be excluded in patients with normal ferritin and lower saturation of transferrin. Ribavirin dose reduction and epoetin, sequentially, are indicated in the management of anemia. Epoetin non-response can be caused by lack of time, type of anemia, functional iron deficit or erythropoietin resistance. In the transplantation setting, adding a protease inhibitor to PegIFN/RBV results in a significant increase in the incidence and severity of anemia and, as a consequence, a greater need for epoetin, transfusions, and ribavirin dose reductions. Packed red cell transfusions are utilized when hemoglobin decreases to less than 7.5 g/dl and/or there are clinical symptoms and/or there is no response to other therapeutic measures. © 2013 European Association for the Study of the Liver. Published.

Perianez R.,University of Seville
Ocean Engineering | Year: 2011

The dispersion of pollutants in the Alboran Sea and the Gulf of Cadiz has been studied using numerical models. Two types of dispersion models have been developed: finite difference and particle-tracking ones. In both cases, water currents are obtained from hydrodynamic models suited for each domain. Thus, a 2-layer model is adopted for the Alboran Sea and a 3D baroclinic model for the Gulf of Cadiz. Hydrodynamic models have been tested through comparisons of computed tides and currents with measurements in the regions. Finite difference dispersion models include watersediment interactions and are applied to simulate the dispersion of heavy metals and fallout radionuclides in the Gulf of Cadiz and Alboran Sea, respectively. Comparisons of computed metal and radionuclide concentrations, in bed sediments and the water column, with measurements provide an extra validation of the hydrodynamics. Particle-tracking rapid-response models are described for each region and some applications cases are presented. These models allow an extremely fast assessment of the consequences of an accidental or deliberate release of pollutants at any depth in the water column. Also, they may provide useful information, through numerical experiments, about oceanographic processes occurring in the area, for instance mixing processes. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Reck M.,Airway Research Center North | Paz-Ares L.,University of Seville
Seminars in Oncology | Year: 2015

Despite the availability of radiotherapy, cytotoxic agents, and targeted agents, a high unmet medical need remains for novel therapies that improve treatment outcomes in patients with lung cancer who are ineligible for surgical resection. Building upon the early promise shown with general immunostimulatory agents, immuno-oncology is at the forefront of research in this field, with several novel agents currently under investigation. In particular, agents targeting immune checkpoints, such as the cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen-4 (CTLA-4) receptor and programmed death-1 (PD-1) receptor, have shown in early clinical trials potential for improving tumor responses and survival in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Here, we examine the rationale for targeting immune checkpoints in lung cancer and review the clinical data from studies with immune checkpoint inhibitors currently in development. The challenges associated with optimizing treatment with these agents in lung cancer also are discussed. © 2015 Elsevier Inc.

Risquez-Cuadro R.,University of Seville
Chemistry (Weinheim an der Bergstrasse, Germany) | Year: 2013

Concerted functioning of lectins and carbohydrate-processing enzymes, mainly glycosidases, is essential in maintaining life. It was commonly assumed that the mechanisms by which each class of protein recognizes their cognate sugar partners are intrinsically different: multivalency is a characteristic feature of carbohydrate-lectin interactions, whereas glycosidases bind to their substrates or substrate-analogue inhibitors in monovalent form. Recent observations on the glycosidase inhibitory potential of multivalent glycomimetics have questioned this paradigm and led to postulate an inhibitory multivalent effect. Here the mechanisms at the origin of this phenomenon have been investigated. A D-gluco-configured sp(2)-iminosugar glycomimetic motif, namely 1-amino-5N,6O-oxomethylydenenojirimycin (1N-ONJ), behaving, simultaneously, as a ligand of peanut agglutinin (PNA) lectin and as an inhibitor of several glycosidases, has been identified. Both the 1N-ONJ-lectin- and 1N-ONJ-glycosidase-recognition processes have been found to be sensitive to multivalency, which has been exploited in the design of a lectin-glycosidase competitive assay to explore the implication of catalytic and non-glycone sites in enzyme binding. A set of isotropic dodecavalent C60-fullerene-sp(2)-iminosugar balls incorporating matching or mismatching motifs towards several glycosidases (inhitopes) was synthesized for that purpose, thereby preventing differences in binding modes arising from orientational preferences. The data supports that: 1) multivalency allows modulating the affinity and selectivity of a given inhitope towards glycosidases; 2) multivalent presentation can switch on the inhibitory capacity for some inhitope-glycosidase pairs, and 3) interactions of the multivalent inhibitors with non-glycone sites is critical for glycosidase recognition. The ensemble of results point to a shift in the binding mode on going from monovalent to multivalent systems: in the first case a typical ''key-lock'' model involving, essentially, the high-affinity active site can be assumed, whereas in the second, a lectin-like behavior implying low-affinity non-glycone sites probably operates. The differences in responsiveness to multivalency for different glycosidases can then be rationalized in terms of the structure and accessibility of the corresponding carbohydrate-binding regions. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

Lopez J.C.,University of Seville | Lopez J.C.,University of Maryland Baltimore County | Karlsson R.-M.,University of Maryland Baltimore County | O'Donnell P.,University of Maryland Baltimore County | O'Donnell P.,Pfizer
Neuropsychopharmacology | Year: 2015

In Pavlovian conditioning, sign-and goal-tracking behaviors represent different approaches towards the conditioned stimulus. These behavioral patterns have been associated with predictive or incentive properties of the conditioned stimulus, with a crucial involvement of the mesolimbic dopamine system. As it is possible that sign tracking behavior is more sensitive to dopamine modulation, we evaluated the dopamine-dependence of sign-and goal-tracking behavior. We assessed responses to both a D2 agonist and an antagonist, and tested performance in a behavioral paradigm known to activate dopamine projections and in an animal model that affects mesolimbic and mesocortical function. Sign trackers displayed a greater sensitivity to a D2 agonist and smaller prepulse inhibition of the acoustic startle response than goal trackers, suggesting a reduced inhibitory ability. In addition, a neonatal ventral hippocampal lesion resulted in the loss of incentive salience of cues in sign trackers. Overall, these data indicate that sign-tracking behavior is more heavily controlled by dopamine than goal tracking. © 2015 American College of Neuropsychopharmacology. All rights reserved.

Caraballo T.,University of Seville | Colucci R.,Pontifical Xavierian University
Nonlinear Analysis: Real World Applications | Year: 2014

We prove the existence of a pullback attractor for a non-autonomous fourth order evolution equation arising in the field of phase transitions and elasticity theory. The existence of several families of bounded absorbing sets is first proved in several spaces, and owing to the compactness of some inclusions between Sobolev spaces, we can then ensure the existence of a family of compact absorbing sets in the pullback sense and, as a consequence, the existence of a pullback attractor. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Negenborn R.R.,Technical University of Delft | Maestre J.M.,University of Seville
IEEE Control Systems | Year: 2014

Distributed and decentralized control systems have been studied for decades. Already in [1], a survey of decentralized control methods for large-scale systems published in the late 1970s, it was stressed that when considering large systems the presupposition of centrality fails to hold due either to the lack of centralized information or the lack of centralized computing capability. Hence, the concerns regarding the applicability of centralized control strategies are anything but new. Nevertheless, there have been changes that have radically transformed the way in which these concerns are faced by control engineers. In particular, the strong development since the late 1990s of information and communication technologies (ICTs), on the one hand, and computational power, on the other, have boosted the application of noncentralized control techniques to problems beyond the scope of a few decades ago, such as the control of traffic [2] or electricity networks [3], [4]. © 1991-2012 IEEE.

Munoz M.,University of Seville | Munoz M.,Hospital Infantil Universitario Virgen Del Rocio | Covenas R.,Institute of Neurosciences of Castilla y Leon INCYL
Current Medicinal Chemistry | Year: 2011

The neuropeptide substance P (SP) shows a widespread distribution in both the central and peripheral nervous systems and it is known that after binding to the neurokinin-1 (NK-1) receptors, SP regulates many biological functions in the central nervous system such as emotional behaviour, stress, depression, anxiety, emesis, migraine, alcohol addiction and neurodegeneration. SP has been also implicated in pain, inflammation, hepatotoxicity and in virus proliferation, and it plays an important role in cancer (e.g., tumour cell proliferation, angiogenesis, and the migration of tumour cells for invasion and metastasis). By contrast, it is known that after binding to NK-1 receptors, NK-1 receptor antagonists specifically inhibit the above-mentioned biological functions mediated by SP. Thus, these antagonists exert an anxyolitic, antidepressant, antiemetic, antimigraine, antialcohol addiction or neuroprotector effect in the central nervous system, and they play a role in analgesic, antiinflammatory, hepatoprotector processes and in antivirus proliferation. Regarding cancer, NK-1 receptor antagonists exert an antitumour action (inducing tumour cell death by apoptosis), and induce antiangiogenesis and inhibit the migration of tumour cells. It is also known that NK-1 receptors have a widespread distribution and that they are overexpressed in tumour cells. Thus, NK-1 receptor antagonists are molecularly targeted agents. In general, current drugs have a single therapeutic effect, although less commonly they may exert several. However, the data reported above indicate that NK-1 receptor antagonists are promising drugs, exerting many therapeutic effects (the action of such antagonists is dose-dependent and, depending on the concentration, has more positive effects). In this review, we update the multiple therapeutic effects exerted by NK-1 receptor antagonists. © 2011 Bentham Science Publishers Ltd.

Plastria F.,Vrije Universiteit Brussel | Carrizosa E.,University of Seville
Mathematical Programming | Year: 2012

A center hyperplane in the d-dimensional space minimizes the maximum of its distances from a finite set of points A with respect to possibly different gauges. In this note it is shown that a center hyperplane exists which is at (equal) maximum distance from at least d + 1 points of A. Moreover the projections of the points among these which lie above the center hyperplane cannot be separated by another hyperplane from the projections of those that are below it. When all gauges involved are smooth, all center hyperplanes satisfy these properties. This geometric property allows us to improve and generalize previously existing results, which were only known for the case in which all distances are measured using a common norm. The results also extend to the constrained case where for some points it is prespecified on which side of the hyperplane (above, below or on) they must lie. In this case the number of points lying on the hyperplane plus those at maximum distance is at least d + 1. It follows that solving such global optimization problems reduces to inspecting a finite set of candidate solutions. Extensions of these results to a separation problem are outlined. © 2010 Springer and Mathematical Programming Society.

The electron transfer reaction between [Ru(NH3) 5pz]2+ and [Co(C2O4) 3]3- was studied in the presence of monomers and aggregates of sodium cholate at 298.2 K. The results show a decreasing rate constant with the successive addition of NaC (sodium cholate). To rationalize the dependence of the reaction rate on [NaC] a stepwise self-association model was used. In addition, the kinetic results agree with the form that adds the monomers, which implies that in NaC aggregates the Stern layer is not well defined. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

This study proposes a pragmatic procedure of factual data analysis and retrieval of journalistic interviews and what we call "statement texts". Journalistic documentation systems do not always offer the precision required to meet the specific demands of their end-users (journalists, historians, teachers, social scientists, general audience), as is the case with factual data. The retrieval of fact-based information is optimized by determing how users will ask for these data, simulating their pronominal searching behaviour, and then transforming those search modes into analytical categories for use by press documentalists. However, such studies should focus on a specific journalistic genre (in this case interviews and "statement texts") because th