Saskatoon, Canada
Saskatoon, Canada

The University of Saskatchewan is a Canadian public research university, founded in 1907, and located on the east side of the South Saskatchewan River in Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada. An "Act to establish and incorporate a University for the Province of Saskatchewan" was passed by the provincial legislature in 1907. It established the provincial university on April 3, 1907 "for the purpose of providing facilities for higher education in all its branches and enabling all persons without regard to race, creed or religion to take the fullest advantage". The University of Saskatchewan is now the largest education institution in the Canadian province of Saskatchewan.The university began as an agricultural college in 1907 and established the first Canadian university-based department of extension in 1910. 300 acres were set aside for university buildings and 1,000 acres for the U of S farm, and agricultural fields. In total 10.32 km2 was annexed for the university. The main University campus is situated upon 2,425 acres , with another 500 acres allocated for Innovation Place Research Park. The University of Saskatchewan agriculture college still has access to neighbouring urban research lands. The University of Saskatchewan's Vaccine and Infectious Disease Organization facility, develops DNA-enhanced immunization vaccines for both humans and animals.Since its origins as an agricultural college, research has played an important role at the university. Discoveries made at the U of S include sulphate-resistant cement and the cobalt-60 cancer therapy unit. The university offers over 200 academic programs. Duncan P. McColl was appointed as the first registrar, establishing the first convocation from which Chief Justice Edward L. Wetmore was elected as the first chancellor. Walter Charles Murray became the first president of the university's board of governors. Wikipedia.


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Wisniewski M.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | Gusta L.,University of Saskatchewan | Neuner G.,University of Innsbruck
Environmental and Experimental Botany | Year: 2014

Freeze avoidance has evolved in plants in response to selection pressures brought about by exposure to freezing temperatures. It is a multifaceted adaptive mechanism with many attributes. Despite the prevalence of freeze avoidance as an adaptive mechanism, little research has been devoted in recent times to understanding the underlying mechanisms and regulation of freeze avoidance. Therefore, there is no shortage of questions that need to be addressed. Inherent in understanding how plants respond to freezing temperatures is the need to also understand the properties of water at different temperatures and how the interaction of water with biological substances affects these properties. This review provides an overview of the subject of biological ice nucleation and propagation and how various aspects of plant structure and composition can affect the freezing process. Deep supercooling of plant tissues represents the most extreme example of freeze avoidance. The potential role of anti-nucleating substances in defining the ability to deep supercool is also discussed. The importance of studying intact plants in their natural environments is emphasized. Although, this adds a high degree of complexity to investigations, it is in this context that adaptive mechanisms have evolved and play a role in the biology and survival of plants. © 2013.


Chen H.-X.,Beijing University of Technology | Chen H.-X.,Beihang University | Chen W.,University of Saskatchewan | Liu X.,Lanzhou University | And 2 more authors.
Physics Reports | Year: 2016

In the past decade many charmonium-like states were observed experimentally. Especially those charged charmonium-like Zc states and bottomonium-like Zb states cannot be accommodated within the naive quark model. These charged Zc states are good candidates of either the hidden-charm tetraquark states or molecules composed of a pair of charmed mesons. Recently, the LHCb Collaboration discovered two hidden-charm pentaquark states, which are also beyond the quark model. In this work, we review the current experimental progress and investigate various theoretical interpretations of these candidates of the multiquark states. We list the puzzles and theoretical challenges of these models when confronted with the experimental data. We also discuss possible future measurements which may distinguish the theoretical schemes on the underlying structures of the hidden-charm multiquark states. © 2016 Elsevier B.V..


Kalynych S.,McGill University | Morona R.,University of Adelaide | Cygler M.,McGill University | Cygler M.,University of Saskatchewan
FEMS Microbiology Reviews | Year: 2014

The discovery that the surfaces of Gram-negative bacteria often carry unique polysaccharide signatures pre-dates most seminal discoveries of molecular biology and biochemistry of the 20th century. The O-antigen component of the lipopolysaccharide has been one of the most intensely studied bacterial polysaccharide surface structures for over 80 years. Yet, many questions about the mechanism of biosynthesis of the O-antigen and its transport to the cell surface remain unanswered. In this review we provide an overview of how the molecular basis of the O-antigen assembly and trafficking were unraveled in a historical context. We pay particular attention to the emergence of novel technological approaches and how they fueled the elucidation of the O-antigen maturation process. Moreover, we provide a brief perspective on the biosynthesis of enterobacterial common antigen and underline the similarities and differences between the pathways used to assemble these two surface polysaccharides. Finally, we highlight key discoveries that led to the understanding of the mechanistic basis of bacteriophage-induced O-antigen modifications. We place special emphasis on the regulation of the length of O-antigen polymers and provide a detailed overview of the models explaining the O-antigen length determination. Finally, we highlight outstanding questions that need to be addressed both structurally and functionally to advance our understanding of the O-antigen assembly, trafficking and export within cellular and molecular contexts. This review provides a historical perspective of how the molecular basis of the O-antigen assembly was elucidated, and to underscore some of the most intriguing questions that remain to be addressed. © 2014 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. All rights reserved.


Adams G.P.,University of Saskatchewan | Ratto M.H.,Austral University of Chile
Animal Reproduction Science | Year: 2013

Ovulation in mammals involves pulsatile release of GnRH from the hypothalamus into the hypophyseal portal system with subsequent release of LH from the anterior pituitary into systemic circulation. Elevated circulating concentrations of LH induce a cascade of events within the mature follicle, culminating in follicle rupture and evacuation. The broad classification of species as either spontaneous or induced ovulators is based on the type of stimulus responsible for eliciting GnRH release from the hypothalamus. In spontaneously ovulating species (e.g., human, sheep, cattle, horse, pigs), release of GnRH from the hypothalamus is triggered when, in the absence of progesterone, systemic estradiol concentrations exceed a threshold. In induced ovulators (e.g., rabbits, ferrets, cats, camelids), release of GnRH is contingent upon copulatory stimuli; hence, ovulation is not a regular cyclic event. Since a classic 1970 Peruvian study, dogma has maintained that physical stimulation of the genitalia during copulation is the primary trigger for inducing ovulation in alpacas and llamas. Exciting results of recent studies, however, provide direct evidence for the existence of an ovulation-inducing factor (OIF) in semen, and compel us to re-examine the mechanism of ovulation in both induced and spontaneous ovulators. Ovulation-inducing factor in seminal plasma is a potent stimulant of LH secretion, ovulation and luteal gland development, and acts via a systemic rather than a local route. OIF is a protein molecule that is resistant to heat and enzymatic digestion with proteinase K. It has a molecular mass of 14. kDa, and may be part of a larger protein complex or pro-hormone. The effect of OIF is dose-related and evident at physiologically relevant doses (i.e., as little as 1/100th that present in the ejaculate), and is mediated, in whole or in part, at the level of the hypothalamus in vivo. The factor exists in the seminal plasma of every species in which it has been examined thus far, including Bactrian camels, alpacas, llamas, cattle, horses, pigs, and koalas. Seminal plasma OIF does not appear to be a phylogenetic vestige in spontaneous ovulators since it (1) induced ovulation in pre-pubertal mice, (2) altered ovarian follicular wave dynamics in cows, and (3) elicited LH release in vitro from primary pituitary cell cultures of rats, mice, guinea pigs, rabbits, llamas and cows. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.


Zhang H.,University of Victoria | Shi Y.,University of Victoria | Saadat Mehr A.,University of Saskatchewan
Journal of Sound and Vibration | Year: 2011

In this paper, the design problem for non-fragile dynamic vibration absorbers (DVAs) is investigated. Due to the imprecision of the manufacturing process or the variation during the operation, uncertainty in the parameters of the DVA is unavoidable. The uncertainty may degrade the performance of the designed DVA or even deteriorate the system. Hence, it is practically demanding to propose a design method for a non-fragile DVA, i.e., when the parameters of the DVA vary in an admissible range, an expected vibration suppression level should be guaranteed. The uncertainty of the DVA is feasibly assumed to be norm-bounded. Then, the design problem for the DVA is converted into a static output feedback (SOF) control problem. Sufficient condition for the existence of the non-fragile DVA with a prescribed H∞ level is derived by using a bilinear matrix inequality (BMI). An iterative linear matrix inequality (ILMI) method is employed to solve the BMI condition. Finally, a design example is given to show the effectiveness of the proposed approach. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Slagsvold T.,University of Oslo | Wiebe K.L.,University of Saskatchewan
Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences | Year: 2011

We briefly review the literature on social learning in birds, concluding that strong evidence exists mainly for predator recognition, song, mate choice and foraging. The mechanism of local enhancement may be more important than imitation for birds learning to forage, but the former mechanism may be sufficient for faithful transmission depending on the ecological circumstances. To date, most insights have been gained from birds in captivity. We present a study of social learning of foraging in two passerine birds in the wild, where we cross-fostered eggs between nests of blue tits, Cyanistes caeruleus and great tits, Parus major. Early learning causes a shift in the foraging sites used by the tits in the direction of the foster species. The shift in foraging niches was consistent across seasons, as showed by an analysis of prey items, and the effect lasted for life. The fact that young birds learn from their foster parents, and use this experience later when subsequently feeding their own offspring, suggests that foraging behaviour can be culturally transmitted over generations in the wild. It may therefore have both ecological and evolutionary consequences, some of which are discussed. © 2011 The Royal Society.


Zhang H.,University of Victoria | Shi Y.,University of Victoria | Saadat Mehr A.,University of Saskatchewan
IET Control Theory and Applications | Year: 2010

This study is concerned with the robust energy-to-peak (l 2-l∞) filtering problem for a class of uncertain linear discrete-time networked control systems with time-varying delays and randomly missing data. The system matrices are assumed to reside in a convex polytope, and the time-varying delays appearing in system states are assumed to lie in a given interval. Moreover, the random data missing is supposed to satisfy the Bernoulli random binary distribution. The authors' goal is to design a full-order filter such that the filtering error dynamic system is exponentially mean-square stable for all admissible time delays and randomly missing data while a prescribed l2-l∞ performance is achieved. Sufficient delay-and parameter-dependent conditions for the existence of the filter and for the solvability of the addressed problem are given in terms of a set of linear matrix inequalities. Finally, simulation examples and comparison studies are provided to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach. © 2010 The Institution of Engineering and Technology.


Chen H.-X.,Beihang University | Chen W.,University of Saskatchewan | Liu X.,Lanzhou University | Steele T.G.,University of Saskatchewan | And 2 more authors.
Physical Review Letters | Year: 2015

Inspired by Pc(4380) and Pc(4450) recently observed by LHCb, a QCD sum rule investigation is performed, by which they can be identified as exotic hidden-charm pentaquarks composed of an anticharmed meson and a charmed baryon. Our results suggest that Pc(4380) and Pc(4450) have quantum numbers JP=3/2- and 5/2+, respectively. Furthermore, two extra hidden-charm pentaqurks with configurations D¯Σc∗ and D¯∗Σc∗ are predicted, which have spin-parity quantum numbers JP=3/2- and JP=5/2+, respectively. As an important extension, the mass predictions of hidden-bottom pentaquarks are also given. Searches for these partners of Pc(4380) and Pc(4450) are especially accessible at future experiments like LHCb and BelleII. © 2015 American Physical Society.


Zhang H.,University of Victoria | Mehr A.S.,University of Saskatchewan | Shi Y.,University of Victoria
Signal Processing | Year: 2010

This paper investigates the problem of energy-to-peak filtering for both discrete-time and continuous-time systems with polyhedral uncertainties in the state-space equations. By increasing the flexible dimensions in the solution space for the energy-to-peak optimization, less conservative results on the robust energy-to-peak filtering are obtained. The filter parameters can be readily designed by solving a set of parameter-dependent linear matrix inequalities (LMIs). In comparison with the existing methods, the improvement of the proposed method over the existing results is shown via two numerical examples. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Zhang H.,University of Victoria | Shi Y.,University of Victoria | Saadat Mehr A.,University of Saskatchewan
IEEE Transactions on Fuzzy Systems | Year: 2012

In this paper, we present a new design method for the H ∞ filtering of discrete-time Takagi-Sugeno (TS) fuzzy systems. The parameters of the filter are assumed to be linearly dependent on the normalized fuzzy weighting functions. By using an augmentation technique, the design parameters are incorporated into a filtering error system. In order to derive less-conservative results and reduce the filtering error, a new condition is established to ensure the H ∞ performance of the filtering error system. By introducing more slack matrices, the solution set of the filter parameters is extended. By using a partitioning technique, a design method for the H ∞ filter is proposed in terms of linear matrix inequalities (LMIs). An example demonstrates the improvement of the proposed design method over an existing approach. © 2012 IEEE.


Kleiv R.T.,University of Saskatchewan | Steele T.G.,University of Saskatchewan | Zhang A.,Shanghai University | Blokland I.,University of Alberta
Physical Review D - Particles, Fields, Gravitation and Cosmology | Year: 2013

Diquarks with JP=0±, 1± containing a heavy (charm or bottom) quark and a light quark are investigated using QCD Laplace sum rules. Masses are determined using appropriately constructed gauge invariant correlation functions, including for the first time next-to-leading order perturbative contributions. The JP=0+ and 1+ charm-light diquark masses are, respectively, found to be 1.86±0.05 and 1.87±0.10 GeV, while those of the 0+ and 1+ bottom-light diquarks are both determined to be 5.08±0.04 GeV. The sum rules derived for heavy-light diquarks with negative parity are poorly behaved and do not permit unambiguous mass predictions, in agreement with previous results for negative parity light diquarks. The scalar and axial vector heavy-light diquark masses are degenerate within uncertainty, as expected by heavy quark symmetry considerations. Furthermore, these mass predictions are in good agreement with masses extracted in constituent diquark models of the tetraquark candidates X(3872) and Yb(10890). Thus these results provide QCD support for the interpretation of the X(3872) and Y b(10890) as JPC=1++ tetraquark states composed of diquark clusters. Further implications for tetraquarks among the heavy quarkoniumlike XYZ states are discussed. © 2013 American Physical Society.


Whiting S.J.,University of Saskatchewan | Calvo M.S.,U.S. Food and Drug Administration
Molecular Nutrition and Food Research | Year: 2010

We conducted an examination of recent studies to determine whether older adults (≥65 years) need higher levels of supplementary vitamin D than young adults when attempting to replete vitamin D status in deficient subjects, i.e. those with levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D less than 75 nmol/L. As data on repletion with vitamin D2 have recently been published, we restricted our discussion to the use of vitamin D3 from dietary supplements, prescriptions for large oral doses, and bolus dosing or injections. Most published dosing regimens failed to achieve 75 nmol/L in most all subjects, whether young adults (<65 years) or older adults (≥65 years). Whether as daily or bolus oral supplementation, elderly subjects appeared to need more vitamin D3 compared with younger adults, however, baseline levels, endpoints, study duration, compliance, and other factors were different among studies. To ensure most subjects are replete in vitamin D, a daily dose of more than 50 μg (2000 IU) in younger and 125 μg (5000 IU) is required. Other strategies including bolus and loading doses are described. No study reported adverse effects of using oral intakes about the current upper level of 50 μg (2000 IU). © 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.


Ferrari M.C.O.,University of Saskatchewan | Ferrari M.C.O.,University of California at Davis | Chivers D.P.,University of Saskatchewan
Animal Cognition | Year: 2011

A fundamental prerequisite for prey to avoid being captured is the ability to distinguish dangerous stimuli such as predators and risky habitats from non-dangerous stimuli such as non-predators and safe locations. Most research to date has focused on mechanisms allowing prey to learn to recognize risky stimuli. The paradox of learned predator recognition is that its remarkable efficiency leaves room for potentially costly mistakes if prey inadvertently learn to recognize non-predatory species as dangerous. Here, we pre-exposed embryonic woodfrogs, Rana sylvatica, to the odour of a tiger salamander, Ambystoma tigrinum, without risk reinforcement, and later try to teach the tadpoles to recognize the salamander, a red-bellied newt Cynops pyrrhogaster-a closely related amphibian, or a goldfish, Carassiusauratus, as a predator. Tadpoles were then tested for their responses to salamander, newt or fish odour. Pre-exposure to salamander did not affect the ability of tadpoles to learn to recognize goldfish as a predator. However, the embryonic pre-exposure to salamanders inhibited the subsequent learning of salamanders as a potential predator, through a mechanism known as latent inhibition. The embryonic pre-exposure also prevented the learned recognition of novel newts, indicating complete generalization of non-predator recognition. This pattern does not match that of generalization of predator recognition, whereby species learning to recognize a novel predator do respond, but not as strongly, to novel species closely related to the known predator. The current paper discusses the costs of making recognition mistakes within the context of generalization of predators and dangerous habitats versus generalization of non-predators and safe habitats and highlights the asymmetry in which amphibians incorporate information related to safe versus risky cues in their decision-making. Mechanisms such as latent inhibition allow a variety of prey species to collect information about non-threatening stimuli, as early as during their embryonic development, and to use this information later in life to infer the danger level associated with the stimuli. © 2010 The Author(s).


Poon L.,University of Saskatchewan | Wilson L.D.,University of Saskatchewan | Headley J.V.,Aquatic Contaminants Research Division
Carbohydrate Polymers | Year: 2014

This study reports the preparation of chitosan-glutaraldehyde (Chi-Glu) copolymers at modified reaction conditions such as the temperature prior to gelation, pH, and reagent ratios. The chitosan copolymers were characterized using infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), CHN elemental analysis, and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA). Evidence of self-polymerized glutaraldehyde was supported by CHN and TGA results. The sorption properties of Chi-Glu copolymers were evaluated in aqueous solutions containing p-nitrophenol at variable pH (4.6, 6.6, and 9.0). The sorption properties of the copolymers correlated with the level of the accessibility of the sorption sites in accordance with the relative cross-linker content. The relative sorption capacity of the Chi-Glu copolymers increases as the level of cross-linking increases. Chitosan displays the lowest sorptive uptake while an optimal sorption capacity was concluded at the 4:1 glutaraldehyde:chitosan monomer mole ratio, in close agreement with the three reactive sites (i.e. OH/NH) per glucosamine monomer. The PNP dye probe was determined to bind to chitosan through an electrostatic interaction due to the increased sorption capacity of the phenolate anion, as evidenced by the change in pH from 4.6 to 9.0. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Lin Y.,University of Saskatchewan | Shi Y.,University of Victoria | Burton R.,University of Saskatchewan
IEEE/ASME Transactions on Mechatronics | Year: 2013

This paper studies the design of a robust discrete-time sliding-mode control (DT-SMC) for a high precision electrohydraulic actuator (EHA) system. Nonlinear friction in the hydraulic actuator can greatly influence the performance and accuracy of the hydraulic actuators, and it is difficult to accurately model the nonlinear friction characteristics. In this paper, it is proposed to characterize the frictions as an uncertainty in the system matrices. Indeed, the effects of variations of the nonlinear friction coefficients are considered as norm-bounded uncertainties that span a bounded region to cover a wide range of the real actuator friction. For such a discrete-time dynamic model, for the EHA system with system uncertainty matrices and a nonlinear term, a sufficient condition for existence of stable sliding surfaces is proposed by using the linear matrix inequality approach. Based on this existence condition, a DT-SMC is developed such that the reaching motion satisfies the discrete-time sliding mode reaching condition for uncertain systems. Simulation and experimental studies on the EHA system illustrate the effectiveness and applicability of the proposed method. © 1996-2012 IEEE.


Shi Y.,University of Victoria | Fang H.,University of Saskatchewan
International Journal of Control | Year: 2010

We consider the problem of parameter estimation and output estimation for systems in a transmission control protocol (TCP) based network environment. As a result of networked-induced time delays and packet loss, the input and output data are inevitably subject to randomly missing data. Based on the available incomplete data, we first model the input and output missing data as two separate Bernoulli processes characterised by probabilities of missing data, then a missing output estimator is designed, and finally we develop a recursive algorithm for parameter estimation by modifying the Kalman filter-based algorithm. Under the stochastic framework, convergence properties of both the parameter estimation and output estimation are established. Simulation results illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithms. © 2010 Taylor & Francis.


Andrews D.A.,Carleton University | Bonta J.,Public Safety Canada | Wormith J.S.,University of Saskatchewan
Criminal Justice and Behavior | Year: 2011

The risk-need-responsivity (RNR) model has been widely regarded as the premier model for guiding offender assessment and treatment. The RNR model underlies some of the most widely used risk-needs offender assessment instruments, and it is the only theoretical model that has been used to interpret the offender treatment literature. Recently, the good lives model (GLM) has been promoted as an alternative and enhancement to RNR. GLM sets itself apart from RNR by its positive, strengths-based, and restorative model of rehabilitation. In addition, GLM hypothesizes that enhancing personal fulfillment will lead naturally to reductions in criminogenic needs, whereas RNR posits the reverse direction. In this article the authors respond to GLM's criticisms of RNR and conclude that little substance is added by GLM that is not already included in RNR, although proponents of RNR may learn from the popular appeal that GLM, with its positive, strength-based focus, has garnered from clinicians over the past decade. © 2011 International Association for Correctional and Forensic Psychology.


Zhang H.,University of Victoria | Shi Y.,University of Victoria | Mehr A.S.,University of Saskatchewan
International Journal of Adaptive Control and Signal Processing | Year: 2011

In this paper, we investigate the robust weighted Hinf; filtering problem for networked systems with intermittent measurements under the discrete-time framework. Multiple outputs of the plant are measured by separate sensors, each of which has a specific failure rate. Network-induced delay, packet dropouts and network-induced disorder phenomena are all incorporated in the modeling of the network link. The resulting closed-loop system involves both delayed noise and non-delayed noise. In order to make full use of the delayed information, we define a weighted Hinf; performance index. Sufficient delay-dependent and parameter-dependent conditions for the existence of the filter and the solvability of the addressed problem are given via a set of linear matrix inequalities. Two simulation examples are presented to illustrate the relationship between the minimal performance level and the weighting factor, which show the effectiveness of the proposed method. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.


Zhang H.,University of Victoria | Shi Y.,University of Victoria | Saadat Mehr A.,University of Saskatchewan
IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics | Year: 2011

In this paper, we investigate the problem of robust static output feedback (SOF) control for networked control systems (NCSs) subject to network-induced delays and missing data. The uncertain system matrices are assumed to lie in a convex polytope. The network-induced delays are time varying but within a given interval. The random data missing is characterized by the Bernoulli random binary distribution. Delay-dependent conditions for the exponential mean-square stability are first established in terms of matrix inequalities. Then, for the robust stabilization problem, the design of an SOF controller is presented by solving bilinear matrix inequalities (BMIs). In order to efficiently solve a nonconvex BMI, we propose an approach based on the linear matrix inequality technique. Furthermore, the developed approach is employed to design the remote proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controller for NCSs. The design of a digital PID controller is formulated as a synthesis problem of the SOF control via an augmentation method. Simulation examples illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed methods. © 2011 IEEE.


Ferrari M.C.O.,University of California at Davis | Chivers D.P.,University of Saskatchewan
Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology | Year: 2010

Amphibians are able to learn to recognize their future predators during their embryonic development (the ghost of predation future). Here, we investigate whether amphibian embryos can also acquire additional information about their future predators, such as the level of threat associated with them and the time of day at which they would be the most dangerous. We exposed woodfrog embryos (Rana sylvatica) to different concentrations of injured tadpole cues paired with the odor of a tiger salamander (Ambystoma tigrinum) between 1500 and 1700 hours for five consecutive days and raised them for 9 days after hatching. First, we showed that embryos exposed to predator odor paired with increasing concentrations of injured cues during their embryonic development subsequently display stronger antipredator responses to the salamander as tadpoles, thereby demonstrating threat-sensitive learning by embryonic amphibians. Second, we showed that the learned responses of tadpoles were stronger when the tadpoles were exposed to salamander odor between 1500 and 1700 hours, the time at which the embryos were exposed to the salamander, than during earlier (1100-1300 hours) or later (1900-2100 hours) periods. Our results highlight the amazing sophistication of learned predator recognition by prey and emphasize the importance of temporal considerations in experiments examining risk assessment by prey. © 2009 Springer-Verlag.


Calvo M.S.,U.S. Food and Drug Administration | Whiting S.J.,University of Saskatchewan
Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology | Year: 2013

Widespread poor vitamin D status in all age and gender groups in the United States (USA) and Canada increases the need for new food sources. Currently ∼60% of the intake of vitamin D from foods is from fortified foods in these countries. Those groups in greatest need are consuming significantly lower amounts of commonly fortified foods such as milk. Both countries allow voluntary vitamin D fortification of some other foods, although in Canada this practice is only done on a case-by-case basis. Novel approaches to vitamin D fortification of food in both countries now include "bio-addition" in which food staples are fortified through the addition of another vitamin D-rich food to animal feed during production, or manipulation of food post-harvest or pre-processing. These bio-addition approaches provide a wider range of foods containing vitamin D, and thus appeal to differing preferences, cultures and possibly economic status. An example is the post-harvest exposure of edible mushrooms to ultraviolet light. However, further research into safety and efficacy of bio-addition needs to be established in different target populations. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'Vitamin D Workshop'.


Meurens F.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Summerfield A.,Institute of Virology and Immunoprophylaxis IVI | Nauwynck H.,Ghent University | Saif L.,Ohio State University | Gerdts V.,University of Saskatchewan
Trends in Microbiology | Year: 2012

An animal model to study human infectious diseases should accurately reproduce the various aspects of disease. Domestic pigs (Sus scrofa domesticus) are closely related to humans in terms of anatomy, genetics and physiology, and represent an excellent animal model to study various microbial infectious diseases. Indeed, experiments in pigs are much more likely to be predictive of therapeutic treatments in humans than experiments in rodents. In this review, we highlight the numerous advantages of the pig model for infectious disease research and vaccine development and document a few examples of human microbial infectious diseases for which the use of pigs as animal models has contributed to the acquisition of new knowledge to improve both animal and human health. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.


Gurao N.P.,University of Saskatchewan | Sethuraman S.,Cummins Inc. | Suwas S.,Indian Institute of Science
Metallurgical and Materials Transactions A: Physical Metallurgy and Materials Science | Year: 2013

The evolution of microstructure and texture in commercially pure titanium has been studied as a function of strain path during rolling using experimental techniques and viscoplastic self-consistent simulations. Four different strain paths, namely unidirectional rolling, two-step cross rolling, multistep cross rolling, and reverse rolling, have been employed to decipher the effect of strain path change on the evolution of deformation texture and microstructure. The cross-rolled samples show higher hardness with lower microstrain and intragranular misorientation compared to the unidirectional rolled sample as determined from X-ray diffraction and electron backscatter diffraction, respectively. The higher hardness of the cross-rolled samples is attributed to orientation hardening due to the near basal texture. Viscoplastic self-consistent simulations are able to successfully predict the texture evolution of the differently rolled samples. Simulation results indicate the higher contribution of basal slip in the formation of near basal texture and as well as lower intragranular misorientation in the cross-rolled samples. © 2012 The Minerals, Metals & Materials Society and ASM International.


Zhang H.,University of Victoria | Shi Y.,University of Victoria | Mehr A.S.,University of Saskatchewan
International Journal of Robust and Nonlinear Control | Year: 2012

In this paper, we study the design problem of PID controllers for networked control systems (NCSs) with polyhedral uncertainties. The load disturbance and measurement noise are both taken into account in the modeling to better reflect the practical scenario. By using a novel technique, the design problem of PID controllers is converted into a design problem of output feedback controllers. Our goal of this paper is two-fold: (1) To design the robust PID tracking controllers for practical models; (2) To develop the robust H ∞ PID control such that load and reference disturbances can be attenuated with a prescribed level. Sufficient conditions are derived by employing advanced techniques for achieving delay dependence. The proposed controller can be readily designed based on iterative suboptimal algorithms. Finally, four examples are presented to show the effectiveness of the proposed methods. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.


Wormith J.S.,University of Saskatchewan | Hogg S.,University of Saskatchewan | Guzzo L.,Ministry of Community Safety and Correctional Services of Ontario
Criminal Justice and Behavior | Year: 2012

This study examines the predictive validity of the Level of Service/Case Management Inventory (LS/CMI) on a sample of sexual offenders extracted from a large cohort of offenders and compares predictive validities with nonsexual offenders from the same cohort. The LS/CMI predicted sex offenders' general recidivism, which occurred at a rate of 44.1%, with about the same accuracy as less frequently occurring violent (12.34%) and sexual recidivism (3.73%; AUC =.77,.74, and.74, respectively) and with nonsexual offenders. The study revealed that allowing assessors to override the numerically derived risk level with their professional judgment, a practice that increased risk level much more often than it decreased it, reduced the predictive validity of the scale and did so particularly for sex offenders by increasing risk excessively. An exploration of factors related to these adjustments revealed that non-risk-related characteristics were used in judgments to modify risk ratings. Implications for policy and practice are considered. © 2012 International Association for Correctional and Forensic Psychology.


Patent
Nortek and University of Saskatchewan | Date: 2015-12-03

An energy exchanger is provided. The exchanger includes a housing having a front and a back. A plurality of panels forming desiccant channels extend from the front to the back of the housing. Air channels are formed between adjacent panels. The air channels are configured to direct an air stream in a direction from the front of the housing to the back of the housing. A desiccant inlet is provided in flow communication with the desiccant channels. A desiccant outlet is provided in flow communication with the desiccant channels. The desiccant channels are configured to channel desiccant from the desiccant inlet to the desiccant outlet in at least one of a counter-flow or cross-flow direction with respect to the direction of the air stream.


Richards G.,University of Victoria | Noble B.,University of Saskatchewan | Belcher K.,University of Saskatchewan
Energy Policy | Year: 2012

Renewable energy is receiving increased attention as a viable alternative to non-renewable electrical generation, however, meeting global energy demands will require a more ambitious renewable energy program than is currently the case. There have been several reviews of potential technological, economic, social, or public barriers and solutions to renewable energy investment. Although important, there is also need for multi-dimensional analyses of these barriers and identification of the most significant underlying barriers if viable solutions are to be developed. In this paper we apply a theoretical framework to examine stakeholder's perceptions and understanding of the barriers to wind energy development in Saskatchewan, Canada. We identify and examine the most significant underlying barriers to investment in renewable energy and the interactions between those barriers. Results show a number of perceived barriers to wind energy investment, however, these barriers can be explained in large part by knowledge barriers, if not disagreement over whether the current level of investment in wind energy is sufficient. We show that barriers to renewable energy cannot be explained solely by technological, social, political, or economic factors in isolation, and that a multi-dimensional approach, identifying and explaining the underlying sources of these barriers, is necessary to develop viable solutions. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.


Britton A.P.,Animal Health Center | Davies J.L.,University of Saskatchewan
Journal of Comparative Pathology | Year: 2010

In the past 6 years there have been increasing reports describing outbreaks of a severe fatal respiratory disease associated with Streptococcus equi subspecies zooepidemicus (SEZ) in dogs maintained in shelters, research facilities and kennels. Although SEZ appears to be an emerging pathogen of dogs kept in intensively housed environments, this bacterium has not been reported as a cause of death in intensively housed cats. This report describes fatal SEZ infection in two adult cats housed in separate animal shelter facilities. Both cats had acute onset of illness, which progressed to death in less than 24. h. Post-mortem examination revealed rhinitis and meningitis and SEZ was demonstrated in the nasal cavity and brain. Polymerase chain reaction and sequence analysis of a 500 base pair region of the 16S rRNA gene confirmed the identity of the bacterium. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd.


News Article | March 25, 2016
Site: phys.org

While wildlife enriches daily life, strengthens ecosystems and attracts visitors, it can also damage crops and carry disease. Densely populated and rapidly changing places such as Sri Lanka – where human settlements, domestic animals and wildlife mingle closely – need effective ways to manage these benefits and risks. Recent epidemics have shown the critical role that wildlife health monitoring can play. But like many low- and middle-income countries, Sri Lanka lacks the needed infrastructure and expertise. Since 2011, Sri Lanka has had its own national wildlife health centre, co-managed by three government agencies and the University of Peradeniya, and mentored by the Canadian Wildlife Health Cooperative. With support from Canada's International Development Research Centre, a four-year collaboration between the University of Peradeniya and the University of Saskatchewan now aims to build the expertise needed for a national program of research and surveillance to help detect and manage health issues linked to interactions between wildlife and humans. Research co-leader Dr Ted Leighton stresses the need to go beyond cataloguing wildlife and disease. "The human and social dimensions of managing health issues at the human-wildlife interface are severely neglected," he says. "Finding pathogens is relatively easy. The key is knowing how to communicate, educate and motivate risk-reducing behavioural change in human communities at risk." In a first phase of the research, the team identified six study sites where local communities live near protected areas. The sites represent a range of wildlife habitats and agro-ecological conditions. Researchers worked with villagers – including indigenous Adivasi or Vedda communities – to explore their beliefs, perceptions and contact with wild animals and to identify related conflicts or health risks. These explorations showed that, while some misconceptions exist, villagers are quite knowledgeable about the risks of transmittable diseases such as rabies, leptospirosis and Japanese encephalitis. Some villages raised concerns that merit further investigation, such as abnormal jackal behaviour and cases of anaemic sambar deer. The chief aim, however, is to build a critical mass of Sri Lankan scientists able to bridge animal and human health and development. According to Dr Oswin Perera, director of the Sri Lanka Wildlife Health Centre, "The project is making an important contribution to training, capacity building and networking among staff and students from the university and government agencies." Graduate students in veterinary and social sciences are taking part in the research and gaining expertise in areas such as veterinary pathology, epidemiology and community dynamics. Government officials and field staff from the wildlife, veterinary, human health and administrative sectors are helping to set project priorities, taking part in research and incorporating their new capacity in wildlife health into their programs. While building expertise in Sri Lanka, the joint effort is developing organisational models and training and evaluation tools for wildlife health research that may help other countries grappling with emerging diseases and increasing land use conflicts.


The International Association of HealthCare Professionals is pleased to welcome Shahab Alam Khan, MD, ophthalmologist, to their prestigious organization with his upcoming publication in The Leading Physicians of the World. He is a highly-trained and qualified family ophthalmologist with expertise in all facets of his work. Dr. Shahab Alam Khan has been practicing for more than 24 years and is currently working at the Dr. Khan Eye Clinic in Prince Albert, Saskatchewan, Canada. Dr. Shahab Alam Khan obtained his Doctor of Medicine degree at the Al Tibri Medical College in Karachi, Pakistan in 1992. Before entering practice in Canada, Dr. Khan furthered his training in the United Kingdom, completing residencies at the University of Sheffield and at the prestigious Oxford University. Dr. Khan is renowned internationally as an expert in retinopathy and ophthalmology relating to diabetes. In addition to his practice, he serves as a resident lecturer at the University of Saskatchewan, and he is also at the forefront of research regarding the health of the region’s First Nation community. Dr. Khan says that his success is the result of his passion for helping his patients, and because of his understanding of the eye and how it relates to chronic health conditions. Learn more about Dr. Khan by reading his upcoming publication in The Leading Physicians of the World. FindaTopDoc.com is a hub for all things medicine, featuring detailed descriptions of medical professionals across all areas of expertise, and information on thousands of healthcare topics.  Each month, millions of patients use FindaTopDoc to find a doctor nearby and instantly book an appointment online or create a review.  FindaTopDoc.com features each doctor’s full professional biography highlighting their achievements, experience, patient reviews and areas of expertise.  A leading provider of valuable health information that helps empower patient and doctor alike, FindaTopDoc enables readers to live a happier and healthier life.  For more information about FindaTopDoc, visit: http://www.findatopdoc.com


News Article | December 6, 2016
Site: www.eurekalert.org

People must be part of the equation in conservation projects. This will increase local support and the effectiveness of conservation. That's the main conclusion of a study published online Nov. 29 in the journal Biological Conservation. In it, an international group of scientists recognizes the need to consider humans' livelihoods, cultural traditions and dependence on natural resources when planning and carrying out conservation projects around the world. "We really need to think about people as we're creating conservation initiatives. Forgetting about humans in the conservation recipe is like forgetting yeast in a loaf of bread," said lead author Nathan Bennett, a researcher at the University of Washington, the University of British Columbia and Stanford University. As the Earth continues to lose species and natural resources, the common approach to conservation has been to emphasize natural science to solve ecological problems, leaving people's relationships to natural resources out of the discussion. Increasingly, natural scientists and social scientists are partnering to try to consider both the needs of nature and of stakeholders. But for lack of good precedent, funding and will, often conservation organizations and activities don't fully consider the human dimensions of conservation, the authors found. "When people are ignored and conservation measures are put in, we see opposition, conflict and often failure," Bennett said. "These problems require the best available evidence, and that includes having both natural and social scientists at the table." This paper follows dozens of studies that point out the need for humans to be considered in environmental management and conservation, but few have articulated the benefits of doing so and exactly how to do this, Bennett explained. This review paper is the first to bring together the entire storyline by listing the practical contributions the variety of social sciences can offer to improve conservation. "This paper helps us to move beyond statements about the need for this toward actually setting the agenda," Bennett said. Two years ago, Bennett convened an international working group to find ways to practically involve more social scientists from fields such as geography, history, anthropology and economics in conservation projects. This paper is one of several outcomes from that working group. Another paper published in July 2016 suggests that conservation organizations and funders should put more emphasis on social sciences and explains what an ideal "conservation team" could look like. This new study calls for action to ensure that we have learned the lessons from past failures and successes of ignoring or considering human dimensions in conservation. In Thailand, for example, officials set up a series of marine protected areas along the country's coastline to try to conserve threatened habitats, including coral reefs, mangroves and seagrass meadows. But they didn't consider the thousands of fishermen and women who live near or inside the marine protected areas and rely on fishing and harvesting for livelihoods and feeding their families. Fishing bans and unfair treatment have led to resentment and opposition. In one case, fishermen burned a ranger station in protest. To add to the divisiveness, big commercial boats still caught fish in these areas because the protection zones were not well enforced. A recent successful example was the creation of California's marine protected area network. Local fisheries and communities, along with scientists, fishery managers, government and industry, were all brought to the table and the outcome ultimately was supported by most groups involved, Bennett explained. Similarly, right now in British Columbia planning for marine protected areas is underway, and First Nations leaders are working alongside local and federal governments. Successful conservation projects happen when both natural and social scientists are working with government, nonprofits, resource managers and local communities to come up with solutions that benefit everyone. This can take more time and resources at the outset, but Bennett and his collaborators argue that social scientists are often in a position to help make this a more efficient process. "Ignoring the people who live in an area can be a costly mistake for conservation. This is one of those cases where an ounce of prevention can be worth more than a pound of cure," he said. "Specialists in the social sciences can develop more creative, robust and effective solutions to environmental problems that people are going to get behind." Patrick Christie, a UW professor in the School of Marine and Environmental Affairs, is a co-author on the paper. Other co-authors are from the University of British Columbia, Stanford University, the University of Guelph, the University of Saskatchewan, the American Museum of Natural History in New York, the University of Victoria, the University of Wyoming, the University of Waterloo, the International Union for Conservation of Nature in Switzerland, Oregon State University, Memorial University of Newfoundland, Cornell University, Slippery Rock University, Georgia State University and World Wildlife Fund International. This study and co-authors were funded by the Canadian Wildlife Federation, the Social Science and Humanities Research Council, the Liber Ero Foundation, Fulbright Canada, the Smith Fellowship Program, the National Science Foundation and a number of other organizations. See the paper for a complete list. For more information, contact Bennett at nathan.bennett@ubc.ca or 360-820-0181.


News Article | November 28, 2016
Site: www.eurekalert.org

Two researchers at the Montreal Neurological Institute and Hospital (MNI) of McGill University have received funding to study a devastating neurodegenerative disease that first appears in toddlers just as they are beginning to walk. Autosomal recessive spastic ataxia of Charlevoix-Saguenay, more commonly known as ARSACS, affects the part of the brain that co-ordinates movement. The disease results from alterations to one specific human gene and leads to uncoordinated movements and muscle stiffness, among other debilitating symptoms. Its name comes from the fact that it is common in the Charlevoix-Saguenay of Quebec, though it does occur elsewhere. The University of Saskatchewan (U of S) and the Ataxia of Charlevoix-Saguenay Foundation are working together to support the research of MNI scientists Peter McPherson and Edward Fon. Their new research proposes to use cells from skin biopsies of ARSACS patients to generate stem cells called induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) that can be converted to neurons. Study of these neurons over the course of this two-year research proposal will provide new insights into the cellular defects underlying ARSACS. Ultimately, scientists hope to not only develop cell-based assays using these neurons to test possible therapeutics, but also to use a state-of-the-art technique that can introduce or correct disease associated mutations to re-establish the normal function of the mutated protein - creating the most accurate disease models. These iPSCs will be made widely and openly available to researchers across Quebec for neuroscience research. This open-access approach exponentially increases the likelihood of breakthroughs in neurological disease. The funding for this research is coming from the University of Saskatchewan's Richardson Family Fund and will support research currently underway at the MNI. The Richardson Family Fund was established at the U of S to support innovative research that will lead to improved understanding and treatment of spastic ataxia. Dr. Richard Huntsman, Division of Neurology, Department of Pediatrics, U of S, will facilitate the work of McPherson and Fon. "We are very excited to be involved in the funding of this impressive project," said Larry Richardson, a member of the family who is helping to fund the project. "We are hopeful and excited about this inter-provincial collaboration with the University of Saskatchewan." "Sharing the same goals with the Richardson family and joining forces with them was crucial to initiate this promising research project," states Jean Groleau, cofounder of the ARSACS Foundation The Montreal Neurological Institute and Hospital -- The Neuro, is a unique academic medical centre dedicated to neuroscience. Founded in 1934 by the renowned Dr. Wilder Penfield, The Neuro is recognized internationally for integrating research, compassionate patient care and advanced training, all key to advances in science and medicine. The Neuro is a research and teaching institute of McGill University and forms the basis for the Neuroscience Mission of the McGill University Health Centre. Neuro researchers are world leaders in cellular and molecular neuroscience, brain imaging, cognitive neuroscience and the study and treatment of epilepsy, multiple sclerosis and neuromuscular disorders. For more information, visit theneuro.com.


The public-private collaborative project is coordinated by the IWGSC and co-led by Nils Stein of IPK Gatersleben in Germany, Curtis Pozniak of the University of Saskatchewan's Crop Development Centre in Canada, Andrew Sharpe of the Global Institute for Food Security in Canada, and Jesse Poland of Kansas State University in the United States. Project participants also include researchers from Illumina, Inc.; NRGene in Israel and the United States; Tel Aviv University in Israel; and the French National Institute for Agricultural Research (INRA). Funding for this project was provided by Genome Canada, Genome Prairie, Saskatchewan Ministry of Agriculture, the Saskatchewan and Alberta Wheat Development Commissions, and the Western Grains Research Foundation through the Canadian Triticum Applied Genomics (CTAG2) project, Kansas State University through the US National Science Foundation Plant Genome Research Program, and Illumina, Inc. The new data will help speed up the delivery of a high quality reference sequence of the bread wheat genome. Nils Stein explained, "The new bread wheat de novo shotgun assembly made by NRGene represents a major breakthrough for the IWGSC integrated strategy towards delivering a high quality reference sequence for each of the 21 bread wheat chromosomes." Kellye Eversole, IWGSC Executive Director, welcomed the results, "The preliminary results obtained by NRGene are impressive. We have been waiting for a number of years to have a high quality whole genome sequence assembly that would complement our chromosome based strategy and accelerate the delivery of the sequence. Thus, this assembly comes exactly at the right time because it can be integrated with the IWGSC chromosome specific resources developed over the past 10 years (e.g., chromosome shotgun sequences, physical maps, and physical map-based sequencing) to deliver a high quality reference sequence for the wheat genome in less than two years." The whole genome assembly data will be integrated with physical-map based sequence data to produce a high-quality, ordered sequence for each wheat chromosome that precisely locates genes, regulatory elements, and markers along the chromosomes, providing invaluable tools for wheat breeders. "This new wheat genome sequence generated by the IWGSC and its partners is an important contribution to understanding the genetic blueprint of one of the world's most important crops," said Curtis Pozniak. "It will provide wheat researchers with an exciting new resource to identify the most influential genes important to wheat adaptation, stress response, pest resistance, and improved yield." Results of the whole genome assembly will be presented at several workshops at the Plant & Animal Genome Conference taking place in San Diego in the United States from 9 to 13 January 2016. All data will be available in the IWGSC wheat sequence repository at URGI-INRA. Wheat is the staple food for more than 35% of the global human population and accounts for 20% of all calories consumed throughout the world. As global population grows, so too does its dependence on wheat. To meet future demands of a projected world population of 9.6 billion by 2050, wheat productivity needs to increase by 1.6% each year. Since availability of new land is limited to preserve biodiversity and water and nutrient resources are becoming scarcer, the majority of this increase has to be achieved via crop and trait improvement on land currently cultivated. A high quality reference genome sequence will provide the detailed genomic information necessary to underpin wheat research ensuring achievement of this goal. Explore further: Scientists complete chromosome-based draft of the wheat genome


News Article | October 23, 2015
Site: news.mit.edu

Dennis Whyte, professor of nuclear science and engineering and director of the Plasma Science and Fusion Center, has been named the new head of the Department of Nuclear Science and Engineering (NSE), effective Sept. 9. He will continue to serve as director of the Plasma Science and Fusion Center. "Professor Whyte is an inspiring educator and a dedicated, thoughtful leader, and he has a wide base of collaborators both within and beyond the Institute," Ian A. Waitz, dean of the School of Engineering, wrote in an announcement to the department today. “He is well poised to lead this distinguished department into the future.” Whyte succeeds Richard Lester, who was named associate provost for international activities at MIT in May. "Richard has been an exceptional leader for the department, leading the effort to define and implement an exciting new vision and strategy,” Waitz wrote. A leader in the field of fusion research using magnetic confinement of plasmas for energy production, Whyte’s work specializes on the interface between plasma and materials. He has authored more than 300 publications, served as leader of the Boundary-Plasma Interface Topical Group of the U.S. Burning Plasma Organization, and is a fellow of the American Physical Society. He was awarded the U.S. Department of Energy’s Plasma Physics Junior Faculty Award in 2003, and in 2013 he won the International Atomic Energy Agency’s Nuclear Fusion Prize. In 2015 Whyte was an invited speaker at CERAWeek, the world’s largest energy conference and the National Science Foundation’s Engineering Distinguished Lecture. Whyte is a two-time winner of the Ruth and Joel Spira Award for Distinguished Teaching, and he is heavily involved in student design courses and projects. Recently, he and his students have made significant advances on surface and material measurement techniques of fusion and reactive power plant designs for pilot plants. Whyte received his BEng from the University of Saskatchewan in 1986, and his PhD from the University of Québec INRS in 1993.


CARNDUFF, SASKATCHEWAN--(Marketwired - Nov. 10, 2016) - Having access to clean, reliable drinking water is critical to the health and prosperity of Canadian communities and for attracting economic opportunities for the middle class and those trying to join it. By ensuring that water and wastewater systems are modern, efficient and meet the capacity needs of our communities, we are safeguarding the well-being of residents, protecting our waterways and preserving our ecosystems. In Saskatchewan, new federal and provincial funding will go towards a combination of new wastewater infrastructure and upgrades to an existing sewage pumping station in the Town of Carnduff. The Town's current system is undersized and is not meeting the demands of the population. This project will not only improve the capacity and reliability of the wastewater system, allowing the Town to contribute to local economic activity, but will also improve protection of the environment. The Government of Canada and the Province of Saskatchewan are each contributing up to $2,854,166 for this project. The Town of Carnduff will be responsible for all remaining costs of the project, which has a total eligible cost of $8,562,500. "The Government of Canada is committed to investing in modern infrastructure that meets the needs of our communities, supports the middle class, and ensures that Canada will remain the best place in the world to live, work and raise a family. This important investment in Carnduff will improve local wastewater treatment services, which is crucial to protecting the local environment and keep our communities healthy and livable." On behalf of the Honourable Amarjeet Sohi, Minister of Infrastructure and Communities "As our province continues to grow, we remain committed to keeping Saskatchewan strong and making life better for our citizens. Improving the capacity and reliability of Carnduff's wastewater system will ensure it meets the needs of its residents, both now and in the future." On behalf of Minister Donna Harpauer, Ministry of Government Relations "The Town of Carnduff is extremely thankful for the funding announcement made today for our Lagoon project. Assistance from the federal and provincial governments was vital to this project and its ability to proceed. Completing this project will ensure the long term sustainability of our communities' sewer infrastructure and allow our community to continue to meet our growing needs. We look forward to working with our federal and provincial partners on this project."


News Article | December 20, 2016
Site: www.eurekalert.org

For the first time, researchers at the University of Illinois at Chicago have mapped the location of thousands of tons of polyhalogenated carbazoles in the sediment of the Great Lakes and estimated their amount. Based on soil samples from the lake bottom and core samples from beneath it, they estimate that about 3,000 tons of PHCZs lie in the sediment under lakes Michigan, Superior and Huron. But not all of it is pollution. "Because the amount of PHCZs we found is so high, and because of their location in the lakes as well as in the sediment cores we took, we believe that most of the PHCZs in these lakes is the result of natural processes," said An Li, professor of environmental and occupational health sciences in the UIC School of Public Health and corresponding author of the study, which appeared in the journal Environmental Science & Technology. "However, we see some PHCZs in sediment laid down in more recent years, which is very likely from man-made sources. These are considered chemicals of emerging concern and should be monitored carefully," Li said. PHCZs are similar to dioxins -- highly toxic substances that can cause developmental problems and have been linked to certain cancers. Studies of PHCZs done in zebrafish have shown that these chemicals too can disrupt embryonic development, and another study found that some PHCZs exhibit dioxin-like activity in human breast cancer cells. Li has monitored environmental pollutants for five years through the Great Lakes Sediment Surveillance program. Her team has collected more than 1,000 sediment samples from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency research vessel, the R/V Lake Guardian, and analyzed them for a variety of chemical pollutants. Earlier this year they reported finding herbicides including atrazine in the sediment samples. In this study, Li looked at sediment samples from the three upper Great Lakes and tested for 26 different PHCZs using gas chromatography in combination with mass spectrometry. Based on the results, the researchers estimate that approximately 3,000 tons of PHCZs are contained in the sediment of the three lakes, with Lake Michigan having the greatest concentrations. The PHCZs are classified by their location. Category 1 PHCZs were those found in sediment from the deepest parts of the lakes, away from the shore, mostly in layers deposited before 1900. Category 2 PHCZs, which were less abundant, were those found in shallower layers, meaning they were deposited more recently, perhaps within the last few decades. Category 2 PHCZs had a distribution similar to man-made chemicals in lake sediments, including PCBs, of which there are an estimated 130 tons in the upper Great Lakes. "This further indicates that the category 2 PHCZs are likely man-made," Li said. Li thinks that the Category 1 PHCZs are probably the result of the normal breakdown of vegetation that settled in the deepest parts of the lakes. Core samples of sediment laid down in the 1500s are relatively rich in Category 1 PHCZs, she said. "Because there wasn't manufacturing of the sort we have today back then, we speculate that these PHCZs are from natural sources, most likely arising from the breakdown of algae and tree materials from the forest that surrounded the lakes before human settlement in this region," Li said. "But more research is needed to understand how they actually form." Li says that manufacturing of organic semiconductors, dyes and pharmaceuticals could cause the release of the category 2 PHCZs into the environment. Jiehong Guo, Zhuona Li, Prabha Ranasinghe, Solidea Bonina, Soheil Hosseini, Margaret Corcoran, Colin Smalley, Karl Rockne and Neil Sturchio of UIC and John Giesy of the University of Saskatchewan are co-authors on the study. This research was part of the Great Lakes Sediment Surveillance Program funded by a Cooperative Agreement from the U.S. EPA Great Lakes Restoration Initiative with Assistance No. GL-00E00538. Guo and Hosseini were supported by predoctoral fellowships from the UIC Institute for Environmental Science and Policy.


ESTEVAN, SASKATCHEWAN--(Marketwired - Nov. 10, 2016) - Having access to clean, reliable drinking water is critical to the health and prosperity of Canadian communities and for attracting economic opportunities for the middle class and those trying to join it. By ensuring that water and wastewater systems are modern, efficient and meet the capacity needs of our communities, we are safeguarding the well-being of residents, protecting our waterways and preserving our ecosystems. In Saskatchewan, new federal and provincial funding will be going toward a project in the City of Estevan. The City will be constructing a residuals management facility to treat the wastewater generated by its water treatment plant using an effective and low-energy treatment process. This will help to protect the local environment, including the Souris River watershed. The project also includes the construction of a new water intake and pipeline to access the Rafferty Reservoir. This will help the City provide high-quality drinking water to local residents and businesses in an area of the province that has experienced rapid growth in recent years due to increased activity in the oil sector. The Government of Canada and the Province of Saskatchewan are each contributing up to $3,133,333 for this project. The City of Estevan will be responsible for all remaining costs of the project, which has a total eligible cost of $9,400,000. "The Government of Canada is committed to investing in modern infrastructure that meets the needs of our communities, supports the middle class, and ensures that Canada will remain the best place in the world to live, work and raise a family. This important investment in Estevan will protect the local environment and provide access to high quality drinking water for this community's residents, both now and into the future." The Honourable Ralph Goodale, Minister of Public Safety and Emergency Preparedness, On behalf of the Honourable Amarjeet Sohi, Minister of Infrastructure and Communities "A significant investment in water projects like the one for the City of Estevan makes life better for our citizens and helps keep Saskatchewan strong. By working together, the federal, provincial and municipal governments are ensuring that this important water and wastewater project meets the needs of residents both now and in the future." Ms. Lori Carr, MLA for Estevan, On behalf of Minister Donna Harpauer, Ministry of Government Relations "This initiative will help us environmentally with our residual management from the water treatment plant, along with giving us a cleaner more reliable water source as well as a secondary source of water from Rafferty Dam."


Hobson K.A.,Environment Canada | Bond A.L.,Environment Canada | Bond A.L.,University of Saskatchewan
Marine Ecology Progress Series | Year: 2012

Stable isotope analysis of tissues of seabirds and their prey has proven to be an extremely useful tool in seabird dietary studies in general and in the potential use of seabirds as ecological indicators in particular. The measurement of stable carbon (δ 13C) and nitrogen (δ 15N) isotope values is important since they provide information on source of feeding and trophic position, respectively. However, the stable isotope approach provides information on spatial and trophic ecology of seabirds during a window of temporal integration that depends on the elemental turnover rate in the tissue being measured. Most researchers have relied on only 1 or 2 tissue types to study seabird diets and foraging ecology. Here, the potential for modeling trophic position and habitat use by seabirds over the annual cycle is demonstrated by using multiple tissues from the same individual. Isotopic measurements of bone collagen provide information integrated over the lifetime of the individual and those of feathers during the post-breeding molt period. Analysis of liver provides information integrated over the previous week and that of muscle integrated over a few months. We developed multi-tissue trophic models for thick-billed murre Uria lomvia, dovekie Alle alle, black guillemot Cepphus grylle, glaucous gull Larus hyperboreus, northern fulmar Fulmarus glacialis, black-legged kittiwake Rissa tridactyla, and ivory gull Pagophila eburnea using the Northwater Polynya in Northern Baffin Bay, 1998 to 1999. The careful application of stable isotope methods to a spectrum of tissue types represents a powerful means of extending our ability to investigate diet and potentially to use seabirds as ecological indicators. © Inter-Research 2012 · www.int-res.com.


Marcogliese D.J.,Environment Canada | Pietrock M.,University of Saskatchewan
Trends in Parasitology | Year: 2011

The cumulative effects of multiple stressors are becoming a priority concern for ecotoxicologists, ecologists and conservation biologists working to understand threats to ecosystems and species. In that context, parasites and pathogens are increasingly a focus of attention. Parasites interact with natural and anthropogenic stressors to increase mortality and reduce animal health in myriad ways in a wide spectrum of host and parasite taxa. The combined effects of parasites and other stressors can reduce either resistance or tolerance to infection. Recommendations are provided to guide further research. © 2010.


Mohamed M.H.,University of Saskatchewan | Wilson L.D.,University of Saskatchewan | Headley J.V.,Environment Canada
Microporous and Mesoporous Materials | Year: 2015

Abstract Polyurethanes (PUs) were prepared by cross-linking β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) with two types of diisocyanates; hexamethylene diisocyanate and 4,4'-dicyclohexyl diisocyanate, respectively. Materials with diverse structural and textural properties were obtained by varying the rate of diisocyanate addition: rapid (R) or drop-wise (D; 0.1 mL/min). Characterization of the structural and textural properties was investigated by spectroscopic (1H NMR in solution, solid state 13C CP-MAS solids NMR, dynamic light scattering, UV-vis, and IR), thermogravimetric analysis, powder X-ray diffraction, and scanning electron microscopy. The accessibility of the β-CD inclusion sites of the polymers was independently evaluated using an equilibrium dye probe adsorption method with phenolphthalein, and a kinetic dye-based uptake method was studied in parallel using p-nitrophenol in aqueous solution. The characterization methods provide evidence that the drop-wise method affords polymer materials with greater cross-linking, as compared with the rapid addition method. Herein, we report the first example of a cross-linked polyurethane containing β-CD with tunable structure and physicochemical properties, according to the mode of cross-linker addition (R versus D) to control the reaction products. © 2015 Elsevier Inc.


Viju C.,Carleton University | Kerr W.A.,University of Saskatchewan
Energy Policy | Year: 2013

This paper examines the biofuels industry from a policy and international trade perspective. Across the globe there are two main public policy objectives driving the development of biofuels industries-improving energy security and reducing global warming. The US and Canadian governments have respectively fostered biofuels industries for these reasons. As biofuels industries will not be financially viable without government support in the foreseeable future, government policies can be interpreted as taking options on the future. A theoretical model is developed using option value theory to determine whether the same governmental policy (subsidization) can lead to different levels of optimal subsidies in each country, where the subsidy policy is driven by two distinct motivating factors. If the reason subsidy levels differ is structural, the likelihood of a trade dispute arising increases. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.


McLinden C.A.,Environment Canada | McLinden C.A.,University of Saskatchewan | Fioletov V.,Environment Canada
Geophysical Research Letters | Year: 2011

Recent studies suggest that ozone turnaround (the second stage of ozone recovery) is near. Determining precisely when this occurs, however, will be complicated by greenhouse gas-induced stratospheric cooling as ozone trends derived from profile data in different units and/or vertical co-ordinates will not agree. Stratospheric cooling leads to simultaneous trends in air density and layer thicknesses, confounding the interpretation of ozone trends. A simple model suggests that instruments measuring ozone in different units may differ as to the onset of turnaround by a decade, with some indicting a continued decline while others an increase. This concept was illustrated by examining the long-term (1979-2005) ozone trends in the SAGE (Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment) and SBUV (Solar Backscatter Ultraviolet) time series. Trends from SAGE, which measures number density as a function of altitude, and SBUV, which measures partial column as a function of pressure, are known to differ by 4-6%/decade in the upper stratosphere. It is shown that this long-standing difference can be reconciled to within 2%/decade when the trend in temperature is properly accounted for. Copyright 2011 by the American Geophysical Union.


Thoma B.,Massachusetts General Hospital | Thoma B.,University of Saskatchewan | Rolston D.,University of California at Los Angeles | Lin M.,University of California at San Francisco
Annals of Emergency Medicine | Year: 2014

In March 2014, Annals of Emergency Medicine continued a successful collaboration with an academic Web site, Academic Life in Emergency Medicine (ALiEM), to host another Global Emergency Medicine Journal Club session featuring the 2013 New England Journal of Medicine article "Targeted Temperature Management at 33°C (91.4°F) Versus 36°C (96.8°F) After Cardiac Arrest" by Nielsen et al. This online journal club used Twitter conversations, a live videocast with the authors, and detailed discussions on the ALiEM Web site's comment section. This summary article details the community discussion, shared insights, and analytic data generated using this novel, multiplatform approach. © 2014 by the American College of Emergency Physicians.


Liu C.-G.,Dalian University of Technology | Xue C.,Dalian University of Technology | Lin Y.-H.,University of Saskatchewan | Bai F.-W.,Dalian University of Technology | Bai F.-W.,Shanghai JiaoTong University
Biotechnology Advances | Year: 2013

Many fermentation products are produced under microaerobic or anaerobic conditions, in which oxygen is undetectable by dissolved oxygen probe, presenting a challenge for process monitoring and control. Extracellular redox potentials that can be detected conveniently affect intracellular redox homeostasis and metabolism, and consequently control profiles of fermentation products, which provide an alternative for monitoring and control of these fermentation processes. This article reviews updated progress in the impact of redox potentials on gene expression, protein biosynthesis and metabolism as well as redox potential control strategies for more efficient production of fermentation products, taking ethanol fermentation by the yeast Saccharomyces under microaerobic conditions and butanol production by the bacterium Clostridium under anaerobic conditions as examples. © 2012 Elsevier Inc.


Malhotra U.,Saskatchewan Power Corporation | Gokaraju R.,University of Saskatchewan
IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics | Year: 2014

This paper presents an add-on self-tuning (ST) control scheme for a Unified Power Flow Controller (UPFC) to assist its conventional PI control system in damping power oscillations. The ST control algorithm is based on a Pole Shift (PS) technique that has previously been successfully applied in Adaptive Power System Stabilizers (APSSs). For a wide range of operating conditions, the conventional PI-UPFC unless retuned suffers from insufficient/nonoptimal damping performance. To overcome this problem, the authors propose supplementing the PI controllers with an ST feedback loop comprised of an identifier and a PS control algorithm. With a CRLS identifier tracking the system conditions online, this scheme eliminates the need for PI parameter retuning. Further, to correctly identify system parameters during large disturbances, a constrained recursive least squares (CRLS) identification procedure is adopted here. An improved damping performance with the proposed add-on scheme assisting the nonoptimal PI-UPFC is demonstrated for a two-area power system. © 2013 IEEE.


Vanheest J.L.,University of Connecticut | Rodgers C.D.,University of Saskatchewan | Mahoney C.E.,University of Connecticut | De Souza M.J.,Pennsylvania State University
Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise | Year: 2014

INTRODUCTION: Competitive female athletes restrict energy intake and increase exercise energy expenditure frequently resulting in ovarian suppression. The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of ovarian suppression and energy deficit on swimming performance (400-m swim velocity). METHODS: Menstrual status was determined by circulating estradiol (E2) and progesterone (P4) in ten junior elite female swimmers (15-17 yr). The athletes were categorized as cyclic (CYC) or ovarian-suppressed (OVS). They were evaluated every 2 wk for metabolic hormones, bioenergetic parameters, and sport performance during the 12-wk season. RESULTS: CYC and OVS athletes were similar (P > 0.05) in age (CYC = 16.2 ± 1.8 yr, OVS = 17 ± 1.7 yr), body mass index (CYC = 21 ± 0.4 kg·m, OVS = 25 ± 0.8 kg·m), and gynecological age (CYC = 2.6 ± 1.1 yr, OVS = 2.8 ± 1.5 yr). OVS had suppressed P4 (P < 0.001) and E2 (P = 0.002) across the season. Total triiodothyronine (TT3) and insulin-like growth factor (IGF-1) were lower in OVS (TT3: CYC = 1.6 ± 0.2 nmol·L, OVS = 1.4 ± 0.1 nmol·L, P < 0.001; IGF-1: CYC = 243 ± 1 μg·mL, OVS = 214 ± 3 μg·mL P < 0.001) than CYC at week 12. Energy intake (P < 0.001) and energy availability (P < 0.001) were significantly lower in OVS versus CYC. OVS exhibited a 9.8% decline in Δ400-m swim velocity compared with an 8.2% improvement in CYC at week 12. CONCLUSIONS: Ovarian steroids (P4 and E2), metabolic hormones (TT3 and IGF-1), and energy status markers (EA and EI) were highly correlated with sport performance. This study illustrates that when exercise training occurs in the presence of ovarian suppression with evidence for energy conservation (i.e., reduced TT3), it is associated with poor sport performance. These data from junior elite female athletes support the need for dietary periodization to help optimize energy intake for appropriate training adaptation and maximal sport performance. Copyright © 2013 by the American College of Sports Medicine.


Caron J.-B.,Royal Ontario Museum | Gaines R.R.,Pomona College | Aria C.,Royal Ontario Museum | Mangano M.G.,University of Saskatchewan | Streng M.,Uppsala University
Nature communications | Year: 2014

Burgess Shale-type fossil assemblages provide the best evidence of the 'Cambrian explosion'. Here we report the discovery of an extraordinary new soft-bodied fauna from the Burgess Shale. Despite its proximity (ca. 40 km) to Walcott's original locality, the Marble Canyon fossil assemblage is distinct, and offers new insights into the initial diversification of metazoans, their early morphological disparity, and the geographic ranges and longevity of many Cambrian taxa. The arthropod-dominated assemblage is remarkable for its high density and diversity of soft-bodied fossils, as well as for its large proportion of new species (22% of total diversity) and for the preservation of hitherto unreported anatomical features, including in the chordate Metaspriggina and the arthropod Mollisonia. The presence of the stem arthropods Misszhouia and Primicaris, previously known only from the early Cambrian of China, suggests that the palaeogeographic ranges and longevity of Burgess Shale taxa may be underestimated.


Morgan D.G.,Canadian Institutes of Health Research | D'Arcy C.K.,University of Saskatchewan
Journal of the Medical Library Association | Year: 2013

Objectives: The research determined (1) the information sources that family physicians (FPs) most commonly use to update their general medical knowledge and to make specific clinical decisions, and (2) the information sources FPs found to be most physically accessible, intellectually accessible (easy to understand), reliable (trustworthy), and relevant to their needs. Methods: A cross-sectional postal survey of 792 FPs and locum tenens, in full-time or part-time medical practice, currently practicing or on leave of absence in the Canadian province of Saskatchewan was conducted during the period of January to April 2008. Results: Of 666 eligible physicians, 331 completed and returned surveys, resulting in a response rate of 49.7% (331/666). Medical textbooks and colleagues in the main patient care setting were the top 2 sources for the purpose of making specific clinical decisions. Medical textbooks were most frequently considered by FPs to be reliable (trustworthy), and colleagues in the main patient care setting were most physically accessible (easy to access). Conclusions: When making specific clinical decisions, FPs were most likely to use information from sources that they considered to be reliable and generally physically accessible, suggesting that FPs can best be supported by facilitating easy and convenient access to high-quality information.


Grant
Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-IP | Phase: KBBE-2007-3-1-03 | Award Amount: 11.21M | Year: 2008

Replacing fossil oil with renewable resources is perhaps the most urgent need and the most challenging task that human society faces today. Cracking fossil hydrocarbons and building the desired chemicals with advanced organic chemistry usually requires many times more energy than is contained in the final product. Thus, using plant material in the chemical industry does not only replace the fossil material contained in the final product but also save substantial energy in the processing. Of particular interest are seed oils which show a great variation in their composition between different plant species. Many of the oil qualities found in wild species would be very attractive for the chemical industry if they could be obtained at moderate costs in bulk quantities and with a secure supply. Genetic engineering of vegetable oil qualities in high yielding oil crops could in a relatively short time frame yield such products. This project aims at developing such added value oils in dedicated industrial oil crops mainly in form of various wax esters particularly suited for lubrication. This project brings together the most prominent scientists in plant lipid biotechnology in an unprecedented world-wide effort in order to produce added value oils in industrial oil crops within the time frame of four years as well as develop a tool box of genes und understanding of lipid cellular metabolism in order for rational designing of vast array of industrial oil qualities in oil crops. Since GM technologies that will be used in the project are met with great scepticism in Europe it is crucial that ideas, expectations and results are communicated to the public and that methods, ethics, risks and risk assessment are open for debate. The keywords of our communication strategies will be openness and an understanding of public concerns.


Grant
Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-IP | Phase: KBBE-2007-1-1-05 | Award Amount: 8.96M | Year: 2009

With the increasing impact of mankinds activities on the natural environment, disease naturally harboured by wild animals, both within the geographical limits of the EU and elsewhere, are becoming increasingly significant both for public health and health of livestock, in addition to having direct concerns for wild animal species. We are proposing a project which will combine (i) technological development to enable high through-put array-based screening of samples from a wide variety of wild animals with (ii) surveillance of terrestrial, aerial and marine wild animal species within Europe and from countries which act as portals of disease entry into the EU, (iii) epidemiological analysis and risk assessment using data generated during the project and from other sources, and (iv) development and proposal of a model framework for disease surveillance within Europe developed in parallel with the burgeoning systems in North America. The proposal will place the EU at the centre of wildlife disease surveillance and also enable the translation of high throughput array-based technologies into human and veterinary medicine.


News Article | November 30, 2016
Site: www.marketwired.com

TORONTO, ONTARIO--(Marketwired - Nov. 30, 2016) - ("Kirkland Lake Gold" or the "Company") (TSX:KLG), is pleased to announce the appointment of Philip Yee as Executive Vice President and Chief Financial Officer (effective December 1, 2016). In addition, the Company announces that Mr. Perry Ing - CFO, Mr Keyvan Salehi - VP Corp Dev and Technical Services and Ms Suzette Ramcharan - Director of Investor Relations are no longer with the Company. The Company thanks all the above personnel for their efforts and wish them continued success in their future roles. Anthony (Tony) Makuch, President and CEO of the Company, commented: "We are very pleased to be gaining the wealth of experience that Phil Yee brings to his role as CFO at Kirkland Lake Gold. Phil has worked for several years in the mining sector, his most recent role being as Chief Financial Officer for Lake Shore Gold Corp. He brings valued expertise to our existing management team. Philip C. Yee is an experienced senior finance executive with an extensive background in financial management and reporting, financial and operational recovery, M&A, international risk management and strategy development. He is a Chartered Professional Accountant with 25+ years of experience and success including 15+ years as a member of high caliber senior management teams leading world-class mining operations. Most recently, Phil was SVP & CFO of Lake Shore Gold Corp. from May 2013 to April 2016 when the business combination with Tahoe Resources was completed. Prior to this role, Phil was CFO of Patagonia Gold Plc from May 2011 to April 2013 and Vice President Finance for Kumtor Operating Co., the flag-ship subsidiary of Centerra Gold Inc. and a subsidiary of Cameco Corporation from June 2001 to May 2011. Phil received his Bachelor of Commerce from the University of Saskatchewan and has served on the Board of Directors for Kumtor Operating Company, the Eurasia Foundation Central Asia and the American Chamber of Commerce Bishkek. Kirkland Lake Gold Inc. is a Canadian focused, intermediate gold producer with assets in the historic Kirkland Lake gold camp, and east of the Timmins gold camp along the Porcupine-Destor Fault Zone, both in northeastern Ontario. The Company is currently targeting annual gold production of between 280,000 to 290,000 ounces from its cornerstone asset, the Macassa Mine Complex and the Holt Mine Complex that includes the Holt, Holloway and Taylor mines. The Company is committed to building a sustainable mining company that is recognized as a safe and responsible gold producer with quality assets in safe mining jurisdictions. The Toronto Stock Exchange has neither reviewed nor accepts responsibility for the adequacy or accuracy of this news release. This Press Release contains statements which constitute "forward-looking statements" within the meaning of applicable securities laws, including statements regarding the plans, intentions, beliefs and current expectations of the Company with respect to the future business activities and operating performance of the Company. The words "may", "would", "could", "should", "will", "intend", "plan", "anticipate", "believe", "estimate", "expect" and similar expressions, as they relate to the Company, are intended to identify such forward-looking statements. Investors are cautioned that forward-looking statements are based on the opinions, assumptions and estimates of management considered reasonable at the date the statements are made such as, without limitation, opinion, assumptions and estimates of management regarding the Company's business, including but not limited to; the continued exploration programs on the SMC mineralization, the timing and results thereof; the ability to continue to expand the SMC and to increase its level of resources and the timing thereof; and the potential to increase the level of resources and reserves. Such opinions, assumptions and estimates, are inherently subject to a variety of risks and uncertainties and other known and unknown factors that could cause actual events or results to differ materially from those projected in the forward-looking statements. These factors include the Company's expectations in connection with the projects and exploration programs being met, the impact of general business and economic conditions, global liquidity and credit availability on the timing of cash flows and the values of assets and liabilities based on projected future conditions, fluctuating gold prices, currency exchange rates (such as the Canadian dollar versus the United States Dollar), possible variations in ore grade or recovery rates, changes in accounting policies, changes in the Company's corporate mineral reserves and resources, changes in project parameters as plans continue to be refined, changes in project development, construction, production and commissioning time frames, the possibility of project cost overruns or unanticipated costs and expenses, higher prices for fuel, power, labour and other consumables contributing to higher costs and general risks of the mining industry, failure of plant, equipment or processes to operate as anticipated, unexpected changes in mine life, seasonality and unanticipated weather changes, costs and timing of the development of new deposits, success of exploration activities, permitting time lines, government regulation of mining operations, environmental risks, unanticipated reclamation expenses, title disputes or claims, and limitations on insurance, as well as those risk factors discussed or referred to in the Company's annual Management's Discussion and Analysis and Annual Information Form for the year ended December 31, 2015, and the Company's Management's Discussion and Analysis for the interim period ended September 30, 2016, filed with the securities regulatory authorities in certain provinces of Canada and available at www.sedar.com. Should one or more of these risks or uncertainties materialize, or should assumptions underlying the forward-looking statements prove incorrect, actual results may vary materially from those described herein as intended, planned, anticipated, believed, estimated or expected. Although the Company has attempted to identify important risks, uncertainties and factors which could cause actual results to differ materially, there may be others that cause results not to be as anticipated, estimated or intended. The Company does not intend, and does not assume any obligation, to update these forward-looking statements except as otherwise required by applicable law.


VANCOUVER, BRITISH COLUMBIA--(Marketwired - Nov. 2, 2016) - Saturn Minerals Inc. (TSX VENTURE:SMI)(FRANKFURT:SMK) ("Saturn" or the "Company") is pleased to announce that it has made application, with regularity approval pending and expected in due course, to change its name to "Saturn Oil + Gas Inc." The name change was approved by the Board of Directors on November 1st, 2016. The change in name reflects a change in direction for Saturn from a mineral-focused exploration company to one with a strong focus on the acquisition and development of oil and gas assets in Alberta and Saskatchewan. As part of the shift in focus, the company is pleased to announce the addition of John Jeffrey, Scott Newman and Justin Kaufmann, P.Geo, to the executive team. Mr. Jeffrey is a graduate of the University of Saskatchewan with a degree in economics and a MBA majoring in Finance. Mr. Jeffrey is presently a finance manager for a leading engineering consulting firm in Canada. Mr. Jeffrey has a strong background in operations and finance that has allowed him to successfully execute large international engineering and environmental projects. Mr. Jeffrey is also a partner and CFO of Axiom Exploration Ltd. ("Axiom"), a geological and engineering consulting company that is based in Saskatoon, Saskatchewan and has drilled over 800 oil & gas wells in western Canada. Mr. Newman is currently VP Exploration of Vela Resources Corp., a privately held oil & gas and helium exploration and development company based in Saskatchewan. Mr. Newman is also the President and founding partner of Axiom Exploration Ltd. A graduate of the University of Saskatchewan, Mr. Newman was the Senior Project Geologist for a rare earth exploration company based in Vancouver, BC. Mr. Newman has extensive experience in managing junior natural resource exploration companies, with specific focus on structuring and financing early stage projects. Mr. Newman has been involved as an officer or advisor of a number of private and public resource exploration companies. Mr. Kaufmann is the Vice President and co-founder of Axiom Exploration Ltd. Mr Kaufmann was the Principal Geologist for Geometric Consulting, a privately held well site supervision company. Mr. Kaufmann is a graduate of the University of Saskatchewan and brings strong technical, management and operational skills to the team. The new executive team bring a strong operational background to Saturn and have introduced the Company to several additional opportunities in the sector which are presently being evaluated by Saturn and our financing partners and further announcements will be made as these opportunities materialize. Stan Szary, President and Chairman, says, "We are extremely pleased to make these very critical and talented additions to our operational team as we further evaluate our new exploration properties." "The talent that these gentlemen bring to our shareholders is timely and very opportune as we view the present environment in the sector as a historic opportunity. I have worked very closely with the Axiom team for the past year and can fully attest to their skill, knowledge and drive to evaluate and execute on opportunities in the sector as they become available," said Stan Szary, President and Chairman of Saturn. Saturn Minerals Inc. (TSX VENTURE:SMI)(FRANKFURT:SMK) is a junior Canadian energy company advancing a portfolio of oil and coal properties in Saskatchewan and Manitoba. The Company exclusive oil & gas rights in Saskatchewan and is advancing a number of oil exploration projects. Saturn has also made three shallow bituminous coal discoveries since 2009 with coal seams ranging in continuous vertical thickness from 9 to 89 meters. Saturn has a strategic ownership in Inowending Exploration & Development Corp., a First Nations owned exploration and development company co-founded by Saturn with a consortium of Saskatchewan First Nations active in Canada's prairie provinces. Saturn's mission is to be a leading industry player in the discovery and commercial production of oil & gas resources in the Northern Williston Basin. To learn more, please contact the Company at +1 (604) 685-6989 or visit: www.saturnminerals.com On Behalf of the Board of Directors NEITHER THE TSX VENTURE EXCHANGE NOR ITS REGULATION SERVICES PROVIDER (AS THAT TERM IS DEFINED IN THE POLICIES OF THE TSX VENTURE EXCHANGE) ACCEPTS RESPONSIBILITY FOR THE ADEQUACY OR ACCURACY OF THIS NEWS RELEASE


VANCOUVER, BC / ACCESSWIRE / November 28, 2016 / iCo Therapeutics (TSXV: ICO) (OTCQX: ICOTF) ("iCo" or "the Company") announces several developments related to its novel, patent protected formulation of generic Amphotericin B: - Positive Oral Amphotericin B (Oral Amp B) study results exhibited pharmacokinetic (PK) and tissue accumulation data with clinical and commercial relevance: demonstrating scalable and stable drug product, now at a higher dose form once daily regime may be possible for our drug candidate in certain indications targeting treatment of multiple fungal indications, latent HIV reservoirs, and certain developing world parasitic conditions complimenting existing drugs such as liposomal intravenous Amphotericin B (IV Amp B) which generated global sales in excess of $400M USD in 2016. - Company anticipates a grant funding increase from existing sources through March 31, 2017 which will allow completion of pivotal IND enabling study and entrance into Phase 1a study with no impact on corporate financial runway Timelines for completion of Phase 1a study in 2017 iCo is now engaged in multiple strategic partnering discussions related to Oral Amp B candidate Multiple filings of new intellectual property related to iCo's novel carrier system utilized with our Oral Amp B candidate, including coverage of formulations comprising protease inhibitors and uses for the treatment of HIV "Given our significant progress in contract manufacturing and pre-clinical development we have a highly differentiated Oral Amp B lead candidate rapidly making its way into the clinic," stated Andrew Rae, President and CEO. "Assuming clinical data reflects meaningful pre-clinical outcomes we believe we may address markets in excess of a billion dollars with an asset that makes administration far more accessible to a broad population." "I look forward to the entrance of our Oral Amp B candidate into clinical trials and I am pleased to see continued promising results from our pre-clinical study recently completed," stated Kishor Wasan Professor and Dean, College of Pharmacy and Nutrition at the University of Saskatchewan and Adjunct Professor and Distinguished Scholar at the University of British Columbia, and co-inventor of the technology with Dr. Ellen Wasan. IV Amp B is a drug of choice for certain life threatening systemic fungal infections IV Amp B efficacy is well documented Early evidence to suggest that Amp B may activate latent HIV reservoirs which could improve current and future anti-viral therapy outcomes. Need for oral formulation, preferably a solid dosage form with modest administration burden, exists New oral formulation prototypes were developed and tested in a pre-clinical model. Rate of absorption and tissue accumulation was compared to original prototype which has shown excellent results in multiple pre-clinical models including Candida, Aspergillosis and Visceral Leishmaniasis. Stability data is now approaching month six for our lead clinical candidate and ease of manufacturing scale up should provide additional product differentiation. iCo Therapeutics identifies existing development stage assets for use in underserved ocular and infectious diseases. Such assets may exhibit utility in non-ophthalmic conditions outside the Company's core focus areas and if so the Company will seek to capture further value via partnerships, such as its partnership with Immune Pharmaceuticals (NASDAQ: IMNP), which is in several Phase 2 studies involving iCo-008. iCo shares trade on the TSX Venture Exchange under the symbol "ICO" and on the OTCQX under the symbol "ICOTF". For more information, visit the Company website at: www.icotherapeutics.com. No regulatory authority has approved or disapproved the content of this press release. Neither the TSX Venture Exchange nor its Regulatory Services Provider (as that term is defined in the policies of the TSX Venture Exchange) accepts responsibility for the adequacy or accuracy of this press release. Certain statements included in this press release may be considered forward-looking statements" within the meaning of applicable securities laws. Forward-looking statements can be identified by words such as: "anticipate," "intend," "plan," "goal," "seek," "believe," "project," "estimate," "expect," "strategy," "future," "likely," "may," "should," "will," and similar references to future periods. Such statements involve known and unknown risks, uncertainties and other factors that may cause actual results, performance or achievements to be materially different from those implied by such statements, and therefore these statements should not be read as guarantees of future performance or results. All forward-looking statements are based on iCo's current beliefs as well as assumptions made by and information currently available to iCo and relate to, among other things, anticipated financial performance, business prospects, strategies, regulatory developments, market acceptance and future commitments. Readers are cautioned not to place undue reliance on these forward-looking statements, which are based only on information currently available to iCo and speak only as of the date of this press release. Due to risks and uncertainties, including the risks and uncertainties identified by iCo in its public securities filings and on its website, actual events may differ materially from current expectations. iCo disclaims any intention or obligation to update or revise any forward-looking statements, whether as a result of new information, future events or otherwise, except as required by law. VANCOUVER, BC / ACCESSWIRE / November 28, 2016 / iCo Therapeutics (TSXV: ICO) (OTCQX: ICOTF) ("iCo" or "the Company") announces several developments related to its novel, patent protected formulation of generic Amphotericin B: - Positive Oral Amphotericin B (Oral Amp B) study results exhibited pharmacokinetic (PK) and tissue accumulation data with clinical and commercial relevance: demonstrating scalable and stable drug product, now at a higher dose form once daily regime may be possible for our drug candidate in certain indications targeting treatment of multiple fungal indications, latent HIV reservoirs, and certain developing world parasitic conditions complimenting existing drugs such as liposomal intravenous Amphotericin B (IV Amp B) which generated global sales in excess of $400M USD in 2016. - Company anticipates a grant funding increase from existing sources through March 31, 2017 which will allow completion of pivotal IND enabling study and entrance into Phase 1a study with no impact on corporate financial runway Timelines for completion of Phase 1a study in 2017 iCo is now engaged in multiple strategic partnering discussions related to Oral Amp B candidate Multiple filings of new intellectual property related to iCo's novel carrier system utilized with our Oral Amp B candidate, including coverage of formulations comprising protease inhibitors and uses for the treatment of HIV "Given our significant progress in contract manufacturing and pre-clinical development we have a highly differentiated Oral Amp B lead candidate rapidly making its way into the clinic," stated Andrew Rae, President and CEO. "Assuming clinical data reflects meaningful pre-clinical outcomes we believe we may address markets in excess of a billion dollars with an asset that makes administration far more accessible to a broad population." "I look forward to the entrance of our Oral Amp B candidate into clinical trials and I am pleased to see continued promising results from our pre-clinical study recently completed," stated Kishor Wasan Professor and Dean, College of Pharmacy and Nutrition at the University of Saskatchewan and Adjunct Professor and Distinguished Scholar at the University of British Columbia, and co-inventor of the technology with Dr. Ellen Wasan. IV Amp B is a drug of choice for certain life threatening systemic fungal infections IV Amp B efficacy is well documented Early evidence to suggest that Amp B may activate latent HIV reservoirs which could improve current and future anti-viral therapy outcomes. Need for oral formulation, preferably a solid dosage form with modest administration burden, exists New oral formulation prototypes were developed and tested in a pre-clinical model. Rate of absorption and tissue accumulation was compared to original prototype which has shown excellent results in multiple pre-clinical models including Candida, Aspergillosis and Visceral Leishmaniasis. Stability data is now approaching month six for our lead clinical candidate and ease of manufacturing scale up should provide additional product differentiation. iCo Therapeutics identifies existing development stage assets for use in underserved ocular and infectious diseases. Such assets may exhibit utility in non-ophthalmic conditions outside the Company's core focus areas and if so the Company will seek to capture further value via partnerships, such as its partnership with Immune Pharmaceuticals (NASDAQ: IMNP), which is in several Phase 2 studies involving iCo-008. iCo shares trade on the TSX Venture Exchange under the symbol "ICO" and on the OTCQX under the symbol "ICOTF". For more information, visit the Company website at: www.icotherapeutics.com. No regulatory authority has approved or disapproved the content of this press release. Neither the TSX Venture Exchange nor its Regulatory Services Provider (as that term is defined in the policies of the TSX Venture Exchange) accepts responsibility for the adequacy or accuracy of this press release. Certain statements included in this press release may be considered forward-looking statements" within the meaning of applicable securities laws. Forward-looking statements can be identified by words such as: "anticipate," "intend," "plan," "goal," "seek," "believe," "project," "estimate," "expect," "strategy," "future," "likely," "may," "should," "will," and similar references to future periods. Such statements involve known and unknown risks, uncertainties and other factors that may cause actual results, performance or achievements to be materially different from those implied by such statements, and therefore these statements should not be read as guarantees of future performance or results. All forward-looking statements are based on iCo's current beliefs as well as assumptions made by and information currently available to iCo and relate to, among other things, anticipated financial performance, business prospects, strategies, regulatory developments, market acceptance and future commitments. Readers are cautioned not to place undue reliance on these forward-looking statements, which are based only on information currently available to iCo and speak only as of the date of this press release. Due to risks and uncertainties, including the risks and uncertainties identified by iCo in its public securities filings and on its website, actual events may differ materially from current expectations. iCo disclaims any intention or obligation to update or revise any forward-looking statements, whether as a result of new information, future events or otherwise, except as required by law.


News Article | January 13, 2016
Site: www.nature.com

A satirical study1 showing that a mother’s kisses didn’t help injured children to feel better contained several clues that it was fake. The funder was Proctor and Johnson, a made-up medical company, and one of the references was entitled “So what the hell is going on here?” The paper, describing a fictional randomized controlled trial (RCT) of mothers kissing their toddlers, was designed to illustrate the limitations of evidence-based medicine, which uses data from such clinical trials to direct the practice of medicine. Many people who shared the article on Twitter played along with it. Angela Smith, a urologist at the University of North Carolina School of Medicine at Chapel Hill, tweeted: But some commenters said that the article, which the editor of the Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice knowingly published in his journal, could be misleading and needs to be clearly labelled as satirical. RCTs are widely considered to be the gold standard for evidence-based medicine. But recent years have seen some doctors and researchers push back against the emphasis on RCTs, arguing that such studies sideline anecdotal evidence and professional experience, which they say is not always inferior to evidence obtained from clinical trials. To point out some of the drawbacks of evidence-based medicine, Mark Tonelli, a physician and researcher at the University of Washington Medical Center in Seattle, made up a clinical trial to test whether mothers kissing their children’s injuries — or “boo-boos” — helped to relieve the pain. He was inspired by his experiences as a father of a toddler a decade ago. “We were a boo-boo-kissing family,” says Tonelli. His paper, by a fictional collaboration called The Study of Maternal and Child Kissing (SMACK) Working Group, suggested that out of 943 mother–toddler pairs, children in the kissing group were actually “significantly more distressed” than those in the no-kissing group. The authors concluded by recommending a moratorium on boo-boo kissing. Tonelli meant to criticize RCTs, particularly their failure to consider the importance of person-to-person interactions – a cornerstone of medicine. “Writing a report of a fictional clinical trial as satire allowed multiple limitations and pitfalls of clinical research to be addressed,” he says. Tonelli hopes that medical trainees will use the paper “to prime themselves to find similar issues in authentic research reports”. Pierre Azoulay, an economist at the Massachusetts Institution of Technology in Cambridge, reflected on the irony of the paper, tweeting: Andrew Miles, editor-in-chief of the Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice, points out that the spoof article was published at the end of 2015, and that medical satire is commonplace in the Christmas editions of journals such as the British Medical Journal. The paper’s underlying message is in line with the journal’s philosophy, says Miles, who is also senior vice-president of the European Society for Person Centered Healthcare in London and Madrid. In medicine, he notes, scientific research is only one type of knowledge, which must sit alongside other forms, such as professional medical experience, and not above them. “Over-reliance on science is a very dangerous thing,” Miles says. Next month, the journal will publish another article unpacking the lessons contained in the satirical paper, he adds. Carl von Baeyer, a psychologist and paediatrician at the University of Saskatchewan in Saskatoon, Canada, thinks that allowing spoof papers to creep into academic literature may mislead readers. “I thought the article itself was clever and funny,” he says. “But the PubMed abstract had nothing that would mark it as a joke, and some readers took it seriously.” He also pointed out that some readers might make judgements solely on the paper’s abstract, which is “too plausible”. Miles says that he has explained the reasons for commissioning the spoof paper in an editorial that will soon be published. He is now considering including a link to it from the PubMed abstract. “Satire is an ancient tool to inspire deep thought and critical debate,” he says, but “clearly we would not wish to pack our journals full of it”.


News Article | February 15, 2017
Site: cen.acs.org

Not only does dust hold a long memory of the contaminants introduced to a house, but it’s also a continual source of exposure for the residents. Dust gets resuspended when it’s disturbed and will recirculate throughout the house, picking up substances before returning once more to the floor. “Year over year, dust accumulates in the home,” says Miriam L. Diamond, an environmental chemist at the University of Toronto. Even after regular cleaning, it still accretes because homes are tightly sealed environments, and the dust gets entrenched in carpets and crevices. Dust from an old house may retain legacy pollutants such as DDT that were banned almost half a century ago, she says. Scientists study dust to try to get a handle on both of these roles: as a proxy to better understand what chemicals are in our surroundings and how they move, and as a way to characterize what exactly we are exposed to via dust. The relationship between dust and human health remains uncertain. Researchers know that dust is an important source of exposure to certain pollutants—especially for infants and toddlers, who spend 90% of their time indoors, put almost anything in their mouths, and are more sensitive than adults to many of the compounds found in dust. But they haven’t nailed down the extent of health risks from dust exposure nor which compounds and sources are of greatest concern. And many compounds remain unknown. “The few to a hundred compounds that we know are in dust don’t encompass the universe of chemicals in commerce, which number in the tens of thousands to over a million,” says P. Lee Ferguson, an environmental chemist at Duke University. To reveal the full spectrum of chemicals in dust, researchers are turning to high-powered analytical tools. Dust is no longer something to sweep under the rug. Scientists first realized that dust had a story to tell about environmental health in the 1940s when they measured human pathogens stuck to the dust in operating rooms to monitor cleanliness. In the 1970s, researchers began assessing house dust for lead from paint and gasoline as a way to determine the levels children might be exposed to. And in more recent studies, researchers have found carcinogenic compounds such as now-banned polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), once used in electrical cables and wood floor finishes, and endocrine disruptors such as phthalates, which soften vinyl flooring and other plastics. Researchers are still building their understanding of the complex ways that volatile and semivolatile compounds interact in our surroundings, sorbing onto and desorbing from surfaces. They know that consumer products—vinyl flooring, personal care products, electronics, furniture, carpet pads, paints, cleaning products, and more—have a strong driving force to shed compounds into materials with lower concentrations of the substances. For example, a flame retardant might volatilize off the plastic parts of a TV set into the air, stick onto airborne particles, and move into dust, which settles on floors and carpets. The compounds will continue to migrate until they reach equilibrium with the surroundings, says Diamond. And heating the product, such as turning on a computer, also speeds migration into the home environment; a compound will condense in a cooler part of the room, where dust often resides. With people in the room, things get even more complicated. “Just like the ‘Peanuts’ comic strip character Pig-Pen, people walk around in a dust cloud all day,” says Heather M. Stapleton, an environmental chemist at Duke University. People add to the dust’s organic load as their warm bodies volatilize deodorant or fragrance compounds from personal care products. “Our skin cells and clothing fibers may also accumulate chemicals from the air before they are then shed to dust, where they can accumulate yet more chemical,” Diamond says. Those compounds can be absorbed through skin, inhaled, or ingested when people put dusty hands to their mouths, complicating the scientist’s task of determining which exposure route is most important. Most research has focused on identifying individual classes of compounds in dust, like the polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) flame retardants found in furniture foam, carpet pads, and electronics; phthalates such as those found in vinyl flooring; or pesticides tracked in on shoes or evaporated off pet collars. Now, researchers are trying to get a more comprehensive view of the mixtures people are exposed to by probing the overall contaminant load in house dust. By combining toxicity tests with emerging methods for determining a complete profile of compounds in dust, researchers may be able to determine what chemicals or combinations of chemicals are most toxic, Stapleton says. In one new approach, scientists combed through two dozen dust studies of 45 compounds to create a snapshot of nationwide exposures, says Robin E. Dodson, an exposure scientist at the Silent Spring Institute. She and Veena Singla, a staff scientist at the Natural Resources Defense Council, ranked the substances according to the amount in dust and estimated intake and health hazard. The phthalate plasticizer di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate, known as DEHP, topped the list. Phthalate plasticizers make plastic more pliable and are found in vinyl flooring, food containers, and cosmetics. DEHP can disrupt hormone function in human and animal studies and is linked to reduced sperm motility in men. Other compounds on the list include phenol preservatives found in deodorants and cosmetics; flame retardants; a fragrance compound known as Galaxolide, or HHCB; and perfluorinated stain repellents (Env. Sci. Technol. 2016, DOI: 10.1021/acs.est.6b02023). What all this means for health is a sticky question. For some compounds, such as PBDEs, researchers have shown that dust is a major source of human exposure to these potentially endocrine-disrupting chemicals. But for other compounds, dust’s contribution is less certain. So for now, researchers still don’t have a clear picture of house dust’s risk to health. Many of the contaminants identified so far in dust are associated with hormone disruption, cancer, and reproductive damage, according to human epidemiological and cell studies, but “for many of these compounds, governments have not set safe levels,” Singla says. After she and Dodson completed their study, she compared the amounts of contaminants in dust to soil-screening thresholds set by the Environmental Protection Agency that indicate a chemical might pose health risks and thus require further investigation. She found that the concentrations of some phthalates and flame retardants in house dust exceeded these standards. Todd P. Whitehead, an environmental scientist at the University of California, Berkeley, is part of the California Childhood Leukemia Study that aims to identify the risk factors for the disease, which has become more common since 1975. He and his team are sampling dust in California homes because his work shows that dust is a useful indicator of exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), PBDEs, and PCBs, compounds that are suspected leukemia risk factors. “Compared to homes of healthy control children, the homes of children diagnosed with acute lymphoblastic leukemia tended to have, on average, higher levels of PAHs, PBDEs, and PCBs in dust after adjusting for other relevant factors such as household income,” he says. “This is the strongest type of evidence to suggest that these compounds are risk factors for childhood leukemia,” Whitehead says. But researchers can’t say if the dust accounts for the increased leukemia risk, or if dust is correlated with the presence of something else in the home. And there are other sources of exposure to these compounds whose importance relative to dust is unknown. “We know that dust exposes us to these chemicals, but at the same time, if someone eats smoked salmon or a grilled burger, there are potentially carcinogenic PAHs on those items,” Stapleton says. Testing dust with this approach, Ferguson’s team found some of the usual suspects, such as flame retardants. “But we also saw compounds we don’t usually think of as organic contaminants in dust, such as nonylphenol ethoxylates,” he says. These are nonionic surfactants used in household cleaners—and suspected endocrine disruptors. Because most cleaning products get washed down the drain to sewage plants and discharged with treated effluent, scientists have been tracking surfactants in lakes and rivers but haven’t looked for them in dust, he says. Ferguson’s lab has shown that nonylphenol ethoxylates cause the proliferation of fat cells in a laboratory assay, hinting at a role in obesity. “These surfactants give the highest analytical signal compared to all the other components, such as flame retardants, that we measure in house dust using mass spectrometry,” he says. It’s beginning to do so already. In addition to Ferguson’s work, researchers at the University of Saskatchewan recently used nontargeted analysis to identify azo dyes as the largest class of brominated compounds in house dust. And Cynthia A. de Wit, an environmental chemist at Stockholm University, and her team can now identify groups of chlorinated paraffins in unknown mixtures with the strategy. This large class of compounds acts as flame retardants, plasticizers, and lubricants for metal parts, appearing in caulking for buildings and windows and even in handheld kitchen mixers. “There are thousands of isomers, and conventional mass spectrometry can’t separate them,” de Wit says.


News Article | February 15, 2017
Site: www.marketwired.com

NOT FOR DISTRIBUTION TO UNITED STATES NEWSWIRE SERVICES OR FOR DISSEMINATION IN THE UNITED STATES Trusted Brand 2016 Inc. ("Trusted Brand" or the "Corporation") (TSX VENTURE:HAH.P) is pleased to announce that it has entered into a letter of intent dated January 30, 2017, pursuant to which it intends to acquire all of the issued and outstanding shares of 1367790 Alberta Ltd. and 2186774 Ontario Inc. (together, the "Holmes Services Companies"). Trusted Brand will acquire all of the issued and outstanding shares of the Holmes Services Companies in exchange for the issuance of 30,000,000 common shares of the Corporation (the "Holmes Acquisition"). It is expected that the Holmes Acquisition will constitute a "Qualifying Transaction" for the Corporation as such term is defined in the policies of the TSX Venture Exchange Inc. ("TSXV" or the "Exchange"). It is expected that soon after completion of the transaction, Trusted Brand will change its name to Holmes Trusted Services Inc. The principal shareholders of the Holmes Services Companies are Mike Holmes of Toronto, Ontario (73.6%), Seth Atkins of Toronto, Ontario (4.8%), and Drew Atkins of Calgary, Alberta (21.6%). Following the completion of the Holmes Acquisition and the Concurrent Financing, it is expected that they will hold approximately 47.5%, 3.1% and 13.9% of the Resulting Issuer, respectively. It is intended that Trusted Brand will, in conjunction with the completion of the Holmes Acquisition, complete a private placement of up to 12,500,000 common shares with gross proceeds of approximately $5,000,000, at a price of $0.40 per share (the "Concurrent Financing"). The Holmes Services Companies provide two key services to the home building industry. The first is a new home construction certification program operating as "Holmes Approved Homes". This unique private service has successfully generated a network of high quality new home builders that operate jointly to achieve elevated market distinction and co-branded support on a variety of fields and topics. The second service provides home inspection services for new home construction and/or existing homes and is called Mike Holmes Inspections. This multi-faceted company provides all of the new home construction "stage" inspections for Holmes Approved Homes but also provides traditional home inspection and specialty services. Both services were initiated in 2011 and are in their sixth year of operation. The Holmes Brand is based on three pillars: Quality, Integrity, & Trust. This is what Mike Holmes represents like no other in the construction industry. Named the third most trusted Celebrity by Forbes Magazine in 2013, Mike connects with the hearts and minds of current and future homeowners by helping to educate on how to Make it Right™. The Holmes Services Companies are being merged into a single financial entity to achieve a more streamlined and efficient delivery of both services and with the goal of expanding into the U.S. markets. The following is a summary of the Holmes Services Companies' financial information for the years ended 2014 and 2015 and the nine months ended September 30, 2016. The financial statements for the years ended 2014 and 2015 have been audited and the nine month period ended September 30, 2016, is a review engagement prepared by the Holmes Services Companies' auditor, BDO LLP, of Toronto, Ontario. The total assets and total liabilities of the Holmes Services Companies as at September 30, 2016, were $2,327,715 and $2,556,266, respectively. Upon completion of the Holmes Acquisition, the Holmes Services Companies will be wholly owned by the Corporation. It is anticipated that Trusted Brand will be a Tier 1 Industrial Issuer under the policies of the Exchange upon completion of the Holmes Acquisition. Subject to the completion of satisfactory due diligence, a definitive share acquisition agreement and receipt of applicable regulatory approvals, the Corporation intends to acquire all of the outstanding and issued common shares of the Holmes Services Companies such that 1367790 Alberta Ltd. and 2186774 Ontario Inc. will each be wholly-owned subsidiaries of Trusted Brand. The consideration to be paid by Trusted Brand for all of the Holmes Services Companies' common shares issued and outstanding at the time of closing shall be satisfied by the issuance of 30,000,000 Trusted Brand common shares, at a deemed value of $0.40 per share, for a total deemed value of $12,000,000 representing 87.3% of the issued and outstanding shares of Trusted Brand after the completion of the Holmes Acquisition and prior to the Concurrent Financing. It is intended that Trusted Brand will, in conjunction with the completion of the Holmes Acquisition, complete a brokered private placement of common shares with gross proceeds of approximately $5,000,000, at a price of $0.40 per share. The capital investment will be utilized to increase operating revenue in Canada and expand the services into the United States. Additional details related to the concurrent financing will be released in the near future. The Corporation currently has 3,962,900 common shares issued and outstanding. Assuming the Concurrent Financing involving the issuance of 12,500,000 common shares at a price of $0.40 to raise $5,000,000 and the concurrent completion of the Holmes Acquisition, the Resulting Issuer will have approximately 46,462,900 common shares outstanding (undiluted), of which the former shareholders of the Holmes Services Companies will own approximately 64.5%. Trusted Brand currently has 396,290 outstanding director and officer share options at an exercise price of $0.25 and 228,290 outstanding agent's warrants at an exercise price of $0.25. Concurrent with the closing of the Holmes Acquisition, the Corporation is planning to issue incentive stock options to directors, officers, employees and key consultants of the Corporation to acquire up to 4,200,000 common shares. Conditions Precedent to Completion of the Holmes Acquisition Completion of the Holmes Acquisition is subject to a number of conditions, including but not limited to: Under the policies of the Exchange, the Holmes Acquisition was negotiated as and is being completed as an arm's length transaction. Upon completion of the Holmes Acquisition, it is anticipated that Trusted Brand's board of directors will change with certain resignations and the appointment of Holmes Services Companies' nominees. The backgrounds of each of the proposed members of the board of directors and senior management of the Resulting Issuer are as follows: Mr. Atkins, age 44, has worked directly with Mike Holmes for almost 10 years. He advanced from the position of Design Principal to that of Senior Vice President of The Holmes Group of Companies and worked with Mike to create the Holmes Approved Home and Mike Holmes Inspections services. Together, and now with Mike's daughter, Amanda Holmes as fellow Senior VP, the company has grown quickly into a multi-million dollar business that responsibly leverages the Holmes Brand in pursuit of a better homeowner experience. Mr. Atkins was previously a design Associate at BairdSampsonNeuert Architects in Toronto, Ontario for 6 years. He received his Masters of Architecture from the University of Toronto in 2002, a Bachelor of Fine Arts from the University of British Columbia in 1998, and a Bachelor of Science in Architectural Studies from the University of Utah in 1996. Mr. Atkins is a LEED Accredited Professional since 2004. Mr. Holmes, age 53 is currently the CEO and primary owner of The Holmes Group of Companies. Mr. Holmes is the long-time host of over five series featured on cable primetime TV including Holmes on Homes, Holmes Inspections, Holmes' Make it Right, Home Free on FOX TV and, most recently, Holmes & Holmes featuring Mike's son (Mike Jr). His shows have been broadcast worldwide in over 72 countries and the Holmes brand is synonymous with quality, integrity and trust. The Holmes brand resonates with homeowners and his goal of education for all has created one of the most prolific international brands coming from Canada. Mr. Holmes' extensive efforts to raise building standards has led to him being awarded the prestigious Queen's Diamond Jubilee medal and being recognized in the House of Commons in 2006.With over a dozen years of filming Mike also donates his time to SOS Children's Villages Canada, Skills Canada, World Skills and the Holmes Foundation to help more people be trained to Make it Right! Ms. Lazorko, age 38, is a CPA,CGA with over 13 years of private and public company experience. Charidy has been involved as an officer in numerous companies providing financial services, with an emphasis in corporate restructuring, amalgamations and asset acquisitions, and she has acted as a financial advisor for a multitude of other private transactions in numerous industries. She has been CFO of a number of public companies during her career. Ms. Stewart, age 53, is the founder and has been Chief Executive Officer of Fairway Divorce Solutions, a private divorce resolution company, since 2006. In this capacity, Ms. Stewart has developed a corporate and franchise business with locations from Ontario to British Columbia. She is also the founder and has been CEO of Oreiva Insurance Inc., a private insurance brokerage, since 2013. Karen has over 20 years of experience in the financial services industry including but not limited to: financial broker dealers in IDA and MFDA, boutique brokerage firms, real estate investment firms and an insurance brokerage business. She received her Masters of Business Administration from the University of Saskatchewan in 1988 as well as her Bachelor of Science Degree from the University of Saskatchewan in 1986. Mr. Antony, age 54, is a Chartered Professional Accountant and has 25 years' experience in assisting companies in structuring transactions, accessing capital, and corporate governance. He is currently the Chief Executive Officer and a director of Blackhawk Resource Corp., and he is also a director of Spriza Media Inc., both of which are listed on the TSXV. Mr. Antony has been involved as an officer and director of numerous public and private companies. In addition, Mr. Antony sits on both the Local Advisory and National Advisory Committees for the TSXV. In addition to these individuals, it is expected that the Resulting Issuer will appoint a COO and corporate secretary. The Corporation will issue a subsequent news release with information regarding the persons to be appointed to these positions. Details of the concurrent financing will be released in the near future. Trusted Brands may seek a waiver from all of part of the sponsorship requirements for the proposed Qualifying Transaction in accordance with Exchange requirements. It is expected that trading in the shares of Trusted Brand will remain halted until further notice. Completion of the Holmes Acquisition is subject to a number of conditions, including but not limited to, Exchange acceptance and if applicable pursuant to Exchange requirements, majority of the minority shareholder approval. Where applicable, the transaction cannot close until the required shareholder approval is obtained. There can be no assurance that the transaction will be completed as proposed or at all. Investors are cautioned that, except as disclosed in the management information circular to be prepared in connection with the transaction, any information released or received with respect to the transaction may not be accurate or complete and should not be relied upon. Trading in the securities of a capital pool company should be considered highly speculative. Certain statements contained in this news release constitute forward looking statements. The use of any of the words "anticipate", "continue", "estimate", "expect", "may", "will", "project", "should", "believe", "subject to" and similar expressions are intended to identify forward-looking statements. These statements involve known and unknown risks, uncertainties and other factors that may cause actual results or events to differ materially from those anticipated in such forward-looking statements are based on reasonable assumption but no assurance can be given that these expectations will prove to be correct and the forward-looking statements included in this news release should not be unduly relied upon. NEITHER TSX VENTURE EXCHANGE NOR ITS REGULATION SERVICE PROVIDER (AS THAT TERM IS DEFINED IN THE POLICIES OF THE TSX VENTURE EXCHANGE) ACCEPTS RESPONSIBILITY FOR THE ADEQUACY OR ACCURACY OF THIS RELEASE.


VANCOUVER, BC / ACCESSWIRE / November 28, 2016 / iCo Therapeutics (TSXV: ICO) (OTCQX: ICOTF) ("iCo" or "the Company"), announces several developments related to its novel, patent protected formulation of generic Amphotericin B: Positive Oral Amphotericin B (Oral Amp B) study results exhibited pharmacokinetic (PK) and tissue accumulation data with clinical and commercial relevance: demonstrating scalable and stable drug product, now at a higher dose form once daily regime may be possible for our drug candidate in certain indications targeting treatment of multiple fungal indications, latent HIV reservoirs, and certain developing world parasitic conditions complimenting existing drugs such as liposomal intravenous Amphotericin B (IV Amp B) with global sales estimated to be in excess of $400M USD in 2016.* * http://www.gilead.com/news/press-releases/2016/4/gilead-sciences-announces-first-quarter-2016-financial-results * https://www.astellas.com/en/ir/ar2016/pdf/2016AR_51_en.pdf Company anticipates a grant funding increase from existing sources through March 31, 2017 which will allow completion of pivotal IND enabling study and entrance into Phase 1a study with no impact on corporate financial runway Timelines for completion of Phase 1a study in 2017 iCo is now engaged in multiple strategic partnering discussions related to Oral Amp B candidate Multiple filings of new intellectual property related to iCo's novel carrier system utilized with our Oral Amp B candidate, including coverage of formulations comprising protease inhibitors and uses for the treatment of HIV "Given our significant progress in contract manufacturing and pre-clinical development we have a highly differentiated Oral Amp B lead candidate rapidly making its way into the clinic," stated Andrew Rae, President and CEO. "Assuming clinical data reflects meaningful pre-clinical outcomes we believe we may address anti-fungal markets in excess of a billion dollars with an asset that makes administration far more accessible to a broad population." ** "I look forward to the entrance of our Oral Amp B candidate into clinical trials and I am pleased to see continued promising results from our pre-clinical study recently completed," stated Kishor Wasan Professor and Dean, College of Pharmacy and Nutrition at the University of Saskatchewan and Adjunct Professor and Distinguished Scholar at the University of British Columbia, and co-inventor of the technology with Dr. Ellen Wasan. IV Amp B is a drug of choice for certain life threatening systemic fungal infection IV Amp B efficacy is well documented Early evidence to suggest that Amp B may activate latent HIV reservoirs which could improve current and future anti-viral therapy outcomes. Need for oral formulation, preferably a solid dosage form with modest administration burden, exists New oral formulation prototypes were developed and tested in a pre-clinical model. Rate of absorption and tissue accumulation was compared to original prototype, which has shown excellent results in multiple pre-clinical models including Candida, Aspergillosis, and Visceral Leishmaniasis. Stability data is now approaching month six for our lead clinical candidate and ease of manufacturing scale up should provide additional product differentiation. iCo Therapeutics identifies existing development stage assets for use in underserved ocular and infectious diseases. Such assets may exhibit utility in non-ophthalmic conditions outside the Company's core focus areas and, if so, the Company will seek to capture further value via partnerships, such as its partnership with Immune Pharmaceuticals (NASDAQ: IMNP), which is in several Phase 2 studies involving iCo-008. iCo shares trade on the TSX Venture Exchange under the symbol "ICO" and on the OTCQX under the symbol "ICOTF". For more information, visit the Company website at: www.icotherapeutics.com. No regulatory authority has approved or disapproved the content of this press release. Neither the TSX Venture Exchange nor its Regulatory Services Provider (as that term is defined in the policies of the TSX Venture Exchange) accepts responsibility for the adequacy or accuracy of this press release. Certain statements included in this press release may be considered "forward-looking statements" within the meaning of applicable securities laws. Forward-looking statements can be identified by words such as: "anticipate," "intend," "plan," "goal," "seek," "believe," "project," "estimate," "expect," "strategy," "future," "likely," "may," "should," "will," and similar references to future periods. Such statements involve known and unknown risks, uncertainties and other factors that may cause actual results, performance or achievements to be materially different from those implied by such statements, and therefore these statements should not be read as guarantees of future performance or results. All forward-looking statements are based on iCo's current beliefs as well as assumptions made by and information currently available to iCo and relate to, among other things, anticipated financial performance, business prospects, strategies, regulatory developments, market acceptance, and future commitments. Readers are cautioned not to place undue reliance on these forward-looking statements, which are based only on information currently available to iCo and speak only as of the date of this press release. Due to risks and uncertainties, including the risks and uncertainties identified by iCo in its public securities filings and on its website, actual events may differ materially from current expectations. iCo disclaims any intention or obligation to update or revise any forward-looking statements, whether as a result of new information, future events or otherwise, except as required by law. VANCOUVER, BC / ACCESSWIRE / November 28, 2016 / iCo Therapeutics (TSXV: ICO) (OTCQX: ICOTF) ("iCo" or "the Company"), announces several developments related to its novel, patent protected formulation of generic Amphotericin B: Positive Oral Amphotericin B (Oral Amp B) study results exhibited pharmacokinetic (PK) and tissue accumulation data with clinical and commercial relevance: demonstrating scalable and stable drug product, now at a higher dose form once daily regime may be possible for our drug candidate in certain indications targeting treatment of multiple fungal indications, latent HIV reservoirs, and certain developing world parasitic conditions complimenting existing drugs such as liposomal intravenous Amphotericin B (IV Amp B) with global sales estimated to be in excess of $400M USD in 2016.* * http://www.gilead.com/news/press-releases/2016/4/gilead-sciences-announces-first-quarter-2016-financial-results * https://www.astellas.com/en/ir/ar2016/pdf/2016AR_51_en.pdf Company anticipates a grant funding increase from existing sources through March 31, 2017 which will allow completion of pivotal IND enabling study and entrance into Phase 1a study with no impact on corporate financial runway Timelines for completion of Phase 1a study in 2017 iCo is now engaged in multiple strategic partnering discussions related to Oral Amp B candidate Multiple filings of new intellectual property related to iCo's novel carrier system utilized with our Oral Amp B candidate, including coverage of formulations comprising protease inhibitors and uses for the treatment of HIV "Given our significant progress in contract manufacturing and pre-clinical development we have a highly differentiated Oral Amp B lead candidate rapidly making its way into the clinic," stated Andrew Rae, President and CEO. "Assuming clinical data reflects meaningful pre-clinical outcomes we believe we may address anti-fungal markets in excess of a billion dollars with an asset that makes administration far more accessible to a broad population." ** "I look forward to the entrance of our Oral Amp B candidate into clinical trials and I am pleased to see continued promising results from our pre-clinical study recently completed," stated Kishor Wasan Professor and Dean, College of Pharmacy and Nutrition at the University of Saskatchewan and Adjunct Professor and Distinguished Scholar at the University of British Columbia, and co-inventor of the technology with Dr. Ellen Wasan. IV Amp B is a drug of choice for certain life threatening systemic fungal infection IV Amp B efficacy is well documented Early evidence to suggest that Amp B may activate latent HIV reservoirs which could improve current and future anti-viral therapy outcomes. Need for oral formulation, preferably a solid dosage form with modest administration burden, exists New oral formulation prototypes were developed and tested in a pre-clinical model. Rate of absorption and tissue accumulation was compared to original prototype, which has shown excellent results in multiple pre-clinical models including Candida, Aspergillosis, and Visceral Leishmaniasis. Stability data is now approaching month six for our lead clinical candidate and ease of manufacturing scale up should provide additional product differentiation. iCo Therapeutics identifies existing development stage assets for use in underserved ocular and infectious diseases. Such assets may exhibit utility in non-ophthalmic conditions outside the Company's core focus areas and, if so, the Company will seek to capture further value via partnerships, such as its partnership with Immune Pharmaceuticals (NASDAQ: IMNP), which is in several Phase 2 studies involving iCo-008. iCo shares trade on the TSX Venture Exchange under the symbol "ICO" and on the OTCQX under the symbol "ICOTF". For more information, visit the Company website at: www.icotherapeutics.com. No regulatory authority has approved or disapproved the content of this press release. Neither the TSX Venture Exchange nor its Regulatory Services Provider (as that term is defined in the policies of the TSX Venture Exchange) accepts responsibility for the adequacy or accuracy of this press release. Certain statements included in this press release may be considered "forward-looking statements" within the meaning of applicable securities laws. Forward-looking statements can be identified by words such as: "anticipate," "intend," "plan," "goal," "seek," "believe," "project," "estimate," "expect," "strategy," "future," "likely," "may," "should," "will," and similar references to future periods. Such statements involve known and unknown risks, uncertainties and other factors that may cause actual results, performance or achievements to be materially different from those implied by such statements, and therefore these statements should not be read as guarantees of future performance or results. All forward-looking statements are based on iCo's current beliefs as well as assumptions made by and information currently available to iCo and relate to, among other things, anticipated financial performance, business prospects, strategies, regulatory developments, market acceptance, and future commitments. Readers are cautioned not to place undue reliance on these forward-looking statements, which are based only on information currently available to iCo and speak only as of the date of this press release. Due to risks and uncertainties, including the risks and uncertainties identified by iCo in its public securities filings and on its website, actual events may differ materially from current expectations. iCo disclaims any intention or obligation to update or revise any forward-looking statements, whether as a result of new information, future events or otherwise, except as required by law.


VANCOUVER, BC / ACCESSWIRE / November 28, 2016 / iCo Therapeutics (TSXV: ICO) (OTCQX: ICOTF) ("iCo" or "the Company") announces several developments related to its novel, patent protected formulation of generic Amphotericin B: - Positive Oral Amphotericin B (Oral Amp B) study results exhibited pharmacokinetic (PK) and tissue accumulation data with clinical and commercial relevance: - Company anticipates a grant funding increase from existing sources through March 31, 2017 which will allow completion of pivotal IND enabling study and entrance into Phase 1a study with no impact on corporate financial runway "Given our significant progress in contract manufacturing and pre-clinical development we have a highly differentiated Oral Amp B lead candidate rapidly making its way into the clinic," stated Andrew Rae, President and CEO. "Assuming clinical data reflects meaningful pre-clinical outcomes we believe we may address markets in excess of a billion dollars with an asset that makes administration far more accessible to a broad population." "I look forward to the entrance of our Oral Amp B candidate into clinical trials and I am pleased to see continued promising results from our pre-clinical study recently completed," stated Kishor Wasan Professor and Dean, College of Pharmacy and Nutrition at the University of Saskatchewan and Adjunct Professor and Distinguished Scholar at the University of British Columbia, and co-inventor of the technology with Dr. Ellen Wasan. New oral formulation prototypes were developed and tested in a pre-clinical model. Rate of absorption and tissue accumulation was compared to original prototype which has shown excellent results in multiple pre-clinical models including Candida, Aspergillosis and Visceral Leishmaniasis. Stability data is now approaching month six for our lead clinical candidate and ease of manufacturing scale up should provide additional product differentiation. iCo Therapeutics identifies existing development stage assets for use in underserved ocular and infectious diseases. Such assets may exhibit utility in non-ophthalmic conditions outside the Company's core focus areas and if so the Company will seek to capture further value via partnerships, such as its partnership with Immune Pharmaceuticals (NASDAQ: IMNP), which is in several Phase 2 studies involving iCo-008. iCo shares trade on the TSX Venture Exchange under the symbol "ICO" and on the OTCQX under the symbol "ICOTF". For more information, visit the Company website at: www.icotherapeutics.com. No regulatory authority has approved or disapproved the content of this press release. Neither the TSX Venture Exchange nor its Regulatory Services Provider (as that term is defined in the policies of the TSX Venture Exchange) accepts responsibility for the adequacy or accuracy of this press release. Certain statements included in this press release may be considered forward-looking statements" within the meaning of applicable securities laws. Forward-looking statements can be identified by words such as: "anticipate," "intend," "plan," "goal," "seek," "believe," "project," "estimate," "expect," "strategy," "future," "likely," "may," "should," "will," and similar references to future periods. Such statements involve known and unknown risks, uncertainties and other factors that may cause actual results, performance or achievements to be materially different from those implied by such statements, and therefore these statements should not be read as guarantees of future performance or results. All forward-looking statements are based on iCo's current beliefs as well as assumptions made by and information currently available to iCo and relate to, among other things, anticipated financial performance, business prospects, strategies, regulatory developments, market acceptance and future commitments. Readers are cautioned not to place undue reliance on these forward-looking statements, which are based only on information currently available to iCo and speak only as of the date of this press release. Due to risks and uncertainties, including the risks and uncertainties identified by iCo in its public securities filings and on its website, actual events may differ materially from current expectations. iCo disclaims any intention or obligation to update or revise any forward-looking statements, whether as a result of new information, future events or otherwise, except as required by law.


News Article | December 13, 2016
Site: www.marketwired.com

Percy Street Capital Corporation ("Percy Street" or the "Corporation") (TSX VENTURE:PSC), a capital pool company, is pleased to announce it has entered an arm's length agreement in principle to purchase all of the issued and outstanding securities of Bonne Holdings Inc. ("Bonne O"), a corporation incorporated on August 1, 2013 under the laws of Ontario, and it intends that the proposed transaction will constitute its qualifying transaction (the "Qualifying Transaction") under the policies of the TSX Venture Exchange (the "Exchange"). Pursuant to a letter of intent dated December 9, 2016, the parties intend to enter a securities exchange agreement whereby Percy Street shall acquire all of the issued and outstanding common shares in the capital of Bonne O (the "Bonne O Common Shares") from Bonne O's shareholders on the basis of a 3.3:1 share exchange ratio (the "Exchange Ratio") whereby holders of Bonne O Common Shares will receive 3.3 post-Consolidation (as defined below) common shares of Percy following the Qualifying Transaction (the "Resulting Issuer Shares", and Percy Street after completion of the Qualifying Transaction, hereinafter referred to as the "Resulting Issuer") for each one Bonne O Common Share held at a deemed price per Resulting Issuer Share of $0.33. Percy Street will issue 31,059,214 Resulting Issuer Shares to the shareholders of Bonne O in exchange for all the issued and outstanding shares of Bonne O. In addition, all outstanding options and other convertible securities of Bonne O will be exchanged at the Exchange Ratio for options and convertible securities of the Resulting Issuer having the same economic terms, or will be adjusted pursuant to the terms governing such options or convertible securities, as applicable. Prior to the securities exchange, Percy Street will consolidate its issued and outstanding capital on a 3:1 basis (the "Consolidation"). The proposed Qualifying Transaction is not a Non-Arm's Length Qualifying Transaction. The Qualifying Transaction will not be subject to shareholder approval. Percy Street has engaged Industrial Alliance Securities Inc. to act as lead agent and sole bookrunner for a private placement to raise a minimum of 7,575,758 units (the "Units") issued at a price of $0.33 per Unit resulting in gross proceeds of a minimum of $2,500,000 (the "Offering"). Each Unit will consist of one Resulting Issuer Share and one-half of one Resulting Issuer Share purchase warrant (the "Warrants"). Each whole Warrant will entitle the holder to acquire one additional Resulting Issuer Share at an exercise price of $0.45 for a period of twenty-four (24) months following the Closing Date. Closing of the Offering is a condition to the closing of the Qualifying Transaction. Under the terms of the engagement, the Agent will be entitled to a cash commission on Closing equal to 7.5% of the gross proceeds arising from the Offering; (ii) options exercisable at any time for the twenty-four (24) month period following closing of the Offering to purchase Resulting Issuer Shares in an amount equal to 7.5% of the number of Units sold in connection with the Offering at a price of $0.33 per share; and (iii) a work fee of $20,000 payable as of the date of the engagement. The Agent will also be entitled to reimbursement of all expenses related to the Offering. Percy has provided an advance of such expenses to the Agent in the amount of $10,000. Subject to Exchange acceptance, Percy Street intends to loan to Bonne O $225,000 with 15% interest per annum, calculated monthly by way of a secured promissory note (the "Note"). The Note shall be payable on demand starting on the earlier of 30 days after the date the Qualifying Transaction is terminated or April 1, 2017. The Note shall be secured by way of a Personal Property Security Act registration against the assets, inventory and accounts of Bonne O; and a pledge of any investment tax credits for scientific research and experimental development expenses. Conditions precedent to the Closing of the Qualifying Transaction include completion of the Consolidation; closing the minimum Offering; voluntary pooling of 75% of the Resulting Issuer Shares issued to non-insider shareholders of Bonne O, whereby the holders will be restricted from selling their Resulting Issuer Shares for a period of one (1) year after Closing; and Bonne O obtaining all necessary consents to complete the Qualifying Transaction. History of the Business and Significant Financial Information Bonne O manufactures and sells home appliance carbonation systems that allows users to make sparkling beverages at home. Bonne O's proprietary carbonation technology was developed as a result of over three (3) years of research and development. Bonne O holds three (3) utility patents from the U.S. PTO and pending patents in Canada, the European Union, China, Australia, South Africa and Brazil. Bonne O's technology carbonates without a high pressure CO2 tank and without the creation of solid waste. Bonne O began selling its systems in mid-2015 with the Hudson Bay Corporation and expanded distribution in 2016 with Canadian Tire, Best Buy and other retailers in Canada. Bonne O carbonation systems produce beverages in sparkling waters, fruit and herb infusions, sparkling teas, sparkling wines and cocktails. The proceeds from the Offering will be used for the completion of development of the next generation of its carbonation system, tooling, marketing & sales and G&A. The next generation system is built on the same intellectual property and technology platform as the previous versions and is ready for completion and production. The next generation of Bonne O carbonation technology is a significant step forward in ease of use, speed of drink creation, carbonation customization and is also lower in cost to manufacture. These advances will allow Bonne O to distribute its systems in many additional countries globally and increase the number of channels it can distribute in. After the acquisition by the Corporation of all the issued and outstanding securities of Bonne O, the Resulting Issuer will be involved in the Diversified Industries sector, selling consumer goods. Bonne O's head office and management are based in Toronto, Ontario. Bonne O's products are conceptualized, engineered and developed in Ontario, Canada. Bonne O's manufacturing is contracted out to third parties. Darren Hatherell, President of Bonne, owns 52% of the issued and outstanding securities of Bonne O and is the company's sole Control Person (as that term is defined by the Exchange). He is a resident of Ontario. Based on unaudited financial statements for the year ending July 31, 2016, Bonne O generated revenues of $519,343 and a net loss before taxes of $1,575,919. As at July 31, 2016 Bonne had total assets of $1,649,881 and total liabilities of $776,768 and positive shareholders' equity in the amount of $873,113. Directors and Management of the Resulting Issuer The following are summaries of those individuals considered Insiders of the Resulting Issuer. The summaries include each individual's expected positions with the Resulting Issuer and relevant work and educational backgrounds: Darren Hatherell - President and Director Darren Hatherell is the President, founder and a director of Bonne O. Mr. Hatherell holds an MBA and the title of "Ivey Scholar" from the Richard Ivey School of Business. He is a CFA charterholder and a member of the Toronto CFA Society. Prior to Bonne O, Darren was the Managing Director of Digital Cement and instrumental to the significant growth of the company. Digital Cement was a market pioneer in online customer relationship management and analytics. Clients included Kraft Foods, FedEx and Dell. Digital Cement was sold in 2008 to Pitney Bowes (Stamford, CT) for US$52MM. Darren was also a consultant with Monitor Company, working in Toronto, Boston and Istanbul with client engagements in corporate strategy, brand strategy, customer strategy and distribution management. Alan Long - Chief Financial Officer and Director Alan Long is the Vice-President (Finance) of Bonne O. Mr. Long graduated from Acadia University in 1986 with a Bachelor of Business Administration degree, and obtained his CA designation during his tenure at PriceWaterhouseCoopers LLP where he was a senior manager in the restructuring and M&A group. An entrepreneur at heart, Mr. Long has been part of the founding group of two successful private companies, the most recent being Digital Cement, where he was the CFO. Joining Digital Cement with only 4 employees, he was part of the founding team that grew the company to 160 employees and was instrumental in its successful sale to Pitney Bowes in 2008. Previously Mr. Long was also the Director of Operations of Bayshore Healthcare and Director of Finance of Tinwald Technologies Inc., Alan also currently serves on the boards of directors of two private companies. Mike Branchflower - Director Mike Branchflower is a director of Bonne O. Mr. Branchflower is currently the Vice President of Corporate Development at Execution Specialist Group LLC, a management consulting firm. He has held several senior leadership positions including: Principal, M-Pact Advisory Services; Vice President Strategic Group Marketing, ITS Neopost, Inc.; CEO, CentrSource Canada; Vice President Global Business Development, Pitney Bowes; and Vice President Alternative Channels and Postal Affairs, Pitney Bowes Canada. Stacey Mowbray - Director Stacey Mowbray is the President of the Americas for Weight Watchers International. Previously, she was CEO and President of Second Cup Ltd. for 6 years. Prior to Second Cup, Ms Mowbray had roles with Molson Canada as CMO and CARA Operations as the President of the Milestones restaurant brand. Timothy McCunn - Director Timothy McCunn is the President, secretary and a director of Percy Street. He is member of the Business Law Group at Perley-Robertson, Hill & McDougall LLP. Mr. McCunn's practice is focused on corporate/commercial and securities law with particular emphasis on mergers and acquisitions and corporate finance for the technology and life science sectors. Specific assignments include board and governance advice, initial public offerings, private placements, credit agreements, capital pool corporations, reverse take-overs, take-overs, purchase and sale transactions, independent committee counsel, joint ventures, licensing/co-development and distribution arrangements as well as complex commercial agreements. Mr. McCunn is fluently bilingual and has been recognized repeatedly in Canadian Legal Lexpert's Directory in the area of Corporate Commercial Law; Corporate mid-market and Private Equity. Tim is a graduate of McGill University (B.Com) and the University of Ottawa (LLB). Dr. Calvin Stiller - Director Dr. Calvin Stiller is a director and chairman of Percy Street. Dr. Stiller is the President of the Stilco Corporation, a life sciences and advanced health technologies company based in London, Ontario. Dr. Stiller received his medical degree from the University of Saskatchewan in 1965 and his fellowship in the Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Canada (FRCPC) in 1972, following seven years of post-graduate studies in Edmonton, Alberta and London, Ontario. He is a member of the Order of Ontario and officer of the Order of Canada. He is the recipient of four honorary degrees and numerous others, including the Medec Award and the Canada Gairdner Wightman Award. Completion of the transaction is subject to a number of conditions, including but not limited to, Exchange acceptance and if applicable pursuant to Exchange Requirements, majority of the minority shareholder approval. Where applicable, the transaction cannot close until the required shareholder approval is obtained. There can be no assurance that the transaction will be completed as proposed or at all. Investors are cautioned that, except as disclosed in the management information circular or filing statement to be prepared in connection with the transaction, any information released or received with respect to the transaction may not be accurate or complete and should not be relied upon. Trading in the securities of a capital pool company should be considered highly speculative. The TSX Venture Exchange Inc. has in no way passed upon the merits of the proposed transaction and has neither approved nor disapproved the contents of this press release.


Pare M.C.,Agrinova | Pare M.C.,University of Saskatchewan | Bedard-Haughn A.,University of Saskatchewan
Global Change Biology | Year: 2013

Arctic soils store large amounts of labile soil organic matter (SOM) and several studies have suggested that SOM characteristics may explain variations in SOM cycling rates across Arctic landscapes and Arctic ecosystems. The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of routinely measured soil properties and SOM characteristics on soil gross N mineralization and soil GHG emissions at the landscape scale. This study was carried out in three Canadian Arctic ecosystems: Sub-Arctic (Churchill, MB), Low-Arctic (Daring Lake, NWT), and High-Arctic (Truelove Lowlands, NU). The landscapes were divided into five landform units: (1) upper slope, (2) back slope, (3) lower slope, (4) hummock, and (5) interhummock, which represented a great diversity of Static and Turbic Cryosolic soils including Brunisolic, Gleysolic, and Organic subgroups. Soil gross N mineralization was measured using the 15N dilution technique, whereas soil GHG emissions (N2O, CH4, and CO2) were measured using a multicomponent Fourier transform infrared gas analyzer. Soil organic matter characteristics were determined by (1) water-extractable organic matter, (2) density fractionation of SOM, and (3) solid-state CPMAS 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Results showed that gross N mineralization, N2O, and CO2 emissions were affected by SOM quantity and SOM characteristics. Soil moisture, soil organic carbon (SOC), light fraction (LF) of SOM, and O-Alkyl-C to Aromatic-C ratio positively influenced gross N mineralization, N2O and CO2 emissions, whereas the relative proportion of Aromatic-C negatively influenced those N and C cycling processes. Relationships between SOM characteristics and CH4 emissions were not significant throughout all Arctic ecosystems. Furthermore, results showed that lower slope and interhummock areas store relatively more labile C than upper and back slope locations. These results are particularly important because they can be used to produce better models that evaluate SOM stocks and dynamics under several climate scenarios and across Arctic landscapes and ecosystems. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.


Mani S.,Lakehead University | Li H.,Lakehead University | Untereiner A.,Thunder Bay Regional Research Institute | Wu L.,Thunder Bay Regional Research Institute | And 6 more authors.
Circulation | Year: 2013

Background-Cystathionine γ-lyase (CSE) produces hydrogen sulfide (H2S) in the cardiovascular system. The deficiency of CSE in mice leads to a decreased endogenous H2S level, an age-dependent increase in blood pressure, and impaired endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation. To date, there is no direct evidence for a causative role of altered metabolism of endogenous H2S in atherosclerosis development. Methods and Results-Six-week-old CSE gene knockout and wild-type mice were fed with either a control chow or atherogenic paigen-type diet for 12 weeks. Plasma lipid profile and homocysteine levels, blood pressure, oxidative stress, atherosclerotic lesion size in the aortic roots, cell proliferation, and adhesion molecule expression were then analyzed. CSE-knockout mice fed with atherogenic diet developed early fatty streak lesions in the aortic root, elevated plasma levels of cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, hyperhomocysteinemia, increased lesional oxidative stress and adhesion molecule expression, and enhanced aortic intimal proliferation. Treatment of CSE-knockout mice with NaHS, but not N-acetylcysteine or ezetimibe, inhibited the accelerated atherosclerosis development. Double knockout of CSE and apolipoprotein E gene expression in mice exacerbated atherosclerosis development more than that in the mice with only apolipoprotein E or CSE knockout. Conclusions-Endogenously synthesized H2S protects vascular tissues from atherogenic damage by reducing vessel intimal proliferation and inhibiting adhesion molecule expression. Decreased endogenous H2S production predisposes the animals to vascular remodeling and early development of atherosclerosis. The CSE/H2S pathway is an important therapeutic target for protection against atherosclerosis. © 2013 American Heart Association, Inc.


Hahnlein S.,University of Tübingen | Bayer P.,ETH Zurich | Ferguson G.,University of Saskatchewan | Blum P.,Karlsruhe Institute of Technology
Energy Policy | Year: 2013

Shallow geothermal energy is a renewable energy resource that has become increasingly important. However, the use has environmental, technical and social consequences. Biological, chemical, and physical characteristics of groundwater and subsurface are influenced by the development of this resource. To guarantee a sustainable use it is therefore necessary to consider environmental and technical criteria, such as changes in groundwater quality and temperature. In the current study a comprehensive overview of consequences of geothermal systems in shallow aquifers is provided. We conclude that there is still a lack of knowledge on long-term environmental consequences. Due to local differences in geology and hydrogeology as well as in technical requirements, it is not recommendable to define only static regulations, such as fixed and absolute temperature thresholds. Flexible temperature limits for heating and cooling the groundwater and subsurface are therefore advisable. The limits should be oriented on previously undisturbed temperatures, and chemical, physical and biological conditions of aquifers. Based on these findings, recommendations for a sustainable policy for shallow geothermal systems are provided including a potential legal framework for a sustainable use. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.


Bond A.L.,University of Saskatchewan | Lavers J.L.,University of Tasmania | Lavers J.L.,Monash University
Global Change Biology | Year: 2014

Changes in the world's oceans have altered nutrient flow, and affected the viability of predator populations when prey species become unavailable. These changes are integrated into the tissues of apex predators over space and time and can be quantified using stable isotopes in the inert feathers of historical and contemporary avian specimens. We measured δ13C and δ15N values in Flesh-footed Shearwaters (Puffinus carneipes) from Western and South Australia from 1936-2011. The Flesh-footed Shearwaters more than doubled their trophic niche (from 3.91 ± 1.37 ‰2 to 10.00 ± 1.79 ‰2), and dropped an entire trophic level in 75 years (predicted δ15N decreased from +16.9 ‰ to + 13.5 ‰, and δ13C from -16.9 ‰ to -17.9 ‰) - the largest change in δ15N yet reported in any marine bird, suggesting a relatively rapid shift in the composition of the Indian Ocean food web, or changes in baseline δ13C and δ15N values. A stronger El Niño-Southern Oscillation results in a weaker Leeuwin Current in Western Australia, and decreased Flesh-footed Shearwater δ13C and δ15N. Current climate forecasts predict this trend to continue, leading to increased oceanic 'tropicalization' and potentially competition between Flesh-footed Shearwaters and more tropical sympatric species with expanding ranges. Flesh-footed Shearwater populations are declining, and current conservation measures aimed primarily at bycatch mitigation are not restoring populations. Widespread shifts in foraging, as shown here, may explain some of the reported decline. An improved understanding and ability to mitigate the impacts of global climactic changes is therefore critical to the long-term sustainability of this declining species. © 2014 John Wiley Sons Ltd.


Kirby M.E.,California State University, Fullerton | Zimmerman S.R.H.,Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory | Patterson W.P.,University of Saskatchewan | Rivera J.J.,California State University, Fullerton
Quaternary Science Reviews | Year: 2012

A well-dated, 9170 calendar year before present (cal yr BP) paleohydrologic reconstruction is presented from Lower Bear Lake in the San Bernardino Mountains of the coastal southwest United States. This new multi-proxy record is characterized by alternating organic-rich/carbonate-rich sediment units, interpreted to reflect hydrologically-forced changes in the lake's depositional environment. Our interpretation of the proxy data indicates nine decadal-to-multi-centennial pluvial episodes (PE) over the past 9170 cal yr BP. Of these nine inferred pluvials, five are interpreted as more pronounced based on their combined proxy interpretations: (PE-V) 9170?-8250, (PE-IV) 7000-6400, (PE-III) 3350-3000, (PE-II) 850-700, and (PE-I) 500-476 (top of core) cal yr BP. The Lower Bear Lake record indicates that the San Bernardino Mountains, source region for the Mojave River and its terminal playa, was wet during the same periods (within dating errors), to several of the major pluvials proposed from the lakes in the sink of the Mojave River. Our comparison extends north also to Tulare Lake, which drains the southcentral-western Sierra Nevada Mountains. This temporally and spatially coherent signal indicates that a similar climate forcing acted to increase regional wetness at various times during the past 9170 cal yr BP. As originally proposed by Enzel, Ely, and colleagues (e.g., Enzel et al., 1989; Enzel, 1992; Ely et al., 1994; Enzel and Wells, 1997), we too contend that Holocene pluvial episodes are associated with changing the frequency of large winter storms that track across a broad region at decadal-to-multi-centennial timescales. We build upon their hypothesis through the addition of new and better-dated site comparisons, recent advances in the understanding of atmospheric rivers, and improved knowledge of the ocean-atmosphere dynamics that caused the early 20th century western United States pluvial. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.


Liu G.,China Agricultural University | Si B.C.,University of Saskatchewan
Soil Science Society of America Journal | Year: 2011

Heat pulse methods include the dual-probe (DP) and single-probe (SP) methods. The DP method is a widely used method for determining the thermal conductivity (K) and thermal diffusivity (β) of soil. The SP method has been traditionally used for measuring K only. The objective of this study was to examine if the SP method can be used to estimate the thermal properties of air-dried soils. The thermal properties of three sands were measured using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and the DP and SP methods. For the SP method, the small-time and large-time solutions of the perfect conductor model and hollow cylindrical probe model were fitted to the respective small-time and largetime temperature vs. time curves. Both K and β of the soil were determined by the SP method. The DP and SP methods yielded similar K values for the three air-dried soils with a relative deviation <6.1%. In comparison with the DSC measurements, the DP method overestimated the specific heat (c) by 19 to 29%, while the SP method with the hollow cylindrical probe model underestimated c by 21 to 8%, and the SP method with the perfect conductor model resulted in -4 to 7% error. Therefore, the SP method with the perfect conductor model gave the most accurate estimate of c. © Soil Science Society of America.


News Article | February 23, 2017
Site: www.prweb.com

LlamaZOO Interactive Inc. (LlamaZOO), developers of world-leading 3D veterinary anatomy software EasyAnatomy, will for the first time ever be enabling users to explore the intricacies of canine anatomy in virtual reality (VR). LlamaZOO has chosen the 2017 Western Veterinary Conference, one of the largest annual veterinary conferences in the world, as the venue to unveil this breakthrough in veterinary medicine. “We’ve made tremendous leaps in EasyAnatomy’s development this year, adding the complete nervous and circulatory systems along with animated pathologies” said LlamaZOO co-founder and CEO Charles Lavigne. “It’s all lined up to make WVC the ideal place for us to demonstrate our medically accurate 3D canine in VR for the first time.” “Being able to interact with a life-sized virtual canine cadaver, place your head inside its abdomen, and hold its organs in your hands is an extremely convincing argument for the advantages of 3D interaction compared to plastic models or textbooks” added co-founder and VP Sales Kevin Oke. EasyAnatomy is currently available on tablet, laptop, and desktop devices, and since its preliminary launch last summer has been adopted by veterinary practitioners, students, and educators all over the world. LlamaZOO’s aim is to help veterinarians have more engaged, informed, and effective conversations with clients about their pet’s health, and the recent addition of animated pathologies to EasyAnatomy makes this even easier. “Our veterinary advisors and customers have been urging us to add pathologies to EasyAnatomy since we first launched” commented Oke. “Showing an owner what a healthy pet should look like is one thing, but being able to present them with how their pet’s ailment actually appears, and demonstrate how that condition will deteriorate over time if left untreated is incredibly powerful. Our users are excited to start having more informed conversations with clients, and to enjoy the resulting increase in compliance.” Veterinary medicine is evolving, and veterinarians are increasingly adopting solutions that boost efficiency, and differentiate their practice in a competitive landscape. “The newest generation of pet owners have grown up surrounded by technology, and they’ve come to expect the businesses they interact with to be technology-inclined too” said Oke. “The time and cost savings that an effective use of technology offers is too attractive to ignore, and we’re seeing more and more veterinarians making innovative changes.” The 2017 Western Veterinary Conference takes place March 5-9 at the Mandalay Bay Convention Center in Las Vegas. Over 14,000 participants are expected to attend, including 6000+ veterinarians and 500+ exhibiting companies. LlamaZOO will be located at Booth 1131 during the exhibition, and is now accepting reservations for limited VR demonstrations: http://www.easy-anatomy.com/WVC LlamaZOO is a leading education technology company that develops award-winning interactive software. With a primary focus on veterinary medicine, LlamaZOO has partnered with distinguished international institutions including the University of Pennsylvania, the University of Missouri, and the University of Saskatchewan in developing its 3D veterinary anatomy solution, EasyAnatomy. In March LlamaZOO will be one of 10 worldwide finalists competing in SXSWedu Launch. The company has previously been awarded the VIATEC Startup of the Year Award, been named “Top Regional Startup” by BCIC New Ventures, and was recognized as one of Douglas Magazine’s “10 to Watch”. Founded in 2014 and privately held, LlamaZOO is headquartered in Victoria BC, Canada.


News Article | February 15, 2017
Site: www.newscientist.com

Our planet may be blue from the inside out. Earth’s huge store of water might have originated via chemical reactions in the mantle, rather than arriving from space through collisions with ice-rich comets. This new water may be under such pressure that it can trigger earthquakes hundreds of kilometres below Earth’s surface – tremors whose origins have so far remained unexplained. That’s the upshot of a computer simulation of reactions in Earth’s upper mantle between liquid hydrogen and quartz, the most common and stable form of silica in this part of the planet. “This is one way water can form on Earth,” says team member John Tse at the University of Saskatchewan in Canada. “We show it’s possible to have water forming in Earth’s natural environment, rather than being of extraterrestrial origin.” The simple reaction takes place at about 1400 °C and pressures 20,000 times higher than atmospheric pressure as silica, or silicon dioxide, reacts with liquid hydrogen to form liquid water and silicon hydride. The latest work simulates this reaction under various temperatures and pressures typical of the upper mantle between 40 and 400 kilometres down. It backs up previous work by Japanese researchers who performed and reported the reaction itself in 2014. “We set up a computer simulation very close to their experimental conditions and simulated the trajectory of the reaction,” says Tse. But in a surprise twist, the simulation showed that the water forms within quartz but then can’t escape and so the pressure builds up. “The hydrogen fluid diffuses through the quartz layer, but ends up forming water not at the surface, but in the bulk of the mineral,” says Tse. “We analysed the density and structure of the trapped water, and found that it is highly pressurised.” According to the simulation, the pressure could reach as much as 200,000 atmospheres. “We observed the water to be at high pressure, which might lead to the possibility of induced earthquakes,” says Tse. The quakes could be triggered as the water finally escapes from the crystals. “However, further research is needed to quantify the amount of released water needed for triggering deep earthquakes,” says Tse. Other researchers said it was plausible that this water caused deep quakes. “These results provide important insights into the reactions between quartz and hydrogen at high pressures,” says John Ludden, executive director of the British Geological Survey. “The formation and release of overpressured water may be a significant trigger in the deep lithosphere for ultra-deep earthquakes, sometimes located well below the crust and in the more rigid parts of deep continental plates.” The findings may also inform how our planet got its water to start with. Studies over the past few years have found evidence of several oceans’ worth of water locked up in rock, as far down as 1000 kilometres, questioning the assumption that water arrived from space after Earth’s formation. A study published this week, for example, based on isotopes from meteorites and Earth’s mantle, also found that water is unlikely to have arrived on icy comets after Earth formed, as has long been assumed. Instead, all this research seems to suggest that much of our planet’s water may have come from within – although no one yet knows exactly how much. “As long as the supply of hydrogen can be sustained, one can speculate that water formed from this process could be a contributor to the origin of water during Earth’s early accretion,” says Tse. “Water formed in the mantle can reach the surface via multiple ways, for example, carried by magma in the form of volcanic activities.” It is possible that water is still being made this way deep inside Earth today, and the same could be true of other planets. The new simulation results are quite surprising “because rather than hydrogen bonding into the quartz crystal structure, it disrupts the structure completely by bonding with oxygen and forming water-rich regions below the surface”, says Lydia Hallis at the University of Glasgow, UK. “The study highlights how the minerals that make up Earth’s mantle can incorporate large amounts of water, and how Earth is probably ‘wet’ in some sense all the way down to its core.” But despite the potential for the process to have created much of Earth’s water, Ludden thinks it may be small-scale and localised in comparison with the input of water from water-rich comets, meteorites and asteroids. “I think it’s reasonable to assume that much of the water came in this way,” he says. Read more: Deepest water found 1000km down, a third of way to Earth’s core


The International Association of HealthCare Professionals admirably welcomes Dr. Bobby Birdi, DMD, to their prestigious organization with an upcoming publication in The Leading Physicians of the World. Dr. Birdi is one of North America’s very few Certified Dual Specialists in Periodontics and Prosthodontics and the first and only specialist in the world to attain Canadian and American board certifications in both Periodontics and Prosthodontics. He has over a decade of experience in periodontics and prosthodontics. Currently, Dr. Birdi has his own practice in Canada, BC Perio Dental Health and Implant Centre, with three locations in British Columbia, Vancouver and Coquitlam. Dr. Birdi studied at the University of Saskatchewan, where he earned his DMD in 2006. He remains an active member of the American Board of Periodontology and the Royal College of Dentists of Canada. His success is attributed to his dedication to the field, learning, and moving forward. View Dr. Birdi’s Profile here: https://www.findatopdoc.com/doctor/Bobby-Birdi-Dentist-Vancouver-British-Columbia-V5Z-1J5 and look for his publication in The Leading Physicians of the World.. FindaTopDoc.com is a hub for all things medicine, featuring detailed descriptions of medical professionals across all areas of expertise, and information on thousands of healthcare topics. Each month, millions of patients use FindaTopDoc to find a doctor nearby and instantly book an appointment online or create a review. Findatopdoc.com features each doctor’s full professional biography highlighting their achievements, experience, patient reviews and areas of expertise. A leading provider of valuable health information that helps empower patient and doctor alike, FindaTopDoc enables readers to live a happier and healthier life. For more information about FindaTopDoc, visit http://www.findatopdoc.com.


News Article | January 30, 2017
Site: www.techtimes.com

Scientists have long been seeking answer to the mystery of how planet Earth got its water. Among the popular theories is that collision with ice-rich comets brought water to our planet. Many space missions attempt to find answer to the origins of water on Earth but findings of a new study suggest that water may have been born within Earth itself. The research, published in the journal Earth and Planetary Science Letters suggests that chemical reactions that occur in the mantle of the Earth may be responsible for the waters on our planet's surface. Study researcher John Tse, from the University of Saskatchewan in Canada, and colleagues used computer simulations to study the reactions between liquid hydrogen and quartz, the most common form of silicon dioxide, in the upper mantle of Earth. They found that these reactions could form water and the water could be under such pressure it can trigger tremors deep below the surface. By testing the reaction under different temperatures and pressures comparable to those of the upper mantle 40 to 400 kilometers below the Earth's surface, Tse and colleagues found that at pressures 20,000 times higher than atmospheric pressure and at temperatures of about 1400 °C, reaction between silicon dioxide and liquid hydrogen forms silicon hydride and liquid water. The simulations likewise revealed that water forms within the quartz but this can't escape, which causes pressure to build up. By analyzing the density and structure of the trapped water, researchers found that it is highly pressurized. "The hydrogen fluid diffuses through the quartz layer, but ends up forming water not at the surface, but in the bulk of the mineral," Tse said. Results of the simulation revealed the pressure could reach as much as 200,000 atmospheres and the water being at high pressure could potentially result in induced earthquakes as the water that escapes from the crystals may trigger tremors. British Geological Survey executive director John Ludden said that when overpressured water forms and is released, it could be a significant trigger for ultra-deep earthquakes deep down below the Earth's surface. Researchers, however, said that additional study is needed to quantify the amount of water that needs to be released to trigger deep earthquakes Besides showing how pressurized waters can cause deep quakes, the results of the simulation also hint how Earth may have gotten its water. Earlier studies have found evidence of several ocean's worth of waters in rocks as far down as 1,000 kilometers which question theories that water originated from space. The new research suggests the possibility that much of the Earth's water may have come from within the planet itself. Tse said that water that was formed in the mantle has several ways of reaching the surface. One is when it is carried by magma during volcanic activities. © 2017 Tech Times, All rights reserved. Do not reproduce without permission.


News Article | December 13, 2016
Site: www.eurekalert.org

An exciting X-ray imaging technology has been successfully developed to the point where it is now ready for translation into all kinds of beneficial applications, including potentially life-saving uses in security and healthcare. Funded by the Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC), a major five-year project led by UCL (University College London) has achieved this breakthrough. The work also involved dozens of industrial, academic and research partners in the UK and worldwide. Compared with conventional X-rays, the technology can, for example, identify tumours in living tissue earlier and spot smaller cracks and defects in materials. This is because it excels at determining different shapes and different types of matter - a capability that conventional X-rays could only match by using prohibitively high doses of radiation. The technique at the heart of the advance is called phase-contrast X-ray imaging. Instead of measuring the extent to which tissue or materials absorb radiation - as in conventional X-ray imaging - it measures the physical effect that passing through different types of tissue or material has on the speed of the X-ray itself. Professor Alessandro Olivo, who led the project team, says: "The technique has been around for decades but it's been limited to large-scale synchrotron facilities such as Oxfordshire's Diamond Light Source. We've now advanced this embryonic technology to make it viable for day-to-day use in medicine, security applications, industrial production lines, materials science, non-destructive testing, the archaeology and heritage sector, and a whole range of other fields." This vast potential is already beginning to be explored. For example: Professor Olivo says: "This has the potential to be incredibly versatile, game-changing technology. We're currently negotiating with a number of companies to explore how it could be put to practical use. There's really no limit to the benefits this technique could deliver." For media enquiries contact: Alessandro Olivo, Professor of Applied Physics, UCL, tel: 0207 679 2444, e-mail: a.olivo@ucl.ac.uk; or the EPSRC Press Office, tel: 01793 444 404, e-mail: pressoffice@epsrc.ac.uk The 5-year project Transforming the Use of X-rays in Science and Society ran from November 2011 to October 2016 and received £1.05 million in EPSRC funding under the Challenging Engineering programme. The project created 28 new collaborations and produced around 75 journal papers. Partners and collaborators included: Academia: Imperial College London; Queen Mary University of London; University of Oxford; Ludwig-Maximillian University, Munich; University of Washington in St Louis, Missouri; Kyoto University; Heriot-Watt University; University of Bristol; University of Dundee; University of Glasgow; University of Strathclyde; University of Saskatchewan; University of Trieste; University of Pisa. Research Institutes/Facilities: Diamond Light Source; ELETTRA Sincrotrone Trieste ScpA; European Synchrotron Radiation Facility; Research Complex at Harwell; CNR Institute of Crystallography - Italy; EMPA Switzerland; Barts Health NHS Trust; INFN Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Pisa and Trieste Sections. Within UCL: Department of Mechanical Engineering; Department of Chemical Engineering; Department of Physics and Astronomy; London Centre for Nanotechnology (a joint UCL-Imperial College establishment); Institute of Child Health; Great Ormond Street Hospital. The Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC): As the main funding agency for engineering and physical sciences research, our vision is for the UK to be the best place in the world to Research, Discover and Innovate. By investing £800 million a year in research and postgraduate training, we are building the knowledge and skills base needed to address the scientific and technological challenges facing the nation. Our portfolio covers a vast range of fields from healthcare technologies to structural engineering, manufacturing to mathematics, advanced materials to chemistry. The research we fund has impact across all sectors. It provides a platform for future economic development in the UK and improvements for everyone's health, lifestyle and culture. We work collectively with our partners and other Research Councils on issues of common concern via Research Councils UK. http://www. UCL (University College London): UCL was founded in 1826. We were the first English university established after Oxford and Cambridge, the first to open up university education to those previously excluded from it, and the first to provide systematic teaching of law, architecture and medicine. We are among the world's top universities, as reflected by performance in a range of international rankings and tables. UCL currently has over 38,000 students from 150 countries and over 12,000 staff. Our annual income is more than £1 billion. Wellcome Trust: Wellcome exists to improve health for everyone by helping great ideas to thrive. We're a global charitable foundation, both politically and financially independent. We support scientists and researchers, take on big problems, fuel imaginations and spark debate.


The International Nurses Association is pleased to welcome A. Alison Ross, DNP, to their prestigious organization with her upcoming publication in the Worldwide Leaders in Healthcare. Dr. A. Alison Ross is a Primary Care Nurse Practitioner currently serving patients at the Slave Lake Family Care Clinic in Slave Lake, Alberta, Canada. Dr. Ross holds over 14 years of experience and an extensive expertise in all facets of nursing, especially primary care and northern (remote) nursing. Dr. A. Alison Ross graduated with her Bachelor of Science Degree in Nursing from the University of Saskatchewan in Saskatoon, Saskatchewan in 2002. She then went on to obtain her Master of Science Degree in Nursing in 2012 at Athabasca University in Alberta. An advocate for continuing education, Dr. Ross recently gained her Doctor of Nursing Practice Degree in 2016 from Duke University, and also holds Family/All Ages Nurse Practitioner registration. Dr. Ross maintains a professional membership with the Canadian Nurses Association and the College and Association of Registered Nurses of Alberta, and additionally is a Sigma Theta Tau inductee. She says that her love of nursing is the driving force behind her success, and she feels privileged to collaborate with patients to achieve their desired health. When she is not assisting patients, Dr. Ross enjoys cooking, knitting and crochet as well as spending quality time with her family and friends. Learn more about A. Alison Ross here: http://inanurse.org/network/index.php?do=/4133702/info/ and read her upcoming publication in Worldwide Leaders in Healthcare.


News Article | January 12, 2016
Site: www.biosciencetechnology.com

Using bioinformatics tools and advanced software, a group of scientists have been able to sequence about 90 percent of the complex genome of bread wheat. The international consortium expects the results will help zero in on the breeding process for wheat, which is the most widely grown cereal worldwide. Co-led by the University of Saskatchewan in Canada, the International Wheat Genome Sequencing Consortium (IWGSC), expects to complete the entire wheat genome within two years.  The wheat genome has 17 billion base pairs and is five times bigger than the human genome. “This new wheat genome sequence is an important contribution to understanding the genetic blueprint of one of the world’s most important crops,” Curtis Pozniak, a plant scientists with the U of S Crop Development Centre in the College of Agriculture and Bioresources, said in a press release. “It will provide wheat researchers with an exciting new resource to identify the most influential genes for wheat adaptation, stress response, pest resistance and improved yield.” Researchers will present their findings on the Chinese Spring variety of bread wheat at the Plant and Animal genome Conference in San Diego in January. Said Pozniak, “The computational tools developed by NRGene, which use Illumina’s sequence data, combined with the sequencing expertise of IWGSC has generated a version of the wheat genome sequence that is better ordered than anything we have seen to date.  We are starting to get a better idea of the complex puzzle that is the wheat genome.” According to the consortium, wheat productivity needs to increase by 1.6 percent each year to meet the demands of the projected population of 9.6 billion by 2050.


WEYBURN, SASKATCHEWAN--(Marketwired - Nov. 4, 2016) - Having access to clean, reliable drinking water is critical to the health and prosperity of Canadian communities and for attracting economic opportunities for the middle class and those trying to join it. By ensuring that water and wastewater systems are modern, efficient and meet the capacity needs of our communities, we are safeguarding the well-being of residents, protecting our waterways and preserving our ecosystems. In Saskatchewan, new federal and provincial funding will be going toward a project in the City of Weyburn that includes the construction of a new reservoir, upgrades to existing water infrastructure, and improved treatment procedures to the City's drinking water. New ultraviolet disinfection technology will be used to add another layer to the multi-barrier protection system that is already in place. In addition to providing safe and reliable potable water to residents, this project will also improve firefighting capabilities in the area. Also, the population of Weyburn is expected to nearly double within 30 years, and these improvements will increase the City's capacity to provide potable water for both residents and new commercial and industrial development. The governments of Canada and Saskatchewan are each contributing up to $5,300,666 for this project through the Provincial-Territorial Infrastructure Component - National and Regional Projects. The City of Weyburn will be responsible for all remaining costs of the project, which has a total eligible cost of $15,902,000. "The Government of Canada is committed to investing in modern infrastructure that meets the needs of our communities, supports the middle class, and ensures that Canada will remain the best place in the world to live, work and raise a family. This important investment in Weyburn will ensure that thousands of residents will have access to safe and reliable drinking water, which is crucial to keeping our communities healthy and livable now and into the future." The Honourable Ralph Goodale, Minister of Public Safety and Emergency Preparedness, On behalf of the Honourable Amarjeet Sohi, Minister of Infrastructure and Communities "Our government is pleased to partner with the federal government and the City of Weyburn on this important water project. Our investment of over $5.3 million is another example of the province's commitment to keep Saskatchewan strong and make life better for our citizens." The Honourable Dustin Duncan, Minister of Energy and Resources and MLA for Weyburn-Big Muddy, On behalf of the Honourable Donna Harpauer, Minister of Government Relations "The City of Weyburn would like to thank the federal and provincial governments for their support with this project; over the last few years, a lot of work has gone into bringing this project forward by all parties involved including the City of Weyburn's council and staff. We are well aware of the importance of effective water management on all levels. This investment in our infrastructure will allow us to deliver better and more stable service to Weyburn taxpayers and provide us with important capacity in our water system, setting the stage for our city's future growth."


Kha H.H.,University of Technology, Sydney | Tuan H.D.,University of Technology, Sydney | Nguyen H.H.,University of Saskatchewan
IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications | Year: 2012

Power allocations in an interference-limited wireless network for global maximization of the weighted sum throughput or global optimization of the minimum weighted rate among network links are not only important but also very hard optimization problems due to their nonconvexity nature. Recently developed methods are either unable to locate the global optimal solutions or prohibitively complex for practical applications. This paper exploits the d.c. (difference of two convex functions/sets) structure of either the objective function or constraints of these global optimization problems to develop efficient iterative algorithms with very low complexity. Numerical results demonstrate that the developed algorithms are able to locate the global optimal solutions by only a few iterations and they are superior to the previously-proposed methods in both performance and computation complexity. © 2012 IEEE.


Phan A.H.,University of New South Wales | Tuan H.D.,University of Technology, Sydney | Kha H.H.,University of Technology, Sydney | Nguyen H.H.,University of Saskatchewan
IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications | Year: 2012

Optimization problems of beamforming in multi-user amplify-and-forward (AF) wireless relay networks are indefinite (nonconvex) quadratic programs, which require effective computational solutions. Solutions to these problems have often been obtained by relaxing the original problems to semi-definite programs (SDPs) of convex optimization. Most existing works have claimed that these relaxed SDPs actually provide the optimal beamforming solutions. This paper, however, shows that this is not the case in many practical scenarios where SDPs fail to provide even a feasible beamforming solution. To fill this gap, we develop in this paper a nonsmooth optimization algorithm, which provides the optimal solution at low computational complexity. © 2012 IEEE.


Jacobson K.,University of Saskatchewan | Maheria K.C.,Sardar Vallabhbhai National Institute of Technology, Surat | Kumar Dalai A.,University of Saskatchewan
Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews | Year: 2013

Fuels from biomass (biofuels) are used to mitigate the greenhouse gases produced through the utilization of fossil fuels. Non-edible or waste biomass can be pyrolyzed to produce bio-oil. The oil, an unstable and low energy product, can be further upgraded through hydrodeoxygenation to produce gas and/or diesel range hydrocarbons and value added chemicals. The objective of this review is to explore upgrading techniques that are currently being researched and utilized. This review reveals several aspects that in turn will serve as an aid for bio oil valorization, such as, evaluating characterization techniques involved in understanding salient features of bio-oil, insight of bio-oil pretreatment methods for water removal to increase heating values and decrease risk of catalyst poisoning in subsequent hydroprocessing, studies regarding model compound upgrading, reaction mechanism and finally, provides brief review of common catalysts for hydrotreatment of bio-oil in order to yield value added chemicals and fuels. Crown Copyright © 2013 Published by Elsevier Ltd .All rights reserved.


Surisetty V.R.,University of Saskatchewan | Dalai A.K.,University of Saskatchewan | Kozinski J.,York University
Applied Catalysis A: General | Year: 2011

Alkali-modified trimetallic Co-Rh-Mo sulfided catalysts supported on commercial activated carbons with different textural characteristics were tested for the synthesis of higher alcohols from synthesis gas and compared with a similar catalyst supported on multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs). Addition of metals (Co, Rh, and Mo) to the microporous and mesoporous activated carbons, and the MWCNT supports increased the mean pore diameter and % mesoporosity of the catalysts. The N2 adsorption-desorption isotherms of the MWCNTs support and the MWCNT-supported alkali-modified trimetallic C-Rh-Mo catalyst revealed that the mesoporous structural integrity of the catalyst was unchanged from the support after impregnation of the catalyst species. The formation of large particles took place due to the agglomeration of metal species on the microporous activated carbon supports. The metal dispersion of the sulfided catalysts on different supports is: MWCNTs < AC-CGP Super < AC-Fluid Coke < AC-RX3 Extra < AC-Darco. The total alcohols STY and selectivity of 0.296 g/(g of cat./h) and 35.6%, respectively were found to be on the MWCNTs-supported alkali-modified trimetallic C-Rh-Mo catalyst compared to similar catalysts supported on activated carbon. The % CO conversion as well as alcohols space time yield are not related to the BET surface area and pore volume of the support, whereas, textural properties of the support such as pore size and mesoporosity has direct influence on the synthesis of mixed alcohols from synthesis gas. Little or no sintering of metal species was observed on the spent catalyst supported on MWCNTs, whereas, the agglomeration of catalytic species is high on the microporous activated carbon support compared to that of the mesoporous activated carbon supported catalysts. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Surisetty V.R.,University of Saskatchewan | Dalai A.K.,University of Saskatchewan | Kozinski J.,York University
Applied Catalysis A: General | Year: 2011

Due to the phase out of lead in all gasoline grades and the adverse health and environmental effects of MTBE, the synthesis of higher alcohols, particularly ethanol, from synthesis gas has drawn considerable interest. Low molecular weight alcohols such as ethanol have replaced other additives as octane boosters in automotive fuels. Adding alcohols to petroleum products allows the fuel to combust more completely due to the presence of oxygen, which increases the combustion efficiency and reduces air pollution. The presence of alcohols in fuel causes corrosion to metallic fuel system components. In order to make the best use of alcohols as alternative fuels; one can redesign the engine or the vehicle can be redesign or one can blend in one or more additives to the ethanol or methanol to improve its characteristics. Catalytic conversion of synthesis gas to alcohols is advantageous, as this uses various renewable and non-renewable carbon resources. Different catalytic systems can be used for synthesizing higher alcohols from synthesis gas. Depending on the process conditions and the catalyst used, the reaction mechanism varies and the products include primary and secondary alcohols of both normal and branched carbon chains. The present paper includes an overview of the processes and catalysts used depending on the production of specific alcohols, as well as, the reaction mechanisms currently accepted. Transition metal-promoted alkali-modified molybdenum sulphide catalysts are considered to be more attractive to improve CO hydrogenation and for the production of linear alcohols. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Leduc A.O.H.C.,Federal University of Bahia | Munday P.L.,James Cook University | Brown G.E.,Concordia University at Montréal | Ferrari M.C.O.,University of Saskatchewan
Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences | Year: 2013

For many aquatic organisms, olfactory-mediated behaviour is essential to the maintenance of numerous fitness-enhancing activities, including foraging, reproduction and predator avoidance. Studies in both freshwater and marine ecosystems have demonstrated significant impacts of anthropogenic acidification on olfactory abilities of fish and macroinvertebrates, leading to impaired behavioural responses, with potentially far-reaching consequences to population dynamics and community structure. Whereas the ecological impacts of impaired olfactory-mediated behaviour may be similar between freshwater and marine ecosystems, the underlying mechanisms are quite distinct. In acidified freshwater, molecular change to chemical cues along with reduced olfaction sensitivity appear to be the primary causes of olfactory- mediated behavioural impairment. By contrast, experiments simulating future ocean acidification suggest that interference of high CO2 with brain neurotransmitter function is the primary cause for olfactory-mediated behavioural impairment in fish. Different physico-chemical characteristics between marine and freshwater systems are probably responsible for these distinct mechanisms of impairment, which, under globally rising CO2 levels, may lead to strikingly different consequences to olfaction. While fluctuations in pH may occur in both freshwater and marine ecosystems, marine habitat will remain alkaline despite future ocean acidification caused by globally rising CO2 levels. In this synthesis, we argue that ecosystem-specific mechanisms affecting olfaction need to be considered for effective management and conservation practices. © 2013 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.


Kha H.H.,University of Technology, Sydney | Tuan H.D.,University of Technology, Sydney | Nguyen H.H.,University of Saskatchewan | Pham T.T.,University of Saskatchewan
IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing | Year: 2013

This paper addresses the optimal cooperative beamforming design for multi-user multi-relay wireless networks in which the single-carrier frequency division multiple access (SC-FDMA) technique is employed at the terminals. The problem of interest is to find the beamforming weights across relays to maximize the minimum signal-to-interference-plus-noise ratio (SINR) among source users subject to individual power constraints at each relay. Such a beamforming design is shown to be a hard nonconvex optimization problem and therefore it is mathematically challenging to find the optimal solution. By exploring its partial convex structures, we recast the design problem as minimization of a d.c. (difference of two convex) objective function subject to convex constraints and develop an effective iterative algorithm of low complexity to solve it. Simulation results show that our optimal cooperative beamforming scheme realizes the inherent diversity order of the relay network and it performs significantly better than the equal-power beamforming weights. © 1991-2012 IEEE.


Tomlinson D.,Hospital for Sick Children | Von Baeyer C.L.,University of Saskatchewan | Stinson J.N.,Hospital for Sick Children | Stinson J.N.,University of Toronto | Sung L.,Hospital for Sick Children
Pediatrics | Year: 2010

CONTEXT: Numerous faces scales have been developed for the measurement of pain intensity in children. It remains unclear whether any one of the faces scales is better for a particular purpose with regard to validity, reliability, feasibility, and preference. OBJECTIVES: To summarize and systematically review faces pain scales most commonly used to obtain self-report of pain intensity in children for evaluation of reliability and validity and to compare the scales for preference and utility. METHODS: Five major electronic databases were systematically searched for studies that used a faces scale for the self-report measurement of pain intensity in children. Fourteen faces pain scales were identified, of which 4 have undergone extensive psychometric testing: Faces Pain Scale (FPS) (scored 0-6); Faces Pain Scale-Revised (FPS-R) (0 -10); Oucher pain scale (0 -10); and Wong-Baker Faces Pain Rating Scale (WBFPRS) (0-10). These 4 scales were included in the review. Studies were classified by using psychometric criteria, including construct validity, reliability, and responsiveness, that were established a priori. RESULTS: From a total of 276 articles retrieved, 182 were screened for psychometric evaluation, and 127 were included. All 4 faces pain scales were found to be adequately supported by psychometric data. When given a choice between faces scales, children preferred the WBFPRS. Confounding of pain intensity with affect caused by use of smiling and crying anchor faces is a disadvantage of the WBFPRS. CONCLUSIONS: For clinical use, we found no grounds to switch from 1 faces scale to another when 1 of the scales is in use. For research use, the FPS-R has been recommended on the basis of utility and psychometric features. Data are sparse for children below the age of 5 years, and future research should focus on simplified measures, instructions, and anchors for these younger children. Copyright © 2010 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.


Munoz-Villers L.E.,National Autonomous University of Mexico | McDonnell J.J.,University of Saskatchewan | McDonnell J.J.,University of Aberdeen
Hydrology and Earth System Sciences | Year: 2013

While tropical montane cloud forests (TMCF) provide critical hydrological services to downstream regions throughout much of the humid tropics, catchment hydrology and impacts associated with forest conversion in these ecosystems remain poorly understood. Here, we compare the annual, seasonal and event-scale streamflow patterns and runoff generation processes of three neighbouring headwater catchments in central Veracruz (eastern Mexico) with similar pedological and geological characteristics, but different land cover: old-growth TMCF, 20 yr-old naturally regenerating TMCF and a heavily grazed pasture. We used a 2 yr record of high resolution rainfall and stream flow data (2008-2010) in combination with stable isotope and chemical tracer data collected for a series of storms during a 6-week period of increasing antecedent wetness (wetting-up cycle). Our results showed that annual and seasonal streamflow patterns in the mature and secondary forest were similar. In contrast, the pasture showed a 10% higher mean annual streamflow, most likely because of a lower rainfall interception. During the wetting-up cycle, storm runoff ratios increased at all three catchments (from 11 to 54% for the mature forest, 7 to 52% for the secondary forest and 3 to 59% for the pasture). With the increasing antecedent wetness, hydrograph separation analysis showed progressive increases of pre-event water contributions to total stormflow (from 35 to 99% in the mature forest, 26 to 92% in the secondary forest and 64 to 97% in the pasture). At all three sites, rainfall-runoff responses were dominated by subsurface flow generation processes for the majority of storms. However, for the largest and most intense storm (typically occurring once every 2 yr), sampled under wet antecedent conditions, the event water contribution in the pasture (34% on average) was much higher than in the forests (5% on average), indicating that rainfall infiltration capacity of the pasture was exceeded. This result suggests that despite the high permeability of the volcanic soils and underlying substrate in this TMCF environment, the conversion of forest to pasture may lead to important changes in runoff generation processes during large and high intensity storms. On the other hand, our results also showed that 20 yr of natural regeneration may be enough to largely restore the original hydrological conditions of this TMCF. © Author(s) 2013. CC Attribution 3.0 License.


Tupper S.M.,University of Saskatchewan | Rosenberg A.M.,Royal University | Pahwa P.,University of Saskatchewan | Stinson J.N.,Hospital for Sick Children
Arthritis Care and Research | Year: 2013

Objective To describe variability of pain intensity experienced by youths with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) and examine factors related to within-day patterns of pain and the relationship between magnitude of pain variability and quality of life. Methods Pain intensity was self-reported on a visual analog scale (VAS; range 0-100) by 112 youths with JIA ages 8-18 years using electronic diaries 3 times per day for 7 days. Average absolute change in pain (AAC) was computed as a measure of the magnitude of pain variability for each participant. Logistic regression was used to examine the relationship between demographic and disease characteristics and the probability of having high pain variability (AAC ≥10 VAS units). Linear regression was used to examine the relationship between quality of life (assessed by the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory) and AAC. The generalized estimating equations approach was used to examine the relationship between the time of day and pain intensity. Results The mean ± SD AAC was 15.6 ± 10.5. The majority of youths (65%) had high AAC (≥10 VAS units). Disease severity predicted high pain variability (β = 0.02, P = 0.044). Higher AAC predicted lower quality of life (adjusted R2 = 0.194, β = -0.59, P = 0.003). Within-day patterns of pain intensity varied by JIA subtype and sex. Conclusion This study characterized the pain intensity variability experienced by youths with JIA. Pain variability throughout the day was common, varied by JIA subtype and sex, and was related to quality of life. These findings have implications for future pain research, patient education, and development of clinical interventions for this population. Copyright © 2013 by the American College of Rheumatology.


Da Silva A.M.L.,Federal University of Itajubá | Sales W.S.,Federal University of Säo João del Rei | Da Fonseca Manso L.A.,Federal University of Säo João del Rei | Billinton R.,University of Saskatchewan
IEEE Transactions on Power Systems | Year: 2010

This paper proposes a new methodology based on Monte Carlo chronological simulation to evaluate the operating reserve requirements of generating systems with large amounts of renewable energy sources. The main idea is to build a new probabilistic approach to assess several performance indices bearing in mind the long-term planning. Besides the conventional indices used in generating capacity reliability assessment and also those obtained from the well-being framework, a new set of indices are proposed to measure the availability of different types of operating reserve. The relationship between the proposed approach and the traditional PJM method is also discussed. Renewable in this study mainly comprises wind power sources and for that the IEEE RTS-96 is adapted to illustrate the proposed methodology. Finally, different planning criteria are discussed to deal with the design of generation system capacity, static and operational, in the long-term planning. © 2009 IEEE.


Truitt L.,University of Regina | Freywald T.,University of Regina | DeCoteau J.,University of Saskatchewan | Sharfe N.,Hospital for Sick Children | Freywald A.,University of Regina
Cancer Research | Year: 2010

Cancer invasiveness plays a major role in the mortality of patients with solid tumors, and deregulated cell adhesion and migration are suspected to drive invasive behavior. Since Eph receptor tyrosine kinases control both cell attachment and migration, they may act to define the level of cancer invasiveness. EphB6 is an unusual Eph receptor, lacking catalytic capacity due to alterations in its kinase domain. Interestingly, increased metastatic activity is associated with reduced EphB6 receptor expression in several tumor types, including breast cancer. This emphasizes the potential of EphB6 to act as a suppressor of cancer aggressiveness; however, the mechanism of its action is not well understood. We show that restoration of EphB6 expression in invasive breast cancer cells supports actin-dependent spreading and attachment and blocks invasiveness. EphB6 stimulation induces its tyrosine phosphorylation, which is crucial for its function and is mediated by the EphB4 receptor. This is accompanied by EphB6-c-Cbl interaction and phosphorylation of c-Cbl partner, the Abl kinase. Cbl silencing suppresses Abl phosphorylation, cell adhesion, and morphologic changes and blocks the ability of EphB6 to inhibit invasiveness, confirming its importance for EphB6 activity. Despite its crucial role in EphB6 responses, EphB4 also acts in an EphB6-independent manner to enhance invasive activity, suggesting that cancer invasiveness may be defined by the balance in the EphB6-EphB4 system. Overall, our observations suggest a new role for EphB6 in suppressing cancer invasiveness through c-Cbl-dependent signaling, morphologic changes, and cell attachment and indicate that EphB6 may represent a useful prognostic marker and a promising target for therapeutic approaches. ©2010 AACR.


Varshney R.,University of Saskatchewan | Budoff M.J.,University of California at Los Angeles
Journal of Nutrition | Year: 2016

Background: Thousands of studies have been published based on animal and human studies evaluating garlic's effects and safety. Objective: We reviewed the available literature investigating the effects of garlic supplements on hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, C-reactive protein (CRP), pulse wave velocity (PWV), and coronary artery calcium (CAC), as well as available data on side effects. Methods: We searched PubMed for all human studies using medical subject heading words through 30 May 2013 and assessed relevant review articles and original studies. Only double-blind, randomized, controlled trials and meta-analyses of double-blind, randomized, controlled trials were included. The review of articles and data extraction were performed by 2 independent authors, with any disagreements resolved by consensus. Results: Garlic supplementation reduced blood pressure by 7-16 mm Hg (systolic) and 5-9 mm Hg (diastolic) (4 metaanalyses and 2 original studies). It reduced total cholesterol by 7.4-29.8 mg/dL (8 meta-analyses). The most consistent benefits were shown in studies that used aged garlic extract (AGE). A few small studies that used AGE also showed favorable effects on CAC, CRP, and PWV. Although garlic is generally safe, rare adverse reactions have been documented with limited causality established. Conclusion: We conclude that garlic supplementation has the potential for cardiovascular protection based on risk factor reduction (hypertension and total cholesterol) and surrogate markers (CRP, PWV, and CAC) of atherosclerosis. Larger studies are warranted to evaluate these effects further. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.


Hajmohammadi M.R.,Amirkabir University of Technology | Alizadeh Abianeh V.,Arak University | Moezzinajafabadi M.,Sharif University of Technology | Daneshi M.,University of Saskatchewan
Applied Thermal Engineering | Year: 2013

In engineering practice, the space occupied by high conductivity materials together with the cost are the two elements of major concern. Therefore, seeking for more efficient designs of high conductivity pathways ('inserts'), embedded into a heat generating body constitutes a formidable challenge. The main idea of this paper is to introduce new patterns for the highly conductive pathways, called 'fork-shaped' configurations. Essentially, two types of fork-shaped pathways, 'F1' and 'F2' are introduced. Numerical results demonstrate that, these two configurations of highly conductive pathways, remarkably surpass the latest configurations reported in the literature, with the same amount of high conductivity materials. It is further confirmed that the 'peak' temperature can be reduced by 41% and 46% by using fork-shaped pathways of 'F1' type, and 'F2' type, respectively, when compared with the base X-shaped inserts. To highlight the discovery found in this paper, it is proved that if only about one third of the high conductivity material used for an X-shaped insert are used for the fork-shaped insert, the heat generating body operates at the same level of peak temperature associated with the new configurations. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Yao D.,University of Saskatchewan | Yao D.,CAS Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences | Cherney M.,University of Saskatchewan | Cygler M.,University of Saskatchewan | Cygler M.,McGill University
Acta Crystallographica Section D: Biological Crystallography | Year: 2014

Legionella pneumophila secretes over 300 effectors during the invasion of human cells. The functions of only a small number of them have been identified. LegC3 is one of the identified effectors, which is believed to act by inhibiting vacuolar fusion. It contains two predicted transmembrane helices that divide the protein into a larger N-terminal domain and a smaller C-terminal domain. The function of LegC3 has been shown to be associated primarily with the N-terminal domain, which contains coiled-coil sequence motifs. The structure of the N-terminal domain has been determined and it is shown that it is highly α-helical and contains a helical bundle followed by a long antiparallel coiled-coil. No similar protein fold has been observed in the PDB. A long loop at the tip of the coiled-coil distal from the membrane is disordered and may be important for interaction with an as yet unidentified protein. © 2014 International Union of Crystallography.


Andres J.A.,University of Saskatchewan | Larson E.L.,Cornell University | Bogdanowicz S.M.,Cornell University | Harrison R.G.,Cornell University
Genetics | Year: 2013

One of the central questions in evolutionary genetics is how much of the genome is involved in the early stages of divergence between populations, causing them to be reproductively isolated. In this article, we investigate genomic differentiation in a pair of closely related field crickets (Gryllus firmus and G. pennsylvanicus). These two species are the result of allopatric divergence and now interact along an extensive hybrid zone in eastern North America. Genes encoding seminal fluid proteins (SFPs) are often divergent between species, and it has been hypothesized that these proteins may play a key role in the origin and maintenance of reproductive isolation between diverging lineages. Hence, we chose to scan the accessory gland transcriptome to enable direct comparisons of differentiation for genes known to encode SFPs with differentiation in a much larger set of genes expressed in the same tissue. We have characterized differences in allele frequency between two populations for.6000 SNPs and.26,000 contigs. About 10% of all SNPs showed nearly fixed differences between the two species. Genes encoding SFPs did not have significantly elevated numbers of fixed SNPs per contig, nor did they seem to show larger differences than expected in their average allele frequencies. The distribution of allele frequency differences across the transcriptome is distinctly bimodal, but the relatively high proportion of fixed SNPs does not necessarily imply "ancient" divergence between these two lineages. Further studies of linkage disequilibrium and introgression across the hybrid zone are needed to direct our attention to those genome regions that are important for reproductive isolation. © 2013 by the Genetics Society of America.


Evaristo J.,University of Saskatchewan | Jasechko S.,University of Calgary | McDonnell J.J.,University of Saskatchewan | McDonnell J.J.,University of Aberdeen | McDonnell J.J.,Oregon State University
Nature | Year: 2015

Current land surface models assume that groundwater, streamflow and plant transpiration are all sourced and mediated by the same well mixed water reservoir - the soil. However, recent work in Oregon and Mexico has shown evidence of ecohydrological separation, whereby different subsurface compartmentalized pools of water supply either plant transpiration fluxes or the combined fluxes of groundwater and streamflow. These findings have not yet been widely tested. Here we use hydrogen and oxygen isotopic data (2H/1H (δ2H) and 18O/16O (δ18O)) from 47 globally distributed sites to show that ecohydrological separation is widespread across different biomes. Precipitation, stream water and groundwater from each site plot approximately along the δ2H/δ18O slope of local precipitation inputs. But soil and plant xylem waters extracted from the 47 sites all plot below the local stream water and groundwater on the meteoric water line, suggesting that plants use soil water that does not itself contribute to groundwater recharge or streamflow. Our results further show that, at 80% of the sites, the precipitation that supplies groundwater recharge and streamflow is different from the water that supplies parts of soil water recharge and plant transpiration. The ubiquity of subsurface water compartmentalization found here, and the segregation of storm types relative to hydrological and ecological fluxes, may be used to improve numerical simulations of runoff generation, stream water transit time and evaporation-transpiration partitioning. Future land surface model parameterizations should be closely examined for how vegetation, groundwater recharge and streamflow are assumed to be coupled. © 2015 Macmillan Publishers Limited.


Klaus J.,Center De Recherche Public Gabriel Lippmann | Klaus J.,University of Aberdeen | McDonnell J.J.,Center De Recherche Public Gabriel Lippmann | McDonnell J.J.,University of Saskatchewan
Journal of Hydrology | Year: 2013

The separation of storm hydrographs using stable isotope tracers dates back to the late 1960s. These studies ushered in a paradigm shift in how hydrologists conceptualized runoff generation as most showed a large preponderance of pre-event water in the storm hydrograph, even at peak flow. This forced a fundamental re-examination of the processes of water delivery to streams during rainfall and snowmelt events. Whilst the simplicity of the two-component hydrograph separation was a powerful tool for showing the importance of stored water effusion, the assumptions implicit in the two-component model have now become limiting for further advancement of the approach. Here we review the use of stable isotopes for hydrograph separation with particular reference to studies completed since the last comprehensive review of the subject in 1994. We review critically the contributions to new field knowledge gained by isotope hydrograph separation applications. We focus specifically on the current issues regarding the limitations of the two-component approach. We examine the role of soil water as a contributor to channel stormflow and the issues raised by differences in the soil water and groundwater signatures at the watershed scale. Finally, we offer ideas on how to overcome the limitations of the two-component approach and present a vision for future directions for isotope based hydrograph separation. These future directions are focused on high frequency analysis of rainfall-runoff structures and dual isotope analysis of catchment end-members including comparison of lysimeter-based soil water sampling of mobile soil water versus cryogenic and vapor-based analysis of tightly bound water. © 2013 .


News Article | October 17, 2015
Site: www.techtimes.com

Experts found that the population of moose is facing an alarming decline in North America. No clear reason has been pointed out yet but according to a wildlife expert, climate change, predators and diseases may be potential culprits. In a television documentary entitled Moose: A Year in the Life of a Twig Eater, wildlife biologist Seth Moore shares insights on how to solve the puzzle of the species' decline by going into the wild and monitoring the mother and its calf, during its first year. "The first year of life is the toughest for calves," said Moore. He further explained that the calves are vulnerable to health problems and are considered convenient preys for bears and wolves. Through his documentary, the events that transpired during this time will be more understood thus, providing insights on how to aid the animals. Aside from the survival abilities of the calves, diseases can also contribute to the moose population decline. As per Moore, approximately 40 percent and 20 percent of adult moose are succumbing to death due to brain worm parasite and disease-causing tick spread in Minnesota respectively. Another 20 percent of the adult population is dying because of other health concerns. Brain worm is spread by deer but it does not have an impact on it. Moose and deer have similar predators. However, the populations of deer increase with shorter winters and longer growing periods. Ticks rise in action with snow melts that appear sooner than expected. "Both winter ticks and brain worm benefit from warmer than average temperatures," said Moore. In Canada, particularly in Manitoba, Quebec, British Columbia and Ontario, moose populations have plummeted sharply. Moose killings by liver flukes and wolves have been observed in Jasper National Park in Alberta, Canada. Even vehicles on highways also contribute to the decline of the animal population. In southern Saskatchewan and Arctic Tundra, however, moose populations have increased, with the latter seeing moose appearances in the last 30 years. Ryan Brook, who was part of the documentary from the University of Saskatchewan said that although the decrease in moose population is not observed in all places, this news should still serve as a sign for action. Brooks said this could have an implication that is hard to understand as there are no moose population standards in the national and international levels. Despite this, Moore said that the biggest factor for the decline is climate change, which initiates action from the warm-loving brain worms and ticks.


News Article | November 1, 2016
Site: www.marketwired.com

NOT FOR DISTRIBUTION TO UNITED STATES NEWSWIRE SERVICES OR FOR DISSEMINATION IN THE UNITED STATES Champion Iron Limited (ASX:CIA)(TSX:CIA) ("Champion" or the "Company") is pleased to report that it has appointed the Honourable Wayne Wouters, PC, to its Board of Directors, effective immediately. Mr. Wouters had a highly accomplished career in public service, including a five year tenure as the Clerk of the Privy Council of Canada, from 2009 to 2014, where he served as Deputy Minister to the Prime Minister, Secretary to the Cabinet and Head of the Public Service. Prior to his tenure as Clerk, Mr. Wouters was Secretary of the Treasury Board of Canada, responsible for all government management and expenditure oversight which included more than 100 departments and agencies, with over 450,000 employees and an annual budget exceeding $250 billion. Mr. Wouters also served in deputy ministerial and other senior positions in the Canadian public service and was inducted as a member of the Privy Council in 2014. "We are delighted to welcome Wayne Wouters to our Board," said Michael O'Keeffe, Chairman and Chief Executive Officer of Champion. "Wayne's distinguished career and extensive experience in government relations, large-scale financial negotations and proven strategic leadership will be valuable to our team and we are excited at the opportunity to work with him." Mr. Wouters has also received numerous honorariums and awards, including Honorary Doctorate of Laws degrees from the University of Saskatchewan and University of Manitoba, the Queen's Diamond Jubilee Medal, the André Mailhot Award for lifetime achievement (United Way Canada's highest distinction) and the Commonwealth Association for Public Administration Management Gordon Draper Award for lifelong contributions to the advancement of public administration management. Mr. Wouters is a Strategic and Policy Advisor to McCarthy Tétrault LLP and serves as a Director and member of the Audit and Risk Management Committee of the Board of Directors of Blackberry Limited. Champion has been working on the development of iron ore deposits in the Labrador Trough for more than 10 years through acquisition of tenements, geological evaluation and development of a Feasibility study (Fire Lake North deposit). The management team has a vast experience from geotechnical work to green field development, brown field management including logistics development and financing of all stages in the mining industry. Prior to the acquisition of Bloom Lake, the main focus of Champion's activities, holding over 3 billion tons of high quality iron ore resources, were concentrated on the effort to achieve an economical long term access from mine to ship. The Government of Québec has granted CAD $20 million for the feasibility study of a new rail linking Fire Lake / Bloom Lake area to the port of Sept-Îles. This study is being managed by Champion. Following the acquisition of Bloom Lake the Company's main focus is to implement upgrades to the mine and processing infrastructure it now owns whilst advancing projects associated with improving access to global markets. This includes progressing rail and port infrastructure initiatives with government and other key industry and community stakeholders. For additional information on Champion Iron Limited, please visit our website at www.championiron.com. This news release includes certain information that may constitute "forward-looking information" under applicable Canadian securities legislation. Forward-looking information includes, but is not limited to, statements about planned operations at the Company's projects, including its joint venture projects. Forward-looking information is necessarily based upon a number of estimates and assumptions that, while considered reasonable, are subject to known and unknown risks, uncertainties, and other factors which may cause the actual results and future events to differ materially from those expressed or implied by such forward-looking information, including the risks identified in Champion's annual information forms, management discussion and analysis and other securities regulatory filings by Champion on SEDAR (including under the heading "Risk Factors" therein). There can be no assurance that such information will prove to be accurate, as actual results and future events could differ materially from those anticipated in such forward-looking information. Accordingly, readers should not place undue reliance on forward-looking information. All of Champion's forward-looking information contained in this press release is given as of the date hereof and is based upon the opinions and estimates of Champion's management and information available to management as at the date hereof. Champion disclaims any intention or obligation to update or revise any of its forward-looking information, whether as a result of new information, future events or otherwise, except as required by law. This press release has been prepared by Champion Iron Limited and no regulatory authority has approved or disapproved the information contained herein.


News Article | January 27, 2016
Site: motherboard.vice.com

Earlier in January, the UN announced that 14 million South Africans may go hungry thanks to reduced crop production—the result of a severe drought that’s drying the region out. The next time a drought hits, a team of researchers at the Central University of Technology in Free State, South Africa want local governments and peoples to be prepared. To that end, they’re working on software that mixes modern and ancient knowledge to predict the onset of droughts. “The research is born out of necessity,” Adeyinka Akanbi, one of the researchers leading the work along with Dr. Muthoni Masinde, told me over Skype. “Right here in sub saharan Africa, we’ve been dealing with drought for the last couple of years and it’s getting worse. We’re looking for much more innovative ways to forecast and predict complex environmental phenomena.” The first step in the researchers’ system is to collect the traditional wisdom of local indigenous peoples about environmental events and what they mean—the blooming of a particular tree, for example. These correlations make up what’s called an “ontology.” By feeding this information into what’s known as a complex event processing engine, the idea is to give weather sensor data some additional context. The Libelium sensors used by the team. Image: Adeyinka Akanbi “For example, with the blooming of the tree, when it is captured in the ontology, the inference engine will be able to predict that the rain is going to fall soon,” said Akanbi. The trick is to build software that combines this information with a continuous stream of sensor data on soil moisture levels, temperature, and more. “The program puts them together and refines and improves the accuracy of the prediction,” Akanbi added. For the current drought, Al Jazeera reports that no end is in sight, and the hot and dry conditions are expected to last for at least a few more months. So far, the team in South Africa has set up a wireless sensor network made up of Libelium sensor boards in Thaba ‘Nchu, a fertile region in Free State that is home to Tswana and Sotho peoples. The university has also already sent researchers out to 13 different villages in the region to make contact with three different tribes, in order to learn from them. The way Akanbi tells it, this has been the most challenging part of the project so far. “When you try to go to these remote places, if you’re not part of the tribe, they are not so welcoming,” Akanbi said. “We had to get someone to act as an intermediary for the researcher, and we were able to gather this knowledge through workshops, questionnaires, and one on one interviews.” The process took months, Akanbi said, and the researchers offered monetary incentives to the tribespeople in return, and cell phones so they could stay in contact. Akanbi also emphasized that the project is global in scope—the team hopes that when all is said and done, their software could be just as useful for governments (and individuals) in Canada, for example, as it is in South Africa. Canada is an ideal candidate for this approach to weather prediction because First Nations peoples in Canada have a long history of watching for signs in nature to predict the weather, from the migration of birds to the position of the moon. “There’s a lot of literature on scientists recognizing that indigenous people have a lot to tell scientists, especially in ecology,” said Glen Aikenhead, a professor at the University of Saskatchewan’s college of education specializing in cross-cultural science education. Compensating indigenous peoples in return for their knowledge, which Akanbi’s team attempted to do, would be one problem for any governments attempting to survey them, Aikenhead said. The bigger issue, however, would be ensuring that they also have a stake in how their knowledge is used to make policy decisions in a country that has a long, dark history of oppressing and exploiting its indigenous peoples. For example, the Canadian Environmental Assessment Act gives authorities the discretion to consider indigenous knowledge in any environment assessment, but that input doesn’t necessarily translate into action. “It turns out that these elders would share this knowledge in good faith, and the scientists would listen, but then when a decision was made, the question is who has the power to make that decision?” Aikenhead said. “It was always the scientists back in Ottawa, or back in the corporate boardroom, that said okay, we've learned this from the elders, but this is what we’re going to do.” Even so, Akanbi said, the knowledge is there, and so is the technology to make use of it—but more importantly, South Africa needs to get ready for the next drought, once it makes it through the current one. “These sensor networks, thanks to the Internet of Things, are readily available,” Akanbi said. “You can easily get rainfall and soil moisture, and temperature, even on the internet nowadays.” “The only thing that’s missing is the indigenous knowledge.”


Zhang W.J.,University of Saskatchewan | Lin Y.,Northeastern University
Enterprise Information Systems | Year: 2010

Resilience engineering is an emerging discipline. In this article, we discuss the concept of resilience and resilience engineering in light of its distinct identity. We propose the principle of design of resilient systems. Then, we outline how these design principles can be applied to the enterprise information system to make it more resilient. This leads to a proposed architecture of resilient enterprise information systems. © 2010 Taylor & Francis.


Wu Y.,University of Saskatchewan | Brosh Jr. R.M.,U.S. National Institute on Aging
Nucleic Acids Research | Year: 2012

Conserved Iron-Sulfur (Fe-S) clusters are found in a growing family of metalloproteins that are implicated in prokaryotic and eukaryotic DNA replication and repair. Among these are DNA helicase and helicase-nuclease enzymes that preserve chromosomal stability and are genetically linked to diseases characterized by DNA repair defects and/or a poor response to replication stress. Insight to the structural and functional importance of the conserved Fe-S domain in DNA helicases has been gleaned from structural studies of the purified proteins and characterization of Fe-S cluster site-directed mutants. In this review, we will provide a current perspective of what is known about the Fe-S cluster helicases, with an emphasis on how the conserved redox active domain may facilitate mechanistic aspects of helicase function. We will discuss testable models for how the conserved Fe-S cluster might operate in helicase and helicase-nuclease enzymes to conduct their specialized functions that help to preserve the integrity of the genome. © 2011 The Author(s).


Samarasinghe S.,Lincoln University at Christchurch | Strickert G.,University of Saskatchewan
Environmental Modelling and Software | Year: 2013

Human systems need to be adaptive to the consequences of natural hazards. Public policy decisions on natural hazard mitigation can benefit from computational models that embody a comprehensive view of the system. Such models need to be transparent and integrate both expert and lay expert knowledge and experience in an efficient manner. By integrating hard and soft sciences within an overall systems framework, scientists, policy makers and communities can better understand how to improve adaptive capacity. We present a fuzzy cognitive map based Auto-Associative Neural Networks framework generated from a development mixed method integration (triangulation) for adaptive policy formulations. The specific policies relate to preparation for, response to, and recovery from earthquakes in mountainous ski-field environments - a case study chosen to highlight the framework. Three different data collection techniques - expert geomorphic assessments, semi-structured qualitative interviews with three stakeholder groups (experts and lay experts), and fuzzy cognitive maps (FCM) (node and arc maps of stakeholder perceptions) were employed. FCM were first analysed using Graph theory indices to determine map structure. Special attention was paid to subsequent processing of fuzzy cognitive maps (e.g., condensation and aggregation) with qualitative followed by quantitative means to simplify the FCM from the original total of 300 variables to 5 high-level themes to improve the efficacy of subsequent policy simulations. Specifically, the use of Self Organising Maps (SOM) to group concepts (condensation) and individual stakeholders (aggregation) into social group FCMs is a novel contribution to advancing FCM. In the process, SOM also enabled the embedment of nonlinear relationships inherent in the system in the simplified FCM allowing a platform for realistic and meaningful policy simulations based on collective perceptions. Specifically, each of the three simplified stakeholder group FCM and a total social group FCM was represented by Auto-Associative Neural Networks (AANN) which converts an FCM into a dynamical system that allows policy scenario simulations based on input from both expert and lay expert stakeholders. A policy scenario is the level of importance given to a set of concepts and their effects on the system behaviour as revealed by the simulations. We present the results from one of several policy simulations to highlight the effectiveness of the mixed-method integration leading to simplified-FCM based ANNN simulations. Results revealed the similarities and differences between stakeholder group responses in relation to the scenario analysed and how these formed collective responses in the total social group map. Furthermore, outcomes of group and total social group simulations could be interpreted from individual and group stakeholder FCMs giving credibility to the mixed-method approach. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.


Turnpenny J.,University of East Anglia | Jones M.,University of Saskatchewan | Lorenzoni I.,University of East Anglia
Science Technology and Human Values | Year: 2011

"Post-normal science" (PNS) has received much attention in recent years, but like many iconic concepts, it has attracted differing conceptualizations, applications, and implications, ranging from being a "cure-all" for democratic deficit to the key to achieving more sustainable futures. This editorial article introduces a Special Issue that takes stock of research on PNS and critically explores how such research may develop. Through reviewing the history and evolution of PNS, the authors seek to clarify the extant definitions, conceptualizations, and uses of PNS. The authors identify five broad areas of research on, or using, PNS which have developed over four decades. Their analysis suggests that the 1990s represent a symbolic watershed in the use of PNS terminology, when the concept was further developed and applied to highly complicated issues such as climate change. The authors particularly distinguish between uses of PNS as a normative prescription and as a practical method. Through this classification, they set out gaps and research questions arising. They then briefly summarize the Special Issue articles and consider their relationship to each other and the research questions raised by their analysis. They conclude by considering what the articles in this issue suggest for future theory building in PNS and related scholarship. © The Author(s) 2011.


Beland D.,University of Saskatchewan | Orenstein M.A.,Northeastern University
Global Social Policy | Year: 2013

The study of how ideas and discourse evolve within international organizations is one of the most important frontiers of global social policy theory. Setting forth an ideational approach to understanding their behavior, the article argues that international organizations are more open systems than most realists and structuralists believe. Their constantly evolving discourse and ideas can directly impact domestic policy. In order to stress this reality, drawing on the case of pension privatization, the article compares these organizations with ideologically driven domestic think tanks which, as far as pension privatization is concerned, have proved much more rigid in their policy prescriptions than the World Bank and other international organizations traditionally associated with the global pension privatization campaign. © The Author(s) 2013.


Gh Popescu B.F.,University of Saskatchewan | Gh Popescu B.F.,Saskatoon City Hospital | Lucchinetti C.F.,Mayo Medical School
BMC Neurology | Year: 2012

Although historically considered a disease primarily affecting the white matter of the central nervous system, recent pathological and imaging studies have established that cortical demyelination is common in multiple sclerosis and more extensive than previously appreciated. Subpial, intracortical and leukocortical lesions are the three cortical lesion types described in the cerebral and cerebellar cortices of patients with multiple sclerosis. Cortical demyelination may be the pathological substrate of progression, and an important pathologic correlate of irreversible disability, epilepsy and cognitive impairment. Cortical lesions of chronic progressive multiple sclerosis patients are characterized by a dominant effector cell population of microglia, by the absence of macrophagic and leukocytic inflammatory infiltrates, and may be driven in part by organized meningeal inflammatory infiltrates. Cortical demyelination is also present and common in early MS, is topographically associated with prominent meningeal inflammation and may even precede the appearance of classic white matter plaques in some MS patients. However, the pathology of early cortical lesions is different than that of chronic MS in the sense that early cortical lesions are highly inflammatory, suggesting that neurodegeneration in MS occurs on an inflammatory background and raising interesting questions regarding the role of cortical demyelination and meningeal inflammation in initiating and perpetuating the disease process in early MS. © 2012 Gh Popescu and Lucchinetti; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.


Leslie W.D.,University of Manitoba | Leslie W.D.,St Boniface General Hospital C5121 | Lix L.M.,University of Saskatchewan | Wu X.,University of Saskatchewan
Osteoporosis International | Year: 2013

Failure to account for competing mortality gave higher estimates of 10-year fracture probability than if appropriate adjustment is made for competing mortality, particularly among subgroups with higher mortality. A modified Kaplan-Meier method is easy to implement and provides an alternative approach to existing methods for competing mortality risk adjustment. Introduction: A unique feature of FRAX® is that 10-year fracture probability accounts for mortality as a competing risk. We compared the effect of competing mortality adjustment on nonparametric and parametric methods of fracture probability estimation. Methods: The Manitoba Bone Mineral Density (BMD) database was used to identify men and women age ≥50 years with FRAX probabilities calculated using femoral neck BMD (N = 39,063). Fractures were assessed from administrative data (N = 2,543 with a major osteoporotic fracture, N = 549 with a hip fracture during mean 5.3 years follow-up). Results: The following subgroups with higher mortality were identified: men, age >80 years, high fracture probability, and presence of diabetes. Failure to account for competing mortality in these subgroups overestimated fracture probability by 16-56 % with the standard nonparametric (Kaplan-Meier) method and 15-29 % with the standard parametric (Cox) model. When the outcome was hip fractures, failure to account for competing mortality overestimated hip fracture probability by 18-36 % and 17-35 %, respectively. A simple modified Kaplan-Meier method showed very close agreement with methods that adjusted for competing mortality (within 2 %). Conclusions: Failure to account for competing mortality risk gives considerably higher estimates of 10-year fracture probability than if adjustment is made for this competing risk. © 2012 International Osteoporosis Foundation and National Osteoporosis Foundation.


Dahl W.J.,University of Florida | Foster L.M.,University of Florida | Tyler R.T.,University of Saskatchewan
British Journal of Nutrition | Year: 2012

Pulses, including peas, have long been important components of the human diet due to their content of starch, protein and other nutrients. More recently, the health benefits other than nutrition associated with pulse consumption have attracted much interest. The focus of the present review paper is the demonstrated and potential health benefits associated with the consumption of peas, Pisum sativum L., specifically green and yellow cotyledon dry peas, also known as smooth peas or field peas. These health benefits derive mainly from the concentration and properties of starch, protein, fibre, vitamins, minerals and phytochemicals in peas. Fibre from the seed coat and the cell walls of the cotyledon contributes to gastrointestinal function and health, and reduces the digestibility of starch in peas. The intermediate amylose content of pea starch also contributes to its lower glycaemic index and reduced starch digestibility. Pea protein, when hydrolysed, may yield peptides with bioactivities, including angiotensin I-converting enzyme inhibitor activity and antioxidant activity. The vitamin and mineral contents of peas may play important roles in the prevention of deficiency-related diseases, specifically those related to deficiencies of Se or folate. Peas contain a variety of phytochemicals once thought of only as antinutritive factors. These include polyphenolics, in coloured seed coat types in particular, which may have antioxidant and anticarcinogenic activity, saponins which may exhibit hypocholesterolaemic and anticarcinogenic activity, and galactose oligosaccharides which may exert beneficial prebiotic effects in the large intestine. © 2012 The Authors.


Whiting S.J.,University of Saskatchewan | Langlois K.A.,Statistics Canada | Vatanparast H.,University of Saskatchewan | Greene-Finestone L.S.,Public Health Agency of Canada
American Journal of Clinical Nutrition | Year: 2011

Background: The 2011 Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) for vitamin D use 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentrations to define vitamin D deficiency (<30 nmol/L), the Estimated Average Requirement (40 nmol/L), and the Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA; 50 nmol/L). The Canadian population has not yet been assessed according to these recommendations. Objective: We determined the prevalence of meeting DRI recommendations and the role of vitamin D supplement use among Canadians aged 6-79 y. Design: Plasma 25(OH)D from a representative sample of Canadians in the Canadian Health Measures Survey-Cycle 1 (n = 5306) were used. Supplement use was assessed by household interview. Concentrations of 25(OH)D were compared in supplement users and nonusers by season and race. Results: Overall, 5.4%, 12.7%, and 25.7% of the participants had 25(OH)D concentrations below the 30-, 40-, and 50-nmol/L cutoffs, respectively. In white Canadians, plasma 25(OH)D concentrations ranged from an undetectable percentage with concentrations <30 nmol/L in summer to 24.5% with concentrations <50 nmol/L in winter; the corresponding values ranged from 12.5% to 53.1% in nonwhite Canadians. Supplement users had significantly higher 25(OH)D concentrations than did nonusers, and no seasonal differences were found. In nonsupplement users, the prevalence of 25(OH)D concentrations <50 nmol/L in winter was 37.2% overall and was 60.7% in nonwhites. Conclusions: One-quarter of Canadians did not meet the RDA, but the use of vitamin D supplements contributed to a better 25(OH)D status. Nonwhite Canadians had the highest risk of not achieving DRI recommendations. More than one-third of Canadians not using supplements did not meet the RDA in winter. This suggests that current food choices alone are insufficient to maintain 25(OH)D concentrations of 50 nmol/L in many Canadians, especially in winter. © 2011 American Society for Nutrition.


Vander Wal E.,University of Saskatchewan | Paquet P.C.,Raincoast Conservation Foundation | Andraes J.A.,University of Saskatchewan
Molecular Ecology | Year: 2012

The mechanisms of pathogen transmission are often social behaviours. These occur at local scales and are affected by landscape-scale population structure. Host populations frequently exist in patchy and isolated environments that create a continuum of genetic and social familiarity. Such variability has an important multispatial effect on pathogen spread. We assessed elk dispersal (i.e. likelihood of interdeme pathogen transmission) through spatially explicit genetic analyses. At a landscape scale, the elk population was composed of one cluster within a southeast-to-northwest cline spanning three spatially discrete subpopulations of elk across two protected areas in Manitoba (Canada). Genetic data are consistent with spatial variability in apparent prevalence of bovine tuberculosis (TB) in elk. Given the existing population structure, between-subpopulation spread of disease because of elk dispersal is unlikely. Furthermore, to better understand the risk of spread and distribution of the TB, we used a combination of close-contact logging biotelemetry and genetic data, which highlights how social intercourse may affect pathogen transmission. Our results indicate that close-contact interaction rate and duration did not covary with genetic relatedness. Thus, direct elk-to-elk transmission of disease is unlikely to be constrained to related individuals. That social intercourse in elk is not limited to familial groups provides some evidence pathogen transmission may be density-dependent. We show that the combination of landscape-scale genetics, relatedness and local-scale social behaviours is a promising approach to understand and predict landscape-level pathogen transmission within our system and within all social ungulate systems affected by transmissible diseases. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.


Lam R.S.H.,University of Saskatchewan | Rogers M.A.,Rutgers University
Crystal Growth and Design | Year: 2011

The nucleation activation energy under nonisothermal cooling conditions was determined for 12-hydroxystearic acid (12HSA) (1-D crystals), stearic acid (2-D crystals), and trihydroxystearin (3-D crystals). The relative nucleation rates of trihydroxystearin and stearic acid were inversely proportional to the supercooling-time trajectory parameter (β), while 12HSA was linearly proportional to β. The differences in the proportionality to β are attributed to microscopic versus macroscopic phase separation. This suggests that both stearic acid and trihydroxystearin follow a probability density function for the number of molecules which crystallize as a function of supercooling (i.e., the greater the cooling rate, the greater the number of molecules which are incorporated into the crystal lattice). On the other hand, 12HSA molecules all crystallize when supercooled. The activation energies for stearic acid, 12HSA, trihydroxystearin, and triglycerides were 1.52, 5.40, 7.87, and 24.80 kJ/mol, respectively. The activation energy is partly affected by the polarity of the crystallizing molecules relative to the solvent. As the polarity of the crystallizing molecules increases, the activation energy decreases. However, this was not always observed because the activation energy for stearic acid was less than that of 12HSA. Therefore, the activation energy is not only a function of the molecular polarity but also due to a specific interaction between the nucleating molecules. The specific interaction affects the ability of the polar regions of the molecule to phase separate from the apolar solvent. As 12HSA and stearic acid dimerize, the carboxylic acid regions of the molecule are shielded from the solvent, but 12HSA cannot effectively shield the hydroxyl groups from the crystalline surface, resulting in a higher interfacial tension and, thus, higher activation energy. © 2011 American Chemical Society.


Cheviakov A.F.,University of Saskatchewan | Ward M.J.,University of British Columbia | Straube R.,Max Planck Institute for Dynamics of Complex Technical Systems
Multiscale Modeling and Simulation | Year: 2010

The mean first passage time (MFPT) is calculated for a Brownian particle in a spherical domain in R3 that contains N small non over lapping absorbing windows, or traps, on its boundary. For the unit sphere, the method of matched asymptotic expansions is used to derive an explicit three-term asymptotic expansion for the MFPT for the case of N small locally circular absorbing windows. The third term in this expansion, not previously calculated, depends explicitly on the spatial configuration of the absorbing windows on the boundary of the sphere. The three term asymptotic expansion for the average MFPT is shown to be in very close agreement with full numerical results. The average MFPT is shown to be minimized for trap configurations that minimize a certain discrete variational problem. This variational problem is closely related to the well-known optimization problem of determining the minimum energy configuration for N repelling point charges on the unit sphere. Numerical results, based on global optimization methods, are given for both the optimum discrete energy and the arrangements of the centers {x1, . . . , xN} of N circular traps on the boundary of the sphere. A scaling law for the optimum discrete energy, valid for N≫ 1, is also derived. copyright copyright © 2010 Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics.


Johnstone J.F.,University of Saskatchewan | Johnstone J.F.,University of Alaska Fairbanks | Hollingsworth T.N.,University of Alaska Fairbanks | Chapin F.S.,University of Alaska Fairbanks | Mack M.C.,University of Florida
Global Change Biology | Year: 2010

Predicting plant community responses to changing environmental conditions is a key element of forecasting and mitigating the effects of global change. Disturbance can play an important role in these dynamics, by initiating cycles of secondary succession and generating opportunities for communities of long-lived organisms to reorganize in alternative configurations. This study used landscape-scale variations in environmental conditions, stand structure, and disturbance from an extreme fire year in Alaska to examine how these factors affected successional trajectories in boreal forests dominated by black spruce. Because fire intervals in interior Alaska are typically too short to allow relay succession, the initial cohorts of seedlings that recruit after fire largely determine future canopy composition. Consequently, in a dynamically stable landscape, postfire tree seedling composition should resemble that of the prefire forest stands, with little net change in tree composition after fire. Seedling recruitment data from 90 burned stands indicated that postfire establishment of black spruce was strongly linked to environmental conditions and was highest at sites that were moist and had high densities of prefire spruce. Although deciduous broadleaf trees were absent from most prefire stands, deciduous trees recruited from seed at many sites and were most abundant at sites where the fires burned severely, consuming much of the surface organic layer. Comparison of pre- and postfire tree composition in the burned stands indicated that the expected trajectory of black spruce self-replacement was typical only at moist sites that burned with low fire severity. At severely burned sites, deciduous trees dominated the postfire tree seedling community, suggesting these sites will follow alternative, deciduous-dominated trajectories of succession. Increases in the severity of boreal fires with climate warming may catalyze shifts to an increasingly deciduous-dominated landscape, substantially altering landscape dynamics and ecosystem services in this part of the boreal forest. © 2009 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.


Cao Y.,University of Saskatchewan | Cheng L.,University of Saskatchewan | Chen X.B.,CAS Institute of Automation | Peng J.Y.,University of Saskatchewan
IEEE/ASME Transactions on Mechatronics | Year: 2013

Piezoelectric actuators have been widely employed in various nanopositioning systems. Hysteresis exhibited by piezoelectric actuators can degrade their behavior, and thus the tracking performance of positioning systems. To improve the performance of the systems, control of hysteresis has been drawing considerable attention. One of the issues that remain to be addressed in the controller design is how to deal with the constraints (e.g., the input voltage) that might be applied to the piezoelectric actuators. To avoid overloading the piezoelectric actuators, the mechanism of saturation is typically employed in control schemes, which, however, can degrade the control performance. This paper presents the development of an inversion-based model predictive control with an integral-of-error state variable to compensate for the piezoelectric-actuator hysteresis. The proposed method allows for the consideration of constraints in the controller design. Theoretical proof of the zero steady-state error and disturbance rejection properties of the proposed method is also provided. To verify the effectiveness of the control method, experiments were conducted with the results showing that the proposed method can improve the performance of piezoelectric actuators. © 1996-2012 IEEE.


Cheng L.,CAS Institute of Automation | Hou Z.-G.,CAS Institute of Automation | Lin Y.,Northeastern University | Tan M.,CAS Institute of Automation | Zhang W.,University of Saskatchewan
Automatica | Year: 2011

A distributed protocol is proposed for a modified consensus problem of a network of agents that have the same continuous-time linear dynamics. Each agent estimates its own state using its output information and then sends the estimated state to its neighbor agents for the purpose of reaching a consensus. The modified consensus problem requires the group decision value to be a linear function of initial states and initial estimated states of all agents in the network, and the transformation matrix associated with this linear function not to be a zero matrix. It is proved that under the proposed control protocol, the modified consensus problem can be solved if and only if the system matrices of the agent's dynamics are stabilizable and detectable, the input matrix is not a zero matrix, and the communication topology graph has a spanning tree. The proposed protocol can also be extended to multi-agent systems where agents are described by discrete-time linear dynamics. The corresponding necessary and sufficient conditions are provided as well. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


News Article | December 12, 2016
Site: www.marketwired.com

NOT FOR DISTRIBUTION TO U.S. NEWSWIRE SERVICES OR FOR DISSEMINATION IN THE UNITED STATES Pediapharm Inc. (the "Company")(TSX VENTURE:PDP) is very pleased to announce Health Canada's approval of Otixal™ (ciprofloxacin 0.3 % and fluocinolone acetonide 0.025 %) otic solution for the treatment of acute otitis media with tympanostomy tubes ("AOMT") in pediatric patients (aged 6 months and older). Otixal™ is the first and only antibiotic and steroid combination ear drop available in single, sterile, preservative-free and unit-dose packaging. Otixal™ will be launched in a growing $20 million market1. Otitis media (middle ear inflammation) is one of the most common early childhood infections in Canada2. In the first 3 years of life, 60% to 70% of children will have experienced at least 1 episode of acute otitis media ("AOM"), and recurrent episodes of AOM are common2. Children that have recurrent AOM may have tympanostomy tubes inserted through a small incision in the eardrum to help facilitate drainage of fluid from the middle ear. Tympanostomy tube insertion is the most common operation performed on children in Canada3. According to Dr. Peter Spafford, head of the Otolaryngology Division at the University of Saskatchewan and President of the Canadian Society of Otolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery, "The most common symptom of AOMT for many children is fluid drainage from the ear (otorrhea) and having a new medication to treat those children is more than welcome. Additionally, delivering drops into children's ears is not always easy for parents. Otixal's unique single-use, premeasured dosing helps assure an accurate dose every time. This will certainly help parents to be more compliant with the medication." "Otixal™ represents a great opportunity to introduce innovation in a growing market that has not seen innovation for years" stated Richard Labelle, Pediapharm's Vice-President of Sales and Marketing. He added: "Given its strong medical evidence and unique delivery mode, Otixal™ has the potential to significantly improve the quality of life of many young patients who have undergone tympanostomy tube insertion and are suffering from acute otitis media" "We are very pleased with the approval of Otixal™, which represents the second Health Canada approval within six months for us" said Sylvain Chretien President and CEO of Pediapharm. "With our strong infrastructure in place and with our track record in successfully launching drugs, we are very confident in our ability to make Otixal™ a success in Canada" concluded Mr. Chretien. OTIXAL™ (ciprofloxacin 0.3 % and fluocinolone acetonide 0.025 %) is indicated for the treatment of acute otitis media with tympanostomy tubes (AOMT) in pediatric patients (aged 6 months and older) due due to Streptococcus pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus, Haemophilus influenzae, Moraxella catarrhalis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Two phase 3 multicenter, randomized, double-blind, active-controlled, parallel group trials were conducted to assess the efficacy and safety of OTIXAL™ compared to ciprofloxacin otic solution and to fluocinolone acetonide otic solution. In total 662 pediatric patients (aged 6 months to 12 years old) with AOMT were included. In both trials, the OTIXAL™ treatment arms showed significantly shorter times to cessation of otorrhea in comparison to both the ciprofloxacin and fluocinolone acetonide alone arms. In Study 1 and Study 2 the median time to cessation of otorrhea in the OTIXAL™ group was 3.75 days and 4.94 days, respectively. Pediapharm is the only Canadian specialty pharmaceutical company dedicated to serving the needs of the pediatric community. Its mission is to bring to the Canadian market the latest innovative pediatric products with the objective to improve the health and the well-being of children in Canada. Since its debut in 2008, Pediapharm has entered into numerous commercial agreements with partners from Canada and other countries around the world. The Company's innovative product portfolio includes NYDA®, a breakthrough treatment for head lice; Rupatadine, a new treatment for allergic rhinitis and urticaria; EpiCeram®, a non-steroid emulsion for eczema; Naproxen Suspension, indicated to treat pain and inflammation due to various conditions including Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis; and a broad pipeline of products under registration. Laboratorios SALVAT is a privately owned pharmaceutical group closely identified with technological innovation and strongly committed to R&D. Founded in 1955, Salvat is headquartered in Barcelona (Spain) and is present in over 60 countries and keeps strengthening its international presence through the licensing of its own developments. The company launched CETRAXAL® (ciprofloxacin 0.2 %) otic solution in the US in 2009 and received FDA approval for OTOVEL ® (ciprofloxacin 0.3 % and fluocinolone acetonide 0.025 %) otic solution in April 2016. Additional information regarding Laboratorios SALVAT and its products is available at http://www.salvatbiotech.com This news release contains forward-looking statements and other statements that are not historical. Such forward-looking statements are subject to known and unknown risks, uncertainties and assumptions that could cause actual results to vary materially from target results and the results or events predicted in these forward-looking statements. As a result, investors are cautioned not to place undue reliance on these forward-looking statements. The forward-looking statements contained in this news release are made as of the date of this release. Except as required by applicable law, the Corporation disclaims any intention and assumes no obligation to update or revise any forward-looking statements, whether as a result of new information, future events or otherwise. Forward-looking information reflects the current expectations or belief of the Corporation based on information currently available and such information is subject to a number of assumptions, risks and uncertainties described in details at pp. 35 to 41 of the Management Information Circular of Chelsea Acquisition Corporation dated November 12, 2013 available on SEDAR at www.sedar.com and other risks associated with being a specialty pharmaceutical company. Neither TSX Venture Exchange nor its Regulation Services Provider (as that term is defined in the policies of the TSX Venture Exchange) accepts responsibility for the adequacy or accuracy of this release.


Shivhare A.,University of Saskatchewan | Ambrose S.J.,National Research Council Canada | Zhang H.,National Research Council Canada | Purves R.W.,University of Saskatchewan | And 2 more authors.
Chemical Communications | Year: 2013

Thiol-stabilized Au25L18 monolayer protected clusters (MPCs) were found to be active for the reduction of 4-nitrophenol. Results suggest that these MPCs are stable catalysts and do not lose their structural integrity during the catalytic process. High stability under the reaction conditions enables the recyclability of these MPCs. This journal is © 2013 The Royal Society of Chemistry.


Garron M.-L.,Aix - Marseille University | Garron M.-L.,French National Center for Scientific Research | Cygler M.,University of Saskatchewan
Current Opinion in Structural Biology | Year: 2014

In the past several years progress has been made in the field of structure and function of polysaccharide lyases (PLs). The number of classified polysaccharide lyase families has increased to 23 and more detailed analysis has allowed the identification of more closely related subfamilies, leading to stronger correlation between each subfamily and a unique substrate. The number of as yet unclassified polysaccharide lyases has also increased and we expect that sequencing projects will allow many of these unclassified sequences to emerge as new families. The progress in structural analysis of PLs has led to having at least one representative structure for each of the families and for two unclassified enzymes. The newly determined structures have folds observed previously in other PL families and their catalytic mechanisms follow either metal-assisted or Tyr/His mechanisms characteristic for other PL enzymes. Comparison of PLs with glycoside hydrolases (GHs) shows several folds common to both classes but only for the β-helix fold is there strong indication of divergent evolution from a common ancestor. Analysis of bacterial genomes identified gene clusters containing multiple polysaccharide cleaving enzymes, the Polysaccharides Utilization Loci (PULs), and their gene complement suggests that they are organized to process completely a specific polysaccharide. © 2014.


Meesapyodsuk D.,National Research Council Canada | Qiu X.,National Research Council Canada | Qiu X.,University of Saskatchewan
ACS Chemical Biology | Year: 2014

In contrast to soluble acyl-ACP desaturases from plants, little is known about the structure-guiding principle underlying substrate specificity and regioselectivity of membrane-bound acyl-CoA desaturases from animals, mainly due to lack of the three-dimensional structure information. Here we report identification of two homologous membrane-bound acyl-CoA Δ9 desaturases (ChDes9-1 and ChDes9-2) from the marine copepod Calanus hyperboreus that accumulates more than 90% of total storage lipids in the form of wax esters. ChDes9-2 is a common Δ9 desaturase with substrate specificity to long chain fatty acid 18:0, while ChDes9-1 is a new type of Δ9 desaturase introducing a Δ9 double bond into a wide range of very long chain fatty acids ranging from 20:0 to 26:0. Reciprocal domain swapping and site-directed mutagenesis guided by the membrane topology revealed that presence or absence of an amphipathic and bulky residue, tyrosine, in the middle of the second transmembrane domain was important in determining the substrate specificity of the two desaturases. To examine the mechanistic structure for the substrate specificity, tyrosine-scanning mutagenesis was employed to systematically substitute the residues in the transmembrane domain of the very long chain desaturase. The results showed that the transmembrane domain formed an α-helix structure probably involved in formation of the substrate-binding pocket and the corresponding residue of the tyrosine likely resided at the critical position within the pocket mediating the interaction with the substrates, thereby specifying the chain length of the substrates. © 2014 American Chemical Society.


Razavi S.,University of Saskatchewan | Tolson B.A.,University of Waterloo
Water Resources Research | Year: 2013

Long periods of hydrologic data records have become available in many watersheds around the globe. Hydrologic model calibration on such long, full-length data periods is typically deemed the most robust approach for calibration but at larger computational costs. Determination of a representative short period as a surrogate of a long data period that sufficiently embeds its information content is not trivial and is a challenging research question. The representativeness of such a short period is not only a function of data characteristics but also model and calibration error function dependent. Unlike previous studies, this study goes beyond identifying the best surrogate data period to be used in model calibration and proposes an efficient framework that calibrates the hydrologic model to full-length data while running the model only on a short period for the majority of the candidate parameter sets. To this end, a mapping system is developed to approximate the model performance on the full-length data period based on the model performance for the short data period. The basic concepts and the promise of the framework are demonstrated through a computationally expensive hydrologic model case study. Three calibration approaches, namely calibration solely to a surrogate period, calibration to the full period, and calibration through the proposed framework, are evaluated and compared. Results show that within the same computational budget, the proposed framework leads to improved or equal calibration performance compared to the two conventional approaches. Results also indicate that model calibration solely to a short data period may lead to a range of performances from poor to very well depending on the representativeness of the short data period which is typically not known a priori. © 2013. American Geophysical Union. All Rights Reserved.


Lymbery A.J.,Murdoch University | Jenkins E.J.,University of Saskatchewan | Schurer J.M.,University of Saskatchewan | Thompson R.C.A.,Murdoch University
Trends in Parasitology | Year: 2015

The phylogenetic relationships of the G6, G7, G8, and G10 genotypes of Echinococcus granulosus are well defined, but their taxonomic status is currently unresolved. We apply an evolutionary species concept to infer that the G6 and G7 genotypes represent a single species that is different to both the G8 and G10 genotypes, and that the G8 and G10 genotypes are also on different evolutionary trajectories and, therefore, should be regarded as separate species. The names Echinococcus intermedius, Echinococcus canadensis, and Echinococcus borealis have been previously proposed for these three taxa (G6/7, G10 and G8, respectively) and we argue that it may be appropriate to resurrect these names. The correct delimitation and formal recognition of species of Echinococcus may have important veterinary and public health consequences. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.


Mcquarrie E.F.,Santa Clara University | Miller J.,Southern Methodist University | Phillips B.J.,University of Saskatchewan
Journal of Consumer Research | Year: 2013

The megaphone effect refers to the fact that the web makes a mass audience potentially available to ordinary consumers. The article focuses on fashion bloggers who acquire an audience by iterated displays of aesthetic discrimination applied to the selection and combination of clothing. The authors offer a theoretical account of bloggers' success in terms of the accumulation of cultural capital via public displays of taste and describe how the exercise of taste produces economic rewards and social capital for these bloggers. The article situates fashion blogging as one instance of a larger phenomenon that includes online reviews and usergenerated content and extends to the consumption of food and home decor as well as clothing. In these instances of the megaphone effect, a select few ordinary consumers are able to acquire an audience without the institutional mediation historically required. © 2012 by JOURNAL OF CONSUMER RESEARCH, Inc.


Davidson R.K.,Norwegian Veterinary Institute | Romig T.,University of Hohenheim | Jenkins E.,University of Saskatchewan | Tryland M.,Section for Arctic Veterinary Medicine | Robertson L.J.,Parasitology Laboratory
Trends in Parasitology | Year: 2012

In the past three decades, . Echinococcus multilocularis, the cause of human alveolar echinococcosis, has been reported in several new countries both in definitive hosts (canids) as well as in people. Unless treated, infection with this cestode in people is fatal. In previously endemic countries throughout the Northern Hemisphere, geographic ranges and human and animal prevalence levels seem to be increasing. Anthropogenic influences, including increased globalisation of animals and animal products, and altered human/animal interfaces are thought to play a vital role in the global emergence of this pathogenic cestode. Molecular epidemiological techniques are a useful tool for detecting and tracing introductions, and differentiating these from range expansions. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.


Patent
National Research Council Canada and University of Saskatchewan | Date: 2014-10-09

Nucleic acid molecules from cannabis has been isolated and characterized and encode polypeptides having aromatic prenyltransferase activity. Expression or over-expression of the nucleic acids alters levels of cannabinoid compounds. The polypeptides may be used in vivo or in vitro to produce cannabinoid compounds.


Patent
University of Saskatchewan and National Research Council Canada | Date: 2012-07-13

Polypeptides having alkanoyl-CoA activity have been identified and characterized, as have nucleic acids encoding these polypeptides. Expression or over-expression of the nucleic acids alters levels of cannabinoid compounds in organisms. The polypeptides may be used in vivo or in vitro to produce cannabinoid compounds.


Researchers from the University of Saskatchewan (U of S) have developed a novel immunotherapy treatment that could reverse egg white and peanut allergic reactions in mice. Interestingly, the immunotherapy technique is said to reduce anaphylactic responses by as much as 90 percent with just a single treatment. The recent discovery nearly eliminates food allergies in experimental mice, and people are voluntarily offering their cells to be used in the further studies, said John Gordon, the lead researcher of the study. Moving forward, the technique would be tested in humanized mice, the mice without immune system that are implanted with immune system obtained from people that produce allergic responses to peanut and egg white. Gordon noted that the first human trail could probably begin in a year. He also added that if the immunotherapy technique could treat food allergies and conditions such as multiple sclerosis and asthma, the therapy could be "life-changing" for people suffering from such anaphylactic reactions. According to the study published in The Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, the researchers used mature retinoic acid-skewed dendritic cells (DC-RAs) to test their ability to reverse allergic reaction in mice. When DC-RAs specific for allergies were tested in mice, it was found that the anaphylactic responses to oral allergens including peanut and ovalbumin were cut down by 84 to 90 percent. In this technique, the specifically generated immune cells send signal to reverse the allergic reactions. The signal in turn triggers reactive cells to switch off along the immunological pathway. Gordon, who is also a researcher at Allergy, Genes and Environment (AllerGen) Network, noted that the treatment could be made available for public use in next five to 10 years. Meanwhile, the pilot study for the new technique will be conducted by Gordon and his team in collaboration with AllerGen researchers from many leading universities in Canada. The researcher added that if only 25 percent of people could be cured with the help of the new treatment, it is sure to improve health conditions of individuals as well as reduce their medical expenses significantly. "This discovery portends a major breakthrough towards a therapeutic reversal of food allergen sensitivity," said Dr. Judah Denburg, scientific director and CEO of AllerGen, in press release. "The treatment prevents anaphylactic responses in what were previously fully sensitive mice, opening the door for translating this therapy into the clinic." According to the researchers, the novel technique also shows promise for intervention of autoimmune diseases. © 2017 Tech Times, All rights reserved. Do not reproduce without permission.


News Article | October 3, 2016
Site: www.techtimes.com

A team of researchers from University of Saskatchewan in Canada have developed a caffeine-based chemical compound that could halt the progression of Parkinson's disease. Parkinson's is a disease of the nervous system caused primarily in middle-aged and older people marked by symptoms such as muscle stiffness, uncontrolled shakes and slow, imprecise movements. The disease is caused when the brain cells that produce dopamine are lost. Dopamine is an essential neurotransmitter that helps neurons communicate with each other. A protein called α-synuclein (AS) that regulates the neurotransmitter dopamine gets misfolded into unusual compact structures leading to the death of neurons involved in the production of dopamine. The AS misfolding appears similar to prion disease where one clumping stimulates such process in the rest of the proteins. Jeremy Lee, a biochemist from Saskatchewan, said that therapeutic compounds available in the market aim at promoting the dopamine production in the surviving cells. This technique is applicable only until there are sufficient cells available for the process. However, researchers at Saskatchewan are focused at preventing the AS misfolding, the root cause of the problem, to be able to stop the death of dopamine producing cells. "To improve the binding to α-synuclein, eight novel compounds were synthesized from a caffeine scaffold attached to (R,S)-1-aminoindan, (R,S)-nicotine and metformin, and their binding to α-synuclein determined through nanopore analysis and isothermal titration calorimetry," reported the study published in the journal ACS Chemical Neuroscience. Lee noted that 30 different "bifunctional dimer" drugs were synthesized for this purpose. The team that began with caffeine "scaffold" tested other compounds like aminoindan, metformin and nicotine. As a result, two dimers were found to prevent AS from folding into compact structures thereby stopping the progression of Parkinson's disease, Lee said in a press release. In another study published in The Journals of Gerontology, Series A: Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences, it was reported that women aged 65 years and above were at decreased risk of developing cognitive impairment and dementia when their caffeine intake was high. The researchers included 6,467 women for the study, who were followed for a period of 10 years. About 36 percent reduced risk of dementia was observed in women that reported to have consumed more than 261 milligrams of caffeine every day. Ira Driscoll, the lead author of the study from University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee noted that though no direct association between caffeine intake and decreased risk of dementia and cognitive impairment could be made as of now, further studies could help establish the link between them, noted The Seattle Times. © 2017 Tech Times, All rights reserved. Do not reproduce without permission.


News Article | September 30, 2016
Site: www.chromatographytechniques.com

A team of researchers from the University of Saskatchewan has developed two caffeine-based chemical compounds that show promise in preventing the ravages of Parkinson's disease. Parkinson's disease attacks the nervous system, causing uncontrolled shakes, muscle stiffness, and slow, imprecise movement, chiefly in middle-aged and elderly people. It is caused by the loss of brain cells (neurons) that produce dopamine, an essential neurotransmitter that allows neurons to "talk" to each other. The team focused on a protein called α-synuclein (AS), which is involved in dopamine regulation. In Parkinson's sufferers, AS gets misfolded into a compact structure associated with the death of dopamine-producing neurons. Worse, AS appears to act like a prion disease (for example, variant Creutzfeldt-Jacob or "mad cow"). In prion diseases, one mis-folded protein triggers mis-folding in others, spreading like falling dominos. Jeremy Lee, a biochemist from the U of S College of Medicine, and Ed Krol from the College of Pharmacy and Nutrition led the team, which included researchers Troy Harkness and Joe Kakish from the U of S College of Medicine, as well as Kevin Allen from the Drug Discovery and Research Group in the College of Pharmacy and Nutrition. "Many of the current therapeutic compounds focus on boosting the dopamine output of surviving cells, but this is effective only as long as there are still enough cells to do the job," Lee said. "Our approach aims to protect dopamine-producing cells by preventing α-synuclein from mis-folding in the first place." Although the chemistry was challenging, Lee explained the team synthesized 30 different "bifunctional dimer" drugs, that is, molecules that link two different substances known to have an effect on dopamine-producing cells. They started with a caffeine "scaffold," guided by literature that shows the stimulant has a protective effect against Parkinson's. From this base, they added other compounds with known effects: nicotine, the diabetes drug metformin, and aminoindan, a research chemical similar to the Parkinson's drug rasagiline. Using a yeast model of Parkinson's disease, Lee and his team discovered two of the compounds prevented the AS protein from clumping, effectively allowing the cells to grow normally. "Our results suggest these novel bifunctional dimers show promise in preventing the progression of Parkinson's disease," Lee said. The team's findings are published in the journal ACS Chemical Neuroscience.


CALGARY, ALBERTA--(Marketwired - Oct. 25, 2016) - Titanium Corporation Inc. (TSX VENTURE:TIC) ("Titanium" or the "Company") is pleased to announce that the Company was selected to present a technical paper at the 66th Canadian Society of Chemical Engineering Conference held in Quebec City, October 17-19, 2016. The presentation was entitled "Vapour-Liquid Equilibria and Solvent Recovery from Oil Sands Froth Treatment Tailings Streams", co-authored by Dr. D-Y Peng, University of Saskatchewan and Titanium's Dr. Kevin Moran, both of whom attended the national conference. In his address, Dr. Moran highlighted the research that led to the successful development and demonstration piloting of Titanium's solvent recovery technology, designed to remove hydrocarbon solvents from oil sands froth treatment tailings, delivering both environmental and economic improvements and benefits. Recovering solvents from tailings before they reach tailings ponds and the atmosphere will significantly reduce the formation and emission of methane from tailings ponds as well as reduce volatile organic compound and secondary organic aerosol emissions. Key aspects of Titanium's R&D programs were the application of thermodynamic and kinetic principles to solvent recovery technology to achieve optimal recoveries. The knowledge and application of multiphase mass transfer and vapour-liquid equilibria (VLE) were critical to successful technology development. Titanium Corporation and Dr. Moran have been collaborating with Dr. Peng in order to apply the most advanced VLE science to its technology. Dr. Peng is a leading authority and the co-author of the Peng-Robinson equation of state for VLE, the standard used by engineers world-wide. A copy of the conference presentation and other recent Company presentations and awards are available on the Company's website at www.titaniumcorporation.com. Titanium Corporation's CVW™ technology provides sustainable solutions to reduce the environmental footprint of the oil sands industry. The Company's technology reduces the environmental impact of oil sands tailings while economically recovering valuable products that would otherwise be lost. CVW™ recovers bitumen, solvents and minerals from tailings, preventing these commodities from entering tailings ponds and the atmosphere: volatile organic compound and greenhouse gas emissions are materially reduced; hot tailings water is improved in quality for recycling; and residual tailings can be thickened more readily. A new minerals industry will be created commencing with the production and export of zircon, an essential ingredient in ceramics. The Company's shares trade on the TSX Venture Exchange under the symbol "TIC". For more information, please visit the Company's website at www.titaniumcorporation.com. Neither the TSX Venture Exchange nor its Regulation Services Provider (as that term is defined in the policies of the TSX Venture Exchange) accepts responsibility for the adequacy or accuracy of this release.


Chen B.,University of Saskatchewan | Fan W.,University of Saskatchewan | Liu J.,Wuhan University | Wu F.-X.,University of Saskatchewan
Briefings in Bioinformatics | Year: 2014

Cellular processes are typically carried out by protein complexes and functional modules. Identifying them plays an important role for our attempt to reveal principles of cellular organizations and functions. In this article, we review computational algorithms for identifying protein complexes and/or functional modules from protein-protein interaction (PPI) networks. We first describe issues and pitfalls when interpreting PPI networks. Then based on types of data used and main ideas involved, we briefly describe protein complex and/or functional module identification algorithms in four categories: (i) those based on topological structures of unweighted PPI networks; (ii) those based on characters of weighted PPI networks; (iii) those based on multiple data integrations; and (iv) those based on dynamic PPI networks. The PPI networks are modelled increasingly precise when integrating more types of data, and the study of protein complexes would benefit by shifting from static to dynamic PPI networks. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press.


Schneberger D.,University of Saskatchewan | Aharonson-Raz K.,Hebrew University of Jerusalem | Singh B.,University of Saskatchewan
Cell and Tissue Research | Year: 2011

Mononuclear phagocytes are crucial components of the innate host defense system. Cells such as macrophages and monocytes phagocytose and process pathogens, produce inflammatory mediators, and link the innate and the adaptive immune systems. The role of innate immune receptors such as Toll-like receptors (TLRs) in the recognition of pathogens is critical for mounting a precise and targeted immune response. This review focuses attention on the development of monocytes and macrophages, various populations of macrophages, and the expression and function of TLRs on macrophages. © 2010 Springer-Verlag.


Schneberger D.,University of Saskatchewan | Aharonson-Raz K.,Hebrew University of Jerusalem | Singh B.,University of Saskatchewan
American Journal of Physiology - Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology | Year: 2012

Pulmonary intravascular macrophages (PIMs) are constitutively found in species such as cattle, horse, pig, sheep, goat, cats, and whales and can be induced in species such as rats, which normally lack them. It is believed that human lung lacks PJJVls, but there are previous suggestions of their induction in patients suffering from liver dysfunction. Recent data show induction of PIMs in bile-duct ligated rats and humans suffering from hepato-pulmonary syndrome. Because constitutive and induced PIMs are pro-inflammatory in response to endotoxins and bacteria, there is a need to study their biology in inflammatory lung diseases such as sepsis, asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases, or hepato-pulmonary syndrome. We provide a review of PIM biology to make an argument for increased emphasis and better focus on the study of human PIMs to better understand their potential role in the pathophysiology and mechanisms of pulmonary diseases. © 2012 the American Physiological Society.


Hanninen H.,University of Helsinki | Tanino K.,University of Saskatchewan
Trends in Plant Science | Year: 2011

Climate warming has increased researchers' interest in plant phenology and its modelling. Although the main focus is on projections of accelerated springtime phenological events, also a further extension of the growing season by delayed growth cessation is often projected. However, ecophysiological studies indicate that, for boreal and temperate trees, such generalisations are precluded owing to differential climatic conditions and inter- and intraspecific genetic differences. The annual cycle of these trees is an integrated system, where one phase affects subsequent phases, resulting in delayed impacts, which are only partially addressed in current ecophysiological models. Here, we outline an updated integrated conceptual model of the annual cycle by identifying ecophysiological phenomena that are particularly significant under climate warming. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.


Vishniac E.T.,University of Saskatchewan | Shapovalov D.,Johns Hopkins University
Astrophysical Journal | Year: 2014

We study the flux of small-scale magnetic helicity in simulations of driven statistically homogeneous magnetohydrodynamic turbulence in a periodic box with an imposed large-scale shear. The simulations show that in the regime of strong dynamo action the eddy-scale magnetic helicity flux has only two significant terms: advective motion driven by the large-scale velocity field and the Vishniac-Cho (VC) flux which moves helicity across the magnetic field lines. The contribution of all the other terms is negligible. The VC flux is highly correlated with the large-scale electromotive force and is responsible for large-scale dynamo action, while the advective term is not. The VC flux is driven by the anisotropy of the turbulence. We derive analytical expressions for it in terms of the small-scale velocity or magnetic field. These expressions are used to predict the existence and strength of dynamo action for different turbulent anisotropies and tested against the results of the simulations. © 2014. The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved.


Melchin M.J.,St. Francis Xavier University | Mitchell C.E.,State University of New York at Buffalo | Holmden C.,University of Saskatchewan | Storch P.,Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic
Bulletin of the Geological Society of America | Year: 2013

The Late Ordovician (Katian-Hirnantian) through earliest Silurian (Rhuddanian) interval was a time of varying climate and sea level, marked by a peak glacial episode in the early-mid-Hirnantian. Synthesis of recently published data permits global correlation of at least two cycles of glacial advance and retreat with a distinct interglacial period that is recognizable in sequence-stratigraphic and chemostratigraphic records in many parts of the world. A period of warming and sea-level rise during the late Katian is marked by the widespread occurrences of oceanic anoxia in paleotropical and subtropical localities, mostly confined to regions of inferred upwelling and semirestricted marine basins. Nitrogen isotope data show that the regions of oceanic anoxia were marked by intense water-column denitrification in which cyanobacteria were the principal source of fixed N. In the overlying peak glacial interval of the Hirnantian, sedimentary successions from localities representing a wide range of water depths and paleolatitudes indicate that anoxia was restricted during the early-mid-Hirnantian. The shift to more positive N isotope values also suggests less intense water-column denitrification. In the overlying late Hirnantian and early Rhuddanian, the distribution of black shales reaches its greatest extent in the studied interval. Localities showing evidence of anoxia are globally spread over all paleolatitudes and water depths for which data are available, indicating a Rhuddanian ocean anoxic event comparable to examples from the Mesozoic. It is accompanied by a return to intensely denitrifying conditions within the water column, as indicated by the shift to negative N isotope values. The two phases of Hirnantian mass extinction coincide with rapid, climate-driven changes in oceanic anoxia. The first extinction occurred at the onset of glaciation and with the loss of anoxic conditions at the end of the Katian. The second extinction occurred at the demise of glaciation and coincided with the return of anoxic conditions during the late Hirnantian- early Rhuddanian. Integration of our N isotope data with graptolite biodiversity records suggests that the extinctions were profoundly infl uenced by changes occurring at the base of the marine food web, i.e., redoxdriven changes in nutrient cycling and primary producer communities. © 2013 Geological Society of America.


English N.J.,University College Dublin | Tse J.S.,University of Saskatchewan
Physical Review Letters | Year: 2011

The density distributions and fluctuations in grids of varying size in liquid water at ambient pressure, both above the freezing point and in the supercooled state, are analyzed from the trajectories obtained from large-scale molecular dynamics simulations. It is found that the occurrence of low- and high-density regions (LDL and HDL) is transient and their respective residence times are dependent on the size of the simulated system. The spatial extent of density-density correlation is found to be within 7 Å or less. The temporal existence of LDL and HDL arises as a result of natural density fluctuations of an equilibrium system. The density of bulk water at ambient conditions is homogenous. © 2011 American Physical Society.


English N.J.,University College Dublin | Tse J.S.,University of Saskatchewan
Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters | Year: 2014

The thermal conductivity of both supercooled and ambient-temperature water at atmospheric pressure has been computed over the 140-270 K temperature range for three popular water models via equilibrium molecular dynamics in the Green-Kubo setting. No strong temperature dependence of thermal conductivity was observed. The underlying phonon modes contributing to thermal conduction processes have been examined in the present work, and it has been established that (translational) acoustic modes dominate in supercooled water. (Graph Presented). © 2014 American Chemical Society.


Luong D.,Correctional Service Canada | Luong D.,University of Saskatchewan | Wormith J.S.,University of Saskatchewan
Criminal Justice and Behavior | Year: 2011

Evaluating the extent to which case management practices are guided by risk/need assessment is important because the impact of the assessment process will not be realized if the instrument is not applied as fully intended. This study investigated whether risk/need assessment is linked to the case management of young offenders and whether adherence to the principles of risk, need, and responsivity, as part of the case management plan, is related to recidivism. Data were collected on a sample of 192 young offenders. The Level of Service Inventory-Saskatchewan Youth Edition (LSI-SK) total score and seven of the eight subscale scores were positively correlated with recidivism. Generally, the LSI-SK was used to inform supervision intensity and interventions toward criminogenic needs. Moreover, adherence to the need principle was associated with reductions in recidivism. Implications for case management and direction for future research are discussed. © 2011 International Association for Correctional and Forensic Psychology.


Bialer M.,Hebrew University of Jerusalem | Midha K.K.,University of Saskatchewan
Epilepsia | Year: 2010

Most antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) are currently available as generic products, yet neurologists and patients are reluctant to switch to generics. Generic AEDs are regarded as bioequivalent to brand AEDs after meeting the average bioequivalence criteria; consequently, they are considered to be interchangeable with their respective brands without loss of efficacy and safety. According to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) the present bioequivalence requirements are already so rigorous and constrained that there is little possibility that generics that meet regulatory bioequivalence criteria could lead to therapeutic problems. So is there a scientific rationale for the concerns about switching patients with epilepsy to bioequivalent generics? Herein we discuss the assessment of bioequivalence and propose a scaled-average bioequivalence approach where scaling of bioequivalence is carried out based on brand lot-to-lot variance as an alternative to the conventional bioequivalence test as a means to determine whether switching patients to generic formulations, or vice versa, is a safe and effective therapeutic option. Meeting the proposed scaled-average bioequivalence requirements will ensure that when an individual patient is switched, he or she has fluctuations in plasma levels similar to those from lot-to-lot of the brand reference levels and thus should make these generic products safely switchable without change in efficacy and safety outcomes. © 2010 International League Against Epilepsy.


Yamchi M.Z.,University of Saskatchewan | Yamchi M.Z.,Institute for Research in Fundamental Sciences | Bowles R.K.,University of Saskatchewan
Physical Review Letters | Year: 2015

We use a combination of analytical theory and molecular dynamics simulation to study the inherent structure landscape of a system of hard spheres confined to narrow cylindrical channels of diameter 1+3/2


English N.J.,University College Dublin | Tse J.S.,University of Saskatchewan
Physical Review B - Condensed Matter and Materials Physics | Year: 2011

The relationship between structure, thermal conductivity, and phonon propagation in low-, high- and very-high-density amorphous ices (LDA, HDA, and VHDA) at 30-180 K and over the pressure range from 0.1 to 1.1 GPa has been investigated with equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations employing the Green-Kubo approach and the TIP4P-ice potential model. HDA and VHDA were shown to have weak, amorphouslike temperature dependence, while a more crystal-like temperature dependence of LDA was predicted. The weak temperature effect on the thermal conductivity in HDA and VHDA is attributed to strong hybridization of acoustic and optic modes. The calculated dynamical structure factors confirm the observed phononlike collective excitations sustained to high frequencies and momentum transfer for all of the amorphous ices. This behavior differs fundamentally from liquid and rapidly quenched water. Apart from having structural similarity to crystalline ice, LDA was found to have a negative average Grüneisen parameter with acousticlike phonons softening under compression. This observation is consistent with the suggested negative Bridgman parameter, where the thermal conductivity decreases with increasing pressure. The existence of phonon instability and intermediate ordering in amorphous ices indicates that the conversion of LDA to HDA is due to mechanical instabilities of the ice lattice. However, care should be taken when extrapolating the conclusions to liquid water owing to limitations in the potential model. © 2011 American Physical Society.


Pruitt J.N.,University of Pittsburgh | Cote J.,CNRS Biological Evolution and Diversity Laboratory | Ferrari M.C.O.,University of Saskatchewan
Functional Ecology | Year: 2012

Although ecologists commonly categorize species in terms of their functional roles, function diversity occurring at the level of the individual is often dismissed. Multi-female colonies of the spider Anelosimus studiosus serve as habitat for a myriad of arthropods, and colony members display notably polymorphic behavioural tendencies: females exhibit either an 'aggressive' or 'docile' behavioural phenotype. We manipulated the phenotypic composition of colonies (100% aggressive, 50% aggressive and 50% docile, 100% docile) and tested its effects on species interactions between A. studiosus and its web associates, and among the web associates themselves. We found that the phenotypic composition of A. studiosus colonies significantly impacted interactions within their web. In colonies of all aggressive females, the relationship between A. studiosus (-) and its web associates (+) was exploitative and web associates negative impacted each other's performance. In colonies of all docile females, the relationship between A. studiosus (+) and its web associates (+) was facilitative and web associates positively influenced each other's performance. Colonies of mixed phenotype had intermediate interactions. Our data suggest that (i) the mixture of behavioural trait variants within groups can mediate the nature of both direct and indirect species interactions, and (ii) community structure can affect which social group compositions enjoy highest fitness. © 2011 The Authors. Functional Ecology © 2011 British Ecological Society.


Arsenault R.J.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | Napper S.,University of Saskatchewan | Kogut M.H.,U.S. Department of Agriculture
Veterinary Research | Year: 2013

Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (Salmonella Typhimurium) infection of chickens that are more than a few days old results in asymptomatic cecal colonization with persistent shedding of bacteria. We hypothesized that while the bacterium colonizes and persists locally in the cecum it has systemic effects, including changes to metabolic pathways of skeletal muscle, influencing the physiology of the avian host. Using species-specific peptide arrays to perform kinome analysis on metabolic signaling pathways in skeletal muscle of Salmonella Typhimurium infected chickens, we have observed key metabolic changes that affected fatty acid and glucose metabolism through the 5'-adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and the insulin/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway. Over a three week time course of infection, we observed changes in the phosphorylation state of the AMPK protein, and proteins up and down the pathway. In addition, changes to a large subset of the protein intermediates of the insulin/mTOR pathway in the skeletal muscle were altered by infection. These changes occur in pathways with direct effects on fatty acid and glucose metabolism. This is the first report of significant cellular metabolic changes occurring systemically in chicken due to a Salmonella infection. These results have implications not only for animal production and health but also for the understanding of how Salmonella infection in the intestine can have widespread, systemic effects on the metabolism of chickens without disease-like symptoms. © 2013 Arsenault et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.


Westbrook C.J.,University of Saskatchewan | Cooper D.J.,Colorado State University | Baker B.W.,U.S. Geological Survey
River Research and Applications | Year: 2011

We examined how beaver dams affect key ecosystem processes, including pattern and process of sediment deposition, the composition and spatial pattern of vegetation, and nutrient loading and processing. We provide new evidence for the formation of heterogeneous beaver meadows on riverine system floodplains and terraces where dynamic flows are capable of breaching in-channel beaver dams. Our data show a 1.7-m high beaver dam triggered overbank flooding that drowned vegetation in areas deeply flooded, deposited nutrient-rich sediment in a spatially heterogeneous pattern on the floodplain and terrace, and scoured soils in other areas. The site quickly de-watered following the dam breach by high stream flows, protecting the deposited sediment from future re-mobilization by overbank floods. Bare sediment either exposed by scouring or deposited by the beaver flood was quickly colonized by a spatially heterogeneous plant community, forming a beaver meadow. Many willow and some aspen seedlings established in the more heavily disturbed areas, suggesting the site may succeed to a willow carr plant community suitable for future beaver re-occupation. We expand existing theory beyond the beaver pond to include terraces within valleys. This more fully explains how beavers can help drive the formation of alluvial valleys and their complex vegetation patterns as was first postulated by Ruedemann and Schoonmaker in 1938. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.


Mazzucco M.,University of Tartu | Mazzucco M.,Software Technology and Applications Competence Center | Dyachuk D.,University of Saskatchewan
Future Generation Computer Systems | Year: 2012

High electricity consumption, associated with running Internet scale server farms, not only reflects on the data center's greenhouse gas emissions, but also increases the cost of running the data center itself. In this paper, we consider the problem of maximizing the revenues of service providers running large scale data centers subject to setup cost by reducing their electricity bill, while considering the fact that clients consuming the offered services have finite non-deterministic patience. As a solution, we present and evaluate the performance of allocation policies which, in the context of both one and two-tiered systems, dynamically switch servers on and off according to changes in user demand. The algorithms we present aim at maximizing the users' experience while minimizing the amount of electricity required to run the IT infrastructure in spite of non-stationary traffic which cannot be predicted with the absolute accuracy. The results of several experiments are presented, showing that the proposed schemes perform well under different traffic conditions. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


English N.J.,University College Dublin | Tse J.S.,University of Saskatchewan
Physical Review B - Condensed Matter and Materials Physics | Year: 2012

Pressure-induced amorphization of methane hydrate has been investigated by molecular dynamics simulation. In accord with experimental results of Tulk, a crystalline → amorphous transition was confirmed at 3.3GPa where the water lattice collapsed around the encaged methane. Thermal annealing at 5.5 GPa allows the water to adopt a lower energy conformation with a denser structure. In both structures, methane molecules are immobilized and maintain long-range correlation as in the crystal. Consequently, both phases are predicted to revert back to the crystalline form upon decompression. Pressure-induced amorphization is a nonequilibrium process due to a mechanical instability; the interconversion between kinetically stable amorphous phases is a relaxation effect. © 2012 American Physical Society.


Hollingsworth T.N.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | Johnstone J.F.,University of Saskatchewan | Bernhardt E.L.,University of Alaska Fairbanks | Chapin III F.S.,University of Alaska Fairbanks
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013

Disturbance can both initiate and shape patterns of secondary succession by affecting processes of community assembly. Thus, understanding assembly rules is a key element of predicting ecological responses to changing disturbance regimes. We measured the composition and trait characteristics of plant communities early after widespread wildfires in Alaska to assess how variations in disturbance characteristics influenced the relative success of different plant regeneration strategies. We compared patterns of post-fire community composition and abundance of regeneration traits across a range of fire severities within a single pre-fire forest type- black spruce forests of Interior Alaska. Patterns of community composition, as captured by multivariate ordination with nonmetric multidimensional scaling, were primarily related to gradients in fire severity (biomass combustion and residual vegetation) and secondarily to gradients in soil pH and regional climate. This pattern was apparent in both the full dataset (n = 87 sites) and for a reduced subset of sites (n = 49) that minimized the correlation between site moisture and fire severity. Changes in community composition across the fire-severity gradient in Alaska were strongly correlated to variations in plant regeneration strategy and rooting depth. The tight coupling of fire severity with regeneration traits and vegetation composition after fire supports the hypothesis that disturbance characteristics influence patterns of community assembly by affecting the relative success of different regeneration strategies. This study further demonstrated that variations in disturbance characteristics can dominate over environmental constraints in determining early patterns of community assembly. By affecting the success of regeneration traits, changes in fire regime directly shape the outcomes of community assembly, and thus may override the effects of slower environmental change on boreal forest composition.


Gusta L.V.,University of Saskatchewan | Wisniewski M.,U.S. Department of Agriculture
Physiologia Plantarum | Year: 2013

How plants adapt to freezing temperatures and acclimate to survive the formation of ice within their tissues has been a subject of study for botanists and plant scientists since the latter part of the 19th century. In recent years, there has been an explosion of information on this topic and molecular biology has provided new and exciting opportunities to better understand the genes involved in cold adaptation, freezing response and environmental stress in general. Despite an exponential increase in our understanding of freezing tolerance, understanding cold hardiness in a manner that allows one to actually improve this trait in economically important crops has proved to be an elusive goal. This is partly because of the growing recognition of the complexity of cold adaptation. The ability of plants to adapt to and survive freezing temperatures has many facets, which are often species specific, and are the result of the response to many environmental cues, rather than just low temperature. This is perhaps underappreciated in the design of many controlled environment experiments resulting in data that reflects the response to the experimental conditions but may not reflect actual mechanisms of cold hardiness in the field. The information and opinions presented in this report are an attempt to illustrate the many facets of cold hardiness, emphasize the importance of context in conducting cold hardiness research, and pose, in our view, a few of the critical questions that still need to be addressed. © 2012 Physiologia Plantarum.


English N.J.,University College Dublin | Tse J.S.,University of Saskatchewan
Physical Review E - Statistical, Nonlinear, and Soft Matter Physics | Year: 2015

Ice-crystallite precursor formation in supercooled water was studied via molecular dynamics for systems ranging from ∼106 to 8.6×106 molecules, using a tetrahedrally biased single-site "mW" model. This has established system-size effects in the early onset of nucleation, so as to study often-transient precursors' beguiling propensity to "flicker" into instantaneous locally ordered molecular arrangements redolent of ice. In addition, the adoption of solidlike and liquidlike bimodal local configurational-energy distributions was observed, characteristic of early nucleation. Larger systems favored a higher probability of precursor formation, although such ones were not usually longer lived relative to those in smaller systems (which themselves are rather transient). It was concluded tentatively that subtle effects of differences in systemwide density fluctuations and accessible lower-frequency modes tend to favor precursor formation in larger systems, although not necessarily the precursor's kinetic stability. © 2015 American Physical Society.


News Article | September 8, 2016
Site: www.rdmag.com

In 1988, fires consumed more than a million acres of Yellowstone National Park and its surrounding lands. But for the past three decades, Yellowstone's forests -- resilient ecosystems composed of species adapted to periodic severe fire -- have embarked on their recovery. However, this year, several new fires -- including the Maple, Buffalo and Berry fires -- are burning through those young pine forests. Typically, a century or more separates severe wildfires there, says Monica Turner, professor of zoology at the University of Wisconsin-Madison, so how the forest will recover from more fire just 28 years later is unknown. Turner paired with Jill Johnstone, professor of biology at the University of Saskatchewan, to outline a framework this month in the journal Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment to help scientists better test, understand and predict when forests are resilient enough to recover or when a combination of conditions could tip the scales, drastically altering forest landscapes. "This is a new normal. We have to anticipate how things are going to change," says Turner. Turner and Johnstone, who studies the boreal forests of Alaska and Canada, view the framework as a tool for ecologists to better accomplish this because how the forests of the future will be affected by traditional disturbances like fire in the context of changing conditions -- from a warmer, drier climate to destruction by invasive species -- remains a challenge to predict. "We have to look at disturbances today and try to understand their effects because we can't afford to wait 30, 40, 50 years to see what's going to happen," says Turner, who has studied the forests of Yellowstone since the last of the 1988 flames fizzled. She's been fascinated with their recovery and how they have also been resilient to outbreaks of mountain pine beetles. However, she has also learned that warming climate and drought may be changing the rules of the game. "Having all the answers will take decades and we want to find creative ways to get answers sooner." Especially since hot and dry conditions have fueled wildfires in populous portions of California this summer, destroying homes and forcing tens of thousands of people to evacuate. And some of the largest fires of the season continue to burn in Idaho and Washington. Johnstone and Turner, co-lead authors of the framework, assembled a team of leading forest ecologists -- including three UW-Madison alumni -- to develop it. In their analysis, they highlight the notion of ecological memory, which refers to the evolved adaptations of forests to fire, such as the presence of pine cones (serotinous cones) that only open in response to fire (what the researchers call "information legacies"), to what is left after disturbances, like the dead trees that remain standing after a blaze ("material legacies"). Ecological memory confers forests with resilience to fire by providing them the building blocks for recovery, even under a wide range of conditions. By definition, disturbances are almost always unpredictable but "what we and many others want to know is whether there are situations where forests may be stressed beyond their ability to be resilient, where a double or triple whammy will have a big effect," says Turner. For instance, she will continue to study Yellowstone in the wake of this year's fires, to see if burned forest areas can recover after a growth period of just 28 years. Other studies by her research group have shown that years of hot, dry climate immediately following fires significantly impede forest recovery. Johnstone has shown that areas of boreal forest once occupied by white spruce have been invaded by flammable black spruce, increasing fire frequency in areas unaccustomed to flames, while some severely burned areas have been repopulated by less flammable species, reducing fires there. In Minnesota, severe wind storms that knock serotinous cones to the forest floor can prevent forests from recovering if a fire follows. And in New Zealand, some forests are seeing fires for the first time due to human impact; the species there have not had the opportunity or time to adapt to fire. "If the new normal is outside of the conditions they are adapted to, forests may no longer be resilient," says Turner, because it results in a mismatch between ecological memory and the disturbances forests endure. This mismatch can lead to what Turner and her co-authors dub "resilience debt," which becomes apparent only after a disturbance occurs. Ecological processes happen slowly, so the impact of disturbances, though they happen fast, could take years or even decades to manifest. By examining different mechanisms that have diminished the ability of forests to recover -- from a change in disturbance frequency, size or severity to changing climate -- Turner and her colleagues were able to define particular sets of conditions that may allow ecologists to predict when forests will be resilient or when they will be fundamentally altered. "I am excited because we have been working out these ideas for the last five years or so and it's nice to have a framework to test a lot of these ideas for how generalizable they are," Turner says. "Ultimately, it's the data that will tell us." Thanks to support from the federal Joint Fire Science Program, Turner has new funding to test some of these ideas about resilience in the Rocky Mountains. She and colleagues at UW-Madison, including Jack Williams, director of the Center for Climatic Research and a professor of geography; Stephen Carpenter, director of the Center for Limnology and professor of zoology; Anthony Ives, professor of zoology; and Chris Kucharik, professor of agronomy at the Nelson Institute for Environmental Studies, are also leading a new effort with support from the UW2020: WARF Discovery Initiative to focus on abrupt changes in ecological systems of the U.S. They refer to their project as ACES. "It's not only western forests where these things matter, where disturbances and changing environments shape regional landscapes," Turner adds. "With ACES, we want to assess the possibility of fast changes in forests, lakes and agriculture to help us anticipate the effects on wildlife, carbon storage, water quality, and future timber resources. These things matter a lot."


News Article | September 8, 2016
Site: www.rdmag.com

In 1988, fires consumed more than a million acres of Yellowstone National Park and its surrounding lands. But for the past three decades, Yellowstone's forests -- resilient ecosystems composed of species adapted to periodic severe fire -- have embarked on their recovery. However, this year, several new fires -- including the Maple, Buffalo and Berry fires -- are burning through those young pine forests. Typically, a century or more separates severe wildfires there, says Monica Turner, professor of zoology at the University of Wisconsin-Madison, so how the forest will recover from more fire just 28 years later is unknown. Turner paired with Jill Johnstone, professor of biology at the University of Saskatchewan, to outline a framework this month in the journal Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment to help scientists better test, understand and predict when forests are resilient enough to recover or when a combination of conditions could tip the scales, drastically altering forest landscapes. "This is a new normal. We have to anticipate how things are going to change," says Turner. Turner and Johnstone, who studies the boreal forests of Alaska and Canada, view the framework as a tool for ecologists to better accomplish this because how the forests of the future will be affected by traditional disturbances like fire in the context of changing conditions -- from a warmer, drier climate to destruction by invasive species -- remains a challenge to predict. "We have to look at disturbances today and try to understand their effects because we can't afford to wait 30, 40, 50 years to see what's going to happen," says Turner, who has studied the forests of Yellowstone since the last of the 1988 flames fizzled. She's been fascinated with their recovery and how they have also been resilient to outbreaks of mountain pine beetles. However, she has also learned that warming climate and drought may be changing the rules of the game. "Having all the answers will take decades and we want to find creative ways to get answers sooner." Especially since hot and dry conditions have fueled wildfires in populous portions of California this summer, destroying homes and forcing tens of thousands of people to evacuate. And some of the largest fires of the season continue to burn in Idaho and Washington. Johnstone and Turner, co-lead authors of the framework, assembled a team of leading forest ecologists -- including three UW-Madison alumni -- to develop it. In their analysis, they highlight the notion of ecological memory, which refers to the evolved adaptations of forests to fire, such as the presence of pine cones (serotinous cones) that only open in response to fire (what the researchers call "information legacies"), to what is left after disturbances, like the dead trees that remain standing after a blaze ("material legacies"). Ecological memory confers forests with resilience to fire by providing them the building blocks for recovery, even under a wide range of conditions. By definition, disturbances are almost always unpredictable but "what we and many others want to know is whether there are situations where forests may be stressed beyond their ability to be resilient, where a double or triple whammy will have a big effect," says Turner. For instance, she will continue to study Yellowstone in the wake of this year's fires, to see if burned forest areas can recover after a growth period of just 28 years. Other studies by her research group have shown that years of hot, dry climate immediately following fires significantly impede forest recovery. Johnstone has shown that areas of boreal forest once occupied by white spruce have been invaded by flammable black spruce, increasing fire frequency in areas unaccustomed to flames, while some severely burned areas have been repopulated by less flammable species, reducing fires there. In Minnesota, severe wind storms that knock serotinous cones to the forest floor can prevent forests from recovering if a fire follows. And in New Zealand, some forests are seeing fires for the first time due to human impact; the species there have not had the opportunity or time to adapt to fire. "If the new normal is outside of the conditions they are adapted to, forests may no longer be resilient," says Turner, because it results in a mismatch between ecological memory and the disturbances forests endure. This mismatch can lead to what Turner and her co-authors dub "resilience debt," which becomes apparent only after a disturbance occurs. Ecological processes happen slowly, so the impact of disturbances, though they happen fast, could take years or even decades to manifest. By examining different mechanisms that have diminished the ability of forests to recover -- from a change in disturbance frequency, size or severity to changing climate -- Turner and her colleagues were able to define particular sets of conditions that may allow ecologists to predict when forests will be resilient or when they will be fundamentally altered. "I am excited because we have been working out these ideas for the last five years or so and it's nice to have a framework to test a lot of these ideas for how generalizable they are," Turner says. "Ultimately, it's the data that will tell us." Thanks to support from the federal Joint Fire Science Program, Turner has new funding to test some of these ideas about resilience in the Rocky Mountains. She and colleagues at UW-Madison, including Jack Williams, director of the Center for Climatic Research and a professor of geography; Stephen Carpenter, director of the Center for Limnology and professor of zoology; Anthony Ives, professor of zoology; and Chris Kucharik, professor of agronomy at the Nelson Institute for Environmental Studies, are also leading a new effort with support from the UW2020: WARF Discovery Initiative to focus on abrupt changes in ecological systems of the U.S. They refer to their project as ACES. "It's not only western forests where these things matter, where disturbances and changing environments shape regional landscapes," Turner adds. "With ACES, we want to assess the possibility of fast changes in forests, lakes and agriculture to help us anticipate the effects on wildlife, carbon storage, water quality, and future timber resources. These things matter a lot."


Hunter G.,University of Saskatchewan | Young G.B.,University of Western Ontario
Canadian Journal of Neurological Sciences | Year: 2012

Status epilepticus is among the most dramatic of clinical presentations encountered by emergency room physicians, neurologists, neurosurgeons and intensivists. While progress in its management has been aided significantly with an increasing number of effective treatment options, improved diagnostic methods and more effective monitoring, poor outcomes and diagnostic failures are still frequently encountered. Refractory cases still carry significant morbidity and mortality rates, including poor cognitive outcomes. This review discusses basic pathophysiology and management of status epilepticus, neuroimaging findings, the role of continuous electroencephalogram monitoring and nonconvulsive status epilepticusas well as recent developments in treatment options for refractory cases.


Liu J.,University of Saskatchewan | Wang R.,Lakehead University | Desai K.,University of Saskatchewan | Wu L.,University of Saskatchewan
Cardiovascular Research | Year: 2011

Aims Methylglyoxal (MG) overproduction has been reported in metabolic syndrome with hyperglycaemia (diabetes) or without hyperglycaemia (hypertension), and the underlying mechanism was investigated.Methods and resultsContributions of different pathways or enzymes to MG formation were evaluated in aorta or cultured vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). In all four animal models of metabolic syndrome, i.e. chronically fructose-fed hypertensive SpragueDawley rats, spontaneously hypertensive rats, obese non-diabetic Zucker rats, and diabetic Zucker rats, serum and aortic MG and fructose levels were increased, and the expression of GLUT5 (transporting fructose) and aldolase B (converting fructose to MG) in aorta were up-regulated. Aortic expressions of aldolase A, semicarbazide-sensitive amine oxidase (SSAO), and cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP 2E1), accounting for MG formation during glycolysis, protein, and lipid metabolism, respectively, was unchanged/reduced. Fructose (25 mM) treatment of VSMCs up-regulated the expression of GLUT5 and aldolase B and accelerated MG formation. Insulin (100 nM) increased GLUT5 expression and augmented fructose-increased cellular fructose accumulation and MG formation. Glucose (25 mM) treatment activated the polyol pathway and enhanced fructose formation, leading to aldolase B upregulation and MG overproduction. Inhibition of the polyol pathway reduced the glucose-increased aldolase B expression and MG generation. The excess formation of MG in under these conditions was eliminated by knock-down of aldolase B, but not by knock-down of aldolase A or inhibition of SSAO or CYP 2E1.ConclusionUpregulation of aldolase B by accumulated fructose is a common mechanism for MG overproduction in VSMCs and aorta in different models of metabolic syndrome. © 2011 The Author.


Seshia S.S.,University of Saskatchewan | Young G.B.,University of Western Ontario
Canadian Journal of Neurological Sciences | Year: 2013

In Part 2, we discuss the challenges of keeping up with the 'literature,' evidence-based medicine (EBM) in emerging economies and the Neurosciences, and two recent approaches to classifying evidence. We conclude by summarizing information from Parts 1 and 2 which suggest the need to critically re-appraise core elements of the EBM paradigm: (1) the hierarchical ranking of evidence, (2) randomized controlled trials or systematic reviews as the gold standard for all clinical questions or situations, (3) the statistical tests that have become integral to the 'measurements' for analyzing evidence, and (4) re-incorporating a role for evidence from basic sciences and pathophysiology. An understanding of how cognitive processes influence clinical decisions is also necessary to improve evidence-based practice. Emerging economies may have to modify the design and conduct of clinical research to their settings. Like all paradigms, EBM must keep improving with input from the grassroots to remain beneficial.


Seshia S.S.,University of Saskatchewan | Young G.B.,University of Western Ontario
Canadian Journal of Neurological Sciences | Year: 2013

The evidence-based medicine (EBM) paradigm, introduced in 1992, has had a major and positive impact on all aspects of health care. However, widespread use has also uncovered some limitations; these are discussed from the perspectives of two clinicians in this, the first of a two part narrative review. For example, there are credible reservations about the validity of hierarchical levels of evidence, a core element of the EBM paradigm. In addition, potential and actual methodological and statistical deficiencies have been identified, not only in many published randomized controlled trials but also in systematic reviews, both rated highly for evidence in EBM classifications. Ethical violations compromise reliability of some data. Clinicians need to be conscious of potential limitations in some of the cornerstones of the EBM paradigm, and to deficiencies in the literature.


Dhillon G.S.,University of Delaware | Dhillon G.S.,University of Saskatchewan | Inamdar S.,University of Delaware
Geophysical Research Letters | Year: 2013

We determined the runoff exports of particulate (POC) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) from a 12 ha forested catchment which received more than 14 storm events in a 16-month period and three extreme events associated with hurricanes. While POC and DOC exports for the small events were comparable, POC exports for the hurricane-associated events were six to eight times the DOC values. Hurricane Irene alone contributed to 56% (21.2 kg C ha-1) and 19% (3.3 kg C ha-1) of the 2011 exports of POC and DOC, respectively. A precipitation threshold beyond which POC fluxes rapidly outpaced the DOC values was also identified. Our study suggests that large, high-intensity storm events that are predicted to increase under future climate-change scenarios will dramatically alter the runoff C regime by enhancing the POC inputs to aquatic ecosystems. Such shift in C forms could have important consequences for aquatic biota, atmospheric C cycling, and ecosystem and human health. Key Points POC mass exports during extreme storm events are much greater than DOC POC exports increase dramatically beyond a specific precipitation threshold Shift in C forms will impact water quality, C cycling and ecosystem health ©2013. American Geophysical Union. All Rights Reserved.


Adamowicz W.,University of Alberta | Dupont D.,Brock University | Krupnick A.,Senior Fellow and Director of Research | Zhang J.,University of Saskatchewan
Journal of Environmental Economics and Management | Year: 2011

We examine the value of health risk reductions (microbial illnesses/deaths and bladder cancer illnesses/deaths) in the context of drinking water quality treatment by public systems. When we assume that combined mortality and morbidity risk reductions are equally spread in the future; our results suggest that microbial risk-reduction programs have higher value than cancer risk-reduction programs, but that mortality risk reduction values are not significantly different for cancer and microbials. However, when a 25-year cancer latency is accounted for and a 5% discount rate is used, the value of cancer mortality risk reductions exceeds the value for microbial risk reductions. We also address a number of methodological issues, including performance of alternative choice experiment estimation (CE) techniques, relationship of CE to contingent valuation results, and implications for incorporating morbidity and mortality endpoints in the same survey instrument. © 2010 Elsevier Inc.


Cho S.H.,Korea University | Burton R.,University of Saskatchewan
Mechatronics | Year: 2011

This paper deals with the issue of position tracking control of a high performance hydrostatic actuation system using simple adaptive control. For energy-efficiency and savings, a speed-controlled fixed displacement pump is utilized to drive a symmetrical linear actuator instead of a directional control servo valve. The whole control system is composed of a pair of interconnected subsystems, that is, a feedback control system and a feedforward control system to enhance the tracking performance. The experiment using the proposed control scheme has been performed and a significant reduction in position tracking error is achieved compared to a conventional PID control. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Dehghanian P.,Sharif University of Technology | Fotuhi-Firuzabad M.,Sharif University of Technology | Aminifar F.,Sharif University of Technology | Billinton R.,University of Saskatchewan
IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery | Year: 2013

Although reliability-centered maintenance (RCM) has proven its noticeable merits in many industries, has not been yet furnished with efficient analytical methods in the power engineering context. The first of this two-paper set presents a practical framework by which the RCM procedure can be implemented in power distribution systems. The proposed algorithm consists of three main stages. The prerequisites of the analysis are outlined in the first stage. In the second stage, an approach is developed to identify the network's critical components, from the reliability point of view. Having practically modeled the components' failure rates, an efficient cost/benefit evaluation approach is then proposed to distinguish a variety of maintenance plans. The optimal set of maintenance strategies is next adopted for implementation. The algorithm is terminated in the third stage by recording both technical and economical outcomes for tuning the forward maintenance activities. The proposed methodology, although tailored to distribution networks, is generic enough to be applied to other power system areas. In the companion paper, the proposed methodology is examined by application to the Birka distribution system of Stockholm City, Sweden, and more practical aspects are discussed. © 1986-2012 IEEE.


Bissett A.,CSIRO | Brown M.V.,University of New South Wales | Siciliano S.D.,University of Saskatchewan | Thrall P.H.,CSIRO
Ecology Letters | Year: 2013

The soil environment is essential to many ecosystem services which are primarily mediated by microbial communities. Soil physical and chemical conditions are altered on local and global scales by anthropogenic activity and which threatens the provision of many soil services. Despite the importance of soil biota for ecosystem function, we have limited ability to predict and manage soil microbial community responses to change. To better understand causal relationships between microbial community structure and ecological function, we argue for a systems approach to prediction and management of microbial response to environmental change. This necessitates moving beyond concepts of resilience, resistance and redundancy that assume single optimum stable states, to ones that better reflect the dynamic and interactive nature of microbial systems. We consider the response of three soil groups (ammonia oxidisers, denitrifiers, symbionts) to anthropogenic perturbation to motivate our discussion. We also present a network re-analysis of a saltmarsh microbial community which illustrates how such approaches can reveal ecologically important connections between functional groups. More generally, we suggest the need for integrative studies which consider how environmental variables moderate interactions between functional groups, how this moderation affects biogeochemical processes and how these feedbacks ultimately drive ecosystem services provided by soil biota. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd/CNRS and Commonwealth of Australia.


Thomas N.A.,University of South Australia | Elias L.J.,University of Saskatchewan
Brain Research | Year: 2011

A leftward spatial bias has been observed with visuospatial attention tasks, including line bisection and the greyscales task. Upper and lower visual field differences have been observed on various tasks, with a lower visual field advantage occurring for motion, global processing and coordinate spatial judgments. Upper visual field advantages occur for visual search, local processing and categorical judgments. In perceptual asymmetries research, upper and lower visual field differences have not typically been scored separately, as most presentations have been central. Mixed results have made it difficult to determine whether lateral biases are stronger in the upper or the lower visual field. As length of presentation time differed in prior studies, this factor was examined to determine whether it would lead differential biases to emerge in each visual field. The greyscales task was used to investigate the interaction of visual field and presentation time within subjects (N = 43). Eye tracking was used during the task and supported the hypothesis of a stronger left bias in the lower visual field. Presentation time and visual field interacted to influence performance. Prolonged presentation led to a stronger leftward bias in the lower visual field whereas the leftward bias was stronger in the upper visual field during brief presentation. Results showed a relation between the lower and left visual fields and the upper and right visual fields, which has not previously been shown in perceptual asymmetries. Further, it is suggested that functional differences between the visual streams could underlie the visual field differences in perceptual asymmetries. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.


Patent
Merial, Queen's University of Belfast and University of Saskatchewan | Date: 2011-09-07

The cloning of a novel PCVII viral genome is described as is expression of proteins derived from the PCVII genome. These proteins can be used in vaccine compositions for the prevention and treatment of PCVII infections, as well as in diagnostic methods for determining the presence of PCVII infections in a vertebrate subject. Polynucleotides derived from the viral genome can be used as diagnostic primers and probes.


News Article | September 14, 2016
Site: motherboard.vice.com

A giant company just bought another giant company, but if you're not an investor or a farmer, you may not have noticed. Bayer—the aspirin company that also makes farm products like pesticides—announced on Wednesday it was merging with Monsanto, the massive genetically-modified seed producer that owns about a third of the seed market in the US. The $66 billion merger is the largest this year, and means Bayer now controls more than a quarter of all seeds and pesticides on the planet, according to the BBC. But what's even crazier is that this is just the latest in a long list of big mergers of agricultural companies this year, meaning the options for where farmers buy their seeds, pesticides, and fertilizers are shrinking at lightning speed. If this all sounds vaguely threatening but you're not sure why, it's because there's a chance these mergers could put additional pressure on farms, leading to higher food prices, or even threaten food security. Read More: Farmers Use Slack and Share Memes at Work, Too "The world's biggest suppliers of pesticides and seeds have gone from six players—ChemChina, Syngenta, Dow, DuPont, Bayer, and Monsanto—to three," said John Colley, a professor at Warwick Business School in the UK, who researches large takeovers. "There's an awful lot fewer companies to compete with. They stand a much better chance of being able to increase pricing." Colley explained that these mergers are largely the result of falling crop prices. We've had more than enough major crops like corn and soybean to meet demands, which drove the prices down, which in turn led farmers to start tightening belts and spend less on products such as pesticides and fertilizers. This ripple effect made it more difficult for these major agricultural companies to pay off debts, and increased the incentive to merge. Merging allows corporations to occupy a bigger share of the market, and potentially drive up prices to make up for slowed sales, even for consumers. "There's some major transformational changes happening." When so much of the market is consolidated into a handful of companies, it can potentially be less stable. In some areas, the options could be even fewer—maybe only one or two companies. If one company has a strike, for example, and there is a shortage of supplies, it could threaten farmers' ability to access what they need. "Sometimes, oligopolies one way or another actually do contrive that situation to try to improve pricing," Colley told me. "I think it's a very valid fear." These mergers also concentrate a lot of economic power into a few entities that have pretty specific political desires, giving them even great lobbying heft. But Brooke Dobni, a professor of business strategy at the University of Saskatchewan, said it's not all doom and gloom. For one, government antitrust regulators exist to make sure deals like this don't pose major threats to the market, and regulators in Europe and North America will be scrutinizing these mergers—and will need to sign off on them before they're official. There's also a chance it could signal more stability in the industry, allowing these corporations to reduce operating costs as a way to save money rather than relying on increased prices. It's yet to be seen which direction these companies will take, and Dobni said consumers should be paying attention. "We're in a transitional phase [in agriculture]," Dobni told me over the phone. "We go through these downturns, but I don't think the upturn is going to be as soon as people think. The people sitting around boardroom tables making these decisions see that and they've been in this industry for a long time. There's some major transformational changes happening." Get six of our favorite Motherboard stories every day by signing up for our newsletter.


News Article | October 28, 2016
Site: www.marketwired.com

NOT FOR DISTRIBUTION TO UNITED STATES NEWSWIRE SERVICES OR FOR DISSEMINATION IN THE UNITED STATES GFG Resources Inc. ("GFG" or the "Company") and Crest Petroleum Corp. ( : CTP.H) ("Crest") are pleased to announce the completion of the previously announced reverse take-over transaction ("RTO"). Pursuant to the RTO, Crest has acquired, on a one for one basis, all of the issued and outstanding shares of GFG in exchange for a total 38,503,483 common shares of Crest (the "Crest Shares"), of which 9,806,536 Crest Shares are subject to escrow restrictions for a period of three years in accordance with the polices of the TSX Venture Exchange (the "Exchange"). The remaining 28,696,947 Crest Shares are subject to a mandatory pooling restriction of which 25% are immediately free-trading and the remaining 75% are subject to a six month hold period expiring April 21, 2017. Certificates and/or letters of transmittal for Crest Shares are being processed and will be mailed out to the shareholders of GFG early next week. As a result of the RTO, there are now a total of 43,253,483 common shares and 300,000 stock options of Crest outstanding. Concurrent with closing of the RTO, all of the existing directors and officers of Crest have resigned and the board of directors and management of Crest are now comprised of the following individuals: Full details concerning the RTO and descriptions of the new board of directors and management are included in the joint information circular of GFG and Crest dated September 7, 2016, a copy of which is available for review on SEDAR. Rick Johnson, who is a new addition to the management team, has over 25 years experience in accounting, audit, tax and corporate governance. Most recently, Mr. Johnson was the CFO, Vice-President of Finance and Corporate Secretary of Claude Resources Inc., which was acquired by Silver Standard Resources Inc. earlier this year. Mr. Johnson holds a Bachelor of Commerce degree from the University of Saskatchewan and is a member of CPA Canada. In conjunction with the completion of the RTO, Crest expects to change its name to GFG Resources Inc. and begin trading on the Exchange as a Tier 2 Mining Issuer under the new symbol "GFG" on or about October 27, 2016 following and subject to final Exchange acceptance of the RTO. GFG Resources Inc. is a gold exploration company headquartered in Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada. The Company owns 100% of the Rattlesnake Hills Project, a district scale gold exploration project located approximately 100 kilometers southwest of Casper, Wyoming U.S. The geologic setting, alteration and mineralization seen in the Rattlesnake Hills are similar to other gold deposits of the Rocky Mountain alkaline province which, collectively, have produced over 50 million ounces of gold. NEITHER THE TSX VENTURE EXCHANGE NOR ITS REGULATION SERVICES PROVIDER (AS THAT TERM IS DEFINED IN THE POLICIES OF THE TSX VENTURE EXCHANGE) ACCEPTS RESPONSIBILITY FOR THE ADEQUACY OR ACCURACY OF THIS RELEASE. All statements, other than statements of historical fact, contained in this news release constitute "forward-looking information" within the meaning of applicable Canadian securities laws and "forward-looking statements" within the meaning of the United States Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995 (referred to herein as "forward-looking statements"). Forward-looking statements include, but are not limited to, statements with respect to the change of name and symbol for the Company and timing thereof, anticipated acceptance of final RTO documentation by the Exchange, future price of gold, success of exploration activities and metallurgical test work, permitting time lines, currency exchange rate fluctuations, requirements for additional capital, government regulation of exploration work, environmental risks, unanticipated reclamation expenses, title disputes or claims and limitations on insurance coverage. Generally, these forward-looking statements can be identified by the use of forward-looking terminology such as "plans", "expects" or "does not expect", "is expected", "budget", "scheduled", "estimates", "forecasts", "intends", "anticipates" or "does not anticipate" or "believes", or the negative connotation thereof or variations of such words and phrases or state that certain actions, events or results, "may", "could", "would", "might" or "will be taken", "occur" or "be achieved" or the negative connotation thereof. All forward-looking statements are based on various assumptions, including, without limitation, the expectations and beliefs of management, the assumed long-term price of gold, that the Company will receive required permits and access to surface rights, that the Company can access financing, appropriate equipment and sufficient labour, and that the political environment within the United States will continue to support the development of mining projects in the United States. In addition, the similarity or proximity of other gold deposits of the Rocky Mountain alkaline province to the Rattlesnake Hill Project is not necessary indicative of the geological setting, alteration and mineralization of the Rattlesnake Hills Project. Forward-looking statements are subject to known and unknown risks, uncertainties and other factors that may cause the actual results, level of activity, performance or achievements of GFG to be materially different from those expressed or implied by such forward-looking statements, including but not limited to: actual results of current exploration activities; environmental risks; future prices of gold; operating risks; accidents, labour issues and other risks of the mining industry; delays in obtaining government approvals or financing; and other risks and uncertainties. These risks and uncertainties are not, and should not be construed as being, exhaustive. Although GFG has attempted to identify important factors that could cause actual results to differ materially from those contained in forward-looking statements, there may be other factors that cause results not to be as anticipated, estimated or intended. There can be no assurance that such statements will prove to be accurate, as actual results and future events could differ materially from those anticipated in such statements. In addition, forward-looking statements are provided solely for the purpose of providing information about management's current expectations and plans and allowing investors and others to get a better understanding of our operating environment. Accordingly, readers should not place undue reliance on forward-looking statements. Forward-looking statements in this news release are made as of the date hereof and GFG and Crest assume no obligation to update any forward-looking statements, except as required by applicable laws.


van Beest F.M.,University of Saskatchewan | van Beest F.M.,Hedmark University College | Milner J.M.,Hedmark University College
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013

Background:Empirical tests that link temperature-mediated changes in behaviour (activity and resource selection) to individual fitness or condition are currently lacking for endotherms yet may be critical to understanding the effect of climate change on population dynamics. Moose (Alces alces) are thought to suffer from heat stress in all seasons so provide a good biological model to test whether exposure to non-optimal ambient temperatures influence seasonal changes in body mass. Seasonal mass change is an important fitness correlate of large herbivores and affects reproductive success of female moose.Methodology/Principal Findings:Using GPS-collared adult female moose from two populations in southern Norway we quantified individual differences in seasonal activity budget and resource selection patterns as a function of seasonal temperatures thought to induce heat stress in moose. Individual body mass was recorded in early and late winter, and autumn to calculate seasonal mass changes (n = 52 over winter, n = 47 over summer). We found large individual differences in temperature-dependent resource selection patterns as well as within and between season variability in thermoregulatory strategies. As expected, individuals using an optimal strategy, selecting young successional forest (foraging habitat) at low ambient temperatures and mature coniferous forest (thermal shelter) during thermally stressful conditions, lost less mass in winter and gained more mass in summer.Conclusions/Significance:This study provides evidence that behavioural responses to temperature have important consequences for seasonal mass change in moose living in the south of their distribution in Norway, and may be a contributing factor to recently observed declines in moose demographic performance. Although the mechanisms that underlie the observed temperature mediated habitat-fitness relationship remain to be tested, physiological state and individual variation in thermal tolerance are likely contributory factors. Climate-related effects on animal behaviour, and subsequently fitness, are expected to intensify as global warming continues. © 2013 van Beest, Milner.


Walker A.D.M.,University of KwaZulu - Natal | Sofko G.J.,University of Saskatchewan
Annales Geophysicae | Year: 2016

When studying magnetospheric convection, it is often necessary to map the steady-state electric field, measured at some point on a magnetic field line, to a magnetically conjugate point in the other hemisphere, or the equatorial plane, or at the position of a satellite. Such mapping is relatively easy in a dipole field although the appropriate formulae are not easily accessible. They are derived and reviewed here with some examples. It is not possible to derive such formulae in more realistic geomagnetic field models. A new method is described in this paper for accurate mapping of electric fields along field lines, which can be used for any field model in which the magnetic field and its spatial derivatives can be computed. From the spatial derivatives of the magnetic field three first order differential equations are derived for the components of the normalized element of separation of two closely spaced field lines. These can be integrated along with the magnetic field tracing equations and Faraday's law used to obtain the electric field as a function of distance measured along the magnetic field line. The method is tested in a simple model consisting of a dipole field plus a magnetotail model. The method is shown to be accurate, convenient, and suitable for use with more realistic geomagnetic field models. © 2016 Author(s).


The objectives of this study were to reveal protein molecular structure in relation to rumen degradation kinetics and intestinal availability in combined feeds of hulless barley with bioethanol coproduct [pure wheat dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS)] at 5 different ratios (100:0, 75:25, 50:50, 25:75, and 0:100) in dairy cattle. The parameters assessed included 1) protein chemical profiles, 2) protein subfractions partitioned by the Cornell Net Carbohydrate and Protein System, 3) in situ protein degradation kinetics, 4) truly absorbed protein supply in the small intestine (DVE), metabolizable protein characteristics and degraded protein balance (OEB), 5) protein molecular structure spectral profiles, and 6) correlation between protein molecular structure and protein nutrient profiles and metabolic characteristics. We found that 1) with increasing inclusion of wheat DDGS in feed combinations, protein chemical compositions of crude protein (CP), neutral detergent-insoluble CP, acid detergent-insoluble CP, and nonprotein N were increased, whereas soluble CP was decreased linearly; CP subfractions A, B3, and C were increased linearly, but CP subfractions B1 and B2 were decreased; truly digestible CP increased but total digestible nutrients at 1× maintenance decreased linearly; protein degradation rate was decreased without affecting potentially soluble, potentially degradable, and potentially undegradable fractions, and both rumen-degradable protein and rumen-undegradable protein were increased; by using the DVE/OEB system, the DVE and OEB values were increased from 98 to 226g/kg of dry matter and -1 to 105g/kg of dry matter, respectively; 2) by using the molecular spectroscopy technique, the spectral differences in protein molecular structure were detected among the feed combinations; in the original combined feeds, amide I and II peak area and ratio of amide I to II were increased linearly; although no difference existed in α-helix and β-sheet height among the combinations, the ratio of α-helix to β-sheet height was changed quadratically; 3) in the in situ 48-h residue samples, amide I and amide II peak area intensities were increased linearly and the ratio of amide I to II peak area was decreased linearly from 4.28 to 2.63; α-helix and β-sheet height of rumen residues were similar among 5 feed combinations; and 4) the ratio of α-helix to β-sheet height in original feed combinations was strongly correlation with protein chemical and nutrient profiles, but the ratio of amide I to II area had no significant correlation with all items that were tested; no correlation was found between the ratio of α-helix to β-sheet height of the in situ rumen residues and protein chemical and nutrient profiles. In conclusion, by integration of hulless barley with bioethanol coproduct of wheat DDGS, feed quality in combined feeds was improved and more optimized. Adding wheat DDGS increased linearly CP, truly digestible CP, rumen-degradable protein, rumen-undegradable protein, DVE, and OEB values in combined feeds. The molecular spectral differences of protein molecular structures (amide I and II area intensities, the ratio of amide I to amide II, and the ratio of α-helix to β-sheet height among feed combinations) were detected among the combinations. This may partially explain the biological differences in protein chemical profiles and protein utilization and availability in dairy cattle. In the original combined feeds, protein α-helix-to-β-sheet ratio had significant correlations with protein chemical and nutrient profiles, but in in situ 48-h residue samples, protein amide I-to-II ratio had significant correlations with protein chemical and nutrient profiles. This study may provide an insight into how to more efficiently use hulless barley grain (high energy and high degradation rate) and wheat DDGS (high metabolizable protein and low degradation rate) in beef and dairy production systems. © 2012 American Dairy Science Association.


Martynowski D.,University of Saskatchewan | Grochulski P.,Canadian Light Source Inc. | Howard P.S.,University of Saskatchewan
Acta Crystallographica Section D: Biological Crystallography | Year: 2013

Vibrio vulnificus utilizes the type II secretion system (T2SS), culminating in a megadalton outer membrane complex called the secretin, to translocate extracellular proteins from the periplasmic space across the outer membrane. In Aeromonas hydrophila, the general secretion pathway proteins ExeA and ExeB form an inner membrane complex which interacts with peptidoglycan and is required for the assembly of the secretin composed of ExeD. In V. vulnificus, these two proteins are fused into one protein, EpsAB. Here, the crystal structure of a periplasmic domain of EpsAB (amino acids 333-584) solved by SAD phasing is presented. The crystals belonged to space group C2 and diffracted to 1.55Å resolution.


Peak D.,University of Saskatchewan | Regier T.,Canadian Light Source Inc.
Environmental Science and Technology | Year: 2012

Ferrihydrite is a common iron hydroxide nanomineral commonly found in soils, sediments, and surface waters. Reactivity with this important environmental surface often controls the fate and mobility of both essential nutrients and inorganic contaminants. Despite the critical role of ferrihydrite in environmental geochemistry, its structure is still debated. In this work, we apply bulk sensitive Fe L edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy to study the crystal field environment of the Fe in ferrihydrite and other Fe oxides of known structure. This direct probe of the local electronic structure provides verification of the presence of tetrahedrally coordinated Fe(III) in the structure of ferrihydrite and puts to rest the controversy on this issue. © 2012 American Chemical Society.


Olver M.E.,University of Saskatchewan | Stockdale K.C.,University of Saskatchewan | Wormith J.S.,Saskatoon Police Service
Psychological Assessment | Year: 2014

We conducted a comprehensive meta-analysis of the Level of Service (LS) scales, their predictive accuracy and group-based differences in risk/need, across 128 studies comprising 151 independent samples and a total of 137,931 offenders. Important potential moderators were examined including ethnicity, gender, LS scale variant, geographic region, and type of recidivism used to measure outcome. Results supported the predictive accuracy of the LS scales and their criminogenic need domains for general and violent recidivism overall, and among broad subgroups of interest, including females and ethnic minorities. Although results indicated that gender and ethnicity were not substantive sources of effect size variability, significant differences in effect size magnitude were found when analyses were conducted by geographic region. Canadian samples consistently demonstrated the largest effect sizes, followed by studies conducted outside North America, and then studies conducted in the United States. This pattern was observed irrespective of gender, ethnicity, LS domain, LS variant, or type of recidivism outcome, suggesting geographic region may be an important source of effect size variation. We discuss possible factors underlying this pattern of results and identify areas for future research. © 2013 American Psychological Association.


Jamaati R.,Isfahan University of Technology | Toroghinejad M.R.,Isfahan University of Technology | Dutkiewicz J.,Polish Academy of Sciences | Szpunar J.A.,University of Saskatchewan
Materials and Design | Year: 2012

In this study, the accumulative roll bonding (ARB) process was used for manufacturing nanostructured aluminum/15. vol.% alumina composites. Microstructural characterization by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) identified the severe shear deformation, however, the grain growth was restrained by particles of oxide film and recrystallization produced the nanograins with an average size <100. nm after the 13th cycle of composite strip. The findings also indicated that the presence of large particles and deformation structure in the vicinity of the particles made the particle stimulated nucleation (PSN) of recrystallization possible. The Williamson-Hall method was used to calculate the grain size from the X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns, which were 150. nm for pure aluminum and 63. nm for aluminum/alumina composite after 13 cycles of the ARB process. The findings also revealed that after the first cycle, hardness rapidly increased, then dwindled, and finally reached saturation as the number of ARB cycles increased. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.


News Article | December 15, 2015
Site: www.sciencenews.org

Microbes discovered in Arctic mud could be the closest relatives yet found to the single-celled ancestor that swallowed a bacterium and made life so complicated. Biologists have proposed that this swallowing event, perhaps 1.8 billion years ago, led to complex cells with membrane-wrapped organelles, the hallmark of all eukaryotes from amoebas to zebras. Researchers discovered the new phylum of microbes, dubbed Lokiarchaeota, by screening DNA from sediment (SN: 5/30/15, p. 6). Though no one has identified an actual cell yet, the new phylum appears to mingle genes similar to those in modern eukaryotes and genes from archaea, the sister group to bacteria. Analyses suggest the cells have dynamic structures that could have engulfed bacteria long ago. (Biologists have proposed representing that merger as a ring of life, rather than a tree.) What happened next in the tale is clearer but still a puzzle. Unlike the three-domain tree, the ring conveys that bacteria and archaea merged to give rise to eukaryotes. “We don’t have all the existing pieces right now because a lot of the diversity of microbial eukaryotes remains unexplored,” says Patrick Keeling of the University of British Columbia in Vancouver, who studies early eukaryote history. But what scientists have found has radically reshaped the old multicellular-biased tree of life learned by generations of schoolchildren. This year marked the 10th anniversary of a paper, in the Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology, that served as an obituary for that tree (SN: 8/8/15, p. 22). Old textbooks had drawn a eukaryote treetop that branched into three kingdoms of mostly multicellular organisms (plants, animals and fungi) and one hodgepodge kingdom of single-celled beasts called Protista. Beginning in the late 1980s, though, new genetic studies relegated the multicelled kingdoms to mere side branches on five to seven much bigger branches of mostly single-celled protists. This new scheme has held up “pretty well,” says Sina Adl of the University of Saskatchewan in Saskatoon, a coauthor on the 2005 paper. In the May 22 Science, for example, the Tara Oceans consortium, which surveyed plankton worldwide, classified diversity using the new divisions: SAR, Amoebozoa, Archaeplastida, Excavata and Opisthokonta (to which humans belong). These aren’t exactly house-hold names, though — at least not yet.


Dodani S.C.,University of California at Berkeley | Leary S.C.,University of Saskatchewan | Cobine P.A.,Auburn University | Winge D.R.,University of Utah | And 2 more authors.
Journal of the American Chemical Society | Year: 2011

We present the design, synthesis, spectroscopy, and biological applications of Mitochondrial Coppersensor-1 (Mito-CS1), a new type of targetable fluorescent sensor for imaging exchangeable mitochondrial copper pools in living cells. Mito-CS1 is a bifunctional reporter that combines a Cu +-responsive fluorescent platform with a mitochondrial-targeting triphenylphosphonium moiety for localizing the probe to this organelle. Molecular imaging with Mito-CS1 establishes that this new chemical tool can detect changes in labile mitochondrial Cu+ in a model HEK 293T cell line as well as in human fibroblasts. Moreover, we utilized Mito-CS1 in a combined imaging and biochemical study in fibroblasts derived from patients with mutations in the two synthesis of cytochrome c oxidase 1 and 2 proteins (SCO1 and SCO2), each of which is required for assembly and metalation of functionally active cytochrome c oxidase (COX). Interestingly, we observe that although defects in these mitochondrial metallochaperones lead to a global copper deficiency at the whole cell level, total copper and exchangeable mitochondrial Cu+ pools in SCO1 and SCO2 patient fibroblasts are largely unaltered relative to wild-type controls. Our findings reveal that the cell maintains copper homeostasis in mitochondria even in situations of copper deficiency and mitochondrial metallochaperone malfunction, illustrating the importance of regulating copper stores in this energy-producing organelle. © 2011 American Chemical Society.


Manikyamba C.,National Geophysical Research Institute | Kerrich R.,University of Saskatchewan
Precambrian Research | Year: 2011

Well-preserved alkaline basalts, bearing relict aegirine, leucite and nepheline mineralogy, are stratigraphically associated with high-Mg basalts in the Neoarchean Penakacherla greenstone belt, eastern Dharwar craton, India. Alkaline basalts (Mg #∼0.70-0.58) are enriched in alkalies (K2O+Na2O∼7wt.%), and TiO2 (2.3-2.1wt.%), and exhibit fractionated REE patterns with (La/Yb)N ranging from 23 to 29. On primitive mantle normalized diagrams they record a downturn from Ce to Th, small negative Nb anomalies relative to La, and Zr/Hf ratios higher than the primitive mantle value, in common with compositional characteristics of Phanerozoic alkaline ocean island basalts (OIB). Some interelement ratios are intermediate between EM1- and HIMU-OIB. Associated high-Mg basalts (MgO 17.2-9.2wt.%) have comparatively lower TiO2 (1.2-0.50wt.%), and flat HREE patterns with slight depletion in LREE, and small positive Nb anomalies. These basalts are compositionally similar to tholeiitic basalts associated with komatiites in many Neoarchean greenstone terranes. Two samples have the conjunction of Nb/Th<8 and fractionated LREE [(La/Yb)N 2.60-2.63] consistent with crustal contamination. On the global array of Phanerozoic to Recent ocean island basalts, in SiO2 versus Nb/Y coordinates, alkaline basalts plot with counterparts from Aitutaki and Heard, whereas high-Mg basalts plot near Iceland tholeiites. Alkaline basalts plot with OIB, and high-Mg basalts near N-MORB, on the Th/Yb versus Nb/Yb MORB-OIB array of Phanerozoic intraplate basalts; accordingly the mantle components of that array were established in the 2.7Ga mantle asthenosphere. Alkaline basalts are rare in Archean volcanic sequences. This occurrence of alkaline basalts indicates subduction, recycling, and incubation of Mesoarchaean oceanic and continental crust in the mantle, and generation of high-Mg and alkaline basalts from a mantle plume at 2.7. Ga, possibly analogous to counterparts of Iceland. The mantle plume likely erupted at a thin craton margin, given flat HREE of most high-Mg basalts. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.


Ngo D.T.,McGill University | Tellambura C.,University of Alberta | Nguyen H.H.,University of Saskatchewan
IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology | Year: 2010

This paper considers the primary user activity or the subchannel availability in optimally distributing the available resources for an orthogonal frequency-division multiple-access (OFDMA) cognitive radio multicast network. For this purpose, a risk-return model is presented, and a general rate-loss function, which gives a reduction in the attainable throughput whenever primary users reoccupy the temporarily accessible subchannels, is introduced. Taking the maximization of the expected sum rate of secondary multicast groups as the design objective, an efficient joint subcarrier and power-allocation scheme is proposed. Specifically, the design problem is solved via a dual optimization method under constraints on the tolerable interference thresholds at individual primary user's frequency bands. It is shown that as the number of subcarriers gets large (which is often the case in practice), the dual-domain solution becomes globally optimum with regard to the primal problem. More attractively, the "practically optimal" performance of this approach is achieved with a substantially lower complexity, which is only linear in the total number of subcarriers as opposed to exponential complexity typically required by a direct search method. Our proposed design is valid for unicast and multicast transmissions and is applicable for a wide range of rate-loss functions, among which, the linear function is a special case. The superiority of the dual scheme is thoroughly verified by numerical examples. © 2006 IEEE.


Ferguson G.,University of Saskatchewan | Gleeson T.,McGill University
Nature Climate Change | Year: 2012

Climate change and human population growth are expected to have substantial impacts on global water resources throughout the twenty-first century. Coastal aquifers are a nexus of the world's oceanic and hydrologic ecosystems and provide a water source for the more than one billion people living in coastal regions. Saltwater intrusion caused by excessive groundwater extraction is already impacting diverse regions of the globe. Synthesis studies and detailed simulations have predicted that rising sea levels could negatively impact coastal aquifers through saltwater intrusion and/or inundation of coastal regions. However, the relative vulnerability of coastal aquifers to groundwater extraction and sea-level rise has not been systematically examined. Here we show that coastal aquifers are more vulnerable to groundwater extraction than to predicted sea-level rise under a wide range of hydrogeologic conditions and population densities. Only aquifers with very low hydraulic gradients are more vulnerable to sea-level rise and these regions will be impacted by saltwater inundation before saltwater intrusion. Human water use is a key driver in the hydrology of coastal aquifers, and efforts to adapt to sea-level rise at the expense of better water management are misguided. © 2012 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.


Awada L.,University of Saskatchewan | Yiannaka A.,University of Nebraska - Lincoln
Food Policy | Year: 2012

The study develops a general analytical framework of heterogeneous consumer preferences to examine the effects of country of origin labeling (COOL) regulation on consumer purchasing decisions and welfare. We show that while differences in consumer perceptions about COOL information, namely, whether it is viewed as an attribute that differentiates products vertically or horizontally, do not alter the nature of the market and consumer welfare effects of mandatory COOL, the relative strength of consumer preferences for COOL are shown to be important in determining the magnitude of these effects. In addition, our results show that the benchmark used (a no COOL versus a voluntary COOL regime) is critical in evaluating the effects of the policy. We show that, under both horizontal and vertical product differentiation, a change from a no COOL to a mandatory COOL regime decreases (increases) the welfare of consumers with weak (strong) preference for COOL while a change from a voluntary to a mandatory COOL regime leads to an unambiguous loss in consumer welfare. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.


Leslie W.D.,University of Manitoba | Morin S.N.,McGill University | Lix L.M.,University of Saskatchewan
Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism | Year: 2012

Context: There is contradictory information on whether the rate of bone mineral density(BMD) loss is an independent risk factor for osteoporotic fractures and whether this should be included in fracture prediction systems. Objective: This study was undertaken to better define rate of BMD loss as a contributor to fracture risk in routine clinical practice. Design and Setting: We performed a retrospective cohort study using a database of all clinical BMD results for the province of Manitoba, Canada. Patients: We included 4498 untreated women age 40 yr and older at the time of a second BMD test performed between April 1996 and March 2009. Main Outcome Measures: A total of 146 women with major osteoporotic fracture outcomes after the second BMD test (mean observation, 2.7 yr) and relevant covariates were identified in population- based computerized health databases. Results: Annualized percentage change in total hip BMD was no greater in fracture compared to nonfracturewomen(-0. 4±1.7 vs.-0.5±1.4; P=0.166). After adjustment for final total hip BMD, other covariates, and medication use, rate of total hip BMD change did not predict major osteoporotic fractures (hazard ratio, 0.95 per SD decrease; 95% confidence interval, 0.81-1.10). Similar results were also seen in analyses based upon change in lumbar spine and femoral neck BMD. Conclusions: We found no evidence that BMD loss, as detected during routine clinical monitoring, was a significant independent risk factor for major osteoporotic fractures. Copyright © 2012 by The Endocrine Society.


Kerrich R.,University of Saskatchewan | Manikyamba C.,National Geophysical Research Institute
Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences | Year: 2012

An association of Nb-enriched basalts (NEB), high-MgO andesites (HMA), and flows with adakitic characteristics are interlayered with tholeiitic pillow basalts in the 2.7 Ga Penakacherla greenstone belt of are present, a high-Mg# Ni (0.65-0.56, 106-52 ppm) and low-Mg# Ni (0.45-0.34, 32-13 ppm) counterpart; Nb spans 6.3-18 ppm relative to "normal" arc tholeiitic basalts, where Nb ~ 3 ppm, and hence qualify as NEB. Basalts plot on the low-Ce/Yb trend of intraoceanic arcs, and have fractionated heavy rare-earth elements (HREE) indicative of melting with residual garnet at >90 km. Ratios of Nb/Ta (7.6 ± 0.7), Zr/Hf (44 ± 0.8), and Zr/Sm (27 ± 2.4) are systematically low, high, and similar to respective primitive mantle ratios of 17, 36, and 25, consistent with a mid-ocean ridge basaltlike mantle source in the sub-arc mantle wedge. Intermediate compositions are divided into high-K but low-Na (K 2O 1.8- 5.3; Na 2O 0.5-2.1 wt.%) and low-K but high-Na (K 2O 0.10-1.5; Na 2O 4.1-5.6 wt.%) populations defining distinct magma series; accordingly, these are termed K-adakitic and Na-adakitic rocks, respectively. The Na-type has SiO 2≥56 wt.%, MgO<3 wt.%, Mg# ~0.5, Na 2O ≥3.5 wt.%, K 2O ≤3 wt.%, Yb ≤1.9 ppm, Cr ≥30 ppm, with slightly lower limits of Al 2O 3≥15 wt.% and La/Yb 7.5-8.2 versus ≥20, thus conforming to most criteria for Na-adakites. NEB are interpreted as melts of mantle wedge hybridized by adakitic melts having residual garnet; and Na-adakites are slab melts of low-Mg basalt in the garnet-amphibolite facies. K-adakitic flows are melts of mafic lower crust, or melts of lower crust delaminated into mantle wedge asthenosphere.


Duro D.C.,University of Saskatchewan | Franklin S.E.,University of Saskatchewan | Franklin S.E.,Trent University | Dube M.G.,Total E and P Canada Ltd
Remote Sensing of Environment | Year: 2012

Pixel-based and object-based image analysis approaches for classifying broad land cover classes over agricultural landscapes are compared using three supervised machine learning algorithms: decision tree (DT), random forest (RF), and the support vector machine (SVM). Overall classification accuracies between pixel-based and object-based classifications were not statistically significant (p > 0.05) when the same machine learning algorithms were applied. Using object-based image analysis, there was a statistically significant difference in classification accuracy between maps produced using the DT algorithm compared to maps produced using either RF (p =0.0116) or SVM algorithms (p =0.0067). Using pixel-based image analysis, there was no statistically significant difference (p > 0.05) between results produced using different classification algorithms. Classifications based on RF and SVM algorithms provided a more visually adequate depiction of wetland, riparian, and crop land cover types when compared to DT based classifications, using either object-based or pixel-based image analysis. In this study, pixel-based classifications utilized fewer variables (15 vs. 300), achieved similar classification accuracies, and required less time to produce than object-based classifications. Object-based classifications produced a visually appealing generalized appearance of land cover classes. Based exclusively on overall accuracy reports, there was no advantage to preferring one image analysis approach over another for the purposes of mapping broad land cover types in agricultural environments using medium spatial resolution earth observation imagery. © 2011 Elsevier Inc.


Kerrich R.,University of Saskatchewan | Said N.,University of Western Australia | Manikyamba C.,National Geophysical Research Institute | Wyman D.,University of Sydney
Gondwana Research | Year: 2013

Hydrothermally altered Archean igneous suites erupted in the submarine environment record variable excursions of Ce/Ce* and Th/U from primary magmatic values of 1 and ~. 4 respectively. Rhyolites of the 2.96. Ga bimodal basalt-rhyolite sequence of the Murchison Domain, Yilgarn Craton, Western Australia, hosting the Golden Grove VMS deposit, are enriched in MnO up to ten fold over primary values. Th/U ratios span 2.6-4.7, Ce/Ce* = 2.5-16, and Eu/Eu* = 1.3-3. The 2.8. Ga Lady Alma ultramafic-mafic subvolcanic complex of the same domain features highly dispersed MREE and LREE due to intense hydrothermal alteration. Th/U ratios span 0.005-0.16 from preferential addition of U, with Ce/Ce* = 0.6-2.2, and Eu/Eu* = 1-1.4. The eastern Dharwar Craton, India, includes greenstone terranes dominantly 2.7-2.6. Ga. Adakites of the Gadwal terrane preserve near primary magmatic Th/U, Ce/Ce*, and Eu/Eu*. In contrast, igneous lithologies of the Hutti greenstone terrane are characterized by total ranges of Th/U = 2-5.8, Ce/Ce* = 1.01-1.28, and Eu/Eu* = 0.82-1.26, and counterparts of the Sandur terrane have Th/U = 0.4-6.0, Ce/Ce* = 0.9-1.25, and Eu/Eu* = 0.8-1.8. Coexistence of Ce and Eu anomalies may reflect a two-stage process: low-temperature hydrothermal alteration at high water-rock ratios by oxidizing fluids, with evolution of the hydrothermal systems to high temperature, low water-rock ratios, under reducing conditions. Uranium is dominantly added to these lithologies over Th in common with Recent altered ocean crust. Iron-rich shales in the Sandur terrane record U-enrichment where Th/U = 2-4. Three shales record true negative Ce anomalies and Eu/Eu* = 0.8-2.4: true negative Ce anomalies, present in some other Archean iron formations, are interpreted as a signature of precipitates from the ocean water column whereas Eu anomalies are hydrothermal in origin. Volcanic flows of the 2.7. Ga Blake River Group, Abitibi greenstone terrane, Canada, preserve Th/U = 1.5-8.5, the conjunction of low Th/U values with Ce/Ce* = 1.4 in two samples, and Eu/Eu* = 0.15-1.3. Mobility of U and Ce in these hydrothermally altered Archean lithologies is in common with their mobility in Phanerozoic counterparts by oxygenated fluids. © 2012 International Association for Gondwana Research.


Manikyamba C.,National Geophysical Research Institute | Kerrich R.,University of Saskatchewan
Geoscience Frontiers | Year: 2012

Greenstone belts of the eastern Dharwar Craton, India are reinterpreted as composite tectonostratigraphic terranes of accreted plume-derived and convergent margin-derived magmatic sequences based on new high-precision elemental data. The former are dominated by a komatiite plus Mg-tholeiitic basalt volcanic association, with deep water siliciclastic and banded iron formation (BIF) sedimentary rocks. Plumes melted at <90 km under thin rifted continental lithosphere to preserve intraoceanic and continental margin aspects. Associated alkaline basalts record subduction-recycling of Mesoarchean oceanic crust, incubated in the asthenosphere, and erupted coevally with Mg basalts from a heterogeneous mantle plume. Together, komatiites-Mg basalts-alkaline basalts plot along the Phanerozoic mantle array in Th/Yb versus Nb/Yb coordinate space, representing zoned plumes, establishing that these reservoirs were present in the Neoarchean mantle. Convergent margin magmatic associations are dominated by tholeiitic to calc-alkaline basalts compositionally similar to recent intraoceanic arcs. As well, boninitic flows sourced in extremely depleted mantle are present, and the association of arc basalts with Mg-andesites-Nb enriched basalts-adakites documented from Cenozoic arcs characterized by subduction of young (<20 Ma), hot, oceanic lithosphere. Consequently, Cenozoic style "hot" subduction was operating in the Neoarchean. These diverse volcanic associations were assembled to give composite terranes in a subduction-accretion orogen at ∼2.7 Ga, coevally with a global accretionary orogen at ∼2.7 Ga, and associated orogenic gold mineralization. Archean lithospheric mantle, distinctive in being thick, refractory, and buoyant, formed complementary to the accreted plume and convergent margin terranes, as migrating arcs captured thick plume-plateaus, and the refractory, low density, residue of plume melting coupled with accreted imbricated plume-arc crust. © 2011, China University of Geosciences (Beijing) and Peking University. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Yim W.-L.,Institute of High Performance Computing of Singapore | Tse J.S.,University of Saskatchewan | Iitaka T.,RIKEN
Physical Review Letters | Year: 2010

The structure and dynamics of a recently discovered solid silane-hydrogen complex under high pressure are elucidated with first-principles molecular dynamics calculations. A structure with orientationally disordered silane and hydrogen with their centers of mass arranged in a distinctive manner are found. Natural bond orbital analysis reveals that perturbative donor-acceptor interactions between the two molecular species are enhanced by pressure. The experimentally observed anticorrelated pressure-frequency dependency is a consequence of these novel interactions. Moreover, the experimentally observed multiple Raman peaks of H2 can be explained by temporal changes in the environment due to deviations of the lattice parameters from the ideal cubic lattice. © 2010 The American Physical Society.


Leslie W.D.,University of Manitoba | Morin S.,McGill University | Lix L.M.,University of Saskatchewan
Annals of Internal Medicine | Year: 2010

Background: Several national organizations recommend that fracture risk assessment and osteoporotic treatment be based on estimated absolute 10-year fracture risk rather than bone mineral density (BMD) alone. Objective: To assess the changes in physician prescribing behavior after introduction of absolute 10-year fracture risk reporting. Design: Before-and-after study. Setting: Manitoba, Canada, which has an integrated BMD program in which tests are linkable to a population-based administrative health database repository. Patients: Women 50 years or older who were not receiving osteoporosis medication (2042 before and 3889 after intervention). Intervention: Introduction of a system reporting absolute 10-year fracture risk along with dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry results. Measurements: The proportion of untreated women who were prescribed osteoporosis medications in the year after baseline BMD measurement. Results: Absolute fracture risk reporting reclassified more women (32.7%) into lower-risk categories than into higher-risk categories (10%). This effect was more prominent in women younger than 65 years. Fewer women per physician were prescribed osteoporosis drugs after introduction of absolute fracture risk reporting. The absolute fracture risk reporting system was associated with an overall reduction in osteoporosis medications dispensed (adjusted absolute reduction, 9.0 percentage points [95% Cl, 3.9 to 14.2 percentage points]; relative reduction, 21.3% [Cl, 9.2% to 33.5%]; P < 0.001). The reduction was attributed to fewer drugs dispensed to women at low and moderate risk for fracture. No differences in fracture rates were observed. Limitations: This was a nonrandomized study. The risk assessment system studied differs slightly from other 10-year fracture risk assessment models. Conclusion: Change from a T-score-based fracture risk reporting system to a system based on absolute 10-year fracture risk was associated with appropriate, guideline-based changes in prescription of osteoporosis medications. Primary Funding Source: None. © 2010 American College of Physicians.


Pare M.C.,PleineTerre Agronome Conseil | Bedard-Haughn A.,University of Saskatchewan
Geoderma | Year: 2012

Arctic soils store great amounts of soil organic matter (SOM) that are likely to be affected by future climate changes. Knowledge of the ability of the soil to mineralize nitrogen (N) and release greenhouse gases (GHG) at the landscape scale is critical to predict and model future effects of climate change on Arctic SOM. The objective of this study was to investigate how soil gross N mineralization and GHG emissions vary across landscapes and Arctic ecosystems. This study was conducted in three Arctic ecosystems: Sub-Arctic (Churchill, MB), Low-Arctic (Daring Lake, NWT), and High-Arctic (Truelove Lowlands, NU). The topography was divided into five landform units: 1) upper (Up), 2) back (Back), and 3) lower (Low) slopes for catena sites and 4) hummock and 5) interhummock for hummocky sites (i.e., hummock in Churchill and ice-wedge polygons in Truelove). All sites were sampled near the end of their growing seasons (i.e., from two to three weeks before plant senescence). Soil gross N mineralization was measured in situ using a 15N dilution technique, whereas soil GHG emissions (N 2O, CH 4, and CO 2) were measured in situ using a multicomponent Fourier transform infrared gas analyzer combined with an automated dark chamber. For all ecosystems, topography significantly influenced soil gross N mineralization and CO 2 emissions. Topography had no significant impact on N 2O and CH 4 fluxes most likely because net fluxes were extremely low throughout landscapes. Soil gross N mineralization and CO 2 emissions increased from Up, Back, to Low and from hummock to interhummock landform units. For example, at Churchill, soil gross mineralization rates averaged 4mg N-NH 4 + kg -1d -1 in upper slopes and progressively increased to about 25mg N-NH 4 + kg -1d -1 in the lower slopes. Similarly, CO 2 emission rates at Daring Lake averaged 0.5μmol CO 2 m -2s -1 in upper slopes and progressively increased to about 2.3μmol CO 2m -2s -1 in the lower slopes. Comparisons among ecosystems showed that Churchill (Sub-Arctic) had the highest gross N mineralization rates followed by Truelove (High-Arctic) and Daring Lake (Low-Arctic). Furthermore, Daring Lake had significantly higher CO 2 emissions than Churchill and no difference in CH 4 and N 2O emissions between both ecosystems was found. These findings suggest that all factors influencing C and N cycling processes such as climate and human induced changes may not have similar effects across landscapes or across Arctic ecosystems. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.


Ji J.Z.,University of Saskatchewan | Ji J.Z.,Wenzhou Medical College | Meng Q.H.,University of Saskatchewan
Clinica Chimica Acta | Year: 2011

Background: Pre-analytical error accounts for major total laboratory errors. We assessed the impacts of hemolysis, icterus, and lipemia on laboratory tests on Roche Cobas 6000. Methods: Various concentrations of hemoglobin, bilirubin, or Intralipid® were added into the plasma to simulate hemolytic, icteric, or lipemic samples. The analytes were then measured on Roche Cobas 6000 and the change of the analyte concentrations was determined. Results: For most of the chemistry assays, our data were in a good agreement with Roche package inserts. However some assays had significant interference at lower index values while others were affected at higher index than the Roche package inserts indicated. In addition, we observed the positive interference by hemolysis on ALT, lipase, total protein, potassium, and iron. Negative interference was noted on calcium and CK. Most of the immunoassays were not affected by hemoglobin, bilirubin, and lipids although there were a few exceptions. Several therapeutic drugs were affected either positively or negatively by hemolysis, icterus, or lipemia to a certain extent. Conclusions: We have demonstrated some test interferences which have not been reported previously on the Cobas 6000. The implementation of the cut-off indices on Cobas 6000 would provide more accurate test result reporting. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.


Wilson J.A.,University of Saskatchewan | Sagan S.M.,McGill University
Current Opinion in Virology | Year: 2014

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs that function as part of RNA-induced silencing complexes that repress the expression of target genes. Over the past few years, miRNAs have been found to mediate complex regulation of a wide variety of mammalian viral infections, including Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. Here, we focus on a highly abundant, liver-specific miRNA, miR-122. In a unique and unusual interaction, miR-122 binds to two sites in the 5′ untranslated region (UTR) of the HCV genome and promotes viral RNA accumulation. We will discuss what has been learned about this important interaction to date, provide insights into how miR-122 is able to modulate HCV RNA accumulation, and how miR-122 might be exploited for antiviral intervention. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Goubran H.A.,University of Saskatchewan | Stakiw J.,University of Saskatchewan | Radosevic M.,Human Protein Process science | Burnouf T.,Taipei Medical University
Seminars in Oncology | Year: 2014

Unlike other blood cells, platelets are small anucleate structures derived from marrow megakaryocytes. Thought for almost a century to possess solely hemostatic potentials, platelets, however, play a much wider role in tissue regeneration and repair and interact intimately with tumor cells. On one hand, tumor cells induce platelet aggregation (TCIPA), known to act as the trigger of cancer-associated thrombosis. On the other hand, platelets recruited to the tumor microenvironment interact, directly, with tumor cells, favoring their proliferation, and, indirectly, through the release of a wide palette of growth factors, including angiogenic and mitogenic proteins. In addition, the role of platelets is not solely confined to the primary tumor site. Indeed, they escort tumor cells, helping their intravasation, vascular migration, arrest, and extravasation to the tissues to form distant metastasis. As expected, nonspecific or specific inhibition of platelets and their content represents an attractive novel approach in the fight against cancer. This review illustrates the role played by platelets at primary tumor sites and in the various stages of the metastatic process. © 2014 Elsevier Inc.


Whitfield C.J.,University of Saskatchewan | Watmough S.A.,Trent University
Science of the Total Environment | Year: 2012

In boreal regions of the province of Saskatchewan, Canada, there is concern over emerging acid precursor emission sources associated with the oil sands industry. Base cation weathering rates (BCw) and steady-state critical loads of sulfur (CLS) were identified for upland forest soil plots (n=107) in 45 ecodistricts according to a new method for approximation of BCw in the region. This method was developed by regression of simple soil and site properties with BCw calculated through application of a soil chemical model (PROFILE). PROFILE was parameterized using detailed physicochemical data for a subset (n=35) of the sites. Sand content, soil moisture and latitude emerged as important predictive variables in this empirical regression approximation. Base cation weathering varied widely (0.1-8000mmolcm-3yr-1) across the study sites, consistent with their contrasting soil properties. Several sites had lower rates than observed in other acid-sensitive regions of Canada owing to quartz dominated mineralogy and coarse-textured soils with very low surface area. Weathering was variable within ecodistricts, although rates were consistently low among ecodistricts located in the northwest of the province. Overall, half of the forest plots demonstrated CLS less than 45mmolcm-2yr-1. Historically, the acidification risk in this region has been considered low and monitoring has been limited. Given the very low CLS in many northern ecodistricts and the potential for increased acid deposition as oil sands activities expand, soil acidification in these regions warrants further study. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.


Goubran H.A.,University of Saskatchewan | Stakiw J.,University of Saskatchewan | Radosevic M.,Human Protein Process science | Burnouf T.,Taipei Medical University
Seminars in Thrombosis and Hemostasis | Year: 2014

Platelets play a crucial role in the pathophysiological processes of hemostasis and thrombosis. Increasing evidence indicates that they fulfill much broader roles in balancing health and disease. The presence of tumor cells affects platelets both numerically, through a wide variety of mediators and cytokines, or functionally through tumor cell-induced platelet activation, the first step toward cancer-induced thrombosis. This induction results from signaling events through the different platelet receptors, or may be cytokine-mediated. Reciprocally, upon activation, the platelets will release a myriad of growth factors from their dense and α-granules and peroxisomes; these will directly impact tumor growth, tethering, and spread. A similar cross-talk is initiated between tumor microvesicles stimulating the platelets and platelet microparticles, promoting both thrombosis and tumor growth. A vicious loop of activation thereafter takes place. Platelets directly and indirectly promote tumor growth, and enable a molecular mimicry coating the malignant growth and allowing metastasizing cells to escape T-cell-mediated immunity and natural killer cell surveillance. Breaking this vicious activation loop with nonspecific platelet inhibitors, such as aspirin, or by targeting specific sites on the activation cascade may offer a mean to reduce both the risks of development and progression of cancer and the risk of thrombosis. © 2014 by Thieme Medical Publishers, Inc.


Burnouf T.,Taipei Medical University | Goubran H.A.,University of Saskatchewan | Chou M.-L.,Taipei Medical University | Devos D.,University of Lille Nord de France | Radosevic M.,Human Protein Process science
Blood Reviews | Year: 2014

There is increasing research on and clinical interest in the physiological role played by platelet microparticles (PMPs). PMPs are 0.1-1-μm fragments shed from plasma membranes of platelets that are undergoing activation, stress, or apoptosis. They have a phospholipid-based structure and express functional receptors from platelet membranes. As they are the most abundant microparticles in the blood and they express the procoagulant phosphatidylserine, PMPs likely complement, if not amplify, the functions of platelets in hemostasis, thrombosis, cancer, and inflammation, but also act as promoters of tissue regeneration. Their size and structure make them instrumental in platelet-cell communications as a delivery tool of platelet-borne bioactive molecules including growth factors, other signaling molecules and micro (mi)RNA. PMPs can therefore be a pathophysiological threat or benefit to the cellular environment when interacting with the blood vasculature. There is also increasing evidence that PMP generation is triggered during blood collection, separation into components, and storage, a phenomenon potentially leading to thrombotic and inflammatory side effects in transfused patients. Evaluating PMPs requires strict pre-analytical and analytical procedures to avoid artifactual generation and ensure accurate assessment of the number, size repartitioning, and functional properties. This review describes the physical and functional methods developed for analyzing and quantifying PMPs. It then presents the functional roles of PMPs as markers or triggers of diseases like thrombosis, atherosclerosis, and cancer, and discusses the possible detrimental immunological impact of their generation in blood components. Finally we review the potential function of PMPs in tissue regeneration and the prospects for their use in therapeutic strategies for human health. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.


News Article | February 17, 2017
Site: www.sciencemag.org

Of the roughly 198,000 glaciers on the planet, more than a quarter are found in the Himalayas. But even this frigid expanse of ice and snow—home to nine of the world’s 10 highest peaks—is reeling from climate change. Many Himalayan glaciers are receding—and a new study of 32 glaciers around Mount Everest has found that those terminating in lakes have lost more ice mass than landlocked glaciers. That’s a worrying trend because many glacial lakes form behind unstable debris dams that are poised to collapse and send disastrous floods hurtling down valleys. Himalayan glaciers are losing ice mass because of decreased snowfall and higher average air temperatures that melt existing ice. “The landscape is primed for lake development,” says Owen King, a glaciologist at the University of Leeds in the United Kingdom, who led the study. As meltwater lakes swell, the risk of a breach heightens. According to Joseph Shea, a glacier hydrologist at the University of Saskatchewan in Saskatoon, Canada, who was not involved in the research, “Bigger lakes may increase the risk of catastrophic dam failure.” Just that happened in 1985, when a debris dam at Dig Tsho, a glacial lake in eastern Nepal, burst, spilling millions of cubic meters of water on the village of Ghat. The flooding destroyed houses, bridges, and a new hydroelectric plant. To avert a similar disaster, the Nepalese government last year drained part of Imja Tsho, one of the fastest-growing glacier lakes in the country. Now, King and his collaborators have used satellite data to reveal how nine glaciers terminating in lakes and 23 terminating on land in Nepal and Tibet changed over 15 years. Armed with digital elevation maps obtained in 2000 and 2015 and images of the glaciers themselves, the team compared how the ice mass, ice area, and height of the glaciers changed. They found that the glaciers melting into lakes had lost 32% more ice mass per year than land-terminating glaciers, they report this month in . The lake-terminating glaciers had also lost more height and area than the landlocked glaciers. King’s team believes lake water erodes the underside of glaciers, causing them to calve icebergs. That process would efficiently remove ice mass, they suggest. But other scientists say the issue isn’t settled. “It’s still unclear why lake-terminating glaciers are losing more mass than land-terminating glaciers,” says Patrick Wagnon, a glaciologist at the French National Research Institute for Sustainable Development in Marseille, who was not involved in the study. Fresh findings may shed further light. King and his colleagues, for instance, recently returned from two expeditions to the Everest region for a close-up look at how glacial lakes influence glaciers. “I’m knee-deep in field data,” he says. The researchers also plan to study glacier changes in the Himalayas over longer timescales, using satellite images taken as far back as the 1970s.


Keir M.L.,University of Toronto | Dehghani P.,University of Saskatchewan
The Canadian journal of cardiology | Year: 2016

We describe the case of a 39-year-old woman with spontaneous coronary artery dissection (SCAD) of the left circumflex artery. We postulate that her SCAD was precipitated by high-dose corticosteroid use for the treatment of optic neuritis. The epidemiology and known risk factors of SCAD are reviewed with an additional focus on the effect of corticosteroids on the cardiovascular system. Copyright © 2016 Canadian Cardiovascular Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.


Lamb E.G.,University of Saskatchewan | Kennedy N.,University of Northern British Columbia | Siciliano S.D.,University of Saskatchewan
Plant and Soil | Year: 2011

Understanding the links between plant diversity and soil communities is critical to disentangling the mechanisms by which plant communities modulate ecosystem function. Experimental plant communities varying in species richness, evenness, and density were established using a response surface design and soil community properties including bacterial and archaeal abundance, richness, and evenness were measured. The potential to perform a representative soil ecosystem function, oxidation of ammonium to nitrite, was measured via archaeal and bacterial amoA genes. Structural equation modeling was used to explore the direct and indirect effects of the plant community on soil diversity and potential function. Plant communities influenced archaea and bacteria via different pathways. Species richness and evenness had significant direct effects on soil microbial community structure, but the mechanisms driving these effects did not include either root biomass or the pools of carbon and nitrogen available to the soil microbial community. Species richness had direct positive effects on archaeal amoA prevalence, but only indirect impacts on bacterial communities through modulation of plant evenness. Increased plant evenness increased bacterial abundance which in turn increased bacterial amoA abundance. These results suggest that plant community evenness may have a strong impact on some aspects of soil ecosystem function. We show that a more even plant community increased bacterial abundance, which then increased the potential for bacterial nitrification. A more even plant community also increased total dissolved nitrogen in the soil, which decreased the potential for archaeal nitrification. The role of plant evenness in structuring the soil community suggests mechanisms including complementarity in root exudate profiles or root foraging patterns. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.


Ponce-Coria J.,Vanderbilt University | Gagnon K.B.,University of Saskatchewan | Delpire E.,Vanderbilt University
American Journal of Physiology - Cell Physiology | Year: 2012

X-ray crystallography of the catalytic domain of oxidative stress response 1 (OSR1) has provided evidence for dimerization and domain swapping. However, the functional significance of dimer formation or domain swapping has yet to be addressed. In this study, we used nine glutamine residues to link the carboxyl end of one SPAK (related Ste20 kinase) monomer to the amino end of another SPAK monomer to assess the role of kinase monomers versus dimers in Na-K-2Cl cotransporter 1 (NKCC1) activation. Transport studies in Xenopus laevis oocytes show that forcing dimerization of two wild-type SPAK molecules results in cotransporter activation when calcium-binding protein 39 (Cab39) is coexpressed, indicating that the presence of Cab39 can bypass the upstream phosphorylation requirement of SPAK normally associated with kinase activation. We determined that monomers are the functional units of the kinase as concatamers consisting of an active and various inactive monomers were still functional. Furthermore, we found that two different nonfunctional SPAK mutants could be linked together in a concatamer and activated, presumably by domain swapping, indicating that dimerization and domain swapping are both important components of kinase activation. Finally, we demonstrate rescue of a nonfunctional SPAK mutant by domain swapping with wild-type OSR1, indicating that heterodimers of the two Ste20-related kinases are possible and therefore potentially relevant to the regulation of NKCC1 activity. © 2012 the American Physiological Society.


Gagnon K.B.,Vanderbilt University | Gagnon K.B.,University of Saskatchewan
Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry | Year: 2012

Cell motility is dependent on a coordinated reorganization of the cytoskeleton, membrane recycling, and focal adhesion to the extracellular matrix. Each of these cellular processes involves re-distribution of cell water, which is facilitated by the transport of inorganic ions (with obligatory water movement). Scratch-wound healing assays of Wistar C6 glioblastoma cells demonstrated cell motility in advance of cell proliferation. Although bumetanide inhibition of Na-K-2Cl cotransport activity did not affect cell motility, treatment of glioma cells with furosemide to inhibit K-Cl cotransport activity prevented ∼75% of wound closure in a reversible reaction. Genetic silencing of KCC3 with short hairpin interfering RNA reduced protein expression by 40-60%, K+ influx by ∼50%, and cell motility by ∼50%. Appearance of KCC1 mRNA and KCC3 mRNA at 25 PCR cycles versus KCC4 mRNA at 35 PCR cycles, suggests more KCC1/KCC3 expression in both primary rat astrocytes and C6 glioma cells. Altogether, these experiments suggest that the presence/function of multiple isoforms of the Na+-independent K-Cl cotransporter may have a role in glioma cell motility. © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.


Kuper A.,University of Toronto | D'Eon M.,University of Saskatchewan
Medical Education | Year: 2011

Context Twentieth-century medical education constructed medicine as biomedical science. Although bioscientific knowledge has brought large benefits to clinical practice, many have questioned the appropriateness of its domination of the medical curriculum. As the content of that curriculum is itself a historically mediated social construct, it can be changed to fit current descriptions of the competent doctors medical schools are expected to produce. Such doctors are expected not only to have biomedical expertise, but also to carry out multiple other roles as described in competency frameworks such as that of CanMEDS. Many of these other roles are socio-culturally based and thus not supported by bioscientific knowledge.Methods We designed a thought experiment to delineate the need to identify and integrate the range of foundational knowledges required to support the development of doctors capable of performing all the roles described in the competency frameworks. We specified assumptions and demarcated our scope. To illustrate our ideas, we selected examples from the medical curriculum that linked to non-Medical Expert roles and outlined the disciplines that supported them.Results Students educated in the foundational knowledge necessary for competence in all doctor roles would need to be exposed to ideas and ways of thinking from a wide array of disciplines outside the traditional biomedical sciences. These would need to be introduced in context and in ways that would support future medical practice. They would also broaden students' understanding of the nature of legitimate medical knowledge.Conclusions There are currently major gaps between the goals and objectives of competency frameworks such as CanMEDS and the actual contents of medical curricula. Addressing these will require curricular transformation to add knowledges, in context and in ways that positively affect practice, from disciplines not currently present within the medical school. In order to accomplish this, we will need to engage with colleagues throughout the university. © Blackwell Publishing Ltd 2010.


Isaac M.E.,University of Toronto | Kimaro A.A.,University of Saskatchewan
Journal of Environmental Quality | Year: 2011

Agricultural intensification has had unintended environmental consequences, including increased nutrient leaching and surface runoffand other agrarian-derived pollutants. Improved diagnosis of on-farm nutrient dynamics will have the advantage of increasing yields and will diminish financial and environmental costs. To achieve this, a management support system that allows for site-specific rapid evaluation of nutrient production imbalances and subsequent management prescriptions is needed for agroecological design. Vector diagnosis, a bivariate model to depict changes in yield and nutritional response simultaneously in a single graph, facilitates identification of nutritional status such as growth dilution, deficiency, sufficiency, luxury uptake, and toxicity. Quantitative data from cocoa agroforestry systems and pigeonpea intercropping trials in Ghana and Tanzania, respectively, were re-evaluated with vector analysis. Relative to monoculture, biomass increase in cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) under shade (35-80%) was accompanied by a 17 to 25% decline in P concentration, the most limiting nutrient on this site. Similarly, increasing biomass with declining P concentrations was noted for pigeonpea [Cajanus cajan (L). Millsp.] in response to soil moisture availability under intercropping. Although vector analysis depicted nutrient responses, the current vector model does not consider non-nutrient resource effects on growth, such as ameliorated light and soil moisture, which were particularly active in these systems. We revisit and develop vector analysis into a framework for diagnosing nutrient and non-nutrient interactions in agroforestry systems. Such a diagnostic technique advances management decision-making by increasing nutrient precision and reducing environmental issues associated with agrarian-derived soil contamination. © 2011 by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America.


Tse J.S.,University of Saskatchewan | Klug D.D.,NRC Steacie Institute for Molecular Sciences
Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics | Year: 2012

We offer our viewpoint on the nature of amorphous ices produced by pressurization of crystalline ice Ih and the inter-relationship between them from an atomistic perspective. We argue that the transformation of high density amorphous (HDA) ice from crystalline ice is due to a mechanical process arising from the instability of the ice Ih structure. The densification of HDA upon thermal annealing under pressure is a relaxation process. The conversion of the densified amorphous ice to a lower density form (LDA) upon the release of pressure can be attributed to a similar process. It is speculated that amorphous ices are metastable frustrated structures due to the large activation barriers associated with proton reorientation in the formation of the underlying stable crystalline ice polymorphs. © 2012 the Owner Societies.


Ferrari M.C.O.,WCVM | McCormick M.I.,James Cook University | Munday P.L.,James Cook University | Meekan M.G.,Australian Institute of Marine Science | And 3 more authors.
Ecology Letters | Year: 2011

Little is known about the impact of ocean acidification on predator-prey dynamics. Herein, we examined the effect of carbon dioxide (CO 2) on both prey and predator by letting one predatory reef fish interact for 24h with eight small or large juvenile damselfishes from four congeneric species. Both prey and predator were exposed to control or elevated levels of CO 2. Mortality rate and predator selectivity were compared across CO 2 treatments, prey size and species. Small juveniles of all species sustained greater mortality at high CO 2 levels, while large recruits were not affected. For large prey, the pattern of prey selectivity by predators was reversed under elevated CO 2. Our results demonstrate both quantitative and qualitative consumptive effects of CO 2 on small and larger damselfish recruits respectively, resulting from CO 2-induced behavioural changes likely mediated by impaired neurological function. This study highlights the complexity of predicting the effects of climate change on coral reef ecosystems. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd/CNRS.


Bell S.,University of Saskatchewan | Wilson K.,University of Toronto | Bissonnette L.,University of Toronto | Shah T.,University of Saskatchewan
Annals of the Association of American Geographers | Year: 2013

Neighborhood social and physical contexts have the ability to impact health and health behaviors of residents. One neighborhood characteristic that remains underexamined in the research is access to health care resources. This research examines potential (geographical) access to primary health care in the city of Mississauga, Ontario, Canada. A modification of the two-step floating catchment area method that better suits the study of locally relevant natural neighborhood units is presented. Potential access to health care is measured in each of Mississauga's neighborhoods considering several spatial and aspatial (i.e., social) characteristics of the population and of physicians, including the raw abundance of physicians, languages spoken by physicians and patients, and whether physicians are accepting new patients. Neighborhood-level results are compared to census tracts. The results of this analysis reveal that potential access significantly differs between neighborhoods for all spatial and aspatial dimensions of access. Accessibility is considerably reduced for linguistic minorities and for those who might not have a dedicated family physician as compared to the general population. This research contributes to the existing body of literature on neighborhoods and health by demonstrating the utility of an alternative methodology for developing a more comprehensive understanding of access to health care within natural geographical neighborhoods. © 2013 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.


Gagnon K.B.,University of Saskatchewan | Delpire E.,Vanderbilt University
American Journal of Physiology - Cell Physiology | Year: 2013

Among the over 300 members of the solute carrier (SLC) group of integral plasma membrane transport proteins are the nine electroneutral cation-chloride cotransporters belonging to the SLC12 gene family. Seven of these transporters have been functionally described as coupling the electrically silent movement of chloride with sodium and/or potassium. Although in silico analysis has identified two additional SLC12 family members, no physiological role has been ascribed to the proteins encoded by either the SLC12A8 or the SLC12A9 genes. Evolutionary conservation of this gene family from protests to humans confirms their importance. A wealth of physiological, immunohistochemical, and biochemical studies have revealed a great deal of information regarding the importance of this gene family to human health and disease. The sequencing of the human genome has provided investigators with the capability to link several human diseases with mutations in the genes encoding these plasma membrane proteins. The availability of bacterial artificial chromosomes, recombination engineering techniques, and the mouse genome sequence has simplified the creation of targeting constructs to manipulate the expression/function of these cation-chloride cotransporters in the mouse in an attempt to recapitulate some of these human pathologies. This review will summarize the three human disorders that have been linked to the mutation/dysfunction of the Na-Cl, Na-K-2Cl, and K-Cl cotransporters (i.e., Bartter's, Gitleman's, and Andermann's syndromes), examine some additional pathologies arising from genetically modified mouse models of these cotransporters including deafness, blood pressure, hyperexcitability, and epithelial transport deficit phenotypes. © 2013 the American Physiological Society.


Lonnstedt O.M.,James Cook University | McCormick M.I.,James Cook University | Chivers D.P.,University of Saskatchewan
Scientific Reports | Year: 2013

The animal world is full of brilliant colours and striking patterns that serve to hide individuals or attract the attention of others. False eyespots are pervasive across a variety of animal taxa and are among nature's most conspicuous markings. Understanding the adaptive significance of eyespots has long fascinated evolutionary ecologists. Here we show for the first time that the size of eyespots is plastic and increases upon exposure to predators. Associated with the growth of eyespots there is a corresponding reduction in growth of eyes in juvenile Ambon damselfish, Pomacentrusamboinensis. These morphological changes likely direct attacks away from the head region. Exposure to predators also induced changes in prey behaviour and morphology. Such changes could prevent or deter attacks and increase burst speed, aiding in escape. Damselfish exposed to predators had drastically higher survival suffering only 10% mortality while controls suffered 60% mortality 72 h after release.


Cheviakov A.F.,University of Saskatchewan | Ganghoffer J.-F.,University of Lorraine | Rahouadj R.,University of Lorraine
International Journal of Plasticity | Year: 2013

We consider a rigid plastic constitutive model with linear kinematic hardening, relying on the concept of constitutive spin introduced by Dafalias (1985a,b) to describe the evolution of the orientation of the material texture. A more general writing of the constitutive spin using representation theorems for second order tensors is proposed, involving arbitrary functions of the tensor invariants. The computation of continuous symmetries and integrating factors of the resulting system of differential equations leads to a classification of cases, in terms of the constitutive functions, focusing on simple planar shear. Exact and numerical solutions for stress versus time are obtained for some objective rates. The comparison of the evolution of the integrated stress components allows drawing some conclusion as to the more suitable objective rates. Dynamical invariants computed in terms of the components of the back stress tensors and of the shear strain allow to directly evaluate the dynamical response of the material in terms of the phase portrait in the space of independent components of the back stress tensor. Fundamental principles of irreversible thermodynamics are used as a filtering mechanism for the constitutive models revealed by symmetries and invariants, leading to the choice of constitutive models that satisfy all proposed criteria. These models involve a non-linear dependence of the plastic spin on the back stress. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Olfert M.R.,University of Saskatchewan | Partridge M.,Ohio State University
Spatial Economic Analysis | Year: 2011

Following work by Richard Florida and Jane Jacobs, tolerance along with talent and technology are purported to attract the 'creative class', seen as key in spurring economic dynamism in the knowledge economy. Representing both tolerance and diversity, we test an index of community-level ethnic diversity against the location decisions of workers in the culture occupations, a key component of the creative class, in the recently defined Canadian Framework for Cultural Statistics. Supporting past studies, we find that greater ethnic diversity is consistent with a higher cultural occupations share in urban communities (though not rural). However, even for urban areas, growth in cultural occupation workers over the past 15 years is not affected by prior ethnic diversity. The culture workers' share in an urban community, once established, appears highly persistent, suggesting that policy aimed at enhancing the livability of a community through increasing its cultural footprint appears to be misguided. © 2011 Regional Studies Association.


Ekelund U.,Addenbrookes Hospital | Ekelund U.,Örebro University | Ekelund U.,Norwegian School of Sport Sciences | Luan J.,Addenbrookes Hospital | And 6 more authors.
JAMA - Journal of the American Medical Association | Year: 2012

Context: Sparse data exist on the combined associations between physical activity and sedentary time with cardiometabolic risk factors in healthy children. Objective: To examine the independent and combined associations between objectively measured time in moderate- to vigorous-intensity physical activity (MVPA) and sedentary time with cardiometabolic risk factors. Design, Setting, and Participants: Pooled data from 14 studies between 1998 and 2009 comprising 20 871 children (aged 4-18 years) from the International Children's Accelerometry Database. Time spent in MVPA and sedentary time were measured using accelerometry after reanalyzing raw data. The independent associations between time in MVPA and sedentary time, with outcomes, were examined using meta-analysis. Participants were stratified by tertiles of MVPA and sedentary time. Main Outcome Measures: Waist circumference, systolic blood pressure, fasting triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and insulin. Results: Times (mean [SD] min/d) accumulated by children in MVPA and being sedentary were 30 (21) and 354 (96), respectively. Time in MVPA was significantly associated with all cardiometabolic outcomes independent of sex, age, monitor wear time, time spent sedentary, and waist circumference (when not the outcome). Sedentary time was not associated with any outcome independent of time in MVPA. In the combined analyses, higher levels of MVPA were associated with better cardiometabolic risk factors across tertiles of sedentary time.The differences in outcomes between higher and lower MVPA were greater with lower sedentary time. Mean differences in waist circumference between the bottom and top tertiles of MVPA were 5.6 cm (95% CI, 4.8-6.4 cm) for high sedentary time and 3.6 cm (95% CI, 2.8-4.3 cm) for low sedentary time. Mean differences in systolic blood pressure for high and low sedentary time were 0.7mm Hg(95% CI, -0.07 to 1.6) and 2.5 mmHg (95% CI, 1.7-3.3), and for high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, differences were -2.6 mg/dL (95%CI, -1.4 to -3.9) and -4.5 mg/dL(95%CI, -3.3 to -5.6), respectively. Geometric mean differences for insulin and triglycerides showed similar variation. Those in the top tertile of MVPA accumulated more than 35 minutes per day in this intensity level compared with fewer than 18 minutes per day for those in the bottom tertile. In prospective analyses (N=6413 at 2.1 years' follow-up), MVPA and sedentary time were not associated with waist circumference at follow-up, but a higher waist circumference at baseline was associated with higher amounts of sedentary time at follow-up. Conclusion: Higher MVPA time by children and adolescents was associated with better cardiometabolic risk factors regardless of the amount of sedentary time. ©2012 American Medical Association. All rights reserved.


Patent
University of Saskatchewan, Korean International Vaccine Institute, Dalhousie University and University of British Columbia | Date: 2013-02-15

Methods and compositions for enhancing an immune response to a selected antigen are described. The methods are useful for the treatment and prevention of microbial infections, such as infections caused by bacteria, viruses, fungi and parasites. The methods and compositions include host defense peptides, polyphosphazenes and immunostimulatory sequences to enhance the immune response to a coadministered antigen.


Stewart K.J.,University of Northern British Columbia | Coxson D.,University of Northern British Columbia | Siciliano S.D.,University of Saskatchewan
Soil Biology and Biochemistry | Year: 2011

Atmospheric nitrogen that is fixed by associative cyanobacteria can be released into the surrounding soil environment providing a key source of N for arctic ecosystems. Yet, little is known about nitrogen fixation by Biological Soil Crusts (BSCs) within hummock-hollow complexes that are typical of many arctic environments. In this study, we examined spatial and temporal patterns in N2-fixation, dinitrogenase reductase (nifH) gene abundance and release of N in a low arctic hummock-hollow ecosystem. The impacts of cyanobacteria on N status in soil were evaluated by assessing soil nitrogen in relation to the cyanobacterial associations found on Hummock and Hollow BSCs. In addition, potential P limitation of N2-fixation by cyanobacteria was assessed for Hummock and Hollow BSCs. The tops of hummocks and the bottoms of hollows were areas of high N2-fixation, whereas minimal N2-fixation occurred on the sides of hummock-hollow complexes. Compared with Hummock BSCs, Hollow BSCs had a higher mean growing season N2-fixation rate, a higher mean growing season nifH abundance, a higher mean total %N and δ15N values closer to that of atmospheric N2. Soil N status was linked to rates of N2-fixation by BSCs indicating that these N2-fixing associations act as important point sources of soil N in this low arctic ecosystem. Over the course of a growing season temporal variation in N2-fixation and nifH abundance were weakly linked suggesting that N2-fixation was carried out by complex communities of diazotrophic microorganisms and that factors such as nutrient availability may limit N2-fixation to a greater extent than nifH abundance. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.


News Article | November 14, 2016
Site: cen.acs.org

The health hazards of brominated flame retardants lurking in household dust have made the news for years because of the ease with which humans can be exposed to the endocrine-disrupting compounds. Studies have hinted there are also large concentrations of unknown and potentially harmful brominated compounds in dust, but the number of compounds remained unclear and scientists didn’t have an efficient way to identify them, says Jianxian Sun, an environmental toxicologist at the University of Saskatchewan. Now, Sun, John P. Giesy, and colleagues show that flame retardants in dust are dwarfed by another class of brominated compounds, azo dyes, that are known mutagens and commonly used to color clothing and furniture (Environ. Sci. Technol. 2016, DOI: 10.1021/acs.est.6b03954). A novel method employed by the study can sift through the thousands of compounds in complex mixtures such as dust to identify and prioritize compounds for hazard assessment. Brominated flame retardants have received scrutiny because they disrupt hormones and impair the central nervous system. “Since dust is one of the primary routes of exposure to brominated flame retardants, we wondered if there were other brominated compounds in dust that might be of concern,” Sun says. The team decided to take advantage of a novel screening method developed by co-author Hui Peng. Based on ultra-high resolution mass spectrometry combined with statistical analysis, the method can pluck individual brominated compounds out of a mixture and provide a chemical formula for them. The team vacuumed up 23 dust samples from eight homes in Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, and ran them through the screening method. The researchers singled out 549 unique brominated compounds in the house dust but could find matches for only 14% of the substances in the public database Chemspider. “This study demonstrated for the first time that hundreds of novel brominated compounds exist in house dust,” Sun says. The scientists then focused on 140 of the most abundant ones. Out of those, the statistical analysis highlighted 24 as known brominated flame retardants. The analysis also uncovered a cluster of 78 unknown, nitrogen-rich brominated chemicals that accounted for about 85% of the mass of brominated compounds in the dust. Closer investigation showed that one of the more common motifs of the unknown molecules was 2-bromo-4,6-dinitroaniline (BNA), a raw material for the synthesis of brominated azo dyes. Based this finding and the compounds’ chemical formulas, Sun and her colleagues concluded that the unknown compounds were indeed these dyes. To pinpoint a possible source of the dyes, the team snipped samples of shirts and pants, and ran extracts of the cloth through the screening method. Because the clothes contained high concentrations of BNA and other brominated dyes, and since the dust they collected also contained clothing fibers, the scientists suggest that brominated azo dyes from fabric may be the dominant source of brominated compounds in house dust. Finally, the researchers used a standard, cell-based test to measure the mutagenic activity of house dust and pure BNA at a concentration of 1.25 µg/mL, comparable to levels of BNA in the dust. All samples showed significant mutagenicity. Azo dyes, most of which are nonbrominated, represent 65% of the global dye market. They are relatively cheap compounds that impart bright yellow, orange, red, and blue colors to clothing, leather, toys, and plastics. Incorporating bromine in azo dyes could make the compounds more persistent and stable in the environment, Sun says. Some of the azo dyes, with and without bromine, are known to be carcinogenic or mutagenic. “The results are surprising because few researchers have looked at brominated azo dyes and it raises questions about why they haven’t been discovered before,” says Miriam L. Diamond, an environmental chemist at the University of Toronto. Yet the findings line up with growing recognition that textiles could be an important source of humanmade contaminants, she says. The study indicates that the research focus on flame retardants likely underestimates human exposure to brominated compounds, which are of special concern owing to their health impacts and ability to persist in the environment and bioaccumulate, Diamond concludes.


News Article | November 11, 2016
Site: cen.acs.org

The health hazards of brominated flame retardants lurking in household dust have made the news for years because of the ease with which humans can be exposed to the endocrine-disrupting compounds. Studies have hinted there are also large concentrations of unknown and potentially harmful brominated compounds in dust, but the number of compounds remained unclear and scientists didn’t have an efficient way to identify them, says Jianxian Sun, an environmental toxicologist at the University of Saskatchewan. Now, Sun, John P. Giesy, and colleagues show that flame retardants in dust are dwarfed by another class of brominated compounds, azo dyes, that are known mutagens and commonly used to color clothing and furniture (Environ. Sci. Technol. 2016, DOI: 10.1021/acs.est.6b03954). A novel method employed by the study can sift through the thousands of compounds in complex mixtures such as dust to identify and prioritize compounds for hazard assessment. Brominated flame retardants have received scrutiny because they disrupt hormones and impair the central nervous system. “Since dust is one of the primary routes of exposure to brominated flame retardants, we wondered if there were other brominated compounds in dust that might be of concern,” Sun says. The team decided to take advantage of a novel screening method developed by co-author Hui Peng. Based on ultra-high resolution mass spectrometry combined with statistical analysis, the method can pluck individual brominated compounds out of a mixture and provide a chemical formula for them. The team vacuumed up 23 dust samples from eight homes in Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, and ran them through the screening method. The researchers singled out 549 unique brominated compounds in the house dust but could find matches for only 14% of the substances in the public database Chemspider. “This study demonstrated for the first time that hundreds of novel brominated compounds exist in house dust,” Sun says. The scientists then focused on 140 of the most abundant ones. Out of those, the statistical analysis highlighted 24 as known brominated flame retardants. The analysis also uncovered a cluster of 78 unknown, nitrogen-rich brominated chemicals that accounted for about 85% of the mass of brominated compounds in the dust. Closer investigation showed that one of the more common motifs of the unknown molecules was 2-bromo-4,6-dinitroaniline (BNA), a raw material for the synthesis of brominated azo dyes. Based this finding and the compounds’ chemical formulas, Sun and her colleagues concluded that the unknown compounds were indeed these dyes. To pinpoint a possible source of the dyes, the team snipped samples of shirts and pants, and ran extracts of the cloth through the screening method. Because the clothes contained high concentrations of BNA and other brominated dyes, and since the dust they collected also contained clothing fibers, the scientists suggest that brominated azo dyes from fabric may be the dominant source of brominated compounds in house dust. Finally, the researchers used a standard, cell-based test to measure the mutagenic activity of house dust and pure BNA at a concentration of 1.25 µg/mL, comparable to levels of BNA in the dust. All samples showed significant mutagenicity. Azo dyes, most of which are nonbrominated, represent 65% of the global dye market. They are relatively cheap compounds that impart bright yellow, orange, red, and blue colors to clothing, leather, toys, and plastics. Incorporating bromine in azo dyes could make the compounds more persistent and stable in the environment, Sun says. Some of the azo dyes, with and without bromine, are known to be carcinogenic or mutagenic. “The results are surprising because few researchers have looked at brominated azo dyes and it raises questions about why they haven’t been discovered before,” says Miriam L. Diamond, an environmental chemist at the University of Toronto. Yet the findings line up with growing recognition that textiles could be an important source of humanmade contaminants, she says. The study indicates that the research focus on flame retardants likely underestimates human exposure to brominated compounds, which are of special concern owing to their health impacts and ability to persist in the environment and bioaccumulate, Diamond concludes.


Metzler K.,University of Saskatchewan | Drlica K.,Public Health Research Institute Center | Blondeau J.M.,University of Saskatchewan | Blondeau J.M.,Royal University
Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy | Year: 2013

Background: Previous work showed a higher prevalence of macrolide/azalide resistance in provinces of Canada where azithromycin was the major treatment for Streptococcus pneumoniae as compared with regions where clarithromycin was the dominant treatment. These data provided a way to test the mutant selection window hypothesis, which predicts that the serum drug concentration (AUC24) relative to the mutant prevention concentration (MPC) would be higher for clarithromycin than for azithromycin. Methods: The MIC and MPC were determined for 191 penicillin/macrolide-susceptible clinical isolates of S. pneumoniae with azithromycin, clarithromycin and erythromycin using agar plate assays. Results: The MIC50/90 (mg/L) and MPC50/90 (mg/L), respectively, were as follows: azithromycin 0.13/0.25 and 1/4; clarithromycin 0.031/0.063 and 0.13/0.5; erythromycin 0.063/0.13 and 0.25/2. We calculated from published pharmacokinetic values that the AUC24/MPC90 for azithromycin was 0.85; for clarithromycin it was 96, and for erythromycin base and estolate it was 4 and 10, respectively. Thus the AUC. 24/MPC. 90 was about 50 times higher for clarithromycin than for azithromycin. Conclusions: The elevated prevalence of azithromycin resistance may derive in part from a low value of AUC24/MPC90 and/or time above MPC, since previous work indicates that the number of prescriptions per person was similar in the geographical regions examined. © The Author 2012. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved.


Naik S.N.,Indian Institute of Technology Delhi | Naik S.N.,University of Saskatchewan | Goud V.V.,University of Saskatchewan | Goud V.V.,Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati | And 2 more authors.
Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews | Year: 2010

Sustainable economic and industrial growth requires safe, sustainable resources of energy. For the future re-arrangement of a sustainable economy to biological raw materials, completely new approaches in research and development, production, and economy are necessary. The 'first-generation' biofuels appear unsustainable because of the potential stress that their production places on food commodities. For organic chemicals and materials these needs to follow a biorefinery model under environmentally sustainable conditions. Where these operate at present, their product range is largely limited to simple materials (i.e. cellulose, ethanol, and biofuels). Second generation biorefineries need to build on the need for sustainable chemical products through modern and proven green chemical technologies such as bioprocessing including pyrolysis, Fisher Tropsch, and other catalytic processes in order to make more complex molecules and materials on which a future sustainable society will be based. This review focus on cost effective technologies and the processes to convert biomass into useful liquid biofuels and bioproducts, with particular focus on some biorefinery concepts based on different feedstocks aiming at the integral utilization of these feedstocks for the production of value added chemicals. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd.


Sila I.,Kadir Has University | Dobni D.,University of Saskatchewan
Industrial Management and Data Systems | Year: 2012

Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to identify the B2B e-commerce (B2BEC) usage patterns of North American small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in their supply chains, the contextual factors that influence usage patterns, and the subsequent effects of these patterns on firm performance. Design/methodology/approach - The authors conducted an online survey of North American SMEs and obtained 229 responses. They utilized several statistical methods, including cluster analysis and profile analysis, to test five hypotheses. Findings - The TOE framework, supplemented with interorganizational factors, provides a valid theoretical guideline to study firms' B2BEC usage patterns. Three distinct types of B2BEC usage patterns - E-Limiteds, E-Leaders, and E-Laggards - emerged. Different sets of contextual factors contribute to the formation of these three patterns of B2BEC adoption. Higher levels of B2BEC usage result in stronger firm performance. Research limitations/implications - Future clustering variables could be more specific. The effects of other potential contextual factors should also be explored by future studies. This study can be replicated in other countries to determine whether the findings can be generalized. Practical implications - In light of the potential performance improvements that B2BEC adoption offers, managers should assess the risks associated with maintaining their current speed of e-business deployment versus the risks associated with escalating it. Organizations that have been more reactive should consider how well or ill their sluggish approach prepares them for navigating the inevitability of increasing sophistication in supply chain management. Originality/value - Limited empirical research exists on theB2BECusage patterns of NorthAmerican SMEs, the contextual factors that motivate them to adopt different B2BEC technologies in their supply chains, and how each of these usage patterns affects their performance. The current study contributes to the literature by shedding light on these issues. © Emerald Group Publishing Limited.


Mapletoft R.J.,University of Saskatchewan | Bo G.A.,Institute Reproduccion Animal Cordoba IRAC
Reproduction, Fertility and Development | Year: 2012

Superovulation protocols have improved greatly since the early days of bovine embryo transfer when purified gonadotrophins were not available, follicular wave dynamics were unknown physiological phenomena and prostaglandins were not available. Although superstimulatory protocols in cattle are normally initiated mid-cycle, elective control of follicular wave emergence and ovulation have had a great impact on the application of on-farm embryo transfer. However, the most common treatment for the synchronisation of follicular wave emergence involves the use of oestradiol, which cannot be used in many parts of the world. Therefore, the need for alternative treatments has driven recent research. An approach that has shown promise is to initiate follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) treatments at the time of the emergence of the new follicular wave following ovulation induced by gonadotrophin-releasing hormone. Alternatively, it has been shown that it may be possible to ignore follicular wave status and, by extending the treatment protocol, induce subordinate follicles to superovulate. Finally, the short half-life of pituitary FSH necessitates twice-daily treatments, which are time-consuming, stressful and subject to error. Recent treatment protocols have permitted superstimulation with a single FSH treatment or two treatments 48h apart, reducing the need for animal handling during gonadotrophin treatments. © IETS 2012.


De M.,Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati | Azargohar R.,University of Saskatchewan | Dalai A.K.,University of Saskatchewan | Shewchuk S.R.,Saskatchewan Research Council
Fuel | Year: 2013

This study investigated the effects of mercury concentration, process temperature, halides impregnating agents, halides precursor, and halides loading concentration on the mercury removal efficiency of the bio-char derived activated carbons from gaseous phase. The mercury was mainly in the elemental state. The activated carbons were prepared using steam activation method in a pilot scale set-up for the bio-char obtained from fast pyrolysis of whitewood. The elemental, porous structure, particle size, ash content, and thermogravimetric analyses were performed for the bio activated carbons. The activated carbons were impregnated using various precursors such as potassium and ammonium halides, with the halide loadings in the range of 0.1-1.0 mol% of carbon content. It was observed that impregnation of the halide ions significantly improved the performance of the activated carbon (AC) for elemental mercury capture in nitrogen flow. For the same molar loading of halide ions, mercury removal efficiency increased in the following order: AC < Cl-impregnated AC < Br-impregnated AC < I-impregnated AC. Also, Hg removal efficiency of ammonium halide impregnated activated carbon was higher compared to potassium halide impregnated activated carbon, which is due to the better access of Hg to active sites in pores for ammonium halide impregnating agent. Changes in Hg removal efficiency with the process temperature showed that possibly the main mechanism for Hg capture by activated carbon changed from physisorption to chemisorption after impregnation. In the present study, the field test was performed for bio-based unimpregnated activated carbon and was observed to significantly reduce the carbon to mercury ratio for mercury removal from actual flue gas compared with that for the commercial activated carbon. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Smith R.Y.,University of Saskatchewan | Greenwood D.R.,Brandon University | Basinger J.F.,University of Saskatchewan
Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology | Year: 2010

Estimates of pCO2 for the early Paleogene vary widely, from near modern-day levels to an order of magnitude greater, based on various proxy measures. Resolving the relationship between climate and pCO2 during this globally warm period is a key task in understanding climate dynamics in a warmer world. Here, we use the stomatal frequency of fossil Ginkgo adiantoides from the Okanagan Highlands of British Columbia, Canada to estimate pCO2 during the Early Eocene Climatic Optimum (EECO), the interval of peak warmth in the Cenozoic. We also examine a dataset of modern Ginkgo biloba leaves to critically assess the accuracy and precision of stomatal frequency as a proxy indicator of pCO2. Early Eocene fossil G. adiantoides has significantly lower stomatal frequency than modern G. biloba, suggesting pCO2 levels >2× modern pre-industrial values. This result is in contrast to earlier studies using stomatal frequency of Ginkgo that indicated near modern-day levels of pCO2 in the early Paleogene, though not including samples from the EECO. We also find that levels of pCO2 as indicated by stomatal frequency are correlated with trends in climate (mean annual temperature) over time at the Falkland fossil locality, suggesting that climate and pCO2 were coupled during the EECO hyperthermal. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.


Greenwood D.R.,Brandon University | Basinger J.F.,University of Saskatchewan | Smith R.Y.,University of Saskatchewan
Geology | Year: 2010

The Eocene was the warmest part of the Cenozoic, when warm climates extended into the Arctic, and substantive paleobotanical evidence indicates broadleaf and coniferous polar forests. Paleontological temperature proxies provide a basis for understanding Arctic early Paleogene climates; however, there is a lack of corresponding proxy data on precipitation. Both leaf physiognomic analysis and quantitative analysis of nearest living relatives of an Arctic macroflora indicate upper microthermal to lower mesothermal moist climates (mean annual temperature -13-15 °C; cold month mean temperature -4 °C; mean annual precipitation >120 cm/yr) for Axel Heiberg Island in the middle Eocene. Leaf-size analysis of Paleocene and Eocene Arctic floras demonstrates high precipitation for the Paleogene western and eastern Arctic. The predicted enormous volume of freshwater entering the Arctic Ocean as a result of northward drainage of a significant region of the Northern Hemisphere under a high-precipitation regime would have strongly affected Arctic Ocean salinity, potentially supporting Arctic Ocean Azolla blooms. High Paleogene precipitation around the Arctic Basin is consistent with high atmospheric humidity, which would have contributed significantly to polar, and global, Eocene warming. © 2010 Geological Society of America.


Jukanti A.K.,Indian International Crops Research Institute for the Semi Arid Tropics | Gaur P.M.,Indian International Crops Research Institute for the Semi Arid Tropics | Gowda C.L.L.,Indian International Crops Research Institute for the Semi Arid Tropics | Chibbar R.N.,University of Saskatchewan
British Journal of Nutrition | Year: 2012

Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) is an important pulse crop grown and consumed all over the world, especially in the Afro-Asian countries. It is a good source of carbohydrates and protein, and protein quality is considered to be better than other pulses. Chickpea has significant amounts of all the essential amino acids except sulphur-containing amino acids, which can be complemented by adding cereals to the daily diet. Starch is the major storage carbohydrate followed by dietary fibre, oligosaccharides and simple sugars such as glucose and sucrose. Although lipids are present in low amounts, chickpea is rich in nutritionally important unsaturated fatty acids such as linoleic and oleic acids. Î 2-Sitosterol, campesterol and stigmasterol are important sterols present in chickpea oil. Ca, Mg, P and, especially, K are also present in chickpea seeds. Chickpea is a good source of important vitamins such as riboflavin, niacin, thiamin, folate and the vitamin A precursor Î 2-carotene. As with other pulses, chickpea seeds also contain anti-nutritional factors which can be reduced or eliminated by different cooking techniques. Chickpea has several potential health benefits, and, in combination with other pulses and cereals, it could have beneficial effects on some of the important human diseases such as CVD, type 2 diabetes, digestive diseases and some cancers. Overall, chickpea is an important pulse crop with a diverse array of potential nutritional and health benefits. © 2012 The Authors.


Andrianov A.K.,Apogee Technology Inc. | Mutwiri G.,University of Saskatchewan
Vaccine | Year: 2012

A vast number of studies explore the potential of intradermal immunization, its role in the developing of new and improved vaccines and providing access to them globally. The advancement of microneedle technology offers new avenues for the practical realization of this approach, but, on certain instances, introduces new limitations and challenges in the formulation development, which involve the concern over its compatibility with existing and emerging immunoadjuvants. The present paper attempts to review various aspects of immunoadjuvant enhanced microneedle immunization and focuses on the potential of synthetic biomaterials that can play a multifunctional role in such approach. PCPP, a synthetic polyphosphazene macromolecular compound, is discussed as an example of such material that can potentially enable the technology as a microfabrication agent and a potent intradermal immunoadjuvant. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.


Bo G.A.,Institute Reproduccion Animal Cordoba IRAC | Bo G.A.,National University of Villa María | Mapletoft R.J.,University of Saskatchewan
Theriogenology | Year: 2014

Superovulation protocols have evolved greatly over the past 40 to 50 years. The development of commercial pituitary extracts and prostaglandins in the 1970s, and partially purified pituitary extracts and progesterone-releasing devices in the 1980s and 1990s have provided for the development of many of the protocols that we use today. Furthermore, the knowledge of follicular wave dynamics through the use of real-time ultrasonography and the development of the means by which follicular wave emergence can be controlled have provided new practical approaches. Although some embryo transfer practitioners still initiate superstimulatory treatments during mid-cycle in donor cows, the elective control of follicular wave emergence and ovulation has had a great effect on the application of on-farm embryo transfer, especially when large groups of donors need to be superstimulated at the same time. The most common treatment for the synchronization of follicular wave emergence for many years has been estradiol and progestins. In countries where estradiol cannot be used, practitioners have turned to alternative treatments for the synchronization of follicle wave emergence, such as mechanical follicle ablation or the administration of GnRH to induce ovulation. An approach that has shown promise is to initiate FSH treatments at the time of the emergence of the new follicular wave after GnRH-induced ovulation of an induced persistent follicle. Alternatively, it has been suggested recently that it might be possible to ignore follicular wave status, and by extending the treatment protocol, induce small antral follicles to grow and superovulate. Recently, the mixing of FSH with sustained release polymers or the development of long-acting recombinant FSH products have permitted superstimulation with a single or alternatively, two gonadotropin treatments 48 hours apart, reducing the need for animal handling during superstimulation. Although the number of transferable embryos per donor cow superstimulated has not increased, the protocols that are used today have increased the numbers of transferable embryos recovered per unit time and have facilitated the application of on-farm embryo transfer programs. They are practical, easy to administer by farm personnel, and more importantly, they eliminate the need for detecting estrus. © 2014 Elsevier Inc.


Munoz-Villers L.E.,Oregon State University | Munoz-Villers L.E.,National Autonomous University of Mexico | McDonnell J.J.,Oregon State University | McDonnell J.J.,University of Saskatchewan
Water Resources Research | Year: 2012

Most studies to date in the humid tropics have described a similar pattern of rapid translation of rainfall to runoff via overland flow and shallow subsurface stormflow. However, study sites have been few overall, and one particular system has received very little attention so far: tropical montane cloud forests (TMCF) on volcanic substrate. While TMCFs provide critical ecosystem services, our understanding of runoff generation processes in these environments is limited. Here, we present a study aimed at identifying the dominant water sources and pathways and mean residence times of soil water and streamflow for a first-order, TMCF catchment on volcanic substrate in central eastern Mexico. During a 6-week wetting-up cycle in the 2009 wet season, total rainfall was 1200 mm and storm event runoff ratios increased progressively from 11 to 54%. With the increasing antecedent wetness conditions, our isotope and chemical-based hydrograph separation analysis showed increases of pre-event water contributions to the storm hydrograph, from 35 to 99%. Stable isotope-based mean residence times estimates showed that soil water aged only vertically through the soil profile from 5 weeks at 30 cm depth to 6 months at 120 cm depth. A preliminary estimate of 3 years was obtained for base flow residence time. These findings all suggest that shallow lateral pathways are not the controlling processes in this tropical forest catchment; rather, the high permeability of soils and substrate lead to vertical rainfall percolation and recharge of deeper layers, and rainfall-runoff responses appeared to be dominated by groundwater discharge from within the hillslope. © 2012. American Geophysical Union.


Farthing J.P.,University of Saskatchewan | Zehr E.P.,University of Vic
Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews | Year: 2014

The "restoring symmetry" hypothesis poses that cross-education of strength - a crossed-limb adaptation after unilateral training - is best applied to clinical conditions presenting with asymmetries. Cross-education mechanisms should be viewed as evolutionarily conserved circuits that have a small impact on daily life but a meaningful impact for rehabilitation. Two recently published examples are hemiparesis after stroke and unilateral orthopedic injury. Copyright © 2014 by the American College of Sports Medicine.


Walsh M.,National University of Ireland | Morrison T.G.,University of Saskatchewan | McGuire B.E.,National University of Ireland
Pain | Year: 2011

This study examined chronic pain in adults with an intellectual disability (ID), in terms of its prevalence, impact on physical and psychological functioning, and treatments used. Questionnaires were distributed to 2378 primary caregivers (caregivers) of community-dwelling adults with an ID. The questionnaires were used to gather data on demographics, general health, nature of pain, impact of pain, treatment, and health-related decision making. Responses were received from 753 caregivers (31.6% response rate). Caregivers reported that 15.4% of this sample was experiencing chronic pain, for an average of 6.3 years. Significantly more females than males were reported to experience chronic pain, although age, communication ability, and level of ID were not found to be associated with the presence of pain. However, the presence of pain was associated with cerebral palsy, physical disability, and reports of challenging behaviour. A significant proportion of individuals with chronic pain also experienced limitations in several aspects of daily living, and more than 78% of caregivers reported that the service user had become upset or distressed by pain. More than 80% of service users were receiving some form of treatment for their pain, with most seeing a family physician and using analgesics as the primary form of pain treatment. Results indicate that chronic pain is a significant problem for persons with an ID, with a proportion of service users living with daily pain for many years and experiencing limitations in daily functioning, emotional well-being, and quality of life. © 2011 International Association for the Study of Pain. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Feser J.,Aurora University | Truong D.,Aurora University | Das C.,Aurora University | Carson J.J.,Aurora University | And 5 more authors.
Molecular Cell | Year: 2010

Changes to the chromatin structure accompany aging, but the molecular mechanisms underlying aging and the accompanying changes to the chromatin are unclear. Here, we report a mechanism whereby altering chromatin structure regulates life span. We show that normal aging is accompanied by a profound loss of histone proteins from the genome. Indeed, yeast lacking the histone chaperone Asf1 or acetylation of histone H3 on lysine 56 are short lived, and this appears to be at least partly due to their having decreased histone levels. Conversely, increasing the histone supply by inactivation of the histone information regulator (Hir) complex or overexpression of histones dramatically extends life span via a pathway that is distinct from previously known pathways of life span extension. This study indicates that maintenance of the fundamental chromatin structure is critical for slowing down the aging process and reveals that increasing the histone supply extends life span. © 2010 Elsevier Inc.


Latimer A.E.,Queen's University | Brawley L.R.,University of Saskatchewan | Bassett R.L.,McMaster University
International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity | Year: 2010

Background: To motivate individuals to adhere to a regular physical activity regime, guidelines must be supplemented with persuasive messages that are disseminated widely. While substantial research has examined effective strategies for disseminating physical activity messages, there has been no systematic effort to examine optimal message content. This paper reviews studies that evaluate the effectiveness of three approaches for constructing physical activity messages including tailoring messages to suit individual characteristics of message recipients (message tailoring), framing messages in terms of gains versus losses (message framing), and targeting messages to affect change in self-efficacy (i.e., a theoretical determinant of behavior change).Methods: We searched the MEDLINE, PsycINFO, EMBASE and CINAHL databases up to July 2008. Relevant reference lists also were searched. We included intervention trials, field experiments, and laboratory-based studies that aimed to test the efficacy or effectiveness of tailored messages, framed messages and self-efficacy change messages among healthy adults. We used a descriptive approach to analyze emerging patterns in research findings. Based on this evidence we made recommendations for practice and future research.Results: Twenty-two studies were identified. Twelve studies evaluated message tailoring. In 10 of these studies, tailored messages resulted in greater physical activity than a control message. Six studies evaluated framed messages. Five of these studies demonstrated that gain-framed messages lead to stronger intentions to be active compared to a control message. Moreover, a gain-frame advantage was evident in three of the four studies that assessed physical activity. Four studies evaluated self-efficacy change messages. The two studies that used an experimental design provide a clear indication that individuals' beliefs can be affected by messages that incorporate types of information known to be determinants of self-efficacy. Overall, strong evidence to support definitive recommendations for optimal message content and structure was lacking.Conclusions: Additional research testing the optimal content of messages used to supplement physical activity guidelines is needed. Tailored messages, gain-framed messages, and self-efficacy change messages hold promise as strategies for constructing physical activity messages and should be a focus of future research. © 2010 Latimer et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.


Anwar M.,University of Pittsburgh | Greer J.,University of Saskatchewan
IEEE Transactions on Learning Technologies | Year: 2012

This research explores a new model for facilitating trust in online e-learning activities. We begin by protecting the privacy of learners through identity management (IM), where personal information can be protected through some degree of participant anonymity or pseudonymity. In order to expect learners to trust other pseudonymous participants, we realize that a reliable mechanism is needed for managing participants' reputations and assuring that such reputations are legitimately obtained. Further, because participants can hold multiple identities or can adopt new pseudonymous personas, a reliable and trustworthy mechanism for reputation transfer (RT) from one persona to another is required. Such a reputation transfer model must preserve privacy and at the same time prevent linkability of learners' identities and personas. In this paper, we present a privacy-preserving reputation management (RM) system which allows secure transfer of reputation. A prototypical implementation of our reputation transfer protocol and the successful experimental deployment of our reputation management solution in an e-learning discussion forum serve as a proof of concept. © 2008-2011 IEEE.


Lakshmikuttyamma A.,University of Saskatchewan | Scott S.A.,University of Saskatchewan | Scott S.A.,Mount Sinai School of Medicine | Decoteau J.F.,University of Saskatchewan | Geyer C.R.,University of Saskatchewan
Oncogene | Year: 2010

Reexpression of hypermethylated tumor suppressor genes using DNA methyltransferase (DNMT) and histone deacetylase inhibitors occurs by a mechanism whereby promoter demethylation is the dominant event. In support of this model, we found in acute myeloid leukemia cells with hypermethylated p15INK4B and E-cadherin promoters that the DNMT inhibitor, 5-aza-2′- deoxycytidine, induced p15INK4B and E-cadherin expression, and decreased levels of DNA methylation, histone H3 lysine 9 (H3K9) methylation and SUV39H1 associated with p15INK4B and E-cadherin promoters. On the basis of these observations, we examined whether promoter demethylation was dominant to H3K9 demethylation in p15INK4B and E-cadherin reexpression. We observed that SUV39H1 short hairpin RNA and chaetocin, a SUV39H1 inhibitor, induced p15INK4B and E-cadherin expression and H3K9 demethylation without promoter demethylation. Reexpression of hypermethylated p15INK4B and E-cadherin required histone H3K9 demethylation that was achieved directly by inhibiting SUV39H1 expression or activity, or indirectly by decreasing the amount of SUV39H1 associated with the p15INK4B and E-cadherin promoters using 5-aza-2′-deoxycytidine. The results from this study highlight the potential of H3K9 methyltransferases as therapeutic targets for reactivating expression of hypermethylated genes. © 2010 Macmillan Publishers Limited All rights reserved.


Bai X.,CAS Kunming Institute of Botany | Todd C.D.,University of Saskatchewan | Desikan R.,Imperial College London | Yang Y.,CAS Kunming Institute of Botany | Hu X.,CAS Kunming Institute of Botany
Plant Physiology | Year: 2012

N-Acyl-homoserine-lactones (AHLs) are bacterial quorum-sensing signaling molecules that regulate population density. Recent evidence demonstrates their roles in plant defense responses and root development. Hydrogen peroxide (H 2O 2), nitric oxide (NO), and cyclic GMP (cGMP) are essential messengers that participate in various plant physiological processes, but how these messengers modulate the plant response to N-acyl-homoserine-lactone signals remains poorly understood. Here, we show that the N-3-oxo-decanoyl-homoserine-lactone (3-O-C10-HL), in contrast to its analog with an unsubstituted branch chain at the C3 position, efficiently stimulated the formation of adventitious roots and the expression of auxin-response genes in explants of mung bean (Vigna radiata) seedlings. This response was mimicked by the exogenous application of auxin, H 2O 2, NO, or cGMP homologs but suppressed by treatment with scavengers or inhibitors of H 2O 2, NO, or cGMP metabolism. The 3-O-C10-HL treatment enhanced auxin basipetal transport; this effect could be reversed by treatment with H 2O 2 or NO scavengers but not by inhibitors of cGMP synthesis. Inhibiting 3-O-C10-HL-induced H 2O 2 or NO accumulation impaired auxin- or 3-O-C10-HL-induced cGMP synthesis; however, blocking cGMP synthesis did not affect auxin- or 3-O-C10-HLinduced H 2O 2 or NO generation. Additionally, cGMP partially rescued the inhibitory effect of H 2O 2 or NO scavengers on 3-OC10- HL-induced adventitious root development and auxin-response gene expression. These results suggest that 3-O-C10-HL, unlike its analog with an unmodified branch chain at the C3 position, can accelerate auxin-dependent adventitious root formation, possibly via H 2O 2- and NO-dependent cGMP signaling in mung bean seedlings. © 2011 American Society of Plant Biologists.


Pruitt J.N.,University of Pittsburgh | Ferrari M.C.O.,University of Saskatchewan
Ecology | Year: 2011

Although the study of ecological interactions often takes into account functional variation between species, intraspecific variation is commonly ignored. Here, we investigate the importance of an intraspecific polymorphism in shaping interspecific interactions in a habitat-building species. Colonies of the social spider Anelosimus studiosus provide habitat for dozens of arthropod species, and colony members exhibit markedly polymorphic behavioral temperaments (BT): "aggressive" or "docile." We manipulated the phenotypic compositions of colonies (100% aggressive, 50% aggressive and 50% docile, 100% docile) and measured the nature and magnitude of interactions between A. studiosus and two heterospecific web associates, Larinioides cornutus and Agelenopsis emertoni. We found that BT composition significantly affected the outcome of interspecific interactions, changing the relationship between A. studiosus and its web associates from an ammensalism (where A. studiosus experiences reduced fecundity and survival) to a commensalism or mutualism. Our study successfully illustrates the potential of BTs to impact whole community dynamics, and conversely, for community structure to influence the maintenance of BTs. © 2011 by the Ecological Society of America.


Liang Y.,University of Saskatchewan | Liang Y.,Kyoto University | Tse J.S.,University of Saskatchewan
Journal of Physical Chemistry C | Year: 2012

First-principles molecular dynamics calculations were performed to investigate the mechanism on thermal decomposition of H 2 of ammonia borane (NH 3BH 3) at ambient and high pressure. Under atmospheric pressure, one H 2 molecule was released through an intramolecular reaction of a single NH 3BH 3. Nudged elastic band calculations show that the activation barrier for the decomposition in the crystalline environment is reduced by almost 1/3 from the gas phase value. When the system is heated under pressure two H 2 were liberated. The reaction follows an intermolecular pathway involving the concerted interaction of three NH 3BH 3. The results demonstrate the importance and practical significance of pressure on increasing the evolution of H 2 from NH 3BH 3. © 2011 American Chemical Society.


Jilani K.,University of Tübingen | Qadri S.M.,University of Tübingen | Qadri S.M.,University of Saskatchewan | Lang F.,University of Tübingen
Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry | Year: 2013

Background/aims: Geldanamycin, a benzoquinone ansamycin antibiotic, and its analogues induce apoptosis of tumor cells and are thus considered for the treatment of cancer. Similar to apoptosis of nucleated cells, erythrocytes may enter eryptosis, the suicidal erythrocyte death characterized by cell shrinkage and by cell membrane scrambling with phosphatidylserine-exposure at the erythrocyte surface. Triggers of eryptosis include increase of cytosolic Ca 2+-concentration ([Ca2+]i) and formation of ceramide. The present study explored, whether geldanamycin modifies [Ca 2+]i, ceramide formation, cell volume and phosphatidylserine abundance at the erythrocyte surface. Methods: Erythrocyte volume was estimated from forward scatter, phosphatidylserine-abundance from annexin V binding, hemolysis from hemoglobin release, ceramide formation from binding of fluorescent antibodies and [Ca2+]i from Fluo3-fluorescence. Results: A 48 hours exposure to geldanamycin significantly decreased forward scatter (≥ 5 μM), significantly increased annexin-V-binding (≥ 25 μM), but did not significantly modify Fluo3-fluorescence (up to 50 μM). The annexin-V-binding following geldanamycin treatment was not significantly modified by removal of extracellular Ca2+ but was paralleled by significantly increased ceramide formation (50 μM). Conclusions: Geldanamycin stinulated eryptosis, an effect at least partially due to ceramide formation. © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.


Cordy J.R.,Queen's University | Roy C.K.,University of Saskatchewan
IEEE International Conference on Program Comprehension | Year: 2011

The NiCad Clone Detector is a scalable, flexible clone detection tool designed to implement the NiCad (Automated Detection of Near-Miss Intentional Clones) hybrid clone detection method in a convenient, easy-to-use command- line tool that can easily be embedded in IDEs and other environments. It takes as input a source directory or directories to be checked for clones and a configuration file specifying the normalization and filtering to be done, and provides output results in both XML form for easy analysis and HTML form for convenient browsing. NiCad handles a range of languages and normalizations, and is designed to be easily extensible using a component-based plugin architecture. It is scalable to very large systems and has been used to analyze, for example, all 47 releases of FreeBSD (60 million lines) as a single system. © 2011 IEEE.


Xu N.Z.,Hong Kong Polytechnic University | Chung C.Y.,University of Saskatchewan
IEEE Transactions on Smart Grid | Year: 2015

In the foreseeable future, power grids will be managed largely with demand-side management (DSM) programs. With the growing population of electric vehicles (EVs) and the emergence of aggregators, DSM will surely introduce more intense competition to the markets. Since EV charging produces a large amount of time-flexible load in power systems, competition of its management could become a major game. This paper first formulates the game of EV charging management to describe this major form of the future DSM competition and then studies three challenges inherent in it: 1) inefficiency of Nash equilibria; 2) the game of chicken; and 3) cheating on private information. It is found that a central regulator is required to prevent these drawbacks. Solutions are proposed and a central governing procedure is also presented. The notion of the game of EV charging management is compatible with DSM programs that are able to schedule load flexibly over multiple time periods. © 2010-2012 IEEE.


Gutwin C.A.,University of Saskatchewan | Lippold M.,University of Saskatchewan | Graham T.C.N.,Queen's University
Proceedings of the ACM Conference on Computer Supported Cooperative Work, CSCW | Year: 2011

Standard web browsers are becoming a common platform for delivering groupware applications, but until recently, the only way to support real-time collaboration was with browser plug-ins. New networking approaches have recently been introduced - based on re-purposed techniques for delivering web pages (Comet), or integration of real-time communication directly into the browser (HTML5 WebSockets). Little is currently known, however, about whether these new approaches can support real-time groupware. We carried out a study to assess the performance of the three different networking approaches, based on a framework of groupware requirements, in several network settings. We found that web-based networking performs well - better than plug-in approaches in some cases - and can support the communication requirements of many types of real-time groupware. We also developed two groupware applications using Comet and WebSockets, and showed that they provided fast and consistent performance on the real-world Internet. Our studies show that web-based networking can support real-time collaboration, and suggest that groupware developers should consider the browser as a legitimate vehicle for real-time multi-user systems. Copyright 2011 ACM.


Mohamed M.H.,University of Saskatchewan | Wilson L.D.,University of Saskatchewan | Headley J.V.,Aquatic Ecosystems Protection Research Division
Carbohydrate Polymers | Year: 2010

Aqueous solutions containing insoluble β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) based urethane copolymers were studied in aqueous solutions by measuring the absorbance changes (decolourization) of phenolphthalein (phth) at pH 10.5. The various copolymers were comprised of β-CD and five diisocyanate linkers (1,6-hexamethylene diisocyanate (HDI), 4,4′-dicyclohexyl diisocyanate (CDI), 4,4′-diphenylmethane diisocyanate (MDI), 1,4-phenylene diisocyanate (PDI), and 1,5-naphthalene diisocyanate (NDI)). The copolymers studied were prepared at the β-CD: linker reactant ratios 1:1, 1:2, and 1:3, respectively. The decolourization studies provided estimates of the 1:1 binding constants (K 1) for the monomer β-CD/phth inclusion complex. It was concluded that the values of K 1 for copolymer/phth systems for highly accessible β-CD inclusion sites in copolymer materials closely resembles the K 1 value for the 1:1 β-CD/phth complex. The surface accessibility of the β-CD inclusion binding sites for the copolymers ranged from 1-100%. The observed variability was attributed to steric effects in the annular hydroxyl region of β-CD and the relative accessibility of the micropore sites within the polymer framework as a consequence of the variable cross linking. The Gibbs free energy of complex formation (ΔG°) and site occupancy (θ) of phth adsorbed to the copolymer materials was estimated independently using the Sips isotherm model. The ΔG° values ranged between -27 and -30 kJ mol -1 and are in agreement with the Gibbs free energy for the 1:1 β-CD/phth complexes (∼-27 kJ mol -1). The phth decolourization technique provides a simple, low cost and versatile method for the estimation of the surface accessible inclusion sites of β-CD in CD based urethane copolymer materials. This method is anticipated to have extensive analytical applications in materials research and for the design of functional β-CD based sorbent materials. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Bunn S.E.,Griffith University | Leigh C.,Griffith University | Jardine T.D.,Griffith University | Jardine T.D.,University of Saskatchewan
Limnology and Oceanography | Year: 2013

Variation in the diet-tissue fractionation of stable nitrogen isotopes (Δ15N) is a major source of uncertainty in mixing model outputs and the calculation of trophic level in food web studies in aquatic systems. Using δ15N and δ13C of algae and consumers collected from a broad range of streams and rivers in Australia and New Guinea, we calculated Δ15N using a gradient approach, and compared these estimates with those from the literature. Riverine invertebrates and fishes from this region have δ15N diet-tissue fractionation at the low end of the range of values reported for literature summaries, but different trophic groups had different Δ15N estimates. Source-consumer regressions based on δ13C had lower slope estimates and lower R2 values compared with those based on δ15N. This implies that although consumers on average obtain a portion of their organic carbon from higher plants, they derive most of their organic nitrogen from N-rich algae. Use of appropriate Δ15N for riverine consumers will lead to more satisfactory results with isotope mixing models, and the uncertainty associated with Δ15N estimates can be incorporated in the latest iterations of these models that are probabilistic rather than deterministic. © 2013, by the Association for the Sciences of Limnology and Oceanography, Inc.

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