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Sargodha, Pakistan

The University of Sargodha is a public research university based in Sargodha, Punjab, Pakistan. Founded in 2002 by an ordinance of the Government of Pakistan, the university is composed of the central campus in Sargodha, and seven branch satellite campuses located in Faisalabad , Lahore, Gujranwala, Mandi Bahauddin, Mianwali and Bhakkar. Its first acting chairman was Vice-Chancellor Riaz-ul-Haq Tariq. Current Vice-Chancellor of the University of Sargodha, Ameen Ali Mughal has been awarded best Vice-Chancellor of any university in Pakistan. It presents eight faculties in the university and has 137 programmes, of which 53 are for M.Phil. and Ph.D.. 400 educational institutions are affiliated with the university. Wikipedia.


Anwar F.,University of Sargodha | Przybylski R.,University of Lethbridge
Acta Scientiarum Polonorum, Technologia Alimentaria | Year: 2012

Background. Plant origin food ingredients are the main source of very potent antioxidants. Tocopherols, the main oilseeds natural antioxidants are very potent and when implemented into cell membranes are able to scavenge large number of free radicals. Among plant antioxidants are mainly phenolics, large and diversified group of chemical compounds with different radical scavenging potential. Material and methods. Defatted flaxseed meals were extracted with pure alcohols and its mixture with water. Acquired extracts were analysed for the content of phenolics and flavonoids using colorimetric procedures. Antioxidative capacity was assessed by utilizing: DPPH stable free radicals; inhibition of linoleic acid oxidation and reducing power of components. Results. Investigation was conducted on two different batches of flaxseed, assessing antioxidant capacity of compounds extracted with different polarity solvents and extracts were tested for antioxidant activity with different methods. The highest yield of extraction was achieved with 80% methanol but the extract did not contain the highest amount of phenolics and flavonoids. When 80% ethanol was used for extraction the highest amount of flavonoids was detected and also the best antioxidant capacity. Conclusions. The results clearly showed that utilization of polar solvent enable extraction of significant amounts of phenolics and flavonoids. Those components were the most potent antioxidants present in these extracts. Content of these compounds correlated well with results from applied methods for antioxidant assessment. © Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Przyrodniczego w Poznaniu.


Ali G.,Asian Institute of Technology | Nitivattananon V.,Asian Institute of Technology | Abbas S.,Asian Institute of Technology | Sabir M.,University of Sargodha
Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews | Year: 2012

Today, the production of energy from waste is not a new process; however, its implementation and application continue to be a challenge in developing countries. Despite the abundance of valuable waste in the urban markets of these countries, practices aiming at renewable energy generation are missing. In Thailand, so-called green markets are replete with renewable energy potential, but the practical implementation of this potential is rare. Therefore, the main purpose of this study is to show that the conversion of green waste into renewable energy is not only environmentally beneficial but also financially rewarding. This is demonstrated by exploring the energy potential of the market and conducting a benefit-cost analysis under two scenarios. The results illustrate that for the selected market, converting organic waste into biogas is advantageous both environmentally as well as financially; further, the benefit-cost ratio is three times higher after conversion, compared to before. Additionally, there is a huge margin of conversion and production of biogas. The policy makers and planners of Talaad Thai (Thailands largest green market) should invest greater effort in initiating plans, and set an example for other markets in Thailand, in order to make this planet clean and green. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


The Anaplasma species are important globally distributed tick-transmitted bacteria of veterinary and public health importance. These pathogens, cause anaplasmosis in domestic and wild animal species including humans. Rhipicephalus, Ixodes, Dermacentor and Amblyomma genera of ticks are the important vectors of Anaplasma. Acute anaplasmosis is usually diagnosed upon blood smear examination followed by antibodies and nucleic acid detection. All age groups are susceptible but prevalence increases with age. Serological cross-reactivity is one of the important issues among Anaplasma species. They co-exist and concurrent infections occur in animals and ticks in same geographic area. These are closely related bacteria and share various common attributes which should be considered while developing vaccines and diagnostic assays. Movement of susceptible animals from non-endemic to endemic regions is the major risk factor of bovine/ovine anaplasmosis and tick-borne fever. Tetracyclines are currently available drugs for clearance of infection and treatment in humans and animals. Worldwide vaccine is not yet available. Identification, elimination of reservoirs, vector control (chemical and biological), endemic stability, habitat modification, rearing of tick resistant breeds, chemotherapy and tick vaccination are major control measures of animal anaplasmosis. Identification of reservoirs and minimizing the high-risk tick exposure activities are important control strategies for human granulocytic anaplasmosis. Copyright © Cambridge University Press 2016


Rafique B.,Government College University at Faisalabad | Khalid A.M.,University of Sargodha | Akhtar K.,National Institute for Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering NIBGE | Jabbar A.,Government College University at Faisalabad
Biosensors and Bioelectronics | Year: 2013

Electrochemical DNA biosensor was used to study the interaction of methotrexate (MTX) with DNA immobilized on the bare surface of glassy carbon electrode (GCE). The binding mechanism of MTX with DNA was elucidated by using constant current potentiometric technique further supported by UV-Visible and FT-IR studies. The decrease in guanine peak area was used as an analytical signal for the interaction of drug with DNA in acetate buffer solution at pH 4.2 (20% ethanol). The binding constant (K) value calculated for MTX was 3.821×105M-1. UV-Visible studies indicated hyperchromic and hypsochromic shifts in the maximum absorption bands of MTX after interaction with DNA. FT-IR investigations of MTX-DNA interaction revealed significant changes in the characteristic IR absorption bands of all the bases and phosphate groups of DNA. Furthermore, the shift of characteristics bands of C=O, N-H, C-H and O-H groups of MTX endow evidence for the interaction of MTX with DNA supporting the intercalative binding between them. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.


Mahmood A.,University of Sargodha
Solar Energy | Year: 2016

In recent years a lot of work has been done in the field of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC). Dye-sensitized solar cell being a low-cost way for light-energy conversion is an emerging field of research. Triphenylamine based organic dyes (with D-π-A structure) as sensitizer for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) attain considerable attention because of their structural versatility, low cost and high molar absorption coefficient. In this review discussion is focused on application of TPA based dyes in dye-sensitized solar cells. Special consideration has been paid to study the relationship between molecular structure and DSSC performance. This field seen exciting progress and light to power conversion efficiencies exceed to 11%. Photovoltaic performance of DSSCs sensitized by TPA based dyes is compared and comprehensive overview is provided. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.

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