Sargodha, Pakistan

University of Sargodha
Sargodha, Pakistan

The University of Sargodha is a public research university based in Sargodha, Punjab, Pakistan. Founded in 2002 by an ordinance of the Government of Pakistan, the university is composed of the central campus in Sargodha, and seven branch satellite campuses located in Faisalabad , Lahore, Gujranwala, Mandi Bahauddin, Mianwali and Bhakkar. Its first acting chairman was Vice-Chancellor Riaz-ul-Haq Tariq. Current Vice-Chancellor of the University of Sargodha, Ameen Ali Mughal has been awarded best Vice-Chancellor of any university in Pakistan. It presents eight faculties in the university and has 137 programmes, of which 53 are for M.Phil. and Ph.D.. 400 educational institutions are affiliated with the university. Wikipedia.

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Noreen M.,National University of Sciences and Technology | Arshad M.,University of Sargodha
Immunologic Research | Year: 2015

Toll like receptors (TLRs) play a crucial role in regulation of innate as well as adaptive immunity. TLRs recognize a distinct but limited repertoire of conserved microbial products. Ligand binding to TLRs activates the signaling cascade and results in activation of multiple inflammatory genes. Variation in this immune response is under genetic control. Polymorphisms in genes associated with inflammatory pathway especially influence the outcome of diseases. TLR2 makes heterodimer with TLR1 or TLR6 and recognizes a wide variety of microbial ligands. In this review, we summarize studies of polymorphisms in genes encoding TLR1, TLR2, TLR4, TLR6, and most polymorphic adaptor protein, Mal/TIRAP, revealing their effect on susceptibility to diseases. © 2015, Springer Science+Business Media New York.

Mahmood A.,Quaid-i-Azam University | Mahmood A.,University of Sargodha | Malik R.N.,Quaid-i-Azam University | Shinwari Z.K.,Quaid-i-Azam University
Journal of Ethnopharmacology | Year: 2013

Aim of study This study was focused with the aim to investigate and document the indigenous medicinal knowledge and commonly used medicinal plants from Gujranwala district, Pakistan and to establish a baseline data in continuing studies aimed at more comprehensive investigations on bio-active compounds of indigenous medicinal plants. Material and methods Rapid appraisal approach (RAA) was used along with the interviews, group meetings with people having knowledge about indigenous uses of medicinal plants and individual meetings with herbalists were conducted, to collect the ethnomedicinal data. Results and discussions About 71 species of medicinal plants belonging to 38 families have been documented through 203 informants. Most favored plant part used for indigenous medicine was leaves (38%) followed by the seed (13%), whole plant (11%), flower (9%), fruit (8%), root and bark (6%) and the main source of these medicines was wild herbs (54%) followed by the wild shrubs, wild trees (13%), cultivated herbs (10%), cultivated trees (5%), cultivated shrubs (3%) and wild grasses (2%). The herbal preparations were mainly administrated orally and topically. Conclusion Gujranwala district has great diversity of medicinal plants and people are aware about their medicinal values. Few plants are playing vital role in the basic health care needs of study areas; such plants should be screened for detailed pharmacological studied to explore new biological compounds. © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

Anwar F.,University of Sargodha | Przybylski R.,University of Lethbridge
Acta Scientiarum Polonorum, Technologia Alimentaria | Year: 2012

Background. Plant origin food ingredients are the main source of very potent antioxidants. Tocopherols, the main oilseeds natural antioxidants are very potent and when implemented into cell membranes are able to scavenge large number of free radicals. Among plant antioxidants are mainly phenolics, large and diversified group of chemical compounds with different radical scavenging potential. Material and methods. Defatted flaxseed meals were extracted with pure alcohols and its mixture with water. Acquired extracts were analysed for the content of phenolics and flavonoids using colorimetric procedures. Antioxidative capacity was assessed by utilizing: DPPH stable free radicals; inhibition of linoleic acid oxidation and reducing power of components. Results. Investigation was conducted on two different batches of flaxseed, assessing antioxidant capacity of compounds extracted with different polarity solvents and extracts were tested for antioxidant activity with different methods. The highest yield of extraction was achieved with 80% methanol but the extract did not contain the highest amount of phenolics and flavonoids. When 80% ethanol was used for extraction the highest amount of flavonoids was detected and also the best antioxidant capacity. Conclusions. The results clearly showed that utilization of polar solvent enable extraction of significant amounts of phenolics and flavonoids. Those components were the most potent antioxidants present in these extracts. Content of these compounds correlated well with results from applied methods for antioxidant assessment. © Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Przyrodniczego w Poznaniu.

Ali G.,Asian Institute of Technology | Nitivattananon V.,Asian Institute of Technology | Abbas S.,Asian Institute of Technology | Sabir M.,University of Sargodha
Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews | Year: 2012

Today, the production of energy from waste is not a new process; however, its implementation and application continue to be a challenge in developing countries. Despite the abundance of valuable waste in the urban markets of these countries, practices aiming at renewable energy generation are missing. In Thailand, so-called green markets are replete with renewable energy potential, but the practical implementation of this potential is rare. Therefore, the main purpose of this study is to show that the conversion of green waste into renewable energy is not only environmentally beneficial but also financially rewarding. This is demonstrated by exploring the energy potential of the market and conducting a benefit-cost analysis under two scenarios. The results illustrate that for the selected market, converting organic waste into biogas is advantageous both environmentally as well as financially; further, the benefit-cost ratio is three times higher after conversion, compared to before. Additionally, there is a huge margin of conversion and production of biogas. The policy makers and planners of Talaad Thai (Thailands largest green market) should invest greater effort in initiating plans, and set an example for other markets in Thailand, in order to make this planet clean and green. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Nadeem S.M.,University of Agriculture at Faisalabad | Ahmad M.,Islamia University of Bahawalpur | Zahir Z.A.,University of Agriculture at Faisalabad | Javaid A.,University of Punjab | Ashraf M.,University of Sargodha
Biotechnology Advances | Year: 2014

Both biotic and abiotic stresses are major constrains to agricultural production. Under stress conditions, plant growth is affected by a number of factors such as hormonal and nutritional imbalance, ion toxicity, physiological disorders, susceptibility to diseases, etc. Plant growth under stress conditions may be enhanced by the application of microbial inoculation including plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) and mycorrhizal fungi. These microbes can promote plant growth by regulating nutritional and hormonal balance, producing plant growth regulators, solubilizing nutrients and inducing resistance against plant pathogens. In addition to their interactions with plants, these microbes also show synergistic as well as antagonistic interactions with other microbes in the soil environment. These interactions may be vital for sustainable agriculture because they mainly depend on biological processes rather than on agrochemicals to maintain plant growth and development as well as proper soil health under stress conditions. A number of research articles can be deciphered from the literature, which shows the role of rhizobacteria and mycorrhizae alone and/or in combination in enhancing plant growth under stress conditions. However, in contrast, a few review papers are available which discuss the synergistic interactions between rhizobacteria and mycorrhizae for enhancing plant growth under normal (non-stress) or stressful environments. Biological interactions between PGPR and mycorrhizal fungi are believed to cause a cumulative effect on all rhizosphere components, and these interactions are also affected by environmental factors such as soil type, nutrition, moisture and temperature. The present review comprehensively discusses recent developments on the effectiveness of PGPR and mycorrhizal fungi for enhancing plant growth under stressful environments. The key mechanisms involved in plant stress tolerance and the effectiveness of microbial inoculation for enhancing plant growth under stress conditions have been discussed at length in this review. Growth promotion by single and dual inoculation of PGPR and mycorrhizal fungi under stress conditions have also been discussed and reviewed comprehensively. © 2014 Elsevier Inc.

Rafique B.,Government College University at Faisalabad | Khalid A.M.,University of Sargodha | Akhtar K.,National Institute for Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering NIBGE | Jabbar A.,Government College University at Faisalabad
Biosensors and Bioelectronics | Year: 2013

Electrochemical DNA biosensor was used to study the interaction of methotrexate (MTX) with DNA immobilized on the bare surface of glassy carbon electrode (GCE). The binding mechanism of MTX with DNA was elucidated by using constant current potentiometric technique further supported by UV-Visible and FT-IR studies. The decrease in guanine peak area was used as an analytical signal for the interaction of drug with DNA in acetate buffer solution at pH 4.2 (20% ethanol). The binding constant (K) value calculated for MTX was 3.821×105M-1. UV-Visible studies indicated hyperchromic and hypsochromic shifts in the maximum absorption bands of MTX after interaction with DNA. FT-IR investigations of MTX-DNA interaction revealed significant changes in the characteristic IR absorption bands of all the bases and phosphate groups of DNA. Furthermore, the shift of characteristics bands of C=O, N-H, C-H and O-H groups of MTX endow evidence for the interaction of MTX with DNA supporting the intercalative binding between them. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

Zaman K.,University of Sargodha
International Journal of Economics and Financial Issues | Year: 2015

The major contribution of this study is to access number of income and non-income welfare indicators i.e., human development indicators (comprises primary school enrollment, secondary school enrollment, education expenditures, literacy rate, life expectancy, population per bed doctors, maternal and child health center, health expenditures, population planning, social security welfare and natural calamities); rural development measures (includes irrigation, land reclamation, rural development and rural electrifi cation); safety net measures (contains food subsidy, food support programme, Tawwana Pakistan and low cost housing); and market access and community services measures (i.e., roads, buildings and highways and water supply and sanitation) for pro-poor growth reforms in Pakistan. The study covers the four most promising household income surveys of Pakistan i.e., 2002, 2006, 2008 and 2011. This study uses growth incidence curve (GIC) and non-income GIC for measuring income and non-income indicators for Pakistan. The results more pronounced towards relative pro-poor growth in most of the non-income indicators, however, few non-income indicators favors absolute income of the poor in Pakistan. © 2015, Econjournals. All rights reserved.

The Anaplasma species are important globally distributed tick-transmitted bacteria of veterinary and public health importance. These pathogens, cause anaplasmosis in domestic and wild animal species including humans. Rhipicephalus, Ixodes, Dermacentor and Amblyomma genera of ticks are the important vectors of Anaplasma. Acute anaplasmosis is usually diagnosed upon blood smear examination followed by antibodies and nucleic acid detection. All age groups are susceptible but prevalence increases with age. Serological cross-reactivity is one of the important issues among Anaplasma species. They co-exist and concurrent infections occur in animals and ticks in same geographic area. These are closely related bacteria and share various common attributes which should be considered while developing vaccines and diagnostic assays. Movement of susceptible animals from non-endemic to endemic regions is the major risk factor of bovine/ovine anaplasmosis and tick-borne fever. Tetracyclines are currently available drugs for clearance of infection and treatment in humans and animals. Worldwide vaccine is not yet available. Identification, elimination of reservoirs, vector control (chemical and biological), endemic stability, habitat modification, rearing of tick resistant breeds, chemotherapy and tick vaccination are major control measures of animal anaplasmosis. Identification of reservoirs and minimizing the high-risk tick exposure activities are important control strategies for human granulocytic anaplasmosis. Copyright © Cambridge University Press 2016

Mahmood A.,University of Sargodha
Solar Energy | Year: 2016

In recent years a lot of work has been done in the field of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC). Dye-sensitized solar cell being a low-cost way for light-energy conversion is an emerging field of research. Triphenylamine based organic dyes (with D-π-A structure) as sensitizer for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) attain considerable attention because of their structural versatility, low cost and high molar absorption coefficient. In this review discussion is focused on application of TPA based dyes in dye-sensitized solar cells. Special consideration has been paid to study the relationship between molecular structure and DSSC performance. This field seen exciting progress and light to power conversion efficiencies exceed to 11%. Photovoltaic performance of DSSCs sensitized by TPA based dyes is compared and comprehensive overview is provided. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.

This work was inspired by a previous report (Janjua et al. J. Phys. Chem. A2009, 113, 3576-3587) in which the nonlinear-optical (NLO) response strikingly improved with an increase in the conjugation path of the ligand and the nature of hexamolybdates (polyoxometalates, POMs) was changed into a donor by altering the direction of charge transfer with a second aromatic ring. Herein, the first theoretical framework of POM-based heteroaromatic rings is found to be another class of excellent NLO materials having double heteroaromatic rings. First hyperpolarizabilities of a large number of push-pull-substituted conjugated systems with heteroaromatic rings have been calculated. The β components were computed at the density functional theory (DFT) level (BP86 geometry optimizations and LB94 time-dependent DFT). The largest β values are obtained with a donor (hexamolybdates) on the benzene ring and an acceptor (-NO 2) on pyrrole, thiophene, and furan rings. The pyrrole imido-substituted hexamolybdate (system 1c) has a considerably large first hyperpolarizability, 339.00 × 10 -30 esu, and it is larger than that of (arylimido)hexamolybdate, calculated as 0.302 × 10 -30 esu (reference system 1), because of the double aromatic rings in the heteroaromatic imido-substituted hexamolybdates. The heteroaromatic rings act as a conjugation bridge between the electron acceptor (-NO 2) and donor (polyanion). The introduction of an electron donor into heteroaromatic rings significantly enhances the first hyperpolarizabilities because the electron-donating ability is substantially enhanced when the electron donor is attached to the heterocyclic aromatic rings. Interposing five-membered auxiliary fragments between strong donor (polyanion) or acceptor (-NO 2) groups results in a large computed second-order NLO response. The present investigation provides important insight into the NLO properties of (heteroaromatic) imido-substituted hexamolybdate derivatives because these compounds exhibit enhanced hyperpolarizabilities compared to typical NLO arylimido hexamolybdates and heterocyclic aromatic rings reported in the literature. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

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