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Sao Paulo, Brazil

The University of São Paulo is a public university in the Brazilian state of São Paulo. It is the largest Brazilian university and the country's most prestigious educational institution, the best university in Ibero-America, and one of the most prestigious universities in the world. According to reports by the Ministry of Science and Technology, more than 25% of scientific papers published by Brazilian researchers in high quality conferences and journals are produced at the University of São Paulo.USP is one of the largest institutions of higher education in Latin America, with approximately 90,000 enrolled students. It has eleven campuses, four of them in São Paulo . The other campuses are in the cities of Bauru, Lorena, Piracicaba, Pirassununga, Ribeirão Preto and two in São Carlos. USP is involved in teaching, research and university extension in all areas of knowledge. Wikipedia.

Grinberg L.T.,University of California at San Francisco | Grinberg L.T.,University of Sao Paulo
Acta Neuropathologica | Year: 2010

Cerebral atherosclerosis (AS), small vessel disease (SVD), and cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) are the most prevalent arterial disorders in the aged brain. Pathogenetically, AS and SVD share similar mechanisms: plasma protein leakage into the vessel wall, accumulation of lipid-containing macrophages, and fibrosis of the vessel wall. CAA, on the other hand, is characterized by the deposition of the amyloid β-protein in the vessel wall. Despite these differences between CAA, AS and SVD, apolipoprotein E (apoE) is involved in all three disorders. Such a pathogenetic link may explain the correlations between AS, SVD, CAA, and Alzheimer's disease in the brains of elderly individuals reported in the literature. In addition, AS, SVD, and CAA can lead to tissue lesions such as hemorrhage and infarction. Moreover, intracerebral SVD leads to plasma protein leakage into the damaged vessel wall and into the perivascular space resulting in a blood-brain barrier (BBB) dysfunction. This SVD-related BBB dysfunction is considered to cause white matter lesions (WMLs) and lacunar infarcts. In this review, we demonstrate the relationship between AS, SVD, and CAA as well as their contribution to the development of vascular tissue lesions and we emphasize an important role for apoE in the pathogenesis of vessel disorders and vascular tissue lesions as well as for BBB dysfunction on WML and lacunar infarct development. © The Author(s) 2010.

Cozman F.G.,University of Sao Paulo
International Journal of Approximate Reasoning | Year: 2014

The paper by Masegosa and Moral, on "Imprecise probability models for learning multinomial distributions from data", considers the combination of observed data and minimal prior assumptions so as to produce possibly interval-valued parameter estimates. We offer an evaluation of Masegosa and Moral's proposals. © 2014 Elsevier Inc.

Merrifield A.,University of Sao Paulo
Environment and Planning D: Society and Space | Year: 2010

A specter is haunting Europe: the specter of autonomous communist activism. A new party is expanding its ranks, The Imaginary Party, which has already unnerved the French establishment, rattled Sarkozy's government, and penned its own intriguing manifesto: The Coming Insurrection. Everybody agrees: current society is about to explode. Even the French daily Le Monde, was forced to admit: "one hasn't seen power become so fearful of a book for a very long time." Semiotext(e)'s recent English translation has rattled the Anglo-Saxon establishment, too, unleashing a spate of bourgeois paranoia, highlighting for all to see what intelligent people knew already: how very flimsy their hegemony really is, how weak their grip is on political reality. This article examines the coming of The Coming Insurrection, its theoretical basis, and its revolutionary potential. It suggests this uncompromising text is in the 'vanguard' of disseminating a new brand of Marxism, a non-class-based Marxism, a runaway Marxism that has at its core an incipient neocommunist impulse, one currently pitting its wits against an intransigent neoliberalism. Its card-carrying membership thrives off nonaffiliated people, whose platform is grounded in everyday life, not at the workplace. Importantly, The Coming Insurrection employs a vitality of spirit and a principle of hope, as well as the direct action anarchism necessary to reinvigorate classical Marxism. Yes, everyone agrees: an exodus from capitalism has already begun. © 2010 Pion Ltd and its Licensors.

Pereira-Barretto A.C.,University of Sao Paulo
Advances in Therapy | Year: 2015

Abstract: Heart failure has seen a number of therapeutic advances in recent years. Despite this, heart failure is still related to increasing rates of morbidity, repeated hospitalizations, and mortality. Ivabradine is a recent treatment option for heart failure. It has a mode of action that includes reduction in heart rate, and leads to improvement in outcomes related to heart failure mortality and morbidity, as demonstrated by the results of the SHIFT trial in patients with systolic heart failure, functional classes II and III on the New York Heart Association classification, and left ventricular ejection fraction ≤35%. These results are intriguing since many heart failure drugs reduce heart rate without such benefits, or with quite different effects, making it more difficult to understand the novelty of ivabradine in this setting. Many of the drugs used in heart failure modify heart rate, but most have other pathophysiological effects beyond their chronotropic action, which affect their efficacy in preventing morbidity and mortality outcomes. For instance, heart rate reduction at rest or exercise with ivabradine prolongs diastolic perfusion time, improves coronary blood flow, and increases exercise capacity. Another major difference is the increase in stroke volume observed with ivabradine, which may underlie its beneficial cardiac effects. Finally, there is mounting evidence from both preclinical and clinical studies that ivabradine has an anti-remodeling effect, improving left ventricular structures and functions. All together, these mechanisms have a positive impact on the prognosis of ivabradine-treated patients with heart failure, making a compelling argument for use of ivabradine in combination with other treatments. Funding: Servier. © 2015, Springer Healthcare.

Azevedo C.R.F.,University of Sao Paulo
Engineering Failure Analysis | Year: 2011

Neutron irradiation alters the mechanical properties of metallic parts, which are exposed to service temperatures below 40% of their homologous temperature. These working conditions affect most of the components of fission nuclear reactors, making these parts susceptible during service to hardening, loss of ductility, localised plastic deformation and plastic instability. Additionally, there has been a continuous historical increase in the efficiency and service life of nuclear reactors, leading to more severe irradiation exposure during service. In this sense, understanding the mechanisms for the formation and evolution of irradiation-induced defects and their interaction with gliding dislocations is vital for the estimation of the service life of these components and the development of new radiation-resistant materials via alloy and microstructural design. The present paper reviews the use of atomic-scale modelling to simulate the generation and evolution of irradiation-induced defects. Additionally, the interaction between these defects and the gliding dislocations is revised in accordance with the continuum theory and atomic-scale modelling. Finally, the limitations and challenges facing the atomic-scale modelling of radiation damage and defect/dislocation interaction are briefly discussed. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

Azevedo C.R.F.,University of Sao Paulo
Engineering Failure Analysis | Year: 2011

The growing understanding of the link between carbon emissions and global warming has been promoting a discussion on the environmental and safety viability of nuclear power generation. Current open fuel cycle reactors, however, result in low energy efficiency and produce large volumes of nuclear waste. More advanced nuclear reactors, which are currently under investigation, are expected to allow more efficient and safer use of nuclear energy. In all these cases, the fuel cladding is the most important safety barrier in fission nuclear reactors, as it restrains most of the radioactive fission products within its volume. The selection of fuel cladding material is based on many design constraints, such as neutron absorption cross section, service temperature, mechanical strength, toughness, neutron radiation resistance, thermal expansion, thermal conductivity, and chemical compatibility. The present paper reviews the selection of nuclear fuel cladding materials since the early reactors, illustrating some of the main failure modes and briefly discussing the challenges facing the development of fuel cladding materials for generation IV reactors. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

Aortic aneurysm and dissection are important causes of death in older people. Ruptured aneurysms show catastrophic fatality rates reaching near 80%. Few population-based mortality studies have been published in the world and none in Brazil. The objective of the present study was to use multiple-cause-of-death methodology in the analysis of mortality trends related to aortic aneurysm and dissection in the state of Sao Paulo, between 1985 and 2009. We analyzed mortality data from the Sao Paulo State Data Analysis System, selecting all death certificates on which aortic aneurysm and dissection were listed as a cause-of-death. The variables sex, age, season of the year, and underlying, associated or total mentions of causes of death were studied using standardized mortality rates, proportions and historical trends. Statistical analyses were performed by chi-square goodness-of-fit and H Kruskal-Wallis tests, and variance analysis. The joinpoint regression model was used to evaluate changes in age-standardized rates trends. A p value less than 0.05 was regarded as significant. Over a 25-year period, there were 42,615 deaths related to aortic aneurysm and dissection, of which 36,088 (84.7%) were identified as underlying cause and 6,527 (15.3%) as an associated cause-of-death. Dissection and ruptured aneurysms were considered as an underlying cause of death in 93% of the deaths. For the entire period, a significant increased trend of age-standardized death rates was observed in men and women, while certain non-significant decreases occurred from 1996/2004 until 2009. Abdominal aortic aneurysms and aortic dissections prevailed among men and aortic dissections and aortic aneurysms of unspecified site among women. In 1985 and 2009 death rates ratios of men to women were respectively 2.86 and 2.19, corresponding to a difference decrease between rates of 23.4%. For aortic dissection, ruptured and non-ruptured aneurysms, the overall mean ages at death were, respectively, 63.2, 68.4 and 71.6 years; while, as the underlying cause, the main associated causes of death were as follows: hemorrhages (in 43.8%/40.5%/13.9%); hypertensive diseases (in 49.2%/22.43%/24.5%) and atherosclerosis (in 14.8%/25.5%/15.3%); and, as associated causes, their principal overall underlying causes of death were diseases of the circulatory (55.7%), and respiratory (13.8%) systems and neoplasms (7.8%). A significant seasonal variation, with highest frequency in winter, occurred in deaths identified as underlying cause for aortic dissection, ruptured and non-ruptured aneurysms. This study introduces the methodology of multiple-causes-of-death to enhance epidemiologic knowledge of aortic aneurysm and dissection in São Paulo, Brazil. The results presented confer light to the importance of mortality statistics and the need for epidemiologic studies to understand unique trends in our own population.

Mitteldorf J.,Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Martins A.C.R.,University of Sao Paulo
American Naturalist | Year: 2014

Population turnover is necessary for progressive evolution. In the context of a niche with fixed carrying capacity, aging contributes to the rate of population turnover. Theoretically, a population in which death is programmed on a fixed schedule can evolve more rapidly than one in which population turnover is left to a random death rate. Could aging evolve on this basis? Quantitative realization of this idea is problematic, since the short-term individual fitness cost is likely to eliminate any hypothetical gene for programmed death before the long-term benefit can be realized. In 2011, one of us proposed the first quantitative model based on this mechanism that robustly evolves a finite, programmed life span. That model was based on a viscous population in a rapidly changing environment. Here, we strip this model to its essence and eliminate the assumption of environmental change. We conclude that there is no obvious way in which this model is unrealistic, and that it may indeed capture an important principle of nature's workings. We suggest aging may be understood within the context of the emerging science of evolvability. © 2014 by The University of Chicago.

Schmidt T.M.,Federal University of Minas Gerais | Miwa R.H.,Federal University of Minas Gerais | Fazzio A.,University of Sao Paulo
Physical Review B - Condensed Matter and Materials Physics | Year: 2011

Based upon first-principles methods, we investigate the magnetic anisotropy and spin texture of Co impurities embedded at the interlayer van der Waals (vdW) spacings and onto the topmost Se network of the topological insulator Bi 2Se 3. The interaction of the magnetic impurity with the surface spin texture breaks time-reversal symmetry, opening up a surface band gap. For a Co atom adsorbed onto the surface, the net magnetic moment is aligned perpendicular to the surface plane, with anisotropy energy of 6 meV. On the other hand, for the Co impurity at the vdW interlayers, the net magnetic moment is aligned in plane. While pristine Bi 2Se 3 presents a helical spin texture in the massless surface Dirac cone and states resonant within the valence band, the presence of the Co impurity reduces the planar spin helicity of now massive Dirac fermions. © 2011 American Physical Society.

Victora C.G.,Federal University of Pelotas | Aquino E.M.,Federal University of Bahia | Do Carmo Leal M.,Oswaldo Cruz Foundation | Monteiro C.A.,University of Sao Paulo | And 2 more authors.
The Lancet | Year: 2011

In the past three decades, Brazil has undergone rapid changes in major social determinants of health and in the organisation of health services. In this report, we examine how these changes have affected indicators of maternal health, child health, and child nutrition. We use data from vital statistics, population censuses, demographic and health surveys, and published reports. In the past three decades, infant mortality rates have reduced substantially, decreasing by 5·5 a year in the 1980s and 1990s, and by 4·4 a year since 2000 to reach 20 deaths per 1000 livebirths in 2008. Neonatal deaths account for 68 of infant deaths. Stunting prevalence among children younger than 5 years decreased from 37 in 1974-75 to 7 in 2006-07. Regional differences in stunting and child mortality also decreased. Access to most maternal-health and child-health interventions increased sharply to almost universal coverage, and regional and socioeconomic inequalities in access to such interventions were notably reduced. The median duration of breastfeeding increased from 2·5 months in the 1970s to 14 months by 2006-07. Official statistics show stable maternal mortality ratios during the past 10 years, but modelled data indicate a yearly decrease of 4, a trend which might not have been noticeable in official reports because of improvements in death registration and the increased number of investigations into deaths of women of reproductive age. The reasons behind Brazil's progress include: socioeconomic and demographic changes (economic growth, reduction in income disparities between the poorest and wealthiest populations, urbanisation, improved education of women, and decreased fertility rates), interventions outside the health sector (a conditional cash transfer programme and improvements in water and sanitation), vertical health programmes in the 1980s (promotion of breastfeeding, oral rehydration, and immunisations), creation of a tax-funded national health service in 1988 (coverage of which expanded to reach the poorest areas of the country through the Family Health Program in the mid-1990s); and implementation of many national and state-wide programmes to improve child health and child nutrition and, to a lesser extent, to promote women's health. Nevertheless, substantial challenges remain, including overmedicalisation of childbirth (nearly 50 of babies are delivered by caesarean section), maternal deaths caused by illegal abortions, and a high frequency of preterm deliveries. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

Lebiasina marilynae n. sp., L. melanoguttata n. sp., and L. minuta n. sp. are described from the headwaters of the rio Curuá, in Serra do Cachimbo, Pará, Brazil, and represent the only members of the Lebiasininae in the Brazilian Shied, so far. A close relationship among these species is proposed based on: 1) the presence of a pair of foramina through which the ramus palatinus of the facial nerve passes, a modification unique in Lebiasinidae and apparently in the Characiformes, 2) the enlargement of the extrascapular bone, 3) the absence of the secondary stripe, and 4) the nearly equal length of caudal-fin lobes. Lebiasina marilynae additionally differs from all congeners in having the primary stripe extending from the tip of the snout to the distal border of the caudal-fin peduncle, the possession of two series of dark blotches parallel to the primary stripe, and a rounded dorsal surface of the mesethmoid. Lebiasina melanoguttata and Lebiasina minuta additionally differ from all congeners in the absence of the primary stripe and the caudal blotch, and the presence of three longitudinal series of dark blotches at the base of the scales of series 3-5. Lebiasina melanoguttata differs from Lebiasina minuta in the absence of a dark blotch at the base of the median rays of the dorsal fin, second infrapharyngobranchial bearing conical teeth, the reddish overall coloration of the eye and fins, and the dark blotches never coalescing (vs. dark dorsal-fin blotch present; the second infrapharyngobranchial being edentulous; dark, olive green eyes, and the yellowish overall color of body and fins; and the dark blotches of longitudinal series 3 and 4 coalescing where scales of adjacent longitudinal series overlap). The occurrence of species of the Lebiasininae on the Brazilian Shield is discussed, and the distribution pattern of the species described herein is compared to that of other endemic species of the Serra do Cachimbo, a highly biodiverse area isolated from the rest of the Amazon basin. © 2012 Sociedade Brasileira de Ictiologia.

Simone L.R.L.,University of Sao Paulo
ZooKeys | Year: 2012

Two new species of shallow water Tornidae are found in Espírito Santo state, Brazil, formally described herein. They belong to a complex group of tiny gastropods, in such the taxonomy is very confused. Cyclostremiscus mohicanus sp. n. is characterized by three well-developed spiral, equidistant carinas, working as base of three series of tall, aligned periostracal rods. Episcinia itanhuna sp. n. has as single sculpture a series of pustules in periphery, but the periostracum bears three series of peripheral fringes with irregular rods. The new species are compared with the allies, showing a close relation with Caribbean fauna, but possessing worthy differences. These similarities have raised misidentifications. © Luiz Ricardo L. Simone.

Russo-Carbolante E.M.,University of Sao Paulo
Biotechnology letters | Year: 2011

293T and Sk-Hep-1 cells were transduced with a replication-defective self-inactivating HIV-1 derived vector carrying FVIII cDNA. The genomic DNA was sequenced to reveal LTR/human genome junctions and integration sites. One hundred and thirty-two sequences matched human sequences, with an identity of at least 98%. The integration sites in 293T-FVIIIDB and in Sk-Hep-FVIIIDB cells were preferentially located in gene regions. The integrations in both cell lines were distant from the CpG islands and from the transcription start sites. A comparison between the two cell lines showed that the lentiviral-transduced DNA had the same preferred regions in the two different cell lines.

Carneiro-Sampaio M.,University of Sao Paulo | Coutinho A.,Instituto Gulbenkian Of Ciencia
Frontiers in Immunology | Year: 2015

Autoimmune disorders (AID) have been increasingly observed in association with primary immunodeficiencies (PIDs). Here, we discuss the interface between PID and AID, focusing on autoimmune manifestations early in life, which can be diagnostic clues for underlying PIDs. Inflammatory bowel disease in infants and children has been associated with IL-10 and IL-10R deficiencies, chronic granulomatous disease, immunedysregulation-polyendocrinopathy-enteropathy-X-linked syndrome (IPEX), autoinflammatory disorders, and others. Some PIDs have been identified as underlying defects in juvenile systemic lupus erythematosus: C1q-, IgA-, IgM deficiencies, alterations of the IFN-α pathway (in Aicardi-Goutières syndrome due to TREX1 mutation). IPEX (due to FOXP3 mutation leading to Treg cell deficiency), usually appearing in the first months of life, was recently observed in miscarried fetuses with hydrops who presented with CD3+ infiltrating lymphocytes in the pancreas. Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis due to perforin deficiency was also identified as a cause of fetal hydrops. In conclusion, PID should be suspected in any infant with signs of autoimmunity after excluding transferred maternal effects, or in children with multiple and/or severe AID. © 2015 Carneiro-Sampaio and Coutinho.

Lemos P.A.,University of Sao Paulo
EuroIntervention : journal of EuroPCR in collaboration with the Working Group on Interventional Cardiology of the European Society of Cardiology | Year: 2013

Drug-eluting stents have proven to be effective in reducing the risk of late restenosis. In order to achieve a controlled and prolonged release of the antiproliferative agent, current drug-eluting stents utilise various biodegradable as well as non-erodible polymeric blends to coat the stent surface and to serve as drug carriers. The utilisation of polymeric compounds in current drug-eluting stents may eventually limit their performance as well as their clinical applicability due to the potential induction of undesirable local reactions. The development of alternative, polymer-free drug carriers has the potential to overcome some of the limitations of current drug-eluting stent formulations. Moreover, improvements in drug carriers may also result in an expansion of the technological possibilities for other intravascular drug delivery systems, such as metal-free or even implant-free solutions. This article describes the structure and the preclinical validation profile of a novel phospholipid encapsulated sirolimus nanocarrier, used as a coating in two formulations: a coronary stent-plus-balloon system and a stand-alone balloon catheter. The nanoparticles provided a stable, even and homogenous coating to the devices in both formulations. Dose-finding studies allowed the most appropriate identification of the best nanoparticle structure associated with an extremely efficient transfer of drug to all layers of the vessel wall, achieving high tissue concentrations that persisted days after the application, with low systemic drug leaks.

Schiesari L.,University of Sao Paulo | Grillitsch B.,University of Veterinary Medicine Vienna
Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment | Year: 2011

Global interest in biofuels is driving a continuous expansion of agroindustrial production in tropical countries, bringing a substantial share of the world's biodiversity into contact with hundreds of potentially hazardous pesticides. We reviewed the hazards imposed by all 784 pesticides currently registered for use on biofuelcrops in Brazil. We detected compounds that have been suspended by international conventions, as well as over 80 compounds included in lists of priority concern for exhibiting environmental persistence and/or having the potential to elicit neurotoxic, reprotoxic, carcinogenic, or endocrine-disrupting effects in humans and wildlife. These chemicals will be used at increased rates, or for the first time, across large expanses of agroindustrially converted pastures and native (ie pristine) habitat in the cerrado (tropical savanna) and Amazonian rainforest biomes. If human and environmental health are to be balanced with productivity to achieve a sustainable agriculture, bolder initiatives on pesticide restriction and control must be implemented in tropical countries. © The Ecological Society of America.

Stroke affects mainly people aged over 65 years, and atherosclerosis predominates as the main etiopathogenic factor in ischemic stroke (IS). On the other hand, cardiac embolism and arterial dissection are the most frequent causes of IS in patients aged less than 45 years. However, inappropriate control of traditional vascular risk factors in young people may be causing a significant increase of atherosclerosis-related IS in this population. Furthermore, a variety of etiologies, many of them uncommon, must be investigated. In endemic regions, neurocysticercosis and Chagas' disease deserve consideration. Undetermined cause has been still reported in as many as one third of young stroke patients.

Borges J.C.,University of Sao Paulo | Ramos C.H.I.,University of Campinas
Current Medicinal Chemistry | Year: 2011

The interest in analytical ultracentrifugation (AUC) to analyze protein structural parameters and interactions has increased in the past decades as a result of several developments on new generation instrumentation and data analysis tools. In this article, we review AUC principles and applications to study proteins, emphasizing molecular targets of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. © 2011 Bentham Science Publishers Ltd.

Silva Dias M.A.F.,University of Sao Paulo
Weather, Climate, and Society | Year: 2011

This paper presents the development of tornado reports in Brazil since the middle of the twentieth century, both for the country as a whole and for the five regions of Brazil: the south, southeast, central-west, northeast, and north. No official tornado registry exists in Brazil so the reports come from various sources. Most of the tornadoes reported are from the south and southeast regions. The low number of reports for the central-west regions suggests, in view of the literature on intense storms and mesoscale convective complexes, that most tornadoes cases go unreported. The increase in tornado reports is compared to the evolution of population density and communications, with the latter represented by the evolution of local television stations and the popularization of the Internet. One particular event is a new Web site for volunteer tornado reports, which has completely changed the trends of tornado reports. Another possible cause for an increase in the number of tornado reports in the south and southern regions could be a shift in climate variability in this region in the 1970s, which has been reported by several authors. However, the increase in rainfall and extreme events reported by these studies point to an increase of as much as 40%, which is not compatible with the observed tenfold increase in tornado reports. © 2011 American Meteorological Society.

Organ transplant recipients with refractory rejection or intolerance to the prescribed immunosuppressant may respond to rescue therapy with tacrolimus. We sought to evaluate the clinical outcomes of children undergoing heart transplantation who required conversion from a cyclosporine-based, steroid-free therapy to a tacrolimus-based regimen. We performed a prospective, observational, cohort study of 28 children who underwent conversion from cyclosporine-based, steroid-free therapy to a tacrolimus-based therapy for refractory or late rejection or intolerance to cyclosporine. There was complete resolution of refractory rejection episodes and adverse side effects in all patients. The incidence rate (×100) of rejection episodes before and after conversion was 7.98 and 2.11, respectively (P ≤ .0001). There was a 25% mortality rate in patients using tacrolimus after a mean period of 60 months after conversion. Tacrolimus is effective as rescue therapy for refractory rejection and is a therapeutic option for pediatric patients. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Bor-Seng-Shu E.,University of Sao Paulo
Einstein (São Paulo, Brazil) | Year: 2012

Transcranial sonography has become a useful tool in the differential diagnosis of parkinsonian syndromes. This is a non-invasive, low cost procedure. The main finding on transcranial sonography in patients with idiopathic Parkinson's disease is an increased echogenicity of the mesencephalic substantia nigra region. This hyperechogenicity is present in more than 90% of cases, and reflects a dysfunction in the dopaminergic nigrostriatal pathway. This study discussed how the hyperechogenicity of the substantia nigra may facilitate the differential diagnosis of parkinsonian syndromes.

Nader J.J.,University of Sao Paulo
Geotechnique | Year: 2011

The present analysis takes into account the acceleration term in the differential equation of motion to obtain exact dynamic solutions concerning the groundwater flow towards a well in a confined aquifer. The results show that the error contained in the traditional quasi-static solution is very small in typical situations.

With over half of the world's population living in cities, and with rising consumption, the generation of solid waste has become a ubiquitous and serious problem in urban agglomerations. City administrations are facing social, cultural, environmental, and economic challenges when planning solid waste solutions. The paper discusses the participatory epistemology and methodology experience resulting from inclusive solid waste management in Brazil. In the global South countless informal and organized solid waste collectors are engaged in resource recovery, classification of discarded waste, and redirection of recyclables towards the recycling sector. Their work is mostly unrecognized and the service is not remunerated. Governmental support to include recycling cooperatives in selective waste collection varies significantly in scope and quality. In theory, the Brazilian solid waste management legislation supports recycling cooperatives and promotes avoidance, reuse, and recycling as a primary solution tackling waste. In praxis, however, many challenges towards inclusive resource recovery and awareness building about waste avoidance and diversion are yet to be overcome. Action-oriented, participatory qualitative research, conducted with recycling cooperatives and local governments in the metropolitan region of São Paulo, has revealed some of the environmental and social contributions, as well as challenges arising in planning, policy design, and implementation of waste management. The research applies a feminist and post-colonial theoretical lense and demonstrates a wealth of knowledge co-generation on waste management. The participatory method underlines important social aspects to consider in planning and policy design for inclusive waste management. The final conclusion of this paper is that selective household waste collection with recycling cooperatives creates unique opportunities to build more inclusive and cleaner cities. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

Ruther R.,Federal University of Santa Catarina | Zilles R.,University of Sao Paulo
Energy Policy | Year: 2011

In the developed world, grid-connected photovoltaics (PVs) are the fastest-growing segment of the energy market. From 1999 to 2009, this industry had a 42% compound annual growth-rate. From 2009 to 2013, it is expected to grow to 45%, and in 2013 the achievement of grid parity - when the cost of solar electricity becomes competitive with conventional retail (including taxes and charges) grid-supplied electricity - is expected in many places worldwide. Grid-connected PV is usually perceived as an energy technology for developed countries, whereas isolated, stand-alone PV is considered as more suited for applications in developing nations, where so many individuals still lack access to electricity. This rationale is based on the still high costs of PV when compared with conventional electricity. We make the case for grid-connected PV generation in Brazil, showing that with the declining costs of PV and the rising prices of conventional electricity, urban populations in Brazil will also enjoy grid parity in the present decade. We argue that governments in developing nations should act promptly and establish the mandates and necessary conditions for their energy industry to accumulate experience in grid-connected PV, and make the most of this benign technology in the near future. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

De Carvalho J.F.,University of Sao Paulo
Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews | Year: 2011

The energy crisis and a greater awareness among the general public regarding the issue of climate change have, between them, led to a notable increase in the interest shown by governments in relation to the problem of environmental sustainability. An example has been the initiative taken by the President of France to set up a commission, known as the Sarkozy Commission, named after the President, bringing together renowned economists to study and propose forms of economic performance measurement related to social progress. This article aims to propose a methodology to establish a quantitative definition of sustainability structured on the principles of minimum and maximum entropy production, and, based on this, outline a way of organizing the many sources of, and kinds of energy, we have available to us in order of the intensity of their respective environmental impacts. Based on this, we could produce an Environmental Sustainability Index, linked to existing statistical indicators of human development, and thereby arrive at a Sustainable Human Development Index, which would be positively or negatively influenced by parameters linked to environmental sustainability and quality of life. In order to ensure that this index can produce practical results, the WTO (World Trade Organization) would have to establish a scale of increments, to be applied to export tariffs on products originating in countries with different indexes. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Fiorelli A.I.,University of Sao Paulo
Transplantation proceedings | Year: 2012

Tricuspid regurgitation (TR) is the most commonly valvular dysfunction found after heart transplantation (HTx). It may be related to endomyocardial biopsy (EMB) performed for allograft rejection surveillance. This investigation evaluated the presence of tricuspid valve tissue fragments obtained during routine EMB performed after HTx and its possible effect on short-term and long-term hemodynamic status. This single-center review included prospectively collected and retrospectively analyzed data. From 1985 to 2010, 417 patients underwent 3550 EMB after HTx. All myocardial specimens were reviewed to identify the presence of tricuspid valve tissue by 2 observers initially and in doubtful cases by a third observer. The echocardiographic and hemodynamic parameters were only considered for valvular functional damage analysis in cases of tricuspid tissue inadvertently removed during EMB. The 417 HTx patients to 3550 EMB, including 17,550 myocardial specimens. Tricuspid valve tissue was observed in 12 (2.9%) patients corresponding to 0.07% of the removed fragments. The echocardiographic and hemodynamic parameters of these patients before versus after the biopsy showed increased TR in 2 cases (2/12; 16.7%) quantified as moderate without progression in the long term. Only the right atrial pressure showed a significant increase (P = .0420) after tricuspid injury; however, the worsening of the functional class was not significant enough in any of the subjects. Thus, surgical intervention was not required. Histological evidence of chordal tissue in EMB specimens is a real-world problem of relatively low frequency. Traumatic tricuspid valve injury due to EMB rarely leads to severe valvular regurgitation; only a minority of patients develop significant clinical symptoms. Hemodynamic and echocardiographic alterations are also less often observed in most patients. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Camara-Lopes G.,University of Sao Paulo
International braz j urol : official journal of the Brazilian Society of Urology | Year: 2013

Prostatic artery embolization (PAE) for the treatment of patients with symptomatic benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is believed to be a safe procedure with a low risk of adverse side effects. Artery embolization is a viable treatment option in patients who are refractory to the classic noninvasive treatments. Knowledge of the histological characteristics of prostate tissue following the procedure is still limited. In this study, we describe the microscopic aspects of the prostate following PAE for BPH. Two patients underwent transurethral resections of the prostate (TURP) after PAE. Embolizations were performed under local anesthesia with an initial pelvic angiography to evaluate the iliac vessels and the prostate arteries using a 2.8 French microcatheter. The prostate was embolized with 300-500 μm Microspheres (Embosphere ®), using complete blood stasis as the end point. The prostate tissues were analyzed histologically to characterize the effects of the embolization. The embolic material within the prostate tissue was easily identified as homogeneous, bright eosin-red spheroids filling the vessel lumens. Ischemic necrosis surrounded or not by chronic inflammatory reactions containing macrophages were considered as a result of the artery embolization. Also, some aspects related to the healing process were observed being fibrotic nodules surrounded by glands with squamous metaplasia of the epithelial lining the most important. In the remaining sections, due to the precocious surgical intervention, the classic findings of BPH were still present with the glandular and stromal hyperplasia associated with nonspecific chronic prostatitis. This is the first description of prostate histology in BPH patients treated by PAE, a new procedure that is being used increasingly as a therapeutic intervention. The recognition of the changes caused by this new modality of treatment has become a very important differential in a chronic granulomatous reaction of the prostate tissue.

Both C.,Grande Rio University | Grant T.,University of Sao Paulo
Biology Letters | Year: 2012

Invasive species are known to affect native species in a variety of ways, but the effect of acoustic invaders has not been examined previously. We simulated an invasion of the acoustic niche by exposing calling native male white-banded tree frogs (Hypsiboas albomarginatus) to recorded invasive American bullfrog (Lithobates catesbeianus) calls. In response, tree frogs immediately shifted calls to significantly higher frequencies. In the poststimulus period, they continued to use higher frequencies while also decreasing signal duration. Acoustic signals are the primary basis ofmate selection in many anurans, suggesting that such changes could negatively affect the reproductive success of native species. The effects of bullfrog vocalizations on acoustic communities are expected to be especially severe due to their broad frequency band, which masks the calls of multiple species simultaneously. © 2011 The Royal Society.

Homeopathy might be employed for the prevention of epidemic diseases (homeoprophylaxis) provided remedies are selected on an individual basis in compliance with the 'principle of symptom-based similitude' and according to the totality of symptoms peculiar to a given epidemic (remedy of the 'epidemic genius' or 'genus epidemicus'), as countless examples in the literature show. The use of nosodes for the prevention of epidemic diseases (isoprophylaxis), i.e., selected based on the 'principle of etiological identity' with full neglect of symptom-based individualization and pathogenetic trials, is not supported by the homeopathic epistemological model. As long as there are no reliable scientific evidences attesting to its efficacy and safety, 'isopathic immunization' might not be indicated as a regular replacement of classical immunization, as it would mean a transgression of the bioethical principles of 'beneficence' and 'non-maleficence'. Although many homeopathic practitioners systematically indicate that practice, it is condemned by homeopathic institutions worldwide. In this article, I elaborate on epistemological, ethical and scientific features of these disparate approaches to prophylaxis, which I had summarily addressed in a previous review.

Minayo M.C.S.,Centro Latino Americano Of Estudos Of Violencia E Saude Jorge Careli | Guerriero I.C.Z.,University of Sao Paulo
Ciencia e Saude Coletiva | Year: 2014

This paper seeks to promote reflection on ethics in anthropological and qualitative research and emphasize the comprehensive, relational and reflective character of this process, as well as the advantages and problems that arise from different logic and often conflicting interests between researchers and their interlocutors. The text is divided into four parts and addresses the ethical: (a) significance of these approaches; (b) behavior of the researcher in the field; (c) analysis of the empirical material; and (d) considerations in the preparation of results of anthropological and qualitative studies, using some classic examples from the international literature. The paper concludes by reflecting on the distinction between the requirements of the Ethics Committee and the Ethics of research itself. It must be clear that the comprehensive sense of ethics which includes the responsibility of the researcher cannot be condensed in the instruments required for the judgment of projects because the following elements are involved in the development of research, namely the social significance of the work, the institutional relations with fund providers, how to treat staff and research students in academic work and commitments with the scientific community.

De Melo V.V.,Federal University of Sao Paulo | Botazzo Delbem A.C.,University of Sao Paulo
Information Sciences | Year: 2012

Recently, researches have shown that the performance of metaheuristics can be affected by population initialization. Opposition-based Differential Evolution (ODE), Quasi-Oppositional Differential Evolution (QODE), and Uniform-Quasi-Opposition Differential Evolution (UQODE) are three state-of-the-art methods that improve the performance of the Differential Evolution algorithm based on population initialization and different search strategies. In a different approach to achieve similar results, this paper presents a technique to discover promising regions in a continuous search-space of an optimization problem. Using machine-learning techniques, the algorithm named Smart Sampling (SS) finds regions with high possibility of containing a global optimum. Next, a metaheuristic can be initialized inside each region to find that optimum. SS and DE were combined (originating the SSDE algorithm) to evaluate our approach, and experiments were conducted in the same set of benchmark functions used by ODE, QODE and UQODE authors. Results have shown that the total number of function evaluations required by DE to reach the global optimum can be significantly reduced and that the success rate improves if SS is employed first. Such results are also in consonance with results from the literature, stating the importance of an adequate starting population. Moreover, SS presents better efficacy to find initial populations of superior quality when compared to the other three algorithms that employ oppositional learning. Finally and most important, the SS performance in finding promising regions is independent of the employed metaheuristic with which SS is combined, making SS suitable to improve the performance of a large variety of optimization techniques. © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Antolini E.,Scuola di Science Dei Materiali | Antolini E.,University of Sao Paulo
Applied Catalysis B: Environmental | Year: 2010

Highly dispersed platinum or platinum-based catalysts on a conductive support are commonly used as electrode materials in low-temperature fuel cells. The performance and, in particular, the stability of these catalysts strongly depend on the characteristics of the support. Being the use of plain carbon, ceramic or polymer materials not completely satisfactory, in the last years hybrid polymer-carbon, ceramic-carbon and polymer-ceramic materials have been proposed as fuel cell catalyst supports. These hybrid materials, possessing the properties of each component, or even with a synergistic effect, would present improved characteristics with respect to the bare components.In this paper we present an overview of these hybrid materials as low-temperature fuel cell catalyst supports. The improved characteristics of the mixed supports with respect to the individual component and their effect on the electrochemical activity are highlighted. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.

Carmona-Ribeiro A.M.,University of Sao Paulo
International Journal of Nanomedicine | Year: 2010

Mimicking nature is a powerful approach for developing novel lipid-based devices for drug and vaccine delivery. In this review, biomimetic assemblies based on natural or synthetic lipids by themselves or associated to silica, latex or drug particles will be discussed. In water, self-assembly of lipid molecules into supramolecular structures is fairly well understood. However, their self-assembly on a solid surface or at an interface remains poorly understood. In certain cases, hydrophobic drug granules can be dispersed in aqueous solution via lipid adsorption surrounding the drug particles as nanocapsules. In other instances, hydrophobic drug molecules attach as monomers to borders of lipid bilayer fragments providing drug formulations that are effective in vivo at low drug-to-lipid-molar ratio. Cationic biomimetic particles offer suitable interfacial environment for adsorption, presentation and targeting of biomolecules in vivo. Thereby antigens can effectively be presented by tailored biomimetic particles for development of vaccines over a range of defined and controllable particle sizes. Biomolecular recognition between receptor and ligand can be reconstituted by means of receptor immobilization into supported lipidic bilayers allowing isolation and characterization of signal transduction steps. © 2010 Carmona-Ribeiro.

Tacon A.G.J.,University of Sao Paulo | Metian M.,University of Stockholm
Reviews in Fisheries Science | Year: 2013

In a world where nearly 30% of humanity is suffering from malnutrition and over 70% of the planet is covered with water, aquatic foods represent an essential component of the global food basket to improve the nutrition, health, and well being of all peoples.It is not by chance that Japan, the country with one of the world's highest reported life expectancies and lowest incidences of obesity and deaths from heart related illnesses, is also one of the world's top consumers of captured and farmed aquatic animal food products and aquatic plants. According to the FAO, in 2009, total captured and farmed aquatic animal food products accounted for 16.6% of the global population's intake of animal protein, providing more than three billion people with almost 20% of their average per capita intake of animal protein, and 4.3 billion people with at least 15% of such protein.This article reviews the nutritional composition of different farmed and captured aquatic food products and compares these with conventional terrestrial meat products. In addition to the superior nutritional profile and benefits of aquatic animal food products, small-sized marine pelagic fish play an important role in the nutrition of the poor as an affordable and much needed source of high quality animal protein and essential amino acids, omega-3 fatty acids, vitamins, minerals, and trace elements. As one of the best aquatic animal foods from a nutritional perspective, the direct consumption of small pelagic fish should be encouraged and promoted, as apposed to the continued targeted use of these species for reduction into fishmeal and fish oil for use in animal feeds. © 2013 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.

Seguro L.P.C.,University of Sao Paulo | Rosario C.,Hospital de Pedro Hispano | Shoenfeld Y.,Tel Aviv University
Autoimmunity Reviews | Year: 2013

Glucocorticoids (GC) are essential in the management of several medical conditions but its long-term use is associated with complications in diverse organs and systems. The aim of the present study is to review the long-term complications of past GC use.Permanent damage related to GC can affect patient's life even years after its withdrawal. Classical examples are cataracts and esthetic problems like skin atrophy, striae, acne and obesity. Interestingly, for some complications, the risk of an incident event can persist for past GC use. Higher risks of osteoporosis, osteonecrosis, cardiovascular disease, infections and cancer have been associated with prior GC therapy. These evidences reinforce the importance of limiting our GC prescriptions at its lower possible dose. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

Tavares H.,University of Sao Paulo
Addiction | Year: 2014

Aims: To provide an overview of gambling in Brazil, including historical background, past and current legislation, gamblers' profile, treatment and research initiatives. Methods: Review of the published literature and research reports. Results: Gambling is deeply rooted in Brazilian history and culture, but gambling regulation historically alternates between legalization and banning. Currently, only state lotteries, horse betting and poker-playing are allowed. There is pressure to widen the games repertoire, but efforts at full legalization and commercial exploration of gambling have receded. Despite the barriers to gambling access, Brazil has prevalence rates similar to other countries: 1.0 and 1.3% life-time prevalence for pathological and problem gambling. A faster progression from regular to problem gambling was found among middle-aged women in clinical samples and for adolescent male gamblers in a population-based sample. Youth gambling is associated with severe forms of gambling and other risk-taking behaviours. Treatment options are scarce, and the public health system is unprepared to support gambling patients. Ongoing incipient efforts are being made to establish a treatment model combining psychotherapy and psychiatric comorbidity treatment with promotion of quality of life. Conclusion: Life-time incidence of pathological gambling in Brazil appears similar to many other countries, at approximately 1%. Arguably, there is a need to develop a more coherent regulatory and treatment response to this societal problem. © 2014 Society for the Study of Addiction.

Martins A.C.R.,University of Sao Paulo | Martins A.C.R.,Ecole Polytechnique - Palaiseau
PLoS ONE | Year: 2011

Understanding why we age is a long-lived open problem in evolutionary biology. Aging is prejudicial to the individual, and evolutionary forces should prevent it, but many species show signs of senescence as individuals age. Here, I will propose a model for aging based on assumptions that are compatible with evolutionary theory: i) competition is between individuals; ii) there is some degree of locality, so quite often competition will be between parents and their progeny; iii) optimal conditions are not stationary, and mutation helps each species to keep competitive. When conditions change, a senescent species can drive immortal competitors to extinction. This counter-intuitive result arises from the pruning caused by the death of elder individuals. When there is change and mutation, each generation is slightly better adapted to the new conditions, but some older individuals survive by chance. Senescence can eliminate those from the genetic pool. Even though individual selection forces can sometimes win over group selection ones, it is not exactly the individual that is selected but its lineage. While senescence damages the individuals and has an evolutionary cost, it has a benefit of its own. It allows each lineage to adapt faster to changing conditions. We age because the world changes. © 2011 André C. R. Martins.

Vieira S.E.,University of Sao Paulo
International Journal of COPD | Year: 2015

Exposure to atmospheric pollutants in both open and closed environments is a major cause of morbidity and mortality that may be both controlled and minimized. Despite growing evidence, several controversies and disagreements exist among the studies that have analyzed the effects of prenatal pollutant exposure. This review article aims to analyze primary scientific evidence of the effects of air pollution during pregnancy and the impact of these effects on the fetus, infant health, and in particular, the respiratory system. We performed a review of articles from the PubMed and Web of Science databases that were published in English within the past 5 years, particularly those related to birth cohorts that began in pregnancy with follow-up until the first years of life. The largest reported effects are associated with prenatal exposure to particulate matter, nitrogen dioxide, and tobacco smoke. The primary effects affect birth weight and other parameters of fetal biometry. There is strong evidence regarding the impact of pollutants on morbidity secondary to respiratory problems. Growing evidence links maternal smoking to childhood asthma and wheezing. The role of passive maternal smoking is less clear. Great heterogeneity exists among studies. There is a need for additional studies on birth cohorts to monitor the relationship between the exposure of pregnant women to pollutants and their children’s progress during the first years of life. © 2015 Vieira.

Silva Jr. L.F.,University of Sao Paulo
Synlett | Year: 2014

Nearly two decades of work on ring-contraction reactions is discussed in this account. We have developed several reliable protocols for the rearrangement of a number of different substrates using thallium(III) salts and, more recently, hypervalent iodine(III) reagents. A variety of ring systems, such as cyclopentanes, cis- and trans-hydrindanes, and indanes, can be obtained using these methods. Additionally, the stereoselective total syntheses of the sesquiterpenes (±)-, (-)- and (+)-mutisianthol and (+)-bakkenolide A, the indole alkaloid (±)- and (+)-trans-trikentrin A, and the potential drug (±)-indatraline have been achieved through a ring-contraction approach. 1 Introduction 2 Ring-Contraction Reactions Promoted by Thallium(III) 2.1 Thallium(III)-Mediated Ring Contraction of Cyclic Ketones 2.2 Thallium(III)-Mediated Ring Contraction of Cyclic Olefins 2.3 Thallium(III)-Mediated Ring Contraction of Homoallylic Alcohols 3 Ring-Contraction Reactions Promoted by Iodine(III) 4 Conclusion © Georg Thieme Verlag Stuttgart New York.

Garcia E.J.,University of Sao Paulo
The European journal of esthetic dentistry : official journal of the European Academy of Esthetic Dentistry | Year: 2012

It is generally not recommended that bonded restoration treatment should be carried out immediately after bleaching treatment. However, the use of antioxidants such as sodium ascorbate can be useful to avoid a waiting period. This article is a brief review about in vitro proposals to overcome low bond strength values to bleached dental surfaces. It shows a one-year follow-up case report of a young female presenting agenesis of maxillary lateral incisors reshaped with direct resin composite immediately after dental bleaching. Teeth were bleached with a combination of in-office and at-home whitening protocols, followed by the application of a 10% sodium ascorbate gel for one hour, to allow the immediate reshaping with direct resin composite restoration. After one year, the clinical performance of the restoration was successful. The use of sodium ascorbate gel can help the clinician to perform bonding procedures immediately after bleaching treatments.

Simone L.R.L.,University of Sao Paulo
Papeis Avulsos de Zoologia | Year: 2012

Spiripockia punctata is a new genus and species of Pomatiopsidae found in a cave from Serra Ramalho, SW Bahia, Brazil. The taxon is troglobiont (restricted to subterranean realm), and is characterized by the shell weakly elongated, fragile, translucent, normally sculptured by pustules with periostracum hair on tip of pustules; peristome highly expanded; umbilicus opened; radular rachidian with 6 apical and 3 pairs of lateral cusps; osphradium short, arched; gill filaments with rounded tip; prostate flattened, with vas deferens inserting subterminally; penis duct narrow and weakly sinuous; pallial oviduct simple anteriorly, possessing convoluted bypass connecting base of bulged portion of transition between visceral and pallial oviducts with base of seminal receptacle; spermathecal duct complete, originated from albumen gland. The description of this endemic species may raise protective environmental actions to that cave and to the Serra Ramalho Karst area.

A sample of Pulmonata collected in Santa Maria da Vitória, interior of Bahia, Brazil, in Caatinga semi-arid environment, is studied taxonomically. From the five species, four are revealed as new, including a new genus. The new taxa are the Bulimulidae (1) Kora corallina gen. et sp. n. characterized by the elongated shell with aperture somewhat dislocated from the shell axis, and an oblique tooth in middle level of inner lip; (2) Spixia coltrorum, mainly characterized by an uneven spire, delicate sculpture and peristome with 4 equidistant teeth; (3) Anostoma tessa, mainly characterized by a broad spire and well-developed anal canal; and the Megalobulimidae (4) Megalobulimus amandus, mainly characterized by pointed protoconch sculptured by dense quantity of axial cords. Rhinus suturalis is the only previously known species, but its geographic distribution is expanded southwards to Bahia state. A discussion with respect to necessity for improving the study on the malacofauna from the interior region of the Brazilian Northeast and the importance for preservation of the Caatinga biome is also provided.

Coelho P.R.T.,University of Sao Paulo | Coelho P.R.T.,Southern Cross University of Brazil
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society | Year: 2014

Theoretical stellar libraries have been increasingly used to overcome limitations of empirical libraries, e.g. by exploring atmospheric parameter spaces not well represented in the latter. This work presents a new theoretical library which covers 3000 ≤ Teff ≤ 25 000 K,-0.5 ≤ log g ≤ 5.5 and 12 chemical mixtures covering 0.0017 ≤ Z ≤ 0.049 at both scaledsolar and α-enhanced compositions. This library complements previous ones by providing: (i) homogeneous computations of opacity distribution functions, models atmospheres, statistical surface fluxes and high-resolution spectra; (ii) high-resolution spectra with continua slopes corrected by the effect of predicted lines and (iii) two families of α-enhanced mixtures for each scaled-solar iron abundance, to allow studies of the α-enhancement both at 'fixed iron' and 'fixed Z' cases. Comparisons to observed spectra were performed and confirm that the synthetic spectra reproduce well the observations, although there are wavelength regions which should be still improved. The atmospheric parameter scale of the model library was compared to one derived from a widely used empirical library, and no systematic difference between the scales was found. This is particularly reassuring for methods which use synthetic spectra for deriving atmospheric parameters of stars in spectroscopic surveys © 2014 The Authors Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Royal Astronomical Society.

Porfirio C.R.,Petrobras | Odloak D.,University of Sao Paulo
Control Engineering Practice | Year: 2011

The main scope of this work is the implementation of an MPC that integrates the control and the economic optimization of the system. The two problems are solved simultaneously through the modification of the control cost function that includes an additional term related to the economic objective. The optimizing MPC is based on a quadratic program (QP) as the conventional MPC and can be solved with the available QP solvers. The method was implemented in an industrial distillation system, and the results show that the approach is efficient and can be used, in several practical cases. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

Ghirelli C.O.,University of Sao Paulo
Journal of veterinary dentistry | Year: 2013

Imaging of patients with oral cancer is required to determine tumor extension in order to assist in prognosis and surgical planning. Conventional screen-film radiography (SFR) used to be the most common method for oral assessment, but computed tomography (CT) has become more available and is being used for obtaining complementary information. CT examinations eliminate superimposition by acquiring cross-sectional images of the region of interest. The objective of this study was to determine the diagnostic value of SFR compared with CT examinations for evaluation of oral masses in dogs. Twenty-one dogs received head and thorax SFR, and pre- and post-contrast head CT. Bony changes were observed in 80.9% and 95.2% of the cases in SFR and CT studies, respectively. Invasion of adjacent structures (i.e. nasal cavity, frontal and sphenoidal sinuses, orbit, maxillary recess, nasopharynx) was observed in only 30% of cases with SFR while CT showed 90.4% involvement. CT is an important preoperative examination modality and is more effective in identifying bone changes and tumor invasion of adjacent structures compared with SFR.

Yeakel J.D.,Simon Fraser University | Moore J.W.,Simon Fraser University | Guimaraes P.R.,University of Sao Paulo | de Aguiar M.A.M.,University of Campinas | de Aguiar M.A.M.,New England Complex Systems Institute
Ecology Letters | Year: 2014

Spatial structure in landscapes impacts population stability. Two linked components of stability have large consequences for persistence: first, statistical stability as the lack of temporal fluctuations; second, synchronisation as an aspect of dynamic stability, which erodes metapopulation rescue effects. Here, we determine the influence of river network structure on the stability of riverine metapopulations. We introduce an approach that converts river networks to metapopulation networks, and analytically show how fluctuation magnitude is influenced by interaction structure. We show that river metapopulation complexity (in terms of branching prevalence) has nonlinear dampening effects on population fluctuations, and can also buffer against synchronisation. We conclude by showing that river transects generally increase synchronisation, while the spatial scale of interaction has nonlinear effects on synchronised dynamics. Our results indicate that this dual stability - conferred by fluctuation and synchronisation dampening - emerges from interaction structure in rivers, and this may strongly influence the persistence of river metapopulations. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd/CNRS.

Backes A.R.,Federal University of Uberlandia | Bruno O.M.,University of Sao Paulo
Information Sciences | Year: 2013

Contour polygonal approximation is usually defined as a set of selected points, which describes a polygon and best represents the original contour. This paper presents a novel graph based approach to compute a polygonal approximation of a shape contour. In a graph, such points correspond to a high transitivity region of the graph. We use the vertex betweenness to measure the importance of each vertice in a graph according to the number of shortest paths where each vertice occurs. By selecting the vertices with higher vertex betweenness, a polygon which retains the main characteristics of the contour is achieved. By using benchmark curves, a comparative experiment with other commonly used algorithms is presented. Results indicate that the proposed approach produced efficient and effective polygonal approximations for digital planar curves. © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

As a consequence of the growth in additive manufacturing applications, research on the improvement of these processes has gained relevance. One such process, the Fused Deposition Modelling (FDM)-process, deposits a support material to build negative surface features such as snap-fits. The purpose of this work is to determine the parameters that enable the fabrication of these types of features without a support material. We applied a design-of-experiments method to identify the quality of the non-supported deposition and the adherence between layers. As to control factors, we defined the deposition temperature and the extrusion and deposition velocities, while the nozzle diameter and the deposition height were held constant. For response factors, we defined the distance, the non-supported deposition quality, and the ultimate tensile stress. Additionally, an optimisation study was performed to maximise the mechanical strength and the non-supported distance, thereby making it possible to determine the suitable range of parameters for implementation of the process. © 2013 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.

Caluza A.C.,University of Sao Paulo
Arquivos brasileiros de cardiologia | Year: 2012

The major cause of death in the city of São Paulo (SP) is cardiac events. At its periphery, in-hospital mortality in acute myocardial infarction is estimated to range between 15% and 20% due to difficulties inherent in large metropoles. To describe in-hospital mortality in ST-segment elevation acute myocardial infarction (STEMI) of patients admitted via ambulance or peripheral hospitals, which are part of a structured training network (STEMI Network). Health care teams of four emergency services (Ermelino Matarazzo, Campo Limpo, Tatuapé and Saboya) of the periphery of the city of São Paulo and advanced ambulances of the Emergency Mobile Health Care Service (abbreviation in Portuguese, SAMU) were trained to use tenecteplase or to refer for primary angioplasty. A central office for electrocardiogram reading was used. After thrombolysis, the patient was sent to a tertiary reference hospital to undergo cardiac catheterization immediately (in case of failed thrombolysis) or in 6 to 24 hours, if the patient was stable. Quantitative and qualitative variables were assessed by use of uni- and multivariate analysis. From January 2010 to June 2011, 205 consecutive patients used the STEMI Network, and the findings were as follows: 87 anterior wall infarctions; 11 left bundle-branch blocks; 14 complete atrioventricular blocks; and 14 resuscitations after initial cardiorespiratory arrest. In-hospital mortality was 6.8% (14 patients), most of which due to cardiogenic shock, one hemorrhagic cerebrovascular accident, and one bleeding. The organization in the public health care system of a network for the treatment of STEMI, involving diagnosis, reperfusion, immediate transfer, and tertiary reference hospital, resulted in immediate improvement of STEMI outcomes.

Santos R.C.D.,Federal University of ABC | Senger E.C.,University of Sao Paulo
International Journal of Electrical Power and Energy Systems | Year: 2011

This work presents the development and implementation of an artificial neural network based algorithm for transmission lines distance protection. This algorithm was developed to be used in any transmission line regardless of its configuration or voltage level. The described ANN-based algorithm does not need any topology adaptation or ANN parameters adjustment when applied to different electrical systems. This feature makes this solution unique since all ANN-based solutions presented until now were developed for particular transmission lines, which means that those solutions cannot be implemented in commercial relays. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Del'acqua M.A.,University of Sao Paulo
The International journal of oral & maxillofacial implants | Year: 2012

This in vitro study evaluated the dimensional accuracy of two impression techniques (tapered and splinted) with two stock trays (plastic and metal) for implant-supported prostheses. A master cast with four parallel abutment analogs and a passive framework were fabricated. Polyvinyl siloxane impression material was used for all impressions with two metal stock trays and two plastic stock trays (closed and open trays). Four groups (tapered plastic, splinted plastic, tapered metal, and splinted metal) and a control group (master cast) were tested (n = 5 for each group). After the framework was seated on each of the casts, one abutment screw was tightened, and the marginal gap between the abutment and framework on the other side was measured with a stereomicroscope. The measurements were analyzed with the Kruskal-Wallis one-way analysis of variance on ranks test followed by the Dunn method. The mean values (± standard deviations) for the abutment/framework interface gaps were: master cast, 32 ± 2 Μm; tapered metal, 44 ± 10 Μm; splinted metal, 69 ± 28 Μm; tapered plastic, 164 ± 58 Μm; splinted plastic, 128 ± 47 Μm. No significant difference was detected between the master cast, tapered metal, and splinted metal groups or between the tapered and splinted plastic groups. In this study, the rigidity of the metal stock tray ensured better results than the plastic stock tray for implant impressions with a high-viscosity impression material (putty). Statistically similar results were obtained using tapered impression copings and splinted squared impression copings. The tapered impression copings technique and splinted squared impression copings technique with a metal stock tray produced precise casts with no statistically significant difference in interface gaps compared to the master cast.

Zoccal D.B.,Federal University of Santa Catarina | MacHado B.H.,University of Sao Paulo
Current Hypertension Reports | Year: 2011

Enhanced sympathetic outflow to the heart and resistance vessels greatly contributes to the onset and maintenance of neurogenic hypertension. There is a consensus that the development of hypertension (clinical and experimental) is associated with an impairment of sympathetic reflex control by arterial baroreceptors. More recently, chronic peripheral chemoreflex activation, as observed in obstructive sleep apnea, has been proposed as another important risk factor for hypertension. In this review, we present and discuss recent experimental evidence showing that changes in the respiratory pattern, elicited by chronic intermittent hypoxia, play a key role in increasing sympathetic activity and arterial pressure in rats. This concept parallels results observed in other models of neurogenic hypertension, such as spontaneously hypertensive rats and rats with angiotensin II-salt-induced hypertension, pointing out alterations in the central coupling of respiratory and sympathetic activities as a novel mechanism underlying the development of neurogenic hypertension. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

Background: Homeopathy is based on the principle of similitude (similia similibus curentur) using medicines that cause effects similar to the symptoms of disease in order to stimulate the reaction of the organism. Such vital, homeostatic or paradoxical reaction of the organism is closely related to rebound effect of drugs. Method: Review of the literature concerning the rebound effects of drugs used to suppress gastric acidity, particularly proton pump inhibitors (PPIs). Results: The mechanism of action of these effects is discussed. Rebound in terms of clinical symptoms and physiological effects occur in about 40% of people taking PPIs, their timing depends on the half-life of the drug and the adaptation period of the physiological mechanisms involved. The wide use of PPIs may be linked to the rising incidence of carcinoid tumours. Conclusions: These findings support Hahnemann's concept of secondary action of drugs. We are developing a homeopathic materia medica and repertory of modern drugs on the basis of reported rebound effects. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

Fernandes C.H.,University of Sao Paulo
Hand surgery : an international journal devoted to hand and upper limb surgery and related research : journal of the Asia-Pacific Federation of Societies for Surgery of the Hand | Year: 2012

The objective of this study was to provide an assessment of published studies on the wrist arthroscopy. The search was performed from the "Web of Science (WoS) Science Citation Expanded Database" with studies published between January 1, 1990 and March 31, 2011. For research we used the following terms: "Wrist arthroscopy" and "Arthroscopy of the wrist". We located a total of 426 studies about wrist arthroscopic, published in 89 journals over the study period. Of all the publications retrieved (426), original articles were 387 (90.84%), but only two (0.47%) were randomised controlled trials, level 1 of evidence. This study showed there are a large number of studies on wrist arthroscopy, but the level of methodological evidence is low.

Macedo D.B.,University of Sao Paulo
Neuroendocrinology | Year: 2014

A pivotal event in the onset of puberty in humans is the re-emergence of pulsatile release of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) from the hypothalamic neurons. Pathways governing GnRH ontogeny and physiology have been discovered by studying animal models and humans with reproductive disorders. Recent human studies implicated the activation of the kisspeptin and its cognate receptor (KISS1- KISS1R), and the inactivation of the MKRN3 in the premature reactivation of the GnRH secretion, causing central precocious puberty (CPP). MKRN3, an imprinted gene located in the long arm of chromosome 15, encodes makorin ring finger protein 3 that is involved with ubiquitination and cell signaling. MKRN3 protein is derived only from RNA transcribed from the paternally inherited copy of the gene due to maternal imprinting. Currently, MKRN3 defects represent the most frequent known genetic cause of familial CPP. In this review, we explore the clinical, hormonal and genetic aspects of children with sporadic or familial CPP caused by mutations in the kisspeptin and MKRN3 systems, essential genetic factors for pubertal timing. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

Sanchez L.E.,University of Sao Paulo
Ambiente e Sociedade | Year: 2012

The 1992 Rio Earth Summit was of paramount importance in the consolidation and international dissemination of environmental impact assessment, officially recognized as a tool for informed decision-making towards sustainable development (Principle 17, Rio Declaration) and for protection of biodiversity (Article 14, Convention on Biological Diversity). A significant development afterwards was the strengthening of strategic environmental assessment in the design of policies, plans and programs. Both forms of impact assessment can establish the necessary connections between one goal of the Rio+20 Conference - reaching an agreement on the transition to a green economy - and the underpinning decision making processes. Although the Rio+20 Summit has faced challenges to acknowledge its potential, impact assessment should be strengthened in support of both government and business decisions.

Martins A.C.R.,University of Sao Paulo
Physics Letters, Section A: General, Atomic and Solid State Physics | Year: 2015

A model for Opinion Particles, based on Bayesian-inspired models of Opinion Dynamics such as the CODA model, is presented. By extending the discrete time characteristic of those models to continuous time, a theory for the movement of opinion particles is obtained, based only on inference ideas. This will allow inertia to be obtained as a consequence of an extended CODA model. For the general case, we will see that the likelihoods are associated with variables such as velocity and acceleration of the particles. Newtonian forces are easily defined and the relationship between a force and the equivalent likelihood provided. The case of the harmonic oscillator is solved as an example, to illustrate clearly the relationship between Opinion Particles and Mechanics. Finally, possible paths to apply these results to General Relativity are debated. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Yukalov V.I.,University of Sao Paulo
Laser Physics Letters | Year: 2010

A statistical model is advanced for describing quantum turbulence in a superfluid system with Bose-Einstein condensate. Such a turbulent superfluid can be realized for trapped Bose atoms subject to either an alternating trapping potential or to an alternating magnetic field modulating the atomic scattering length by means of Feshbach resonance. The turbulent system is represented as a continuous mixture of states each of which is characterized by its own vorticity corresponding to a particular vortex. © 2010 by Astro Ltd.

This report presents a set of bibliometric indicators and statistics which explain the high level of production of articles on research in public and collective health in Brazil which are published in the main nationally edited journals in the field. The predominance of publications in the Portuguese language by Brazilian authors results in a lower impact in terms of citations received as measured by the bibliometric indexes Scimago/ Scopus and JCR/WoS. These bibliometric indexes are used to measure the production and performance of research and journals. Nevertheless, the performance of these same journals stands out in SciELO, and is competitive internationally in the broader context of Google Scholar Metrics. The challenge faced by journals in Brazil is developing and applying editorial policies for the valuation of research with a national focus, and its internationalization. © 2015, Associacao Brasileira de Pos – Graduacao em Saude Coletiva. All rights reserved.

Zhang S.-J.,University of Sao Paulo
Physics Letters, Section B: Nuclear, Elementary Particle and High-Energy Physics | Year: 2015

We consider Hawking-Page phase transition between the BTZ black hole with M≥. 0 and the thermal soliton with M= - 1 in new massive gravity. By comparing the on-shell free energies, we can see that there exists a critical temperature. The thermal soliton is more probable than the black hole below the critical temperature while the black hole is more probable than the thermal soliton above the critical temperature. By consistently constructing the off-shell free energies taking into account the conical singularity, we show that there exist infinite non-equilibrium states connecting the BTZ black hole and the thermal soliton, so that they provide a picture of continuous evolution of the phase transition. © 2015 The Author.

Karapetyan G.S.,University of Sao Paulo
European Physical Journal Plus | Year: 2015

The induced-activity investigations in off-line analysis performed in different experiments, concerning pre-actinide and actinide nuclei, are here presented and discussed. Generalized expressions for the determination of independent yields/cross sections of radioactive nuclei, formed in the targets, are derived and analysed. The fragment mass distribution from 238U, 232Th and 181Ta photofission at the bremsstrahlung end-point energies of 50 and 3500 MeV, and from 241Am, 238U and 237Np fission induced by 660 MeV protons, are scrutinized from the point of view of the multimodal fission approach. The results of these studies are hence compared with theoretical model calculations using the CRISP code. A multimodal fission option has been added to this code, which allows to account the contribution of symmetric and asymmetric (superasymmetric) fission to the total fission yield. Moreover, this work contains the general results obtained in the analysis of the isomer ratios of fission fragments from 238U and 232Th targets at the bremsstrahlung end-point energies of 50 and 3500 MeV. Moreover, the values of the average angular momenta of primary fragments are estimated by using the statistical model calculation. We subsequently discuss the complex particle-induced reaction, such as heavy ions and deuterons, by using the thick-target thick-catcher technique and the two-step vector model framework as well. This is accomplished in order to present the investigation of the main processes (fission, spallation and (multi)fragmentation) in intermediate- and high-energy ranges of the incident particle. The set of experimental data, presented in this work, encompasses not merely the data as total production cross sections. Notwithstanding, it further covers other data, as individual yields/cross sections, charge, mass and spin distributions of the reaction fragments, as well as kinematic features. These sources of experimental data can serve as a consistent set of benchmarking data, still necessary for the study of heavy nuclei. Besides, it is also useful for technological applications, from astrophysics and environmental sciences to accelerator technology and accelerator-based nuclear waste transmutation and energy amplification as well. © 2015, Società Italiana di Fisica and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

To investigate factors associated with work ability among nursing professionals. They comprised 514 nursing professionals (83.8% of the total number of workers) from a hospital in São Paulo, Brazil. In 2009, we conducted a cross-sectional study that was a part of a 5-year planned cohort study initiated in 2008. We administered a comprehensive questionnaire to the participants in order to obtain data on their sociodemographic characteristics, lifestyles, and working conditions. The questionnaire also contained the Brazilian versions of the following: the Job Stress Scale (JSS), Effort-Reward Imbalance (ERI) Questionnaire, Work-Related Activities That May Contribute To Job-Related Pain and/or Injury (WRAPI), and Work Ability Index (WAI). The results were analyzed using descriptive, bivariate, and multivariate linear regression analyses. On the WAI, 74.9% of the workers obtained a score of over 40 points (score range 7-49); the mean score was 42.3 points (SD=4.5). The final multivariate model showed that lower WAI scores were related to the work-related outcome, which was work injury, and the following individual characteristics and working conditions: body mass index (p=0.001), sex (female; p=0.002), sedentariness (p < 0.001), time in the profession (p=0.005), social support at work (p=0.003), effort-reward ratio (p=0.001), violence at work (p=0.005), WRAPI score (p < 0.001), and work injuries (yes; p=0.001). Various factors were associated with work ability. The results showed that a number of variables should be considered when planning and implementing actions to maintain or improve work ability among nursing professionals.

Fadloun A.,University of Strasbourg | Le Gras S.,University of Strasbourg | Jost B.,University of Strasbourg | Ziegler-Birling C.,University of Strasbourg | And 4 more authors.
Nature Structural and Molecular Biology | Year: 2013

How a more plastic chromatin state is maintained and reversed during development is unknown. Heterochromatin-mediated silencing of repetitive elements occurs in differentiated cells. Here, we used repetitive elements, including retrotransposons, as model loci to address how and when heterochromatin forms during development. RNA sequencing throughout early mouse embryogenesis revealed that repetitive-element expression is dynamic and stage specific, with most repetitive elements becoming repressed before implantation. We show that LINE-1 and IAP retrotransposons become reactivated from both parental genomes after fertilization. Chromatin immunoprecipitation for H3K4me3 and H3K9me3 in 2- and 8-cell embryos indicates that their developmental silencing follows loss of activating marks rather than acquisition of conventional heterochromatic marks. Furthermore, short LINE-1 RNAs regulate LINE-1 transcription in vivo. Our data indicate that reprogramming after mammalian fertilization comprises a robust transcriptional activation of retrotransposons and that repetitive elements are initially regulated through RNA. Copyright © 2013 Nature America, Inc.

Benvenuto O.G.,National University of La Plata | De Vito M.A.,National University of La Plata | Horvath J.E.,University of Sao Paulo
Astrophysical Journal Letters | Year: 2012

The existence of millisecond pulsars with planet-mass companions in close orbits is challenging from the stellar evolution point of view. We calculate in detail the evolution of binary systems self-consistently, including mass transfer, evaporation, and irradiation of the donor by X-ray feedback, demonstrating the existence of a new evolutionary path leading to short periods and compact donors as required by the observations of PSR J1719-1438. We also point out the alternative of an exotic nature of the companion planet-mass star. © 2012. The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved..

Falceta-Goncalves D.,University of Sao Paulo
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society | Year: 2013

In this work, we present a semi-analytical model of galactic wind for dwarf galaxies wherethermal and turbulent/momentum driving mechanisms are studied. The model takes intoaccount wave and internal adiabatic heating mechanisms, as well as radiative and adiabaticcooling. The importance of external sources of energy is discussed.We also studied the role ofthe spatial distribution of dark matter in the acceleration of the wind and in the mass-loss rates.The basic model parameters that regulate the wind mass-loss rate and terminal velocity are thegravitational potential profile, the equilibrium temperature of the gas and the amplitude of theturbulent motions of the gas.We found that dwarf galaxies are likely to present quasi-stationarywinds with mass-loss rates larger than 10-3 M· yr-1 even in the absence of turbulent motions(which is possibly related to the supernovae feedback), if the interstellar gas is heated to T > 104-105 K. We also found that the wind mass-loss rate is enhanced for cusped darkmatter distributions, such as the Navarro-Frenk-White profile, due to the increased pressuregradients at the centre of the galaxy. The solutions presented here may serve as benchmarksfor numerical simulations, and as inputs for single-zone chemical evolution models of dwarfgalaxies. © 2013 The Author Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Royal Astronomical Society.

Raul Abramo L.,University of Sao Paulo | Leonard K.E.,University of Florida
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society | Year: 2013

Galaxy surveys that map multiple species of tracers of large-scale structure can improve the constraints on some cosmological parameters far beyond the limits imposed by a simplistic interpretation of cosmic variance. This enhancement derives from comparing the relative clustering between different tracers of large-scale structure. We present a simple but generic expression for the Fisher information matrix of surveys with any (discrete) number of tracers, and show that the enhancement of the constraints on bias-sensitive parameters are a straightforward consequence of this multitracer Fisher matrix. In fact, the relative clustering amplitudes between tracers are eigenvectors of thismultitracer Fisher matrix. The diagonalized multitracer Fisher matrix clearly shows that while the effective volume is bounded by the physical volume of the survey, the relational information between species is unbounded. As an application, we study the expected enhancements in the constraints of realistic surveys that aim at mapping several different types of tracers of large-scale structure. The gain obtained by combining multiple tracers is highest at low redshifts, and in one particular scenario we analysed that the enhancement can be as large as a factor of 3 for the accuracy in the determination of the redshift distortion parameter, and a factor of 5 for the local non-Gaussianity parameter fNL Radial and angular distance determinations from the baryonic features in the power spectrum may also benefit from the multitracer approach. © 2013 The Authors Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Royal Astronomical Society.

Carvalho V.M.,University of Sao Paulo
Journal of Chromatography B: Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences | Year: 2012

Liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) has been rapidly incorporated in the routine of the endocrinology laboratory. Most endocrinologists are aware of the benefits afforded by this technique and tandem mass spectrometers are clearly no longer a mere research method but an important tool widely used for diagnosis. In the last 15 years, LC-MS/MS has replaced techniques such as immunoassay and HPLC for the analysis of hormones because it provides higher specificity and good sensitivity. Also, it permits simultaneous measurement of several analytes and sample preparation and acquisition are fast and simple. Although several strategies based on LC-MS/MS have been described in the last 15 years, there is still room for improvement. The impact of matrix effects and isobaric interferences have been addressed by only a few studies, and standardization with reference materials is available for a limited number of analytes. This review summarizes the application of LC-MS/MS in analyzing three classes of hormones: steroids, derivatives of the aromatic amino acids, and peptides and proteins. The benefits and current limitations of LC-MS/MS will be discussed for these hormone categories. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

The theoretical constructs of interprofessional education (IPE) are analyzed based on two reviews of the literature, taking the context of training for healthcare professionals in Brazil into consideration. Three types of training are identified: uniprofessional, multiprofessional and interprofessional, with predominance of the first type. The first occurs among students of the same profession, in isolation; the second occurs among students of two or more professions, in parallel without interaction; and the third involves shared learning, with interaction between students and/or professionals from different fields. The distinction between interprofessionalism and interdisciplinarity is highlighted: these refer to integration, respectively, of professional practices and disciplines or fields of knowledge. Through the analysis presented, it is concluded that in the Brazilian context, IPE (the basis for collaborative teamwork) is still limited to some recent initiatives, which deserve to be investigated.

Watanabe M.A.E.,State University Londrina | Oda J.M.M.,State University Londrina | Amarante M.K.,State University Londrina | Cesar Voltarelli J.,University of Sao Paulo
Cancer and Metastasis Reviews | Year: 2010

Current understanding of the role of several cancer risk factors is more comprehensive, as reported for a number of sites, including the brain, colon, breasts, and ovaries. Despite such advances, the incidence of breast cancer continues to increase worldwide. Signals from the microenviroment have a profound influence on the maintenance or progression cancers. Although T cells present the most important immunological response in tumor growth in the early stages of cancer, they become suppressive CD4 + and CD8 + regulatory T cells (Tregs) after chronic stimulation and interactions with tumor cells, thus promoting rather than inhibiting cancer development and progression. Tregs have an important marker protein which is FoxP3, though it does not necessarily confer a Treg phenotype when expressed in CD4 + T lymphocytes. High Treg levels have been reported in peripheral blood, lymph nodes, and tumor specimens from patients with different types of cancer. The precise mechanisms by which Tregs suppress immune cell functions remain unclear, and there are reports of both direct inhibition through cell-cell contact and indirect inhibition through the secretion of anti-inflammatory mediators such as interleukin. In this review, we present the molecular and immunological aspects of Treg cells in the metastasis of breast cancer. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

Hachul H.,University of Sao Paulo
Climacteric | Year: 2013

Objective The aim of the present study was to assess whether menopausal status influences the occurrence of nocturnal awakening with headache (NAH) in the female population of Sao Paulo, Brazil. We also examined the relationship of this complaint to sociodemographic determinants, hot flushes, sleep quality and parameters, anxiety and depressive symptoms, somnolence and fatigue according to menopausal status. Methods The female population of the Sao Paulo Epidemiologic Sleep Study (EPISONO) (n = 576) was divided according to menopausal status (pre-, peri-, early and late menopause) based on questionnaires and hormonal blood measures. The complaint of waking up because of a headache at least once a week was assessed by the UNIFESP Sleep questionnaire. Additionally, hot flushes, sleep complaints, anxiety and depressive symptoms, somnolence and fatigue were assessed by specific questionnaires. A full-night polysomnography assessed sleep parameters. Results The prevalence of NAH in women in the Sao Paulo population was 13.3%. Perimenopause was associated with a higher risk of having NAH (odds ratio 13.9; 95% confidence interval 4.3-45.2). More complaints of NAH were observed in obese women. All the groups with NAH showed more hot flushes, worse subjective sleep quality, more complaints of insomnia, anxiety symptoms and fatigue. Conclusions We observed a constellation of symptoms in women according to menopausal status and NAH that included hot flushes, sleep complaints, more anxiety symptoms and fatigue. Moreover, some of these symptoms were more frequent in perimenopausal women with NAH. Therefore, we concluded that menopausal status influences NAH and the women in perimenopause presented a high risk of having this complaint. © 2013 International Menopause Society.

Jatenco-Pereira V.,University of Sao Paulo
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society | Year: 2013

The need of a minimum amount of ionization in protostellar accretion discs is necessary for the magnetorotational instability to take place. This instability is believed to be the mechanism responsible for a magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence that could lead to the accretion observed. In this work, we study the role of MHD waves as a source of heating in discs. We analyse if Alfvén waves, when damped during their propagation through the disc, can transfer enough energy in order to raise its temperature. As the discs are composed of dust, we suggest here that the Alfvén waves are damped by the dust-cyclotron mechanism of damping. In this mechanism when charged dust particles acquire the same (cyclotron) frequency as the waves, a resonance occurs that leads to the damping of the waves. Here, we present a disc model with two heating mechanisms: the 'anomalous' viscosity considered in terms of the α parametrization and the damping of Alfvén waves. We vary the space parameters in order to study the second mechanism's behaviour. We show that the waves can increase the temperature of the disc and flatten the traditional r3/4 effective temperature profile of the disc. © 2013 The Author. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Royal Astronomical Society.

Drinking alcohol mixed with energy drinks (AmED) may be contributing to hazardous drinking practices and risk-taking behaviors among college students. In this regard, this study aimed to assess the frequency of AmED consumption in a national sample of Brazilian college students and to estimate the risk that energy drinks pose on drinking and traffic behaviors. A sample of 12,711 college students from across the country was asked to complete a research questionnaire on the use of drugs and other behaviors. Students who reported drinking in the previous 12 months (N = 8672) were divided into 2 groups: (a) those who reported drinking only alcohol (N = 4192) and (b) those who reported drinking AmED (N = 1119). The college students who reported the use of at least one illicit drug were excluded from data analysis. Descriptive and inferential analyses were subsequently carried out using the R library survey software 2.15.0. The null hypothesis was rejected at the level of P < .05. AmED users are more likely to be hazardous drinkers. Being male, single, and involved with high-risk drinking behaviors are associated to AmED. After adjusting for demographic and drinking variables, the odds of being involved in high-risk traffic behaviors--for example, driving at high speed (odds ratio [OR] = 2.6; P < .001) and driving after binge drinking (OR = 2.8; P < .001)--were higher among AmED users than alcohol only users (AUs). The current findings are consistent with the results of previous studies. Drinking AmED may make college students more vulnerable to the occurrence of risky drinking and traffic behaviors. Educational campaigns targeted to young people should be developed warning them about the potential risks of mixing alcohol with energy drinks.

Capriles V.D.,Federal University of Sao Paulo | Areas J.A.G.,University of Sao Paulo
Food and Function | Year: 2013

The effect of adding increasing levels of prebiotic inulin-type fructans (ITFs) (0, 4, 8, 10 and 12%) on the sensory and nutritional quality of gluten-free bread (GFB) was assessed. ITFs can provide structure and gas retention during baking, thus improving GFB quality by yielding better specific volume, softer crumb, improved crust and crumb browning with enhanced sensory acceptance. During baking, approximately one-third of the ITFs was lost. The addition of 12% ITFs to the basic formulation is required in order to obtain GFB enriched with 8% ITFs (4 g of fructans per 50 g bread serving size), levels that can provide health benefits. 12% ITFs-addition level decreased GFB glycemic index (from 71 to 48) and glycemic load (from 12 to 8). Prebiotic ITFs are a promising improver for GFB that can provide nutritional (11% dietary fiber content, low glycemic response) and functional benefits to patients with celiac disease, since ITFs are prebiotic ingredients that can also increase calcium absorption. © 2013 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

Andriolo R.B.,University of Sao Paulo
Cochrane database of systematic reviews (Online) | Year: 2010

BACKGROUND: Although physical fitness has been suggested to improve physical and psychosocial health for a variety of population profiles, there is a lack of information about the safety and effectiveness of aerobic exercise for adults with Down syndrome. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of aerobic exercise training programmes for physiological and psychosocial outcomes in adults with Down syndrome. SEARCH STRATEGY: The following electronic databases were searched: The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (2009, Issue 1); MEDLINE (1966 to August 2009); EMBASE (1980 to August 2009); CINAHL (1982 to August 2009); LILACS (1982 to August 2009); PsycINFO (1887 to August 2009); ERIC (1966 to August 2009); Current Controlled Trials (August 2009); and Campbell Collaboration's Social, Psychological, Educational and Criminological Register (C2- SPECTR) (to August 2009). Information about ongoing clinical trials was sought by searching ClinicalTrials.gov (http://clinicaltrials.gov) (accessed August 2009), and the National Research Register (NRR) (2009 Issue 1). SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomised or quasi-randomised controlled trials using supervised aerobic exercise training programmes with behavioral components accepted as co-interventions. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two reviewers selected relevant trials, assessed methodological quality and extracted data. Where appropriate, data were pooled using meta-analysis with a random-effects model. Positive values favour the intervention group, while negative values favour the control group. MAIN RESULTS: Three studies included in this systematic review used different kinds of aerobic activity: walking/jogging and rowing training and included participants with a broad age range (17 to 65 years). They were conducted in the USA, Portugal and Israel. In the meta-analyses, only maximal treadmill grade was improved after aerobic exercise training programmes (4.26 grades (%) [95% CI 2.06, 6.45]). Other variables relative to work performance that could not be combined in a meta-analysis were also improved in the intervention group (maximal test time P=0.0003), total turns of fan wheel (P=0.02), resistance of ergometer (p=0.003), power knee extension and flexion (p<0.00001), and timed up and go test (p=0.008). Thirty other outcomes measured in this review including, oxidative stress and body composition variables, could not be combined in the meta-analysis. Apart from work performance, trials reported no statistically significant improvements. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: There is insufficient evidence to demonstrate that there is improvement in physical or psychosocial outcomes of aerobic exercise in adults with Down syndrome. Although evidence exists to support improvements in physiological and psychological aspects from strategies using mixed physical activity programmes, well-conducted research examining long-term physical outcomes, adverse effects, psychosocial outcomes and costs is required before informed practice decisions can be made.

Hawkes C.,University of Sao Paulo
American Journal of Preventive Medicine | Year: 2010

Abstract: Sugar-sweetened beverages are widely believed to be contributing to the growing prevalence of overweight and obesity around the world. One of the channels used by industry to encourage greater consumption and preferences for soft drinks is schools. But governments around the world are taking action to limit the availability of soft drinks in schools. More than 30 national and subnational governmental bodies have made efforts to restrict availability, and the soft drinks industry has also taken some limited voluntary action. Most government-led efforts-with some exceptions-restrict the availability of any drink with added sugar, but the voluntary pledges take less-restrictive approaches. There is little consensus on artificially sweetened drinks. Policies vary in other ways, too, presenting an opportunity to study the effects of different policy approaches on short- and long-term consumption and attitudes. In the meantime, the widespread condemnation of soft drinks in schools suggests that it is within the industry's interests to take more comprehensive action. © 2010 American Journal of Preventive Medicine.

Vojta T.,Missouri University of Science and Technology | Hoyos J.A.,University of Sao Paulo
Physical Review Letters | Year: 2014

We employ scaling arguments and optimal fluctuation theory to establish a general relation between quantum Griffiths singularities and the Harris criterion for quantum phase transitions in disordered systems. If a clean critical point violates the Harris criterion, it is destabilized by weak disorder. At the same time, the Griffiths dynamical exponent z′ diverges upon approaching the transition, suggesting unconventional critical behavior. In contrast, if the Harris criterion is fulfilled, power-law Griffiths singularities can coexist with clean critical behavior, but z′ saturates at a finite value. We present applications of our theory to a variety of systems including quantum spin chains, classical reaction-diffusion systems and metallic magnets, and we discuss modifications for transitions above the upper critical dimension. Based on these results we propose a unified classification of phase transitions in disordered systems. © 2014 American Physical Society.

Lopes R.I.,University of Sao Paulo
Einstein (São Paulo, Brazil) | Year: 2012

A 36 year-old man after tests for assessing male infertility was diagnosed with primary infertility, bilateral cryptorchidism, nonobstructive azoospermia and discontinuous splenogonadal fusion. Carcinoma in situ was found in his left testicle, which was intraabdominal and associated with splenogonadal fusion. To our knowledge, this is the fourth case of splenogonadal fusion associated with testicular cancer reported. One should always bear in mind the possibility of this association for the left cryptorchid testicle.

Martins A.C.R.,University of Sao Paulo
AIP Conference Proceedings | Year: 2012

Opinion Dynamics tries to model how different opinions spread in a society. At this point, the existing models lack a common theoretical basis. In this article, I propose to use a decision-theoretic framework, based on the updating of subjective probabilities, as that basis. We will see we get a basic tool for a better understanding of the interaction between the agents in Opinion Dynamics problems and for creating new models. I will review the few existing applications of Bayesian update rules to both discrete and continuous opinion problems, and show that several traditional models can be obtained as special cases or approximations from these Bayesian models. The empirical basis and useful properties of the framework will be discussed, and examples of how the framework can be used to describe different problems given. © 2012 American Institute of Physics.

Gomes F.,University of Sao Paulo
Arquivos brasileiros de cardiologia | Year: 2010

Obesity is becoming a global epidemic. Around 1.1 billion adults and 10% of the world's children are currently overweight or considered obese. Generally associated with risk factors for cardiovascular disease, such as Diabetes Mellitus and systemic arterial high blood pressure, the obesity has been more and more seen as an independent risk factor for Coronary Artery Disease (CAD). Coronary arteriosclerosis comprises a series of inflammatory responses at cellular and molecular level, whose reactions are stronger in obese patients. In the past, the adipose tissue was regarded as a mere fat deposition. Now it is seen from a totally different standpoint, as an active endocrine and paracrine organ that produces several inflammatory cytokines, such as the adipokines. This article aims to raise awareness about obesity as an increasingly significant public health issue over the past decades, as well as to relate the intense inflammatory process in obese individuals with an increased tendency for this group of individuals to develop CAD.

Landi G.T.,University of Sao Paulo
Journal of Applied Physics | Year: 2012

This article reports on the influence of the magnetization damping on dynamic hysteresis loops in single-domain particles with uniaxial anisotropy. The approach is based on the Nel-Brown theory and the hierarchy of differential recurrence relations, which follow from averaging over the realizations of the stochastic Landau-Lifshitz equation. A new method of solution is proposed, where the resulting system of differential equations is solved directly using optimized algorithms to explore its sparsity. All parameters involved in uniaxial systems are treated in detail, with particular attention given to the frequency dependence. It is shown that in the ferromagnetic resonance region, novel phenomena are observed for even moderately low values of the damping. The hysteresis loops assume remarkably unusual shapes, which are also followed by a pronounced reduction of their heights. Also demonstrated is that these features remain for randomly oriented ensembles and, moreover, are approximately independent of temperature and particle size. © 2012 American Institute of Physics.

Vasques L.R.,University of Sao Paulo
MicroRNA (Shāriqah, United Arab Emirates) | Year: 2014

MicroRNAs post-transcriptionally regulate the expression of approximately 60% of the mammalian genes, and have an important role in maintaining the differentiated state of somatic cells through the expression of unique tissuespecific microRNA sets. Likewise, the stemness of pluripotent cells is also sustained by embryonic stem cell-enriched microRNAs, which regulate genes involved in cell cycle, cell signaling and epigenetics, among others. Thus, microRNAs work as modulator molecules that ensure the appropriate expression profile of each cell type. Manipulation of microRNA expression might determine the cell fate. Indeed, microRNA-mediated reprogramming can change the differentiated status of somatic cells towards stemness or, conversely, microRNAs can also transform stem- into differentiated-cells both in vitro and in vivo. In this Review, we outline what is currently known in this field, focusing on the applications of microRNA in tissue engineering.

Yukalov V.I.,University of Sao Paulo
Laser Physics Letters | Year: 2010

The notion of fluctuation indices, characterizing thermodynamic stability of statistical systems, is advanced. These indices are especially useful for investigating the stability of nonuniform and trapped atomic assemblies. The fluctuation indices are calculated for several systems with Bose-Einstein condensate. It is shown that: the ideal uniform Bose-condensed gas is thermodynamically unstable; trapped ideal gases are stable for the confining dimension larger than two; trapped gases, under the confining dimension two, are weakly unstable; harmonically trapped gas is stable only for the spatial dimension three; one-dimensional harmonically trapped gas is unstable; two-dimensional gas in a harmonic trap represents a marginal case, being weakly unstable; interacting nonuniform three-dimensional Bose-condensed gas is stable. There are no thermodynamically anomalous particle fluctuations in stable Bose-condensed systems. © 2010 by Astro Ltd., published exclusively by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.

Lemos O.A.L.,Federal University of Sao Paulo | Masiero P.C.,University of Sao Paulo
Information Sciences | Year: 2011

Aspect-oriented programming (AOP) is a promising technology that supports separation of crosscutting concerns (i.e., functionality that tends to be tangled with, and scattered through the rest of the system). In AOP, a method-like construct named advice is applied to join points in the system through a special construct named pointcut. This mechanism supports the modularization of crosscutting behavior; however, since the added interactions are not explicit in the source code, it is hard to ensure their correctness. To tackle this problem, this paper presents a rigorous coverage analysis approach to ensure exercising the logic of each advice - statements, branches, and def-use pairs - at each affected join point. To make this analysis possible, a structural model based on Java bytecode - called PointCut-based Def-Use Graph (PCDU) - is proposed, along with three integration testing criteria. Theoretical, empirical, and exploratory studies involving 12 aspect-oriented programs and several fault examples present evidence of the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed approach. © 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Belmonte F.M.,University of Sao Paulo
The Cochrane database of systematic reviews | Year: 2013

Dental trauma is common especially in children and young adults. One group of dento-alveolar injuries is classified as luxation. This group includes a subgroup of severe injuries where the tooth is displaced from its original position. These injuries are classified further by the direction in which the tooth has been displaced, namely: intrusion, extrusion and lateral luxation. To evaluate the effects of a range of interventions for treating displaced luxated permanent front teeth. Search strategies were developed for MEDLINE via OVID and revised appropriately for the following databases: Cochrane Oral Health Group's Trials Register (to 20 August 2012), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library 2012, Issue 8), MEDLINE via OVID (1966 to August 2012), EMBASE via Elsevier (1974 to August 2012), and LILACS via BIREME (1982 to August 2012). Dissertations, Theses and Abstracts were searched as were reference lists from articles. There were no language restrictions. Randomised or quasi-randomised controlled trials of treatment interventions for displaced luxated permanent front teeth. Included trials had to have a minimum follow-up period of 12 months. Two review authors independently and in duplicate assessed the eligibility of all reports identified in the searches. Authors were contacted for additional information where required. No randomised or quasi-randomised controlled trials were found. We found no randomised or quasi-randomised trials of interventions to treat displaced luxated permanent front teeth. Current clinical guidelines are based on available information from case series studies and expert opinions. Randomised controlled trials in this area of dental trauma are required to robustly identify the benefits of different treatment strategies.

Lemos V.A.,University of Sao Paulo
Mediators of inflammation | Year: 2013

The number of persons who relocate to regions of high altitude for work, pleasure, sport, or residence increases every year. It is known that the reduced supply of oxygen (O2) induced by acute or chronic increases in altitude stimulates the body to adapt to new metabolic challenges imposed by hypoxia. Sleep can suffer partial fragmentation because of the exposure to high altitudes, and these changes have been described as one of the responsible factors for the many consequences at high altitudes. We conducted a review of the literature during the period from 1987 to 2012. This work explored the relationships among inflammation, hypoxia and sleep in the period of adaptation and examined a novel mechanism that might explain the harmful effects of altitude on sleep, involving increased Interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 β ), Interleukin-6 (IL-6), and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF- α ) production from several tissues and cells, such as leukocytes and cells from skeletal muscle and brain.

Horvath J.E.,University of Sao Paulo
Research in Astronomy and Astrophysics | Year: 2012

We raise the possibility that the very dense, compact companion of PSR J1719-1438, which has a Jupiter-like mass, is an exotic quark object rather than a light helium or carbon white dwarf. The exotic hypothesis naturally explains some of the observed features, and provides quite strong predictions for this system, to be confirmed or refuted in feasible future studies. © 2012 National Astronomical Observatories of Chinese Academy of Sciences and IOP Publishing Ltd.

Sampaio-Barros P.D.,University of Sao Paulo
American Journal of the Medical Sciences | Year: 2011

During the period of 2006 to 2007, 28 university centers in Brazil used a standardized protocol of investigation to study the epidemiological, clinical and radiological variables of 1036 consecutive patients with the diagnosis of spondyloarthritis (SpA). Validated translated (Portuguese) versions of the Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis (AS) Disease Activity Index and the Bath AS Functional Index were applied. Patient diagnoses were predominantly AS (72.3%), followed by psoriatic arthritis (13.7%), undifferentiated SpA (6.3%), reactive arthritis (3.6%), juvenile SpA (3.1%) and arthritis related to inflammatory bowel disease (1.0%). There was a predominance of male (73.6%) and white (59.5%) patients. Pure axial disease was observed in 36.7% of the patients, whereas the mixed pattern (axial, peripheral and entheseal) was observed in 47.9%. The most common extra-articular involvement was anterior uveitis (20.2%). HLA-B27 was positive in 69.5% of the tested patients. © Copyright 2011 Southern Society for Clinical Investigation.

Vieira J.G.H.,University of Sao Paulo
Journal of Osteoporosis | Year: 2012

Parathyroid hormone (PTH) assays have evolved continuously for the last 50 years. Since the first radioimmunoassay was described in 1963, several assays based on immunological identification have been published (first generation assays). The routine assays used nowadays are immunometric sandwich-type. They are based on two different monoclonal antibodies, one amino-terminal and the other carboxyl terminal specific. These second generation assays are widely available and adapted to most of the automation platforms. The specificity of the amino terminal antibody defines if the immunometric assay measures only the bioactive PTH circulating form (including the first amino terminal amino acids) or the intact PTH, which includes, besides bioactive PTH, other long carboxyl-terminal forms, for example, 784-PTH. Assays for intact PTH are the most commonly available and the potential advantage of the bioactive PTH assays is still debatable. Next generation of assays will be based on different principles, mainly mass spectrometry in samples submitted to a prior purification and fragmentation steps. These assays will provide information about the whole spectra of PTH peptides in circulation, with a significant increase of the information regarding this biologically important peptide hormone. © 2012 Jose Gilberto H. Vieira.

Engel E.E.,University of Sao Paulo
Genetics and molecular research : GMR | Year: 2012

Osteochondroma is a cartilage capped benign tumor developing mainly at the juxta-epiphyseal region of long bones. The rate of malignant transformation, mainly into chondrosarcoma, is estimated to be less than 1-3%. Transformation into osteosarcoma is very rare and has been reported only thirteen times. There is little information on treatment and outcome. We report the case of a secondary osteosarcoma arising in the left tibia of a 23-year-old male, 10 years after the initial diagnosis of osteochondroma and after two partial resections. Malignant transformation occurred at the stalk and not at the cartilage cap, as would normally be expected. Chromosome banding analysis revealed the karyotype: 46,XY, t(3;13)(q21;q34) [2]/46,XY [18]. Records from additional cases will help determine the parameters that define these rare secondary bone lesions.

Andrioli L.P.,University of Sao Paulo
Genesis | Year: 2012

The fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster is a great model system in developmental biology studies and related disciplines. In a historical perspective, I focus on the formation of the Drosophila segmental body plan using a comparative approach. I highlight the evolutionary trend of increasing complexity of the molecular segmentation network in arthropods that resulted in an incredible degree of complexity at the gap gene level in derived Diptera. There is growing evidence that Drosophila is a highly derived insect, and we are still far from fully understanding the underlying evolutionary mechanisms that led to its complexity. In addition, recent data have altered how we view the transcriptional regulatory mechanisms that control segmentation in Drosophila. However, these observations are not all bad news for the field. Instead, they stimulate further study of segmentation in Drosophila and in other species as well. To me, these seemingly new Drosophila paradigms are very challenging ones. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Sigrist M.S.,University of Sao Paulo
Genetics and molecular research : GMR | Year: 2011

Turmeric (Curcuma longa) is a triploid, vegetatively propagated crop introduced early during the colonization of Brazil. Turmeric rhizomes are ground into a powder used as a natural dye in the food industry, although recent research suggests a greater potential for the development of drugs and cosmetics. In Brazil, little is known about the genetic variability available for crop improvement. We examined the genetic diversity among turmeric accessions from a Brazilian germplasm collection comprising 39 accessions collected from the States of Goiás, Mato Grosso do Sul, Minas Gerais, São Paulo, and Pará. For comparison, 18 additional genotypes were analyzed, including samples from India and Puerto Rico. Total DNA was extracted from lyophilized leaf tissue and genetic analysis was performed using 17 microsatellite markers (single-sequence repeats). Shannon-Weiner indexes ranged from 0.017 (Minas Gerais) to 0.316 (São Paulo). Analyses of molecular variance (AMOVA) demonstrated major differences between countries (63.4%) and that most of the genetic diversity in Brazil is found within states (75.3%). Genotypes from São Paulo State were the most divergent and potentially useful for crop improvement. Structure analysis indicated two main groups of accessions. These results can help target future collecting efforts for introduction of new materials needed to develop more productive and better adapted cultivars.

Alberici L.C.,University of Sao Paulo
Analytical and bioanalytical chemistry | Year: 2011

Easy ambient sonic-spray ionization mass spectrometry (EASI-MS) was used to interrogate the hepatic lipid profiles of hypertriglyceridemic and control normotriglyceridemic mice. The analyses of ex vivo complex lipid mixtures were made directly with EASI-MS without accompanying separation steps. Intense ions for phosphatidylcholines and triacylglycerols were observed in the positive ion mode whereas the spectra in the negative ion mode provided profiles of phosphatidylethanolamines and phosphatidylinositol. EASI-MS was coupled to high-performance thin-layer chromatography for analysis of free fatty acids. Fourier transform-ion cyclotron resonance-mass spectrometry was also employed to confirm the identity of the detected lipids. We demonstrated higher incorporation of oleic acid in phosphatidylcholine and triacylglycerol composition, higher relative abundance of arachidonic acid containing phosphatidylinositol, and overall distinct free fatty acid profile in the livers of genetic hypertriglyceridemic mice. We propose that these alterations in liver lipid composition are related to the higher tissue and body metabolic rates described in these hypertriglyceridemic mice.

Ribeiro M.C.C.,University of Sao Paulo
Journal of Physical Chemistry B | Year: 2012

Ionic liquids based on 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium cations and the hydrogen sulfate (or bisulfate) anion, HSO4-, are much more viscous than ionic liquids with alkyl sulfates, RSO4-. The structural origin of the high viscosity of HSO4- ionic liquids is unraveled from detailed comparison of the anion Raman bands in 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium hydrogen sulfate and 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hydrogen sulfate with available data for simple HSO4- salts in crystalline phase, molten phase, and aqueous solution. Two Raman bands at 1046 and 1010 cm-1 have been assigned as symmetric stretching modes νs(S=O) of HSO4-, the latter being characteristic of chains of hydrogen-bonded anions. The intensity of this component increases in the supercooled liquid phase. For comparison purposes, Raman spectra of 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium ethyl sulfate and 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium methyl sulfate have been also obtained. There is no indication of difference in the strength of hydrogen bond interactions of imidazolium cations with HSO4- or RSO4 - anions. Raman spectra at high pressures, up to 2.6 GPa, are also discussed. Raman spectroscopy provides evidence that hydrogen-bonded anions resulting in anion-anion interaction is the reason for the high viscosity of imidazolium ionic liquids with HSO4-. If the ionic liquid is exposed to moisture, these structures are disrupted upon absorption of water from the atmosphere. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

Narchi N.Z.,University of Sao Paulo
Midwifery | Year: 2011

General objective: to analyse the exercise of essential competencies for midwifery care by nurses and/or midwives in the public health system of São Paulo (eastern zone), Brazil. Specific objectives: to develop a profile of the public health institutions and of the nurses and/or midwives who care for women before, during and following childbirth; to identify the activities performed in providing such care, as well as their frequency; and to specify the possible obstacles or difficulties encountered by them when exercising their competencies. Design: a descriptive and exploratory research design, using a quantitative approach. Setting: the study was conducted in all public health services of São Paulo (eastern zone), Brazil, namely 59 basic health-care units and six hospitals, during the period of October 2006-December 2007. Participants: the study population consisted of 272 nurses and/or midwives who provide care for pregnant women and newborns at the primary health-care units and maternity hospitals of the public health system. Participants comprised 100% of hospital nurse coordinators (n=6), 61% of hospital maternity nursing and/or midwifery staff (n=62) and 64% (n=204) of nursing and/or midwifery staff working at primary health-care units. Methods and findings: the data collection was based on a single form given to the coordinators and two questionnaires, one handed out to antenatal and postnatal nursing and/or midwifery staff and another handed out to labour and birth nursing and/or midwifery staff. The results showed that nurses and/or midwives providing care for women during pregnancy, labour, birth and the postnatal period did not put the essential competencies for midwifery care into practice, because they encountered institutional barriers and personal resistance, and lacked protocols based on best practice and on the exercise of essential competencies needed for effective midwifery care. Key conclusions: the model of care in the public health services of São Paulo (eastern zone) is based much more on hierarchical positions than on professional competencies or on the recommendations of the scientific community. As a result, health authorities need to review their midwifery policies to improve maternal-infant care by nurses and/or midwives in order to ensure the implementation of best midwifery practice. Practical implications: the results of this study support actions to improve the quality of care delivered to women and their families, while integrating nursing and midwifery care in São Paulo, Brazil. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd.

Ranhel J.,University of Sao Paulo
IEEE Transactions on Neural Networks and Learning Systems | Year: 2012

Spiking neurons can realize several computational operations when firing cooperatively. This is a prevalent notion, although the mechanisms are not yet understood. A way by which neural assemblies compute is proposed in this paper. It is shown how neural coalitions represent things (and world states), memorize them, and control their hierarchical relations in order to perform algorithms. It is described how neural groups perform statistic logic functions as they form assemblies. Neural coalitions can reverberate, becoming bistable loops. Such bistable neural assemblies become short-or long-term memories that represent the event that triggers them. In addition, assemblies can branch and dismantle other neural groups generating new events that trigger other coalitions. Hence, such capabilities and the interaction among assemblies allow neural networks to create and control hierarchical cascades of causal activities, giving rise to parallel algorithms. Computing and algorithms are used here as in a nonstandard computation approach. In this sense, neural assembly computing (NAC) can be seen as a new class of spiking neural network machines. NAC can explain the following points: 1) how neuron groups represent things and states; 2) how they retain binary states in memories that do not require any plasticity mechanism; and 3) how branching, disbanding, and interaction among assemblies may result in algorithms and behavioral responses. Simulations were carried out and the results are in agreement with the hypothesis presented. A MATLAB code is available as a supplementary material. © 2012 IEEE.

Salgado J.M.,University of Sao Paulo
Journal of medicinal food | Year: 2010

Cardiovascular disease is a serious public health problem; it is the first "cause of death" in Brazil and in developed countries. Thus, it is essential to search for alternative sources such as some functional foods to prevent and control the risks of this disease. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the lipidemic parameters in hypercholesterolemic rats fed diets containing black rice variety IAC 600 or unrefined rice. Adult male Wistar rats (Rattus norvegicus var. albinos) were used, weighing about 200-220 g. The animals were divided into four groups: the first received a control casein diet, the second received hypercholesterolemic diet, and the other two groups, after induction of hypercholesterolemia, received the test diets, the first containing 20% black rice and the second 20% unrefined, for 30 days. It was observed that diet containing black rice reduced the level of plasma cholesterol, triglycerides, and low-density lipoprotein. For high-density lipoprotein values, the diet that provided an increase in the levels was the black rice. The diet containing black rice was more effective in controlling the lipidemia in rats compared with the whole rice diet.

Danforth B.N.,Cornell University | Cardinal S.,Agriculture and Agri Food Canada | Praz C.,University of Neuchatel | Almeida E.A.B.,University of Sao Paulo | Michez D.,University of Mons
Annual Review of Entomology | Year: 2013

Our understanding of bee phylogeny has improved over the past fifteen years as a result of new data, primarily nucleotide sequence data, and new methods, primarily model-based methods of phylogeny reconstruction. Phylogenetic studies based on single or, more commonly, multilocus data sets have helped resolve the placement of bees within the superfamily Apoidea; the relationships among the seven families of bees; and the relationships among bee subfamilies, tribes, genera, and species. In addition, molecular phylogenies have played an important role in inferring evolutionary patterns and processes in bees. Phylogenies have provided the comparative framework for understanding the evolution of host-plant associations and pollen specialization, the evolution of social behavior, and the evolution of parasitism. In this paper, we present an overview of significant discoveries in bee phylogeny based primarily on the application of molecular data. We review the phylogenetic hypotheses family-by-family and then describe how the new phylogenetic insights have altered our understanding of bee biology. © 2013 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved.

Galvao V.R.,Harvard University | Galvao V.R.,University of Sao Paulo | Castells M.C.,Harvard University
Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology: In Practice | Year: 2015

Biological agents are used in the treatment of neoplastic, autoimmune, and inflammatory diseases and their clinical applications are becoming broader. Following their increased utilization, hypersensitivity reactions linked to these drugs have become more frequent, sometimes preventing the use of first-line therapies. The clinical presentation of hypersensitivity reactions to biological agents ranges from mild cutaneous manifestations to life-threatening reactions. In this scenario, rapid desensitization is a groundbreaking procedure that enables selected patients to receive the full treatment dose in a safe way, in spite of their immediate hypersensitivity reaction to the drug, and protects them against anaphylaxis. The aim of this review is to update and discuss some of the main biological agents used in clinical practice (rituximab, trastuzumab, cetuximab, ofatumumab, tocilizumab, brentuximab, omalizumab, and tumor necrosis factor alpha inhibitor agents) and their associated hypersensitivity reactions, including clinical presentations, diagnosis, and treatment in the acute setting. In addition, novel management options with rapid desensitization are presented. © 2015 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology.

Caricilli A.M.,University of Sao Paulo | Saad M.J.A.,University of Campinas
Nutrients | Year: 2013

The development of obesity and insulin resistance has been extensively studied in the last decades, but the mechanisms underlying these alterations are still not completely understood. The gut microbiota has been identified as a potential contributor to metabolic diseases. It has been shown that obese individuals present different proportions of bacterial phyla compared with lean individuals, with an increase in Firmicutes and Actinobacteria and a decrease in Bacteroidetes. This alteration seems to interfere with intestinal permeability, increasing the absorption of lipopolysaccharide (LPS), which reaches circulation and initiates activation of Toll-like receptor (TLR) 4 and 2 and LPS receptor CD14, leading to increased activation of inflammatory pathways. With these activations, an impairment of the insulin signaling is observed, with decreased phosphorylation of the insulin receptor, insulin receptor substrate (IRS) and Akt, as well as increased inhibitory serine phosphorylation of IRS-1. Altered proportions of bacterial phyla have also been demonstrated to interfere with host's biochemical pathways, increasing energy extraction and depot in adipose tissue. Therefore, understanding the mechanisms by which the alteration in the gut microbiota produces different signaling activations and phenotype changes may offer an interesting opportunity for the treatment of obesity and type 2 diabetes. © 2013 licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.

White P.,University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center | Bachega T.S.S.,University of Sao Paulo
Seminars in Reproductive Medicine | Year: 2012

The most frequent form of congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) is steroid 21-hydroxylase deficiency, accounting for more than 90% of cases. Affected patients cannot synthesize cortisol efficiently. Thus the adrenal cortex is stimulated by corticotropin (ACTH) and overproduces cortisol precursors. Some precursors are diverted to sex hormone biosynthesis, causing signs of androgen excess including ambiguous genitalia in newborn females and rapid postnatal growth in both sexes. In the most severe "salt wastingo" form of CAH (~75% of severe or "classico" cases), concomitant aldosterone deficiency may lead to salt wasting with consequent failure to thrive, hypovolemia, and shock. Newborn screening minimizes delays in diagnosis, especially in males, and reduces morbidity and mortality from adrenal crises. CAH is a recessive disorder caused by mutations in the CYP21 (CYP21A2) gene, most of which arise from recombination between CYP21 and a nearby pseudogene, CYP21P (CYP21A1P). Phenotype is generally correlated with genotype. Classic CAH patients require chronic glucocorticoid treatment at the lowest dose that adequately suppresses adrenal androgens and maintains normal growth and weight gain, and most require mineralocorticoid (fludrocortisone). Transition of care of older patients to adult physicians should be planned in advance as a structured, ongoing process. Copyright © 2012 by Thieme Medical Publishers, Inc., 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

McQuade K.J.,University of Washington | De Oliveira A.S.,University of Sao Paulo
Clinical Biomechanics | Year: 2011

Background: The goal of this study was to determine if increasing strength in primary knee extensors and flexors would directly affect net knee joint moments during a common functional task in persons with knee osteoarthritis. Methods: An exploratory single sample clinical trial with pre-post treatment measures was used to study volunteers with clinical diagnosis of mild knee osteoarthritis (OA) in one knee. Subjects participated in an individually supervised training program 3 times a week for eight weeks consisting of progressive resistive exercises for knee extensors and knee flexors. Pre and post training outcome assessments included: 1. Net internal knee joint moments, 2. Electromyography of primary knee extensors and flexors, and 3. Self-report measures of knee pain and function. The distribution of lower extremity joint moments as a percent of the total support moment was also investigated. Findings: Pain, symptoms, activities of daily life, quality of life, stiffness, and function scores showed significant improvement following strength training. Knee internal valgus and hip internal rotation moments showed increasing but non-statistically significant changes post-training. There were no significant differences in muscle co-contraction activation of the Quadriceps and Hamstrings. Interpretation: While exercise continues to be an important element of OA management, the results of this study suggest improvements in function, pain, and other symptoms, as a result of strength training may not be causally related to specific biomechanical changes in net joint moments. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

A number of reports indicate that premature ovarian failure (POF) may be inherited as an X-linked condition [1-3]. In particular, Xq deletions encompassing the region from q13 to q28 have been related to POF. A heterozygous female for a microdeletion involving Xq28 region has been described [4]. Recently, MAMLD1 (mastermind-like domain 1) was identified as a candidate gene for 46,XY DSD. It is located at Xq28 and spans 70 kb in genomic sequence and comprises seven exons. Due to in-frame alternative splicing, exons 3-6 encode for two proteins of 701 and 660 amino acids, respectively, depending on whether the transcript includes or excludes exon 4. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

The present study reports on a survey of the gelatinous zooplankton fauna (Cnidaria, Ctenophora and Thaliacea) from the proposed Baía da Babitonga marine protected area (southern Brazil; ̃26°S), based on collections from multiple sites over different seasons and from published literature. In order to sample both small and large gelatinous animals, plankton hauls (n = 255) and fishing trawls (n = 126) were employed. More than 20,000 organisms were studied, which, including literature data, totaled 48 species: one cubomedusa, three scyphomedusae, four siphonophores, 36 hydromedusae, two ctenophores, and two thaliaceans. Among these, the hydromedusae Cnidostoma fallax Vanhöffen and Helgicirrha sp. are recorded for the first time from the southwestern Atlantic coast and Paulinum sp. and Protiara sp. are recorded for the first time from the South Atlantic. A description of young stages of the hydromedusa Gossea brachymera Bigelow is presented and shows that Octobulbacea montehermosensis Zamponi is a junior synonym of the former. Although comprehensive local assessment of diverse taxonomic groups is still lacking, the high diversity observed herein underscores the importance of Baía da Babitonga as a high priority site for conservation of regional marine biodiversity. Copyright © 2012.

Fragoso M.D.,Brazilian National Council for Scientific and Technological Development | Costa O.L.V.,University of Sao Paulo
IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control | Year: 2010

In this paper, we devise a separation principle for the finite horizon quadratic optimal control problem of continuous-time Markovian jump linear systems driven by a Wiener process and with partial observations. We assume that the output variable and the jump parameters are available to the controller. It is desired to design a dynamic Markovian jump controller such that the closed loop system minimizes the quadratic functional cost of the system over a finite horizon period of time. As in the case with no jumps, we show that an optimal controller can be obtained from two coupled Riccati differential equations, one associated to the optimal control problem when the state variable is available, and the other one associated to the optimal filtering problem. This is a separation principle for the finite horizon quadratic optimal control problem for continuous-time Markovian jump linear systems. For the case in which the matrices are all time-invariant we analyze the asymptotic behavior of the solution of the derived interconnected Riccati differential equations to the solution of the associated set of coupled algebraic Riccati equations as well as the mean square stabilizing property of this limiting solution. When there is only one mode of operation our results coincide with the traditional ones for the LQG control of continuous-time linear systems. © 2006 IEEE.

Schaefer E.J.,Tufts University | Santos R.D.,University of Sao Paulo | Asztalos B.F.,Tufts University
Current Opinion in Lipidology | Year: 2010

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Our purpose is to review recent publications in the area of marked human HDL deficiency, HDL particles, coronary heart disease (CHD), amyloidosis, the immune response, and kidney disease. RECENT FINDINGS: Lack of detectable plasma apolipoprotein (apo) A-I can be due to DNA deletions, rearrangements, or nonsense or frameshift mutations within the APOA1 gene resulting in a lack of apoA-I secretion. Such patients have marked HDL deficiency, normal levels of triglycerides and LDL cholesterol, and can have xanthomas and premature CHD. ApoA-I variants with amino acid substitutions, especially in the region of amino acid residues 50-93 and 170-178, have been associated with amyloidosis. Patients with homozygous Tangier disease have defective cellular cholesterol efflux due to mutations in the adenosine triphosphate-binding cassette transporter A1, detectable plasma apoA-I levels and preβ-1 HDL in their plasma. They have decreased LDL cholesterol levels and can develop neuropathy and premature CHD. Patients with lecithin: cholesterol acyltransferase deficiency have both preβ-1 and α-4 HDL present in their plasma and develop corneal opacities, anemia, proteinuria, and kidney failure. SUMMARY: Patients with marked HDL deficiency can have great differences in their clinical phenotype depending on the underlying defect. © 2010 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

Martins W.P.,University of Sao Paulo
The Cochrane database of systematic reviews | Year: 2013

During controlled ovarian hyperstimulation (COH) follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) is frequently used for several days to achieve follicular development. FSH is a relatively expensive drug, substantially contributing to the total expenses of assisted reproductive techniques (ART). When follicles achieve a diameter greater than 10 mm they start expressing luteinising hormone (LH) receptors. At this point, FSH might be replaced by low-dose human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), which is less expensive. In addition to cost reduction, replacing FSH by low-dose hCG has a theoretical potential to reduce the incidence of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS). To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of using low-dose hCG to replace FSH during the late follicular phase in women undergoing COH for assisted reproduction, compared to the use of a conventional COH protocol. We searched for randomised controlled trials (RCT) in electronic databases (Menstrual Disorders and Subfertility Group Specialized Register, CENTRAL, MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, CINAHL, LILACS), trials registers (ClinicalTrials.gov, Current Controlled Trials, World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform), conference abstracts (ISI Web of knowledge), and grey literature (OpenGrey); additionally we handsearched the reference list of included studies and similar reviews. The last electronic search was performed in February 2013.. Only true RCTs comparing the replacement of FSH by low-dose hCG during late follicular phase of COH were considered eligible; quasi or pseudo-randomised trials were not included. Cross-over trials would be included only if data regarding the first treatment of each participant were available; trials that included the same participant more than once would be included only if each participant was always allocated to the same intervention and follow-up periods were the same in both/all arms, or if data regarding the first treatment of each participant were available. We excluded trials that sustained FSH after starting low-dose hCG and those that started FSH and low-dose hCG at the same time. Study eligibility, data extraction, and assessment of the risk of bias were performed independently by two review authors, and disagreements were solved by consulting a third review author. We corresponded with study investigators in order to solve any query, as required. The overall quality of the evidence was assessed in a GRADE summary of findings table. The search retrieved 1585 records; from those five studies were eligible, including 351 women (intervention = 166; control = 185). All studies were judged to be at high risk of bias. All reported per-woman rather than per-cycle data.When use of low-dose hCG to replace FSH was compared with conventional COH for the outcome of live birth, confidence intervals were very wide and findings were compatible with appreciable benefit, no effect or appreciable harm for the intervention (RR 1.56, 95% CI 0.75 to 3.25, 2 studies, 130 women, I2 = 0%, very-low-quality evidence). This suggests that for women with a 14% chance of achieving live birth using conventional COH, the chance of achieving live birth using low-dose hCG would be between 10% and 45%.Similarly confidence intervals were very wide for the outcome of OHSS and findings were compatible with benefit, no effect or harm for the intervention (OR 0.30, 95% CI 0.06 to 1.59, 5 studies, 351 women, I2 = 59%, very-low-quality evidence). This suggests that for women with a 3% risk of OHSS using conventional COH, the risk using low-dose hCG would be between 0% and 4%.The confidence intervals were wide for the outcome of ongoing pregnancy and findings were compatible with benefit or no effect for the intervention (RR 1.14, 95% CI 0.81 to 1.60, 3 studies, 252 women, I2 = 0%, low-quality evidence). This suggests that for women with a 32% chance of achieving ongoing pregnancy using conventional COH, the chance using low-dose hCG would be between 27% and 53%.The confidence intervals were wide for the outcome of clinical pregnancy and findings were compatible with benefit or no effect for the intervention (RR 1.19, 95% CI 0.92 to 1.55, 5 studies, 351 women, I2 = 0%, low-quality evidence). This suggests that for women with a 35% chance of achieving clinical pregnancy using conventional COH, the chance using low-dose hCG would be between 32% and 54%.The confidence intervals were very wide for the outcome of miscarriage and findings were compatible with benefit, no effect or harm for the intervention (RR 1.08, 95% CI 0.50 to 2.31, 3 studies, 127 pregnant women, I2 = 0%, very-low-quality evidence). This suggests that for pregnant women with a 16% risk of miscarriage using conventional COH, the risk using low-dose hCG would be between 8% and 36%.The findings for the outcome of FSH consumption were compatible with benefit for the intervention (MD -639 IU, 95% CI -893 to -385, 5 studies, 333 women, I2 = 88%, moderate-quality evidence).The findings for the outcome of number of oocytes retrieved were compatible with no effect for the intervention (MD -0.12 oocytes, 95% CI -1.0 to 0.8 oocytes, 5 studies, 351 women, I2 = 0%, moderate-quality evidence). We are very uncertain of the effect on live birth, OHSS and miscarriage of using low-dose hCG to replace FSH during the late follicular phase of COH in women undergoing ART, compared to the use of conventional COH. The current evidence suggests that this intervention does not reduce the chance of ongoing and clinical pregnancy; and that it is likely to result in an equivalent number of oocytes retrieved expending less FSH. More studies are needed to strengthen the evidence regarding the effect of this intervention on important reproductive outcomes.

Mayoral M.J.,University of Wurzburg | Rest C.,University of Wurzburg | Stepanenko V.,University of Wurzburg | Schellheimer J.,University of Wurzburg | And 2 more authors.
Journal of the American Chemical Society | Year: 2013

A new oligophenyleneethynylene (OPE)-based Pd(II) pyridyl complex has been synthesized, and its self-assembly has been investigated in solution, in the bulk state, and on surfaces. Detailed analysis of concentration- and temperature-dependent UV-vis studies in methylcyclohexane supported by DFT calculations demonstrate for the first time that cooperative supramolecular polymerization processes can be driven by metallophilic interactions. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

Siqueira M.V.B.M.,University of Sao Paulo
Horticultura Brasileira | Year: 2011

In Brazil current studies and investments on yams are incipient. Similarly, the literature in recent decades lacks adequate information on this group of plants. The existing literature, on its turn, requires more than ever to be revised and organized. Yams have joined the so-called "neglected" group of crops for several reasons, but particularly because they are associated with poor and traditional communities. Many vegetables introduced in Brazil during the colonization period have adapted to different cropping systems, yams being an excellent example. This diversity resulted very widespread, yet poorly recognized in the country. In turn, the gardens using traditional farming systems continue to maintain and enhance yam local varieties. Studies from other countries, with an emphasis on characterization and genetic breeding, brought to light an urgent need for Brazil to invest in yams as a food rich in carbohydrates, even to the point of alterations in food public policy. Reversal of the yam's current stigma is both a challenge to the scientific community and to the population as a whole. This paper aims to raise pertinent questions about Dioscorea species, an important key group for many communities in tropical countries, yet still unrecognized as so in Brazil.

Fernandes Moca Trevisani V.,University of Sao Paulo
Cochrane database of systematic reviews (Online) | Year: 2013

Neuropsychiatric involvement in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is complex and it is an important cause of morbidity and mortality. Management of nervous system manifestations of SLE remains unsatisfactory. This is an update of a Cochrane review first published in 2000 and previously updated in 2006. To assess the benefits and harms of cyclophosphamide and methylprednisolone in the treatment of neuropsychiatric manifestations of SLE. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, EMBASE, LILACS, SCOPUS and WHO up to and including June 2012. We sought additional articles through handsearching in relevant journals as well as contact with experts. There were no language restrictions. We included all randomised controlled trials that compared cyclophosphamide to methylprednisolone in patients with SLE of any age and gender and presenting with any kind of neuropsychiatric manifestations. Two review authors independently extracted, assessed and cross-checked data. We produced a 'Summary of findings' table. We presented dichotomous data as risk ratios (RRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). We did not include any new trials in this update. One randomised controlled trial of 32 patients is included. Concerning risk of bias, generation of the allocation sequence was at low risk; however, allocation concealment, blinding and selective reporting were at high risk. Treatment response, defined as 20% improvement from basal conditions by clinical, serological and specific neurological measures, was found in 94.7% (18/19) of patients using cyclophosphamide compared with 46.2% (6/13) in the methylprednisolone group at 24 months (RR 2.05, 95% CI 1.13 to 3.73). This was statistically significant and the number needed to treat for an additional beneficial outcome (NNTB) of treatment response is three. We found no statistically significant differences between the groups in damage index measurements (Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics (SLICC)). The median SLE Disease Activity Index (SLEDAI) rating favoured the cyclophosphamide group. Cyclophosphamide use was associated with a reduction in prednisone requirements. All the patients in the cyclophosphamide group had electroencephalographic improvement but there was no statistically significant difference in decrease between groups in the number of monthly seizures. No statistically significant differences in adverse effects, including mortality, were reported between the groups. This systematic review found one randomised controlled trial with a small number of patients in the different clinical subgroups of neurological manifestation. There is very low-quality evidence that cyclophosphamide is more effective in reducing symptoms of neuropsychiatric involvement in SLE compared with methylprednisolone. However, properly designed randomised controlled trials that involve large numbers of individuals, with explicit clinical and laboratory diagnostic criteria, sufficient duration of follow-up and description of all relevant outcome measures, are necessary to guide practice. As we did not find any new trials to include in this review at update, the conclusions of the review did not change.

Nastri C.O.,University of Sao Paulo
The Cochrane database of systematic reviews | Year: 2013

The perimenopausal and postmenopausal periods are associated with many symptoms, including sexual complaints. To assess the effect of hormone therapy (HT) on sexual function in perimenopausal and postmenopausal women. We searched for articles in the Cochrane Menstrual Disorders and Subfertility Group (MDSG) Specialised Register, CENTRAL, MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, LILACS, ClinicalTrials.gov, Current Controlled Trials, WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform, ISI Web of Knowledge and OpenGrey. The last search was performed in December 2012. estrogens alone versus control, in symptomatic or early postmenopausal women the SMD and 95% CI were compatible with a small to moderate benefit in sexual function for the HT group (SMD 0.38, 95% CI 0.23 to 0.54, P < 0.00001, 3 studies, 699 women, I2 = 55%, high-quality evidence). In unselected postmenopausal women, the 95% CI was compatible with no effect to a small benefit (SMD 0.16, 95% CI -0.02 to 0.34, P = 0.08, 2 studies, 478 women, I2 = 44%, low-quality evidence). The subgroups were not pooled because of considerable heterogeneity.For estrogens combined with progestogens versus control, in symptomatic or early postmenopausal women the 95% CI was compatible with a small to moderate benefit for sexual function in the HT group (SMD 0.42, 95% CI 0.19 to 0.64, P = 0.0003, 1 study, 335 women, moderate-quality evidence). In unselected postmenopausal women, the 95% CI was compatible with no effect to a small benefit (SMD 0.09, 95% CI -0.02 to 0.20, P = 0.10, 3 studies, 1314 women, I2 = 0%, moderate-quality evidence). The subgroups were not pooled because of considerable heterogeneity.For tibolone versus control, in symptomatic or early postmenopausal women the 95% CI was compatible with no effect to a small benefit for sexual function in the HT group (SMD 0.13, 95% CI 0.00 to 0.26, P = 0.05, 1 study, 883 women, low-quality evidence). In unselected postmenopausal women, the 95% CI was compatible with no effect to a moderate benefit (SMD 0.38, 95% CI 0.04 to 0.71, P = 0.03, 2 studies, 142 women, I2 = 0%, low-quality evidence). In the combined analysis, the 95% CI was compatible with no effect to a small benefit (SMD 0.17, 95% CI 0.04 to 0.29, P = 0.008, 3 studies, 1025 women, I2 = 20%).For SERMs versus control, in symptomatic or early postmenopausal women the 95% CI was compatible with no effect to a moderate benefit for sexual function in the HT group (SMD 0.23, 95% CI -0.04 to 0.50, P = 0.09, 1 study, 215 women, low-quality evidence). In unselected postmenopausal women, the 95% CI was compatible with small harm to a small benefit (SMD 0.04, 95% CI -0.20 to 0.29, P = 0.72, 1 study, 283 women, low-quality evidence). In the combined analysis, the 95% CI was compatible with no effect to a small benefit (SMD 0.13, 95% CI -0.05 to 0.31, P = 0.16, 2 studies, 498 women, I2 = 2%).A comparison of SERMs combined with estrogens versus control was only evaluated in symptomatic or early postmenopausal women. The 95% CI was compatible with no effect to a small benefit for sexual function in the HT group (SMD 0.21, 95% CI 0.00 to 0.43, P = 0.05, 1 study, 542 women, moderate-quality evidence). HT treatment with estrogens alone or in combination with progestogens was associated with a small to moderate improvement in sexual function, particularly in pain, when used in women with menopausal symptoms or in early postmenopause (within five years of amenorrhoea), but not in unselected postmenopausal women. Evidence regarding other HTs (synthetic steroids and SERMs) is of low quality and we are uncertain of their effect on sexual function. The current evidence does not suggest an important effect of tibolone or of SERMs alone or combined with estrogens on sexual function. More studies evaluating the effect of synthetic steroids, SERMS and the association of SERM + estrogens would improve the quality of the evidence for the effect of these treatments on sexual function in peri and postmenopausal women. Future studies should also evaluate the effect of HT solely among women with sexual complaints.

OBJECTIVES: African Americans are characterized by higher heart rate variability (HRV), a finding ostensibly associated with beneficial health outcomes. However, these findings are at odds with other evidence that blacks have worse cardiovascular outcomes. Here, we examine associations in a large cohort from the ELSA-Brasil study and determined whether these effects are mediated by discrimination. METHODS: Three groups were compared on the basis of self-declared race: “black” (n = 2,020), “brown” (n = 3,502), and “white” (n = 6,467). Perceived discrimination was measured using a modified version of the Everyday Discrimination Scale. Resting-state HRV was extracted from 10-minute resting-state electrocardiograms. Racial differences in HRV were determined by regression analyses weighted by propensity scores, which controlled for potentially confounding variables including age, sex, education, and other health-related information. Nonlinear mediation analysis quantified the average total effect, comprising direct (race–HRV) and indirect (race–discrimination–HRV) pathways. RESULTS: Black participants displayed higher HRV relative to brown (Cohenʼs d = 0.20) and white participants (Cohenʼs d = 0.31). Brown relative to white participants also displayed a small but significantly higher HRV (Cohenʼs d = 0.14). Discrimination indirectly contributed to the effects of race on HRV. CONCLUSIONS: This large cohort from the Brazilian population shows that HRV is greatest in black, followed by brown, relative to white participants. The presence of higher HRV in these groups may reflect a sustained compensatory psychophysiological response to the adverse effects of discrimination. Additional research is needed to determine the health consequences of these differences in HRV across racial and ethnic groups. Copyright © 2016 by American Psychosomatic Society

Takayanagui O.M.,University of Sao Paulo
Arquivos de Neuro-Psiquiatria | Year: 2013

Cysticercosis is one of the most common parasitic diseases of the nervous system in humans, and constitutes a major public health problem for most of the developing world. The clinical manifestations of neurocysticercosis (NCC) largely depend on the the host immune response against the parasite. NCC diagnosis is based upon neuroimaging studies (computerized tomography, magnetic resonance imaging) and antibody/antigen detection in the serum and the cerebrospinal fluid. Anticysticercal therapy has been marked by an intense controversy. Randomized controlled trials evaluating the clinical benefit of treatment have yield conflicting data with some studies indicating a benefit and others failing to show a difference. Prevention strategies must rely on multiple approaches, tailoring each to the special features of the particular endemic area.

De Oliveira M.F.,University of Sao Paulo
Philosophical Magazine Letters | Year: 2011

A quantitative correlation between the glass forming ability and the electronic parameters of metallic alloys is presented. It is found that the critical cooling rate for glass formation (Rc) correlates well with the average work function difference () and the average electron density difference ([image omitted]) among the constituent elements of the investigated alloys. A correlation coefficient (R2) of 0.77 was found for 68 alloys in 30 metallic systems, which is better than the previous proposed correlation between the glass forming ability and the average Pauling electronegativity difference. © 2011 Taylor and Francis.

The genetic basis of intellectual disability (ID) is extremely heterogeneous and relatively little is known about the role of autosomal recessive traits. In a field study performed in a highly inbred area of Northeastern Brazil, we identified and investigated a large consanguineous family with nine adult members affected by severe ID associated with disruptive behavior. The Genome-Wide Human SNP Array 6.0 microarray was used to determine regions of homozygosity by descent from three affected and one normal family member. Whole-exome sequencing (WES) was performed in one affected patient using the Nextera Rapid-Capture Exome kit and Illumina HiSeq2500 system to identify the causative mutation. Potentially deleterious variants detected in regions of homozygosity by descent and not present in either 59 723 unrelated individuals from the Exome Aggregation Consortium (Browser) or 1484 Brazilians were subject to further scrutiny and segregation analysis by Sanger sequencing. Homozygosity-by-descent analysis disclosed a 20.7-Mb candidate region at 8q12.3-q21.2 (lod score: 3.11). WES identified a homozygous deleterious variant in inositol monophosphatase 1 (IMPA1) (NM_005536), consisting of a 5-bp duplication (c.489_493dupGGGCT; chr8: 82,583,247; GRCh37/hg19) leading to a frameshift and a premature stop codon (p.Ser165Trpfs*10) that cosegregated with the disease in 26 genotyped family members. The IMPA1 gene product is responsible for the final step of biotransformation of inositol triphosphate and diacylglycerol, two second messengers. Despite its many physiological functions, no clinical phenotype has been assigned to this gene dysfunction to date. Additionally, IMPA1 is the main target of lithium, a drug that is at the forefront of treatment for bipolar disorder.Molecular Psychiatry advance online publication, 29 September 2015; doi:10.1038/mp.2015.150. © 2015 Macmillan Publishers Limited

Background: Homeopathy is based on treatment by similitude ('like cures like') administering to sick individuals substances that cause similar symptoms in healthy individuals, employing the secondary and paradoxical action of the organism as therapeutic response. This vital or homeostatic reaction of the organism can be scientifically explained by the rebound effect of drugs, resulting in worsening of symptoms after suspension of treatment. Bisphosphonates (BPs) reduce 'typical' fractures in patients with osteoporosis, but recent studies report 'atypical' fractures of the femur after stopping the BPs, a rebound effect may be the causal mechanism. Method: Review of the literature concerning the relationship between atypical femoral fractures and antiresorptive drugs (bisphosphonates), identifying the pathogenesis of this adverse event. Results: Several studies have described multiple cases of 'atypical' low-impact subtrochanteric stress fractures or complete fractures of the femur. These fractures are often bilateral, preceded by pain in the affected thigh, may have a typical X-ray appearance, and may delayed healing. Rebound of osteoclastic activity after suspension of antiresorptive drugs is a plausible mechanism to explain this phenomenon. Conclusion: As for other classes of drugs, the rebound effect of antiresorptive drugs supports Hahnemann's similitude principle (primary action of the drugs followed by secondary and opposite action of the organism), and clarifies this 'unresolved' issue. Unfortunately, the rebound effect is little discussed among health professionals, depriving them of important knowledge ensure safe management of drugs. © 2012 The Faculty of Homeopathy.

This paper examines the relationship between public policies and professional practices with respect to healthcare needs. Taking a theoretical-conceptual approach, practices are defined as acts that are permeated by technical-scientific and socio-historical determinants for the social production of work, and the possibilities for cultural, ethical and political changes were analyzed in order to take critical action regarding gender inequalities. With comprehensive healthcare for men as the reference point, the relevance of a distinction between male and female needs, as partial and not necessarily convergent realities in (re)producing these inequalities, is examined. Likewise, professional practices are examined as partial and distinct realities of policies that establish non-immediate relationships. It is considered that the following are symbolic and practical obstacles to change: the reduction of needs through biomedical normalization; the culture of self-employment and approaches that individualize needs; the traditional gender-based culture that conserves unequal practices for men and women; and the lack of registration of rights as part of professional action. This requires proposals specifically geared to healthcare practices and male needs, in order to achieve greater convergence with policy reforms.

Amaral R.S.,University of Sao Paulo
Aquatic Mammals | Year: 2010

The measurement of steroid hormones (e.g., androgens, estrogens, progestins, and glucocorticoids) in alternative matrices (e.g., feces, urine, blubber, saliva, blow, milk, and ocular secretion) has been increasingly used in research with aquatic mammals. The aim of this review is to briefly summarize studies using steroid analysis in alternative matrices from captive and free-ranging aquatic mammal species. The analysis of steroid hormones from alternative matrices is a powerful tool to obtain information about reproductive biology and social behavior in free-ranging aquatic mammals, as well as to help in the management of captive animals. However, for a consistent monitoring of steroid hormones in alternative matrices, it is of crucial importance to verify if a chosen matrix and assay reliably reflects physiologic events.

Silva M.T.M.,University of Sao Paulo | Arenas-Garcia J.,Charles III University of Madrid
IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing | Year: 2013

Blind equalizers avoid the transmission of pilot sequences, allowing a more efficient use of the channel bandwidth. Normally, after a first rough equalization is achieved, it is necessary to switch these equalizers to a decision-directed (DD) mode to reduce the steady-state mean-square error (MSE) to acceptable levels. The selection of an appropriate MSE threshold for switching between the blind and the DD modes is critical to obtain a good overall performance; however, this is not an easy task, since it depends on several factors such as the signal constellation, the communication channel, or the signal-to-noise ratio. In this paper, we propose an equalization scheme that adaptively combines a blind and a DD equalizers running in parallel. The combination is itself adapted in a blind manner, and as a result the overall scheme can automatically switch between the component filters, avoiding the need to set the transition MSE level a priori. The performance of our proposal is illustrated both analytically and through an extensive set of simulations, where we show its advantages with respect to existing hard- and soft-switching equalization schemes. © 1991-2012 IEEE.

Zakharov Y.V.,University of York | Nascimento V.H.,University of Sao Paulo
IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing | Year: 2013

In this paper, we propose a family of low-complexity adaptive filtering algorithms based on dichotomous coordinate descent (DCD) iterations for identification of sparse systems. The proposed algorithms are appealing for practical designs as they operate at the bit level, resulting in stable hardware implementations. We introduce a general approach for developing adaptive filters with different penalties and specify it for exponential and sliding window RLS. We then propose low-complexity DCD-based RLS adaptive filters with the lasso, ridge-regression, elastic net, and ℓ0 penalties that attract sparsity. We also propose a simple recursive reweighting of the penalties and incorporate the reweighting into the proposed adaptive algorithms to further improve the performance. For general regressors, the proposed algorithms have a complexity of O(N2) operations per sample, where N is the filter length. For transversal adaptive filters, the algorithms require only O(N) operations per sample. A unique feature of the proposed algorithms is that they are well suited for implementation in finite precision, e.g., on FPGAs. We demonstrate by simulation that the proposed algorithms have performance close to the oracle RLS performance. © 1991-2012 IEEE.

Veiga-Castelli L.C.,University of Sao Paulo
Tissue antigens | Year: 2013

We report a novel nonclassical class I HLA-E*01:06 allele observed in Brazilian individuals. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

Cunha C.M.,University of Sao Paulo
Zoologia | Year: 2011

A new species of Acteon Montfort 1810, Acteon mirim sp. nov., from Canopus Bank, state of Ceará, Brazil is described based on shell morphology. The new species is compared with other species of the genus reported from Brazil. It differs from other Brazilian species in having a whitish color with dark orange-brown spiral bands and a shell surface covered with small spiral grooves, regularly rectangular. © 2011 Sociedade Brasileira de Zoologia. All rights reserved.

Custodio A.C.,University of Sao Paulo
Genetics and molecular research : GMR | Year: 2011

XRCC genes (X-ray cross-complementing group) were discovered mainly for their roles in protecting mammalian cells against damage caused by ionizing radiation. Studies determined that these genes are important in the genetic stability of DNA. Although the loss of some of these genes does not necessarily confer high levels of sensitivity to radiation, they have been found to represent important components of various pathways of DNA repair. To ensure the integrity of the genome, a complex system of DNA repair was developed. Base excision repair is the first defense mechanism of cells against DNA damage and a major event in preventing mutagenesis. Repair genes may play an important role in maintaining genomic stability through different pathways that are mediated by base excision. In the present study, we examined XRCC1Arg194Trp and XRCC1Arg399Gln polymorphism using PCR-RFLP in 80 astrocytoma and glioblastoma samples. Patients who had the allele Trp of the XRCC1Arg194Trp polymorphism had an increased risk of tumor development (OR = 8.80; confidence interval at 95% (95%CI) = 4.37-17.70; P < 0.001), as did the allele Gln of XRCC1Arg399Gln (OR = 1.01; 95%CI = 0.53-1.93; P = 0.971). Comparison of overall survival of patients did not show significant differences. We suggest that XRCC1Arg194Trp and XRCC1Arg399Gln polymorphisms are involved in susceptibility for developing astrocytomas and glioblastomas.

Cerutti S.M.,University of Sao Paulo
BMC complementary and alternative medicine | Year: 2014

Flavonoids, which have been identified in a variety of plants, have been demonstrated to elicit beneficial effects on memory. Some studies have reported that flavonoids derived from Erythrina plants can provide such beneficial effects on memory. The aim of this study was to identify the flavonoids present in the stem bark crude extract of Erythrina falcata (CE) and to perform a bioactivity-guided study on conditioned fear memory. The secondary metabolites of CE were identified by high performance liquid chromatography combined with a diode array detector, electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-DAD-ESI/MSn) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). The buthanolic fraction (BuF) was obtained by partitioning. Subfractions from BuF (BuF1 - BuF6) and fraction flavonoidic (FfA and FfB) were obtained by flash chromatography. The BuF3 and BuF4 fractions were used for the isolation of flavonoids, which was performed using HPLC-PAD. The isolated substances were quantified by HPLC-DAD and their structures were confirmed by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). The activities of CE and the subfractions were monitored using a one-trial, step-down inhibitory avoidance (IA) task to identify the effects of these substances on the acquisition and extinction of conditioned fear in rats. Six subclasses of flavonoids were identified for the first time in CE. According to our behavioral data, CE, BuF, BuF3 and BuF4, the flavonoidic fractions, vitexin, isovitexin and 6-C-glycoside-diosmetin improved the acquisition of fear memory. Rats treated with BuF, BuF3 and BuF4 were particularly resistant to extinction. Nevertheless, rats treated with FfA and FfB, vitexin, isovitexin and 6-C-glycoside-diosmetin exhibited gradual reduction in conditioned fear response during the extinction retest session, which was measured at 48 to 480 h after conditioning. Our results demonstrate that vitexin, isovitexin and diosmetin-6-C-glucoside and flavonoidic fractions resulted in a significant retention of fear memory but did not prevent the extinction of fear memory. These results further substantiate that the treatment with pure flavonoids or flavanoid-rich fractions might represent potential therapeutic approaches for the treatment of neurocognitive disorders, improvement of memory acquisition and spontaneous recovery of fear.

Moura J.A.,University of Sao Paulo
International journal of nanomedicine | Year: 2011

Lipid nanoemulsions that bind to low-density lipoprotein receptors can concentrate chemotherapeutic agents in tissues with low-density lipoprotein receptor overexpression and decrease the toxicity of the treatment. The aim of this study was to develop a new formulation using a lipophilic derivative of methotrexate, ie, didodecyl methotrexate (ddMTX), associated with a lipid nanoemulsion (ddMTX-LDE). ddMTX was synthesized by an esterification reaction between methotrexate and dodecyl bromide. The lipid nanoemulsion was prepared by four hours of ultrasonication of a mixture of phosphatidylcholine, triolein, and cholesteryloleate. Association of ddMTX with the lipid nanoemulsion was performed by additional cosonication of ddMTX with the previously prepared lipid nanoemulsion. Formulation stability was evaluated, and cell uptake, cytotoxicity, and acute animal toxicity studies were performed. The yield of ddMTX incorporation was 98% and the particle size of LDE-ddMTX was 60 nm. After 48 hours of incubation with plasma, approximately 28% ddMTX was released from the lipid nanoemulsion. The formulation remained stable for at least 45 days at 4°C. Cytotoxicity of LDE-ddMTX against K562 and HL60 neoplastic cells was higher than for methotrexate (50% inhibitory concentration [IC(50)] 1.6 versus 18.2 mM and 0.2 versus 26 mM, respectively), and cellular uptake of LDE-ddMTX was 90-fold higher than that of methotrexate in K562 cells and 75-fold in HL60 cells. Toxicity of LDE-ddMTX, administered at escalating doses, was higher than for methotrexate (LD(50) 115 mg/kg versus 470 mg/kg; maximum tolerated dose 47 mg/kg versus 94 mg/kg) in mice. However, the hematological toxicity of LDE-ddMTX was lower than for methotrexate. LDE-ddMTX was stable, and uptake of the formulation by neoplastic cells was remarkably greater than of methotrexate, which resulted in markedly greater cytotoxicity. LDE-ddMTX is thus a promising formulation to be tested in future animal models of cancer or rheumatic disease, wherein methotrexate is widely used.

do Nascimento C.,University of Sao Paulo
The International journal of oral & maxillofacial implants | Year: 2011

The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate bacterial leakage along the implant-abutment interface under unloaded conditions. Twelve premachined abutments with plastic sleeves and 12 dental implants were used in this study. Prior to tests of bacterial leakage, samples from the inner parts of the implants were collected with sterile microbrushes to serve as negative controls for contamination. After casting, the abutments were tightened to 32 Ncm on the implants. The assemblies were immersed in 2.0 mL of human saliva and incubated for 7 days. After this period, possible contamination of the internal parts of the implants was evaluated using the DNA Checkerboard method. Microorganisms were found in the internal surfaces of all the implants evaluated. Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans and Capnocytophaga gingivalis were the most incident species. No microorganisms were found in the samples recovered from the implants before contamination testing (negative control). Bacterial species from human saliva may penetrate the implant-abutment interface under unloaded conditions.

Mimoso J.P.,University of Lisbon | Le Delliou M.,University of Sao Paulo | Mena F.C.,University of Minho
Physical Review D - Particles, Fields, Gravitation and Cosmology | Year: 2013

We investigate spherically symmetric spacetimes with an anisotropic fluid and discuss the existence and stability of a separating shell dividing expanding and collapsing regions. We resort to a 3+1 splitting and obtain gauge invariant conditions relating intrinsic spacetime quantities to properties of the matter source. We find that the separating shell is defined by a generalization of the Tolman-Oppenheimer-Volkoff equilibrium condition. The latter establishes a balance between the pressure gradients, both isotropic and anisotropic, and the strength of the fields induced by the Misner-Sharp mass inside the separating shell and by the pressure fluxes. This defines a local equilibrium condition, but conveys also a nonlocal character given the definition of the Misner-Sharp mass. By the same token, it is also a generalized thermodynamical equation of state as usually interpreted for the perfect fluid case, which now has the novel feature of involving both the isotropic and the anisotropic stresses. We have cast the governing equations in terms of local, gauge invariant quantities that are revealing of the role played by the anisotropic pressures and inhomogeneous electric part of the Weyl tensor. We analyze a particular solution with dust and radiation that provides an illustration of our conditions. In addition, our gauge invariant formalism not only encompasses the cracking process from Herrera and co-workers but also reveals transparently the interplay and importance of the shear and of the anisotropic stresses. © 2013 American Physical Society.

Sartori R.,University of Sao Paulo
Society of Reproduction and Fertility supplement | Year: 2010

In the current review the main fundamental biological differences in reproductive function between Bos taurus and Bos indicus cattle are discussed. Breed differences regarding puberty, estrous cycle patterns, estrous behavior, acquisition of ovulatory capacity, ovarian structures and reproductive hormones are presented. The main physiological differences that Bos indicus cattle present relative to Bos taurus cattle include: delayed age at puberty; higher circulating concentrations of hormones such as estradiol, progesterone, insulin and IGF-I, despite having smaller ovulatory follicle size and corpora lutea; greater population of small follicles and smaller size of the dominant follicle at deviation; and greater sensitivity of follicles to gonadotropins. Knowledge of the differences between Bos indicus and Bos taurus breeds help explain different management procedures and responses to hormonal treatments associated with artificial insemination, ovarian superstimulation, and in vivo and in vitro embryo production.

INTRODUCTION: Percutaneous dilational tracheostomy (PDT) is routinely performed in the intensive care unit with bronchoscopic guidance. Recently, ultrasound (US) has emerged as a new safety adjunct tool to increase the efficacy of PDT. However, the available data are limited to case series without any control group. Hence, a retrospective cohort study was designed to evaluate the efficacy of US-guided PDT compared with bronchoscopy-guided PDT.METHODS: All patients who were submitted to PDT after the standardization of US-guided PDT technique in our institution were analyzed. Demographic and procedure-related variables, complications, and clinical outcomes were collected and compared in patients undergoing US- or bronchoscopy-guided PDT.RESULTS: Sixty patients who had been submitted to PDT were studied, including 11 under bronchoscopy guidance and 49 under US guidance. No surgical conversion was necessary in any of the procedures, and bronchoscopy assistance was only required in 1 case in the US group. The procedure length was shorter in the US group than in the bronchoscopy group (12 vs 15 minutes, P = .028). None of the patients had any major complications. The minor complication rates were not significantly different between the groups, nor was the probability of breathing without assistance within 28 days, intensive care unit length of stay, or hospital mortality.CONCLUSION: Ultrasound-guided PDT is effective, safe, and associated with similar complication rates and clinical outcomes compared with bronchoscopy-guided PDT. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Long M.,University of Chicago | Vankuren N.W.,University of Chicago | Chen S.,Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Vibranovski M.D.,University of Sao Paulo
Annual Review of Genetics | Year: 2013

Genes are perpetually added to and deleted from genomes during evolution. Thus, it is important to understand how new genes are formed and how they evolve to be critical components of the genetic systems that determine the biological diversity of life. Two decades of effort have shed light on the process of new gene origination and have contributed to an emerging comprehensive picture of how new genes are added to genomes, ranging from the mechanisms that generate new gene structures to the presence of new genes in different organisms to the rates and patterns of new gene origination and the roles of new genes in phenotypic evolution. We review each of these aspects of new gene evolution, summarizing the main evidence for the origination and importance of new genes in evolution. We highlight findings showing that new genes rapidly change existing genetic systems that govern various molecular, cellular, and phenotypic functions. © 2013 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved.

Arthrospira platensis was cultivated in tubular photobioreactor using different photosynthetic photon flux densities (PPFD) and protocols of (NH)SO fed-batch supply. Results were evaluated by variance analysis selecting maximum cell concentration (X(m)), cell productivity (P(x)), nitrogen-to-cell conversion factor (Y(X/N)) and biomass, protein and lipid contents as responses. At PPFD of 120 and 240 μmol-photons/m 2 s, a parabolic profile of (NH)SO addition aiming at producing biomass with 7% nitrogen content ensured X(m) values (14.1 and 12.2 g/L, respectively) comparable to those obtained with NaNO. At PPFD of 240 μmol-photons/m 2 s, P(x) (1.69 g/Ld) was 36% higher, although the photosynthetic efficiency (3.0%) was less than one-half that at PPFD of 120 μmol-photons/m 2 s. Biomass was shown to be constituted by about 35% proteins and 10% lipids, without any dependence on PPFD or kind of nitrogen source. These results highlight the possible use of (NH)SO as alternative, cheap nitrogen source for A. platensis cultivation in tubular photobioreactors. © 2010 American Institute of Chemical Engineers

Silveira L.G.,University of Sao Paulo
Advances in experimental medicine and biology | Year: 2013

The hypothalamic hormone GnRH has traditionally been viewed as a central driver of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis. Pulsatile GnRH release is required for pulsatile gonadotropin secretion, which then modulates gonadal steroid feedback and brings about full fertility in the adult. Pathways governing GnRH ontogeny and physiology have been discovered by studying humans with disorders of GnRH secretion. In this chapter, the human genetics of the kisspeptin signaling pathway in patients with diverse reproductive phenotypes will be explored. The discovery of defects in the kisspeptin system in several reproductive disorders has shed light on the mechanisms involved in regulating GnRH secretion, revealing the critical role played by the kisspeptin signaling pathway in pubertal initiation and reproductive function.

We consider brightness/contrast-invariant and rotation-discriminating template matching that searches an image to analyze A for a query image Q. We propose to use the complex coefficients of the discrete Fourier transform of the radial projections to compute new rotation-invariant local features. These coefficients can be efficiently obtained via FFT. We classify templates in "stable" and "unstable" ones and argue that any local feature-based template matching may fail to find unstable templates. We extract several stable sub-templates of Q and find them in A by comparing the features. The matchings of the sub-templates are combined using the Hough transform. As the features of A are computed only once, the algorithm can find quickly many different sub-templates in A, and it is suitable for finding many query images in A, multi-scale searching and partial occlusion-robust template matching. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Background-: It remains uncertain whether acetylcysteine prevents contrast-induced acute kidney injury. Methods and Results-: We randomly assigned 2308 patients undergoing an intravascular angiographic procedure with at least 1 risk factor for contrast-induced acute kidney injury (age >70 years, renal failure, diabetes mellitus, heart failure, or hypotension) to acetylcysteine 1200 mg or placebo. The study drugs were administered orally twice daily for 2 doses before and 2 doses after the procedure. The allocation was concealed (central Web-based randomization). All analysis followed the intention-to-treat principle. The incidence of contrast-induced acute kidney injury (primary end point) was 12.7% in the acetylcysteine group and 12.7% in the control group (relative risk, 1.00; 95% confidence interval, 0.81 to 1.25; P=0.97). A combined end point of mortality or need for dialysis at 30 days was also similar in both groups (2.2% and 2.3%, respectively; hazard ratio, 0.97; 95% confidence interval, 0.56 to 1.69; P=0.92). Consistent effects were observed in all subgroups analyzed, including those with renal impairment. Conclusions-: In this large randomized trial, we found that acetylcysteine does not reduce the risk of contrast-induced acute kidney injury or other clinically relevant outcomes in at-risk patients undergoing coronary and peripheral vascular angiography. © 2011 American Heart Association. All rights reserved.

Mesenchymal stem or stromal cells (MSCs) have become of great interest for cell-based therapy owing to their roles in tissue repair and immune suppression. MSCs have the ability to differentiate into specialized tissues, including bone, cartilage and muscle, among several others. Furthermore, it has been found that MSCs can also serve as cellular factories that secrete mediators to stimulate in situ regeneration of injured tissues. Proteomics has contributed significantly to the identification of new proteins to improve cellular characterization of MSCs, to identify new targets for therapeutic intervention and to elucidate important pathways utilized by MSCs to differentiate into distinct tissues. As proteomics technology advances, several studies can be revisited and analyzed in depth, employing state-of-the-art approaches, helping to uncover the cellular mechanisms utilized by MSCs to exert their regenerative functionalities. In this article, we will review the progress made so far and discuss further opportunities for proteomics to contribute to the clinical applications of MSCs. © 2012 Expert Reviews Ltd.

Salles J.E.,Santa Casa Medical School | Wajchenberg B.L.,University of Sao Paulo | Cummings D.E.,University of Washington
Diabetes Care | Year: 2012

OBJECTIVE - Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) ameliorates type 2 diabetes in severely obese patients through mechanisms beyond just weight loss, and it may benefit less obese diabetic patients. We determined the long-term impact of RYGB on patients with diabetes and only class I obesity. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS - Sixty-six consecutively selected diabetic patients with BMI 30-35 kg/m 2 underwent RYGB in a tertiary-care hospital and were prospectively studied for up to 6 years (median 5 years [range 1-6]), with 100% follow-up. Main outcome measures were safety and the percentage of patients experiencing diabetes remission (HbA 1c <6.5% without diabetes medication). RESULTS - Participants had severe, longstanding diabetes, with disease duration 12.5 ± 7.4 years and HbA 1c 9.7 ± 1.5%, despite insulin and/or oral diabetes medication usage in everyone. For up to 6 years following RYGB, durable diabetes remission occurred in 88% of cases, with glycemic improvement in 11%. Mean HbA 1c fell from 9.7 ± 1.5 to 5.9 ± 0.1% (P < 0.001), despite diabetes medication cessation in the majority. Weight loss failed to correlate with several measures of improved glucose homeostasis, consistent with weight-independent antidiabetes mechanisms of RYGB. C-peptide responses to glucose increased substantially, suggesting improved β-cell function. There was no mortality, major surgical morbidity, or excessive weight loss. Hypertension and dyslipidemia also improved, yielding 50-84% reductions in predicted 10-year cardiovascular disease risks of fatal and nonfatal coronary heart disease and stroke. CONCLUSIONS - This is the largest, longest-term study examining RYGB for diabetic patients without severe obesity. RYGB safely and effectively ameliorated diabetes and associated comorbidities, reducing cardiovascular risk, in patients with a BMI of only 30-35 kg/m 2. © 2012 by the American Diabetes Association.

Silva G.H.,University of Sao Paulo
Bioresource technology | Year: 2010

This research was aimed at studying oxidation processes, coliform inactivation effectiveness and disinfection byproducts (DBPs) associated with the disinfection of anaerobic sanitary wastewater effluent with ozone applied at doses of 5.0, 8.0 and 10.0mg O(3)L(-1) for contact times of 5, 10 and 15 min. The wastewater used in this research was generated by the wastewater treatment plant (WWTP), University of São Paulo - Brazil. The total coliform inactivation range was 2.00-4.06 log(10), and the inactivation range for Escherichia coli was 2.41-4.65 log(10). Mean chemical oxygen demand (COD) reductions were 37.6%, 48.8% and 42.4% for doses of 5.0, 8.0 and 10.0mg O(3)L(-1), respectively. Aldehyde formation varied with dosage only when the ozone dose was increased from 5.0 to 8.0mg O(3)L(-1) for acetaldehyde and from 5.0 to 8.0 and from 8.0 to 10.0mg O(3)L(-1) for glyoxal. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Posttransplant thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA)/hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) can occur as a recurrent or de novo disease. A retrospective single-center observational study was applied in order to examine the incidence and outcomes of de novo TMA/HUS among transplantations performed between 2000 and 2010. Recurrent HUS or antibody-mediated rejections were excluded. Seventeen (1.1%) among 1549 kidney transplant recipients fulfilled criteria for de novo TMA. The mean follow-up was 572 days (range, 69-1769). Maintenance immunosuppression was prednisone, tacrolimus (TAC), and mycophenolic acid in 14 (82%) patients. Mean age at onset was 40 ± 15 years, and serum creatinine was 6.1 ± 4.1 mg/dL. TMA occurred at a median of 25 days (range, 1-1755) after transplantation. Nine (53%) patients developed TMA within 1 month of transplantation and only 12% after 1 year. Clinical features were anemia (hemoglobin < 10 g/dL) in 9 (53%) patients, thrombocytopenia in 7 (41%), and increased lactate dehydrogenase in 12 (70%). Decreased haptoglobin was observed in 64% and schistocytes in 35%. Calcineurin inhibitor (CNI) withdrawal or reduction was the first step in the management of 10/15 (66%) patients, and 6 (35%) received fresh frozen plasma (FFP) and/or plasmapheresis. TAC was successfully reintroduced in six patients after a median of 17 days. Eight (47%) patients needed dialytic support after TMA diagnosis and 75% remained on dialysis. At 4 years of follow-up, death-censored graft survival was worse for TMA group (43.0% versus 85.6%, log-rank = 0.001; hazard ratio = 3.74) and there was no difference in patient survival (53.1% versus 82.2%, log-rank = 0.24). De novo TMA after kidney transplantation is a rare but severe condition with poor graft outcomes. This syndrome may not be fully manifested, and clinical suspicion is essential for early diagnosis and treatment, based mainly in CNI withdrawal and FFP infusions and/or plasmapheresis. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Lemonte A.J.,University of Sao Paulo
Computational Statistics and Data Analysis | Year: 2013

A new three-parameter exponential-type family of distributions which can be used in modeling survival data, reliability problems and fatigue life studies is introduced. Its failure rate function can be constant, decreasing, increasing, upside-down bathtub or bathtub-shaped depending on its parameters. It includes as special sub-models the exponential distribution, the generalized exponential distribution [Gupta, R.D., Kundu, D., 1999. Generalized exponential distributions. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Statistics 41, 173-188] and the extended exponential distribution [Nadarajah, S., Haghighi, F., 2011. An extension of the exponential distribution. Statistics 45, 543-558]. A comprehensive account of the mathematical properties of the new family of distributions is provided. Maximum likelihood estimation of the unknown parameters of the new model for complete sample as well as for censored sample is discussed. Estimation of the stress-strength parameter is also considered. Two empirical applications of the new model to real data are presented for illustrative purposes. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Cervical cancer is the third most common cancer in women worldwide. Persistent infection with high-risk HPV types, principally HPV16 and 18 is the main risk factor for the development of this malignancy. However, the onset of invasive tumor occurs many years after initial exposure in a minority of infected women. This suggests that other factors beyond viral infection are necessary for tumor establishment and progression. Tumor progression is characterized by an increase in secretion and activation of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) produced by either the tumor cells themselves or tumor-associated fibroblasts or macrophages. Increased MMPs expression, including MMP-2, MMP-9 and MT1-MMP, has been observed during cervical carcinoma progression. These proteins have been associated with degradation of ECM components, tumor invasion, metastasis and recurrence. However, few studies have evaluated the interplay between HPV infection and the expression and activity of MMPs and their regulators in cervical cancer. We analyzed the effect of HPV16 oncoproteins on the expression and activity of MMP-2, MMP-9, MT1-MMP, and their inhibitors TIMP-2 and RECK in cultures of human keratinocytes. We observed that E7 expression is associated with increased pro-MMP-9 activity in the epithelial component of organotypic cultures, while E6 and E7 oncoproteins co-expression down-regulates RECK and TIMP-2 levels in organotypic and monolayers cultures. Finally, a study conducted in human cervical tissues showed a decrease in RECK expression levels in precancer and cancer lesions. Our results indicate that HPV oncoproteins promote MMPs/RECK-TIMP-2 imbalance which may be involved in HPV-associated lesions outcome.

Luevano-Martinez L.A.,University of Sao Paulo
FEBS Letters | Year: 2012

Uncoupling proteins belong to the superfamily of mitochondrial anion carriers. They are apparently present throughout the Eukarya domain in which only some members have an established physiological function, i.e. UCP1 from brown adipose tissue is involved in non-shivering thermogenesis. However, the proteins responsible for the phenotype observed in unicellular organisms have not been characterized. In this report we analyzed functional evidence concerning unicellular UCPs and found that true UCPs are restricted to some taxonomical groups while proteins conferring a UCP1-like phenotype to fungi and most protists are the result of a promiscuous activity exerted by other mitochondrial anion carriers. We describe a possible evolutionary route followed by these proteins by which they acquire this promiscuous mechanism. © 2012 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Lemonte A.J.,University of Sao Paulo
Computational Statistics and Data Analysis | Year: 2013

A new class of extended Birnbaum-Saunders regression models is introduced. It can be applied to censored data and be used more effectively in survival analysis and fatigue life studies. Maximum likelihood estimation of the model parameters with censored data as well as influence diagnostics for the new regression model are investigated. The normal curvatures for studying local influence are derived under various perturbation schemes and a martingale-type residual is considered to assess departures from the extended Birnbaum-Saunders error assumption as well as to detect outlying observations. Further, a test of homogeneity of the shape parameters of the new regression model is proposed. Two real data sets are analyzed for illustrative purposes. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Solimene M.C.,University of Sao Paulo
Clinics | Year: 2010

Heart disease is the first killer of women in the modern era, regardless of age, race and of ethnicity, although its prevalence rises after menopause. Modern women have professional and housewife responsibilities, consume excess of fat and carbohydrates, smoke, do not exercise regularly and do not have enough time to rest. This situation leads to overweight, dyslipidemia, arterial hypertension, impaired glucose tolerance and diabetes. Women do not often participate in preventive studies and still undergo less intensive and invasive evaluation and treatment for chest pain when compared to men. However, the rate of coronary death is twice higher in women than in men after myocardial infarction and revascularization procedures. The objective of this review is to analyze the main gender differences regarding symptoms, diagnosis, management and prognosis of coronary heart disease and to discuss the influence of hormonal replacement therapy in the prevention of cardiovascular disease in postmenopausal women.

Rejniak K.A.,University of California at San Diego | Rejniak K.A.,University of Sao Paulo | Anderson A.R.A.,University of California at San Diego
Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Systems Biology and Medicine | Year: 2011

Cancer is a complex, multiscale process in which genetic mutations occurring at a subcellular level manifest themselves as functional changes at the cellular and tissue scale. The multiscale nature of cancer requires mathematical modeling approaches that can handle multiple intracellular and extracellular factors acting on different time and space scales. Hybrid models provide a way to integrate both discrete and continuous variables that are used to represent individual cells and concentration or density fields, respectively. Each discrete cell can also be equipped with submodels that drive cell behavior in response to microenvironmental cues. Moreover, the individual cells can interact with one another to form and act as an integrated tissue. Hybrid models form part of a larger class of individualbased models that can naturally connect with tumor cell biology and allow for the integration of multiple interacting variables both intrinsically and extrinsically and are therefore perfectly suited to a systems biology approach to tumor growth. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Campello R.J.G.B.,University of Sao Paulo
Pattern Recognition Letters | Year: 2010

There is a family of well-known external clustering validity indexes to measure the degree of compatibility or similarity between two hard partitions of a given data set, including partitions with different numbers of categories. A unified, fully equivalent set-theoretic formulation for an important class of such indexes was derived and extended to the fuzzy domain in a previous work by the author [Campello, R.J.G.B., 2007. A fuzzy extension of the Rand index and other related indexes for clustering and classification assessment. Pattern Recognition Lett., 28, 833-841]. However, the proposed fuzzy set-theoretic formulation is not valid as a general approach for comparing two fuzzy partitions of data. Instead, it is an approach for comparing a fuzzy partition against a hard referential partition of the data into mutually disjoint categories. In this paper, generalized external indexes for comparing two data partitions with overlapping categories are introduced. These indexes can be used as general measures for comparing two partitions of the same data set into overlapping categories. An important issue that is seldom touched in the literature is also addressed in the paper, namely, how to compare two partitions of different subsamples of data. A number of pedagogical examples and three simulation experiments are presented and analyzed in details. A review of recent related work compiled from the literature is also provided. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

To evaluate the influence of abatacept (ABA) and associated contributing factors on pandemic 2009 influenza A/H1N1 vaccine immunogenicity in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients. The response to a nonadjuvanted monovalent pandemic 2009 influenza A/H1N1 killed virus vaccine was analyzed in 11 RA patients using ABA (RA-ABA), most with concomitant nonbiologic disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDS), and compared to 33 age-matched RA patients on methotrexate (MTX) and 55 healthy controls, all without previous seroprotection. Clinical and laboratory evaluations were performed before and 21 days after vaccination. Anti-influenza antibody titers were measured by hemagglutination inhibition assay. Seroprotection (antibody titers ≥1:40) and the factor increase (FI) in the geometric mean titers (GMTs) were calculated. Prevaccination lymphocyte counts and gammaglobulin levels were determined. Sex distribution, disease duration, and the Disease Activity Score in 28 joints were similar in the RA groups (P > 0.05). After vaccination, seroprotection was significantly reduced in RA-ABA patients compared to RA-MTX patients (9% versus 58%; P = 0.006) and controls (69%; P ≤ 0.001). FI-GMT was severely reduced in RA-ABA patients compared to RA-MTX patients (1.8 [1.4-2.3] versus 8.7 [5.2-17.4]; P < 0.001) and controls (11.5 [8.0-16.7]; P ≤ 0.001). Lymphocyte counts were comparable in RA groups (P > 0.05), but RA-ABA patients had slightly lower gammaglobulin levels than RA-MTX patients (0.9 gm/dl [0.6-1.8] versus 1.2 gm/dl [0.8-1.7]; P = 0.03), although almost all were within the normal range values. The current study established that ABA, in association with traditional DMARDs, significantly reduces the humoral response to pandemic 2009 influenza A/H1N1 vaccine in RA patients. The results suggest an influence of costimulatory modulation in humoral response to this vaccine. Copyright © 2013 by the American College of Rheumatology.

Morea C.,University of Sao Paulo
The International journal of oral & maxillofacial implants | Year: 2011

Orthodontic miniscrews are commonly used to achieve absolute anchorage during tooth movement. One of the most frequent complications is screw loss as a result of root contact. Increased precision during the process of miniscrew insertion would help prevent screw loss and potential root damage, improving treatment outcomes. Stereolithographic surgical guides have been commonly used for prosthetic implants to increase the precision of insertion. The objective of this paper was to describe the use of a stereolithographic surgical guide suitable for one-component orthodontic miniscrews based on cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) data and to evaluate implant placement accuracy. Acrylic splints were adapted to the dental arches of four patients, and six radiopaque reference points were filled with gutta-percha. The patients were submitted to CBCT while they wore the occlusal splint. Another series of images was captured with the splint alone. After superimposition and segmentation, miniscrew insertion was simulated using planning software that allowed the user to check the implant position in all planes and in three dimensions. In a rapid-prototyping machine, a stereolithographic guide was fabricated with metallic sleeves located at the insertion points to allow for three-dimensional control of the pilot bur. The surgical guide was worn during surgery. After implant insertion, each patient was submitted to CBCT a second time to verify the implant position and the accuracy of the placement of the miniscrews. The average differences between the planned and inserted positions for the ten miniscrews were 0.86 mm at the coronal end, 0.71 mm at the center, and 0.87 mm at the apical tip. The average angular discrepancy was 1.76 degrees. The use of stereolithographic surgical guides based on CBCT data allows for accurate orthodontic mini screw insertion without damaging neighboring anatomic structures.

Gitman D.M.,University of Sao Paulo | Shabad A.E.,RAS Lebedev Physical Institute
Physical Review D - Particles, Fields, Gravitation and Cosmology | Year: 2012

We find the first nonlinear correction to the field produced by a static charge at rest in a background constant magnetic field. It is quadratic in the charge and purely magnetic. The third-rank polarization tensor - the nonlinear response function - is written within the local approximation of the effective action in an otherwise model- and approximation-independent way within any P-invariant nonlinear electrodynamics, QED included. © 2012 American Physical Society.

Brandao Neto R.A.,University of Sao Paulo | Carvalho J.F.D.,Alianca Medical Center
Autoimmunity Reviews | Year: 2014

Autoimmune adrenalitis, or autoimmune Addison disease (AAD), is the most prevalent cause of primary adrenal insufficiency in the developed world. AAD is rare and can easily be misdiagnosed as other conditions. The diagnosis depends on demonstrating inappropriately low cortisol production and the presence of high titers of adrenal cortex autoantibodies (ACAs), along with excluding other causes of adrenal failure using other tests as necessary. The treatment corticosteroid replacement, and the prognosis following the treatment is the same as the normal population. Spontaneous recovery of adrenal function has been described but is rare. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.

Nahsan F.P.,University of Sao Paulo
Quintessence international (Berlin, Germany : 1985) | Year: 2011

Enamel white spot lesions in anterior teeth that compromise esthetics are common. Microabrasion is indicated, since it affects enamel superficially. An acid-abrasive slurry with 37% phosphoric acid with pumice was used on the enamel for a controlled time period. Home bleaching with hydrogen peroxide was then used, further improving the final result. The method is safe, easy, and conservative and provides good esthetic results.

Camarini P.M.,University of Sao Paulo
Brazilian journal of physical therapy | Year: 2013

The SRS-22r questionnaire is a well-accepted instrument used to measure health-related quality of life in patients with idiopathic scoliosis. No validated tool exists in Brazil for idiopathic scoliosis, and the use of the SRS-22r in non-English Laguage contries requires its transcultural adaptation. The objective of this study was to culturally adapt the translated Brazilian version of the SRS-22r questionnaire and to determine its reliability using statistical tests for internal consistency and test-retest reliability. The transcultural adaptation process was carried out according to the recommendations of the American Academy of Orthopedic Surgeons. The pre-final version was administered to 44 patients with idiopathic scoliosis. The mean age of the participants was 18.93 years and the mean curve magnitude was 54.6°. A subgroup of 30 volunteers completed the questionnaire a second time one week later to determine the scale's reproducibility. Internal consistency was determined using Cronbach's alpha coefficient, and the test-retest reliability was determined using the Intraclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC). No floor effects were observed using the Brazilian version of the SRS-22r. Ceiling effects were observed in the Pain and Satisfaction with Management domains. The internal consistency values were very good for 3 domains and good for 2 domains. The ICC values were excellent for all domains. The high values of internal consistency and ICC reproducibility suggest that this version of the questionnaire can be used in Brazilian patients with idiopathic scoliosis.

Raal F.J.,University of Witwatersrand | Santos R.D.,University of Sao Paulo
Atherosclerosis | Year: 2012

Homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia (HoFH) is an autosomal co-dominant disease resulting from mutations in both copies of the low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) gene. Mutations in 3 other associated genes, proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9, apolipoprotein B (APOB), and, more rarely, the autosomal recessive hypercholesterolemia adaptor protein, may lead to a similar phenotype with varying severity. HoFH patients have aggressive cardiovascular disease that develops from birth due to severe LDLR defects, resulting, in turn, in excess production of Apo B-containing atherogenic lipoproteins (low-density lipoprotein [LDL] and lipoprotein(a)). The condition is characterized by exceptionally high LDL cholesterol levels, cutaneous and tendon xanthomas, and valvular and supravalvular stenosis, and accelerated atherosclerosis often manifests in the first 2 decades of life. Treatment typically involves lipid-modifying medical therapy as well as mechanical removal of plasma LDL by means of apheresis. Although statins have afforded survival into the third and fourth decades of life, further therapeutic advancements currently under investigation promise hope of further improvements in survival and improved quality of life. The purpose of this review is to provide current perspectives on diagnosis and therapy in an effort to encourage early recognition and treatment of this rare but severe disease. © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

Bradaschia-Correa V.,University of Sao Paulo
European journal of histochemistry : EJH | Year: 2012

The replacement of the calcified cartilage by bone tissue during the endochondral ossification of the mandibular condyle is dependent of the resorbing activity of osteoclats. After partial resorption, calcified cartilage septa are covered by a primary bone matrix secreted by osteoblasts. Osteoadherin (OSAD) is a small proteoglycan present in bone matrix but absent in cartilage during the endochondral ossification. The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of alendronate, a drug known to inhibit bone resorption by osteoclasts, on the endochondral ossification of the mandibular condyle of young rats, by evaluating the distribution of osteoclasts and the presence of OSAD in the bone matrix deposited. Wistar newborn rats (n=45) received daily injections of alendronate (n=27) or sterile saline solution as control (n=18) from the day of birth until the ages of 4, 14 and 30 days. At the days mentioned, the mandibular condyles were collected and processed for transmission electron microscopy analysis. Specimens were also submitted to tartrate resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) histochemistry and ultrastructural immunodetection of OSAD. Alendronate treatment did not impede the recruitment and fusion of osteoclasts at the ossification zone during condyle growth, but they presented inactivated phenotype. The trabeculae at the ossification area consisted of cartilage matrix covered by a layer of primary bone matrix that was immunopositive to OSAD at all time points studied. Apparently, alendronate impeded the removal of calcified cartilage and maturation of bone trabeculae in the mandibular ramus, while in controls they occurred normally. These findings highlight for giving attention to the potential side-effects of bisphosphonates administered to young patients once it may represent a risk of disturbing maxillofacial development.

This descriptive and cross-sectional study aimed to examine the socio-demographic/clinical aspects of health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and assess the HRQoL of onco- hematological patients undergoing chemotherapy. The data collection instrument was a socio-demographic/clinical questionnaire, the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire (EORTC) QLQ-C-30. The sample consisted of 32 patients, eight of whom (25%) were diagnosed with Hodgkin's lymphoma; nine (28.12%), with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma; and 15 (46.87%), with leukemia. The data were analyzed using SPSS software. For the functional scales of the QLQ-C-30 (physical, cognitive, emotional, social and role performance), the mean scores ranged from 54.81 to 41.18, demonstrating an unsatisfactory level of functioning. In the symptom scales, there was a predominance of fatigue (64.57), insomnia (56.90) and loss of appetite (50.71). These symptoms interfered with the patients' physical functioning, demonstrating that the emotional and cognitive side effects of the treatment negatively influenced the HRQoL of the patients.

Lenza M.,University of Sao Paulo
The Cochrane database of systematic reviews | Year: 2013

Clavicle fractures are common, accounting for 2.6% to 4% of all fractures. Eighty per cent of clavicle fractures are located in the middle third of the clavicle. Although treatment of these fractures is usually non-surgical, displaced clavicle fractures may be considered for surgical treatment because of their greater risk of non-union. To assess the effects (benefits and harms) of surgical versus conservative interventions for treating middle third clavicle fractures. We searched the Cochrane Bone, Joint and Muscle Trauma Group Specialised Register (to December 2012), Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; in The Cochrane Library 2012, Issue 11), MEDLINE (1966 to December 2012), EMBASE (1980 to 2012 Week 40), LILACS (1982 to December 2012), and trial registries (December 2012). No language or publication restrictions were applied. Randomised and quasi-randomised controlled trials evaluating surgical versus conservative interventions for treating middle third of the clavicle fractures were considered. The primary outcomes were shoulder function or disability, pain and treatment failure (defined as the number of participants who had been given a non-routine secondary surgical intervention (excluding hardware removal) for symptomatic non-union, malunion or other complications). At least two review authors selected eligible trials, independently assessed risk of bias and cross-checked data. Where appropriate, results of comparable trials were pooled. We included eight trials involving 555 participants with middle third clavicle fractures. Four studies compared plate fixation with wearing a sling and four studies compared intramedullary fixation with wearing either a sling or a figure-of-eight bandage. Almost all trials had design features that carry a high risk of bias, thus limiting the strength of their findings.Low-quality evidence from seven trials (429 participants) showed that, compared with conservative treatment, surgical treatment of acute middle third clavicle fractures may not result in a significant improvement in upper arm function at one year of more follow-up: standardised mean difference 0.46, 95% confidence interval (CI) CI -0.06 to 0.98. This corresponds to an absolute mean improvement of 3.2 points in favour of surgery (0.4 points worse to 7 points improvement) on the 100-point Constant score; this is neither clinically nor statistically significant. Low-quality evidence from seven trials (437 participants) indicates a marginal difference in the incidence of treatment failure between surgery (9/232, 3.9%) and conservative treatment (24/205, 11.7%) (risk ratio 0.38, 95% CI 0.15 to 0.99). However, this was dominated by the results of the largest trial, which had an unusually high number of symptomatic malunions in the conservative treatment group. One trial providing pain results at one-year follow-up found no difference between the two groups. No trials reported on quality of life.No significant difference between groups was noted in the pooled results for adverse events but separate analyses by type of adverse events showed that wound infection and/or dehiscence (data from three trials) and secondary surgery due to hardware complications (data from five trials) occurred only in the surgical group. Skin and nerve problems were also more common after surgical treatment, although the difference between the two groups was not statistically significant (data from four trials). Conversely, stiffness or restriction of shoulder movement was more common after conservative treatment (data from three trials). Limited evidence is available from randomised controlled trials on the relative effectiveness of surgical versus conservative treatment for acute middle third clavicle fractures. Treatment options must be chosen on an individual patient basis, after careful consideration of the relative benefits and harms of each intervention and of patient preferences.

Viel T.A.,University of Sao Paulo
Current Alzheimer Research | Year: 2011

The Kallikrein-Kinin System (KKS) has been associated to inflammatory and immunogenic responses in the peripheral and central nervous system by the activation of two receptors, namely B1 receptor and B2 receptor. The B1 receptor is absent or under-expressed in physiological conditions, being up-regulated during tissue injury or in the presence of cytokines. The B2 receptor is constitutive and mediates most of the biological effects of kinins. Some authors suggest a link between the KKS and the neuroinflammation in Alzheimer's disease (AD). We have recently described an increase in bradykinin (BK) in the cerebrospinal fluid and in densities of B1 and B2 receptors in brain areas related to memory, after chronic infusion of amyloid-beta (Aβ) peptide in rats, which was accompanied by memory disruption and neuronal loss. Mice lacking B1 or B2 receptors presented reduced cognitive deficits related to the learning process, after acute intracerebroventricular (i.c.v). administration of Aβ. Nevertheless, our group showed an early disruption of cognitive function by i.c.v. chronic infusion of Aβ after a learned task, in the knock-out B2 mice. This suggests a neuroprotective role for B2 receptors. In knock-out B1 mice the memory disruption was absent, implying the participation of this receptor in neurodegenerative processes. The acute or chronic infusion of Aβ can lead to different responses of the brain tissue. In this way, the proper involvement of KKS on neuroinflammation in AD probably depends on the amount of Aβ injected. Though, BK applied to neurons can exert inflammatory effects, whereas in glial cells, BK can have a potential protective role for neurons, by inhibiting proinflammatory cytokines. This review discusses this duality concerning the KKS and neuroinflammation in AD in vivo. © 2011 Bentham Science Publishers Ltd.

Maluf R.V.,University of Sao Paulo
International Journal of Modern Physics A | Year: 2011

We consider the influence of a noncommutative space on the KleinGordon and the Dirac oscillators. The nonrelativistic limit is taken and the θ-modified Hamiltonians are determined. The corrections of these Hamiltonians on the energy levels are evaluated in first-order perturbation theory. It is observed a total lifting of the degeneracy to the considered levels. Such effects are similar to the Zeeman splitting in a commutative space. © 2011 World Scientific Publishing Company.

Da Silva A.M.,University of Sao Paulo
Classical and Quantum Gravity | Year: 2011

Recently, in [3] Hoava and Melby-Thompson proposed a nonrelativistic gravity theory with extended gauge symmetry that is free of the spin-0 graviton. We propose a minimal substitution recipe to implement this extended gauge symmetry which reproduces the results obtained by them. Our prescription has the advantage of being manifestly gauge invariant and immediately generalizable to other fields, like matter. We briefly discuss the coupling of gravity with scalar and vector fields found by our method. We show also that the extended gauge invariance in gravity does not force the value of λ to be λ = 1 as claimed in [3]. However, the spin-0 graviton is eliminated even for general λ. © 2011 IOP Publishing Ltd.

Batalioto F.,University of Sao Paulo
The European physical journal. E, Soft matter | Year: 2011

In this work we investigate the influence of the adsorption of ions on the impedance spectroscopy of an electrolytic cell. We consider that the positive and negative ions present in a dielectric liquid are adsorbed in the electrode surfaces with different adsorption energies. This difference in adsorption energies causes an additional plateaux in the limit of the low-frequency range of the real part of the impedance Z. In the same frequency range, a second minimum in the imaginary part of Z is predicted. The theory is illustrated with measurements of the impedance of an electrolytic solution in the frequency range from 10(-2) Hz to 1 KHz. A comparison between the present model and others from the literature to describe the experimental results is also made.

Baltieri D.A.,University of Sao Paulo
Drug and Alcohol Review | Year: 2014

Introduction and Aims: This study aims to explore the temporal relationship between age of onset of substance use and criminal activity in women convicted of violent crimes as well as to subdivide them into clinically significant groups to which tailored treatment can be guided. Design and Method: Of the 353 female inmates randomised for this study, 38 (10.8%) refused to participate and 182 (51.6%) met inclusion criteria. Data were obtained only from substance-abusing female inmates serving a sentence for robbery or homicide in a female penitentiary in Brazil. Participant information was gathered through face-to-face interviews during which alcohol and drug abuse, impulsiveness levels, depressive symptoms, and criminological aspects were investigated. Results: Age of first alcohol and drug use significantly preceded the age of onset of criminal activities in the overall sample. Onset ages of alcohol and drug use problems significantly preceded the beginning of criminal activities in women convicted of homicide only. Latent Class Analysis resulted in two groups: cluster 1 (n=122; 67%), early-onset alcohol and drug users; and cluster 2 (n=60; 33%), late-onset alcohol and drug users. Higher depression levels, higher incidence of committing robbery and less official history of recidivism were associated with cluster 1 inmates. Discussion and Conclusions: The temporal relationship between the onset age of alcohol/drug use problems and age of the beginning of criminal activities can set apart women convicted of robbery from those convicted of homicide. Further, a distinctive therapeutic approach to early- and late-onset offenders may be valuable. © 2014 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

Wajchenberg B.L.,University of Sao Paulo
Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology | Year: 2010

In type 2 diabetes (DM2) there is progressive deterioration in β-cell function and mass. It was found that islet function was about 50% of normal at the time of diagnosis and reduction in β-cell mass of about 60% at necropsy (accelerated apoptosis). Among the interventions to preserve the β-cells, those to lead to shortterm improvement of β-cell secretion are weight loss, metformin, sulfonylureas, and insulin. The long-term improvement was demonstrated with short-term intensive insulin therapy of newly diagnosed DM2, the use of antiapoptotic drugs such as glitazones, and the use of glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1 mimetics), not inactivated by the enzyme dipeptidyl peptidase 4 and/or to inhibit that enzyme (GLP-1 enhancers). The incretin hormones are released from the gastrointestinal tract in response to nutrient ingestion to enhance glucose-dependent insulin secretion from the pancreas and overall maintenance of glucose homeostasis. From the two major incretins, GLP-1 and GIP (glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide), only the first one or its mimetics or enhancers can be used for treatment. The GLP-1 mimetics exenatide and liraglutide as well as the DPP 4 inhibitors (sitagliptin and vildagliptin) were approved for treatment of DM2. © Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2010.

Konoplya R.A.,Kyoto University | Konoplya R.A.,University of Tubingen | Zhidenko A.,University of Sao Paulo
Physics Letters, Section B: Nuclear, Elementary Particle and High-Energy Physics | Year: 2010

Using the recently found by G. Horowitz and M. Roberts (arXiv:0908.3677) numerical model of the ground state of holographic superconductors (at zero temperature), we calculate the conductivity for such models. The universal relation connecting conductivity with the reflection coefficient was used for finding the conductivity by the WKB approach. The dependence of the conductivity on the frequency and charge density is discussed. Numerical calculations confirm the general arguments of (arXiv:0908.3677) in favor of non-zero conductivity even at zero temperature. In addition to the Horowitz-Roberts solution we have found (probably infinite) set of extra solutions which are normalizable and reach the same correct RN-AdS asymptotic at spatial infinity. These extra solutions (which correspond to larger values of the grand canonical potential) lead to effective potentials that also vanish at the horizon and thus correspond to a non-zero conductivity at zero temperature. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Sih T.,University of Sao Paulo
Pediatric allergy and immunology : official publication of the European Society of Pediatric Allergy and Immunology | Year: 2010

Allergic rhinitis (AR) typically presents after the second year of life, but the exact prevalence in early life is unknown. AR affects 10-30% of the population, with the greatest frequency found in children and adolescents. It appears that the prevalence has increased in the pediatric population. As the childs' immune system develops between the 1st and 4th yr of life, those with an atopic predisposition begin to express allergic disease with a clear Th(2) response to allergen exposure, resulting in symptoms. In pediatric AR, two or more seasons of pollen exposure are generally needed for sensitization, so allergy testing to seasonal allergens (trees, grasses, and weeds) should be conducted after the age of 2 or 3 years. Sensitization to perennial allergens (animals, dust mites, and cockroaches) may manifest several months after exposure. Classification of AR includes measurement of frequency and duration of symptoms. Intermittent AR is defined as symptoms for <4 days/wk or <4 consecutive weeks. Persistent AR is defined as occurring for more than 4 days/wk and more than 4 consecutive weeks. AR is associated with impairments in quality of life, sleep disorders, emotional problems, and impairment in activities such as work and school productivity and social functioning. AR can also be graded in severity - either mild or moderate/severe. There are comorbidities associated with AR. The chronic effects of the inflammatory process affect lungs, ears, growth, and others. AR can induce medical complications, learning problems and sleep-related complaints, such as obstructive sleep apnea syndrome and chronic and acute sinusitis, acute otitis media, serous otitis media, and aggravation of adenoidal hypertrophy and asthma. © 2009 John Wiley & Sons A/s.

Villard M.-A.,University of Moncton | Metzger J.P.,University of Sao Paulo
Journal of Applied Ecology | Year: 2014

Summary: Research addressing the effects of habitat fragmentation on species, assemblages or ecosystems has been fraught with difficulties, from its conceptual foundation to statistical analyses and interpretation. Yet, it is critical to address such challenges as ecosystems are rapidly being altered across the world. Many studies have concluded that effects of habitat loss exceed those of fragmentation per se, that is, the degree to which a given amount of habitat is broken apart. There is also evidence from different biomes and taxa that habitat configuration, that is, the spatial arrangement of habitat at a given time, may influence several landscape processes such as functional connectivity, edge and matrix effects, and thus population viability. Instead of focusing attention on the relative influence of either habitat loss or fragmentation, we must identify portions of the gradient in habitat amount where configuration effects are most likely to be observed. Here, we suggest that all species are, to a certain degree, sensitive to landscape change and that, assuming a homogeneous matrix, habitat configuration will have a higher influence on species at intermediate values of habitat amount, where configuration has potentially the greatest variability. On the basis of empirical studies and simulations, we expect that species that are relatively tolerant to fragmentation of their habitat will exhibit a wider band where amount and configuration interact compared to species less tolerant to fragmentation. Synthesis and applications. Reducing habitat loss should be a top priority for conservation planners. However, researchers should also investigate the indirect impacts of habitat loss on biodiversity through fragmentation effects. This research aims to identify windows of opportunity where habitat configuration can mitigate to some extent the effects of habitat loss, particularly through the maintenance of functional connectivity. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Applied Ecology © 2013 British Ecological Society.

Teixeira M.Z.,University of Sao Paulo
Homeopathy | Year: 2010

Hahnemann considered the secondary action of medicines to be a law of nature and reviewed the conditions under which it occurs. It is closely related to the rebound effects observed with many modern drugs. I review the evidence of the rebound effect of statins that support the similitude principle. In view of their indications in primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular diseases, statins are widely prescribed. Besides reducing cholesterol biosynthesis, they provide vasculoprotective effects (pleiotropic effects), including improvement of endothelial function, increased nitric oxide bioavailability, antioxidant properties, inhibition of inflammatory and thrombogenic responses, stabilisation of atherosclerotic plaques, and others. Recent studies suggest that suspension of statin treatment leads to a rebound imparing of vascular function, and increasing morbidity and mortality in patients with vascular diseases. Similarly to other classes of modern palliative drugs, this rebound effect is the same as a secondary action or vital reaction described by Samuel Hahnemann, and used in homeopathy in a therapeutic sense. © 2010 The Faculty of Homeopathy.

In a previous study, we detected the presence of a Mycobacterium avium species-specific insertion sequence, IS1245, in Mycobacterium kansasii. Both species were isolated from a mixed M. avium-M. kansasii bone marrow culture from an HIV-positive patient. The transfer mechanism of this insertion sequence to M. kansasii was investigated here. A linear plasmid (pMA100) was identified in all colonies isolated from the M. avium-M. kansasii mixed culture carrying the IS1245 element. The linearity of pMA100 was confirmed. Other analyses suggested that pMA100 contained a covalently bound protein in the terminal regions, a characteristic of invertron linear replicons. Partial sequencing of pMA100 showed that it bears one intact copy of IS1245 inserted in a region rich in transposase-related sequences. These types of sequences have been described in other linear mycobacterial plasmids. Mating experiments were performed to confirm that pMA100 could be transferred in vitro from M. avium to M. kansasii. pMA100 was transferred by in vitro conjugation not only to the M. kansasii strain from the mixed culture, but also to two other unrelated M. kansasii clinical isolates, as well as to Mycobacterium bovis BCG Moreau. Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) is one of most important mechanisms leading to the evolution and diversity of bacteria. This work provides evidence for the first time on the natural occurrence of HGT between different species of mycobacteria. Gene transfer, mediated by a novel conjugative plasmid, was detected and experimentally reproduced.

The article has for objective to reflect on the polypharmacy of the aged with emphasis in the adverse drug reactions and the drug-drug interactions. The vulnerability of the elderly to the problems related from the use as of drugs is pretty upswing, the one to in case that must the complexity of the problems clinical, at the must as of need pharmacotherapeutic interventions, and to the update pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic changes inherent to the aging. In this way, to rationalize the drugs utilization and to avoid the injury related to the polypharmacy will be, doubtless, one of the biggest challenges for public health in this century.

Fraga E.S.,Federal University of Rio de Janeiro | Noronha J.,University of Sao Paulo | Palhares L.F.,State University of Rio de Janeiro
Physical Review D - Particles, Fields, Gravitation and Cosmology | Year: 2013

We investigate the effect of a homogeneous magnetic field on the thermal deconfinement transition of QCD in the large Nc limit. First we discuss how the critical temperature decreases due to the inclusion of N fNc flavors of massless quarks in comparison to the pure glue case. Then we study the equivalent correction in the presence of an external Abelian magnetic field. To leading order in Nf/N c, the deconfinement critical temperature decreases with the magnetic field if the flavor contribution to the pressure behaves paramagnetically, with a sufficiently large magnetization as to overcome any possible magnetic effects in the string tension. Finally, we discuss the effects from a finite quark mass and its competition with magnetic effects. © 2013 American Physical Society.

Cogo-Moreira H.,University of Sao Paulo
Cochrane database of systematic reviews (Online) | Year: 2012

Dyslexia (or developmental dyslexia or specific reading disability) is a specific learning disorder that has a neurobiological origin. It is marked by difficulties with accurate or fluent recognition of words and poor spelling in people who have average or above average intelligence and these difficulties cannot be attributed to another cause, for example, poor vision, hearing difficulty, or lack of socio-environmental opportunities, motivation, or adequate instruction. Studies have correlated reading skills with musical abilities. It has been hypothesized that musical training may be able to remediate timing difficulties, improve pitch perception, or increase spatial awareness, thereby having a positive effect on skills needed in the development of language and literacy. To study the effectiveness of music education on reading skills (that is, oral reading skills, reading comprehension, reading fluency, phonological awareness, and spelling) in children and adolescents with dyslexia. We searched the following electronic databases in June 2012: CENTRAL (2012, Issue 5), MEDLINE (1948 to May Week 4 2012 ), EMBASE (1980 to 2012 Week 22), CINAHL (searched 7 June 2012), LILACS (searched 7 June 2012), PsycINFO (1887 to May Week 5 2012), ERIC (searched 7 June 2012), Arts and Humanities Citation Index (1970 to 6 June 2012), Conference Proceedings Citation Index - Social Sciences and Humanities (1990 to 6 June 2012), and WorldCat (searched 7 June 2012). We also searched the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) and reference lists of studies. We did not apply any date or language limits. We planned to include randomized controlled trials. We looked for studies that included at least one of our primary outcomes. The primary outcomes were related to the main domain of the reading: oral reading skills, reading comprehension, reading fluency, phonological awareness, and spelling, measured through validated instruments. The secondary outcomes were self esteem and academic achievement. Two authors (HCM and RBA) independently screened all titles and abstracts identified through the search strategy to determine their eligibility. For our analysis we had planned to use mean difference for continuous data, with 95% confidence intervals, and to use the random-effects statistical model when the effect estimates of two or more studies could be combined in a meta-analysis. We retrieved 851 references via the search strategy. No randomized controlled trials testing music education for the improvement of reading skills in children with dyslexia could be included in this review. There is no evidence available from randomized controlled trials on which to base a judgment about the effectiveness of music education for the improvement of reading skills in children and adolescents with dyslexia. This uncertainty warrants further research via randomized controlled trials, involving a interdisciplinary team: musicians, hearing and speech therapists, psychologists, and physicians.

Giannini A.V.,University of Sao Paulo | Duraes F.O.,Mackenzie Presbyterian University
Physical Review D - Particles, Fields, Gravitation and Cosmology | Year: 2013

In this paper we use an eikonalized minijet model where the effects of the first nonlinear corrections to the DGLAP equations are taken into account. The contributions coming from gluon recombination effects are included in the DGLAP+GLRMQ approach for the free proton in the context of saturation models. The parameters of the model are fixed to fit total pp and p̄p cross sections, including the very recent data from LHC, HiRes, and Pierre Auger collaborations. Glauber and multiple scattering approximations are then used to describe the inclusive inelastic proton-Air cross section. Photoproduction cross sections, without change of parameters fixed before, are also obtained from the model using vector meson dominance and the additive quark model. We show and discuss our main results as well as the implications of saturation effects in the behavior of total hadronic and photonic cross sections at very high energies. © 2013 American Physical Society.

Alcaraz F.C.,University of Sao Paulo | Berganza M.I.,Autonomous University of Madrid | Sierra G.,Autonomous University of Madrid
Physical Review Letters | Year: 2011

In a quantum critical chain, the scaling regime of the energy and momentum of the ground state and low-lying excitations are described by conformal field theory (CFT). The same holds true for the von Neumann and Rényi entropies of the ground state, which display a universal logarithmic behavior depending on the central charge. In this Letter we generalize this result to those excited states of the chain that correspond to primary fields in CFT. It is shown that the nth Rényi entropy is related to a 2n-point correlator of primary fields. We verify this statement for the critical XX and XXZ chains. This result uncovers a new link between quantum information theory and CFT. © 2011 American Physical Society.

Alfaro J.,University of Santiago de Chile | Rivelles V.O.,University of Sao Paulo
Physical Review D - Particles, Fields, Gravitation and Cosmology | Year: 2013

We study non-Abelian fields in the context of very special relativity (VSR). For this, we define the covariant derivative and the gauge field gauge transformations, both of them involving a fixed null vector nμ, related to the VSR breaking of the Lorentz group to the Hom(2) or Sim(2) subgroups. As in the Abelian case, the gauge field becomes massive. Moreover, we show that the VSR gauge transformations form a closed algebra. We then write actions coupling the gauge field to various matter fields (bosonic and fermionic). We mention how we can use the spontaneous symmetry-breaking mechanism to give a flavor-dependent VSR mass to the gauge bosons. Finally, we quantize the model using the Becchi-Rouet-Stora-Tyutin formalism to fix the gauge. The model is renormalizable and unitary and for non-Abelian groups, asymptotically free. © 2013 American Physical Society.

Silva C.A.,University of Sao Paulo | Avcin T.,University of Ljubljana | Brunner H.I.,University of Cincinnati
Arthritis Care and Research | Year: 2012

Objective To propose a common nomenclature to refer to individuals who fulfill the American College of Rheumatology classification criteria for systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) during childhood or adolescence. Methods The medical literature was reviewed for studies conducted in the target population between 1960 and December 2011 to obtain information about the terms used to refer to such children and adolescents. We reviewed the threshold ages used and disease features considered to discriminate these individuals from patients with onset of SLE during adulthood. Furthermore, the nomenclature used in other chronic diseases with onset during both childhood and adulthood was assessed. Results There was an astonishing variability in the age cutoffs used to define SLE onset prior to adulthood, ranging from 14-21 years, but most studies used age 18 years. The principal synonyms in the medical literature were SLE without reference to the age at onset of disease, childhood-onset SLE, juvenile SLE, and pediatric (or paediatric) SLE. Conclusion Based on the definition of childhood, in analogy with other complex chronic diseases commencing prior to adulthood, and given the current absence of definite genetic variations that discriminate adults from children, the term childhood-onset SLE is proposed when referring to individuals with onset of SLE prior to age 18 years. © 2012 by the American College of Rheumatology.

de Sa Silva F.,University of Sao Paulo
Journal of biomedicine & biotechnology | Year: 2012

Stem cells, both embryonic and adult, due to the potential for application in tissue regeneration have been the target of interest to the world scientific community. In fact, stem cells can be considered revolutionary in the field of medicine, especially in the treatment of a wide range of human diseases. However, caution is needed in the clinical application of such cells and this is an issue that demands more studies. This paper will discuss some controversial issues of importance for achieving cell therapy safety and success. Particularly, the following aspects of stem cell biology will be presented: methods for stem cells culture, teratogenic or tumorigenic potential, cellular dose, proliferation, senescence, karyotyping, and immunosuppressive activity.

Mendonca B.B.,University of Sao Paulo
Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology | Year: 2011

46,XY DSD can result either from decreased synthesis of testosterone or from the impairment of androgen metabolism or action. We report here clinical, psychological, and therapeutic studies of eleven 46,XY DSD subjects from 8 Brazilian families with 17β-HSD3 deficiency and of thirty 46,XY DSD subjects with 5α-RD2 deficiency from 18 families, all of them registered and raised in the female social sex except for two cases. Among the eleven 46,XY DSD subjects with 17β-HSD3 deficiency, three subjects changed gender identity from female to male at puberty, whereas the remaining eight affected subjects (including two who were castrated prepubertally) have maintained a female social sex. Among the 30 cases of 46,XY DSD due to 5α-RD2 deficiency, 14 changed to male gender role. Fourteen patients maintained the female sexual identification, despite the virilization signs developed at puberty (three of them were castrated in childhood). No correlation was observed between SRD5A2 mutation, T/DHT ratio, and gender role change in these patients. Two variables were significantly associated with the change of male social sex in patients 46,XY female which were registered and non-castrated in childhood: male kids games and self-perceived physical appearance as male or ambiguous during childhood. At diagnosis, the comparison of mean penile length among 46,XY groups showed that 5α-RD2 deficiency group had the smallest penile length. At final evaluation, after surgical and hormonal treatment, mean penile length was also smaller in the 5α-RD2 deficiency group (-5.4 ± 1 SDS) compared to the groups with testosterone production deficiency (p < 0.05). Overall, most of our patients reported satisfaction with the treatment although specific complaints about small penile length, sexual activity, and urinary symptoms were frequent. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

Low-level laser therapy (LLLT) has been reported to improve tissue healing and might therefore be useful in dental pulp capping after trauma. We evaluated the effects of a low-level diode laser (lambda = 680 nm) and dental pulp-capping substances on cell proliferation. Calcium hydroxide and adhesive resin were applied as conditioned media to cultures. Half of the samples received irradiation with the diode laser at a fluence of 4 J/cm(2) for 60 s. Using a hemocytometer, cells were counted at 1, 3, 5, and 7 days, and the data were analyzed by ANOVA. All cultures exhibited continuous growth, except those treated with adhesive resin. As compared to the other two groups, cell proliferation was significantly lower in cultures treated with adhesive resin; it was also significantly lower in cultures treated with calcium hydroxide, as compared to the control group. When combined with dental pulp-capping materials, LLLT had no effect on L-929 cell proliferation.

In the context of challenging scenarios for offshore oil exploitation, robust numerical models are necessary to predict the risers’ mechanical behavior. This work presents a model to simulate offshore risers’ dynamics using the geometrically-exact approach for beams. Expressions are derived for the hydrodynamic loads due to riser-seawater flow interaction, adopting the Morison's equation and considering large displacements and finite rotations, including the added mass and drag contributions. The consistent linearization of the weak form of such effects was obtained, permitting the use of Newton-Raphson method to solve risers’ dynamics using an implicit time-integration scheme. The riser-seabed interaction is also considered with a model that accounts for the possibility of rolling on the seabed. A catenary riser dynamics and a vertical riser experiencing parametric resonance due to heave-imposed motion were simulated. The model showed promising behavior to deal with large nonlinearities. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd

Dvornikov M.,University of Sao Paulo | Dvornikov M.,Tomsk State University | Semikoz V.B.,Pushkov Institute of Terrestrial Magnetism
Physical Review D - Particles, Fields, Gravitation and Cosmology | Year: 2015

We show that the Standard Model electroweak interaction of ultrarelativistic electrons with nucleons (the eN interaction) in a neutron star (NS) permeated by a seed large-scale helical magnetic field provides its growth up to 1015G during a time comparable with the ages of young magnetars ∼104yr. The magnetic field instability originates from the parity violation in the eN interaction entering the generalized Dirac equation for right and left massless electrons in an external uniform magnetic field. We calculate the average electric current given by the solution of the modified Dirac equation containing an extra current for right and left electrons (positrons), which turns out to be directed along the magnetic field. Such a current includes both a changing chiral imbalance of electrons and the eN potential given by a constant neutron density in a NS. Then we derive the system of the kinetic equations for the chiral imbalance and the magnetic helicity which accounts for the eN interaction. By solving this system, we show that a sizable chiral imbalance arising in a neutron protostar due to the Urca process eL-+p→N+νeL diminishes very rapidly because of a huge chirality-flip rate. Thus the eN term prevails over the chiral effect, providing a huge growth of the magnetic helicity and the helical magnetic field. © 2015 American Physical Society.

Morais A.L.,Federal University of Sergipe | Barreto-Souza W.,University of Sao Paulo
Computational Statistics and Data Analysis | Year: 2011

In this paper we introduce the Weibull power series (WPS) class of distributions which is obtained by compounding Weibull and power series distributions, where the compounding procedure follows same way that was previously carried out by Adamidis and Loukas (1998). This new class of distributions has as a particular case the two-parameter exponential power series (EPS) class of distributions (Chahkandi and Ganjali, 2009), which contains several lifetime models such as: exponential geometric (Adamidis and Loukas, 1998), exponential Poisson (Kus, 2007) and exponential logarithmic (Tahmasbi and Rezaei, 2008) distributions. The hazard function of our class can be increasing, decreasing and upside down bathtub shaped, among others, while the hazard function of an EPS distribution is only decreasing. We obtain several properties of the WPS distributions such as moments, order statistics, estimation by maximum likelihood and inference for a large sample. Furthermore, the EM algorithm is also used to determine the maximum likelihood estimates of the parameters and we discuss maximum entropy characterizations under suitable constraints. Special distributions are studied in some detail. Applications to two real data sets are given to show the flexibility and potentiality of the new class of distributions. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Buzalaf M.A.,University of Sao Paulo
Advances in dental research | Year: 2012

This review discusses the role of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) in the development of dentin erosion and the protective effects of MMP inhibitors, based on recent evidence from in vitro and in situ studies. MMPs are present in both dentin and saliva and play an important role in dentin erosion progression. Enzymatic removal of the organic matrix by MMPs increases the demineralization process, since the demineralized organic matrix has been shown to hamper ionic diffusion after an acidic challenge. Recent evidence from in vitro and in situ studies has shown a protective role of MMP inhibitors against dentin erosion and erosion plus abrasion. The inhibitors tested were green tea and its active epigallocatechin-gallate (EGCG), ferrous sulfate, and chlorhexidine. They have been tested in dentifrices, solutions, and gels. The latter led to a more pronounced protective effect against dentin erosion and erosion plus abrasion. The protection was long-lasting and could be observed after up to 10 days of severe erosive and erosive-plus-abrasive challenges in situ. Thus, the use of MMP inhibitors has emerged as an important preventive tool against dentin erosion. Clinical studies should be conducted to confirm the results obtained and to give support to the establishment of clinical protocols of use.

Tekli J.,University of Sao Paulo | Chbeir R.,University of Burgundy
Journal of Web Semantics | Year: 2012

XML similarity evaluation has become a central issue in the database and information communities, its applications ranging over document clustering, version control, data integration and ranked retrieval. Various algorithms for comparing hierarchically structured data, XML documents in particular, have been proposed in the literature. Most of them make use of techniques for finding the edit distance between tree structures, XML documents being commonly modeled as Ordered Labeled Trees. Yet, a thorough investigation of current approaches led us to identify several similarity aspects, i.e., sub-tree related structural and semantic similarities, which are not sufficiently addressed while comparing XML documents. In this paper, we provide an integrated and fine-grained comparison framework to deal with both structural and semantic similarities in XML documents (detecting the occurrences and repetitions of structurally and semantically similar sub-trees), and to allow the end-user to adjust the comparison process according to her requirements. Our framework consists of four main modules for (i) discovering the structural commonalities between sub-trees, (ii) identifying sub-tree semantic resemblances, (iii) computing tree-based edit operations costs, and (iv) computing tree edit distance. Experimental results demonstrate higher comparison accuracy with respect to alternative methods, while timing experiments reflect the impact of semantic similarity on overall system performance. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

de Souza F.H.,University of Sao Paulo
Revista brasileira de reumatologia | Year: 2012

Dermatomyositis (DM) symptoms may be a clue to the existence of a hidden cancer. Enhancing early detection is essential, but there are no studies evaluating short-term predictive factors in this disease. This is a single-center retrospective study, including patients diagnosed with DM meeting at least four of the five Bohan and Peter's criteria (1975), from 1991 to 2011. This study assessed malignancies occurring in up to 12 months after the diagnosis of DM. Neoplasm was found in 12 out of 139 patients (skin, gastrointestinal tract, prostate, thyroid, breast, lungs, and genitourinary tract). Patients with neoplasm had a higher mean age than controls (56.8 ± 15.7 vs. 40.3 ± 13.1 years, respectively, P = 0.004, odds ratio 1.09; 95% confidence interval: 1.04-1.14). No statistical differences were observed regarding gender, ethnicity, frequency of constitutional symptoms, organ and systemic involvements, and/or laboratory alterations. In newly diagnosed DM, age at disease diagnosis was a predictive factor of malignancy.

Prudenziati A.,University of Sao Paulo
Physical Review D - Particles, Fields, Gravitation and Cosmology | Year: 2016

We study in detail the relationship between strong subadditivity for a boundary field theory and energy conditions for its bulk dual in 2+1 dimensions. We provide a discussion of known facts and new results organized from the simplest case of a static system with collinear intervals to a time-dependent one in a generic configuration, with particular focus on the holographic geometric description. © 2016 American Physical Society.

Artifon E.L.,University of Sao Paulo
Korean journal of radiology : official journal of the Korean Radiological Society | Year: 2012

To demonstrate a comprehensive review of published articles regarding endoscopic ultrasound (EUS)-guided biliary drainage. Review of studies regarding EUS-guided biliary drainage including case reports, case series and previous reviews. EUS-guided hepaticogastrostomy, coledochoduodenostomy and choledoantrostomy are advanced biliary and pancreatic endoscopy procedures, and together make up the echo-guided biliary drainage. Hepaticogastrostomy is indicated in cases of hilar obstruction, while the procedure of choice is the coledochoduodenostomy or choledochoantrostomy in distal lesions. Both procedures must be performed only after unsuccessful ERCPs. The indication of these procedures must be made under a multidisciplinary view while sharing information with the patient or legal guardian. Hepaticogastrostomy and coledochoduodenostomy or choledochoantrostomy are feasible when performed by endoscopists with expertise in biliopancreatic endoscopy. Advanced echo-endoscopy should currently be performed under a rigorous protocol in educational institutions.

Gavrilov S.P.,Herzen State Pedagogical University | Gitman D.M.,University of Sao Paulo
Physical Review D - Particles, Fields, Gravitation and Cosmology | Year: 2013

A consistent nonperturbative approach (based on QFT) to neutral fermion creation (due to their magnetic moments) in strong inhomogeneous magnetic fields is considered. It is demonstrated that quantization in terms of neutral particles and antiparticles is possible in terms of the states with well-defined spin polarization. Such states are localizable and can form wave packets in a given asymptotic region. In this case, the problem can be technically reduced to the problem of charged-particle creation by an electric step. In particular, the relation to the Schwinger method of an effective action is established. As an example, we calculate neutral fermion creation from the vacuum by a linearly growing magnetic field. We show that the total number and the vacuum-to-vacuum transition probability of created pairs depend only on the gradient of the magnetic field, but not on its strength, and this fact does not depend on the spacetime dimension. We show that the created flux aimed in one of the directions is formed from fluxes of particles and antiparticles of equal intensity and with the same magnetic moments parallel to the external field. In such a flux, particle and antiparticle velocities that are perpendicular to the plane of the magnetic moment and flux direction are essentially depressed. The creation of neutral fermions with anomalous magnetic moments leads to a smoothing of the initial magnetic field, which in turn prevents the appearance of superstrong constant magnetic fields. Our estimations show that the vacuum instability with respect to the creation of neutrinos and even neutrons in strong magnetic fields of the magnetars and fields generated during a supernova explosion has to be taken into account in the astrophysics. In particular, it may be of significance for dark matter studies. © 2013 American Physical Society.

Moreira L.O.,Federal University of Rio de Janeiro | Zamboni D.S.,University of Sao Paulo
Frontiers in Immunology | Year: 2012

Sensing intracellular pathogens is a process mediated by innate immune cells that is cru cial for the induction of inflammatory processes and effective adaptive immune responses against pathogenic microbes. NOD like receptors (NLRs) comprise a family of intracel lular pattern recognition receptors that are important for the recognition of damage and microbial associated molecular patterns. NOD1 and NOD2 are specialized NLRs that partic ipate in the recognition of a subset of pathogenic microorganisms that are able to invade and multiply intracellularly. Once activated, these molecules trigger intracellular signal ing pathways that lead to the activation of transcriptional responses culminating in the expression of a subset of inflammatory genes. In this review, we will focus on the role of NOD1 and NOD2 in the recognition and response to intracellular pathogens, including Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria, and on their ability to signal in response to non peptidoglycan containing pathogens, such as viruses and protozoan parasites. © 2012 Moreira and Zam-boni.

Objective: The aim of this study was to assess re-hospitalization rates of individuals with psychosis and bipolar disorder and to study determinants of readmission. Methods: Prospective observational study, conducted in São Paulo, Brazil. One hundred-sixty-nine individuals with bipolar and psychotic disorder in need of hospitalization in the public mental health system were followed for 12 months after discharge. Their families were contacted by telephone and interviews were conducted at 1, 2, 6 and 12 months post-discharge to evaluate readmission rates and factors related. Results: Oneyear re-hospitalization rate was of 42.6%. Physical restraint during hospital stay was a risk factor (OR = 5.4-10.5) for readmission in most models. Not attending consultations after discharge was related to the 12-month point readmission (OR = 8.5, 95%CI 2.3-31.2) and to the survival model (OR = 3.2, 95%CI 1.5-7.2). Number of previous admissions was a risk factor for the survival model (OR = 6.6-11.9). Family's agreement with permanent hospitalization of individuals with mental illness was the predictor associated to readmission in all models (OR = 3.5-10.9) and resulted in shorter survival time to readmission; those readmitted were stereotyped as dangerous and unhealthy. Conclusions: Family's stigma towards mental illness might contribute to the increase in readmission rates of their relatives with psychiatric disorders. More studies should be conducted to depict mechanisms by which stigma increases re-hospitalization rates. ©2012 Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

Sesma N.,University of Sao Paulo
The International journal of oral & maxillofacial implants | Year: 2012

To evaluate the influence of sex, implant characteristics, and bone grafting on the survival rate of dual acid-etched (DAE) implants. Patients treated with internal-hex DAE implants for single tooth replacement in a military dental clinic between January 2005 and December 2010 were included in this study. Clinical data related to implant characteristics, implant location, presence of grafted bone, and implant failures were collected. The primary outcome was implant loss. The survival rate was analyzed using the Kaplan-Meier method. Cox regression modeling was used to determine which factors would predict implant failure. DAE implants were evaluated in a total of 988 patients (80.3% men). Twenty-four (2.4%) implants failed, most were cylindric (54.2%) with regular platforms (70.8%) and were 10 mm long (58.3%). The failure rate was 2.4% for the anterior maxilla, 3.3% for the posterior maxilla, 1.6% for the anterior mandible, and 2.0% for posterior mandible. The cumulative survival rate was 97.6%. The failure rate was 8.8% in implants placed after sinus augmentation, 7.3% in bone block-grafted areas, and 1.6% in native bone. Based on multivariable analysis (Cox regression), sinus augmentation and bone block grafting had a statistically significant effect on implant failure; the hazard ratios were 5.5 and 4.6, respectively. The results revealed that DAE implants had high survival rates, and no influence of sex, location, shape, diameter, or length on failure rates could be observed. However, a significant association was observed between failure and presence of bone graft in the implant area.

Zhang L.,Hunan Normal University | Pan Q.,Hunan Normal University | Pan Q.,University of Sao Paulo | Jing J.,Hunan Normal University
Physics Letters, Section B: Nuclear, Elementary Particle and High-Energy Physics | Year: 2015

We study the effect of the Weyl corrections on the holographic p-wave dual models in the backgrounds of AdS soliton and AdS black hole via a Maxwell complex vector field model by using the numerical and analytical methods. We find that, in the soliton background, the Weyl corrections do not influence the properties of the holographic p-wave insulator/superconductor phase transition, which is different from that of the Yang-Mills theory. However, in the black hole background, we observe that similarly to the Weyl correction effects in the Yang-Mills theory, the higher Weyl corrections make it easier for the p-wave metal/superconductor phase transition to be triggered, which shows that these two p-wave models with Weyl corrections share some similar features for the condensation of the vector operator. © 2015 The Authors.

Almeida S.R.,University of Sao Paulo
Frontiers in Microbiology | Year: 2012

Sporotrichosis is a chronic subcutaneous mycosis that affects both humans and animals worldwide. This subcutaneous mycosis had been attributed to a single etiological agent, Sporothrix schenckii. S. schenckii exhibits considerable genetic variability, and recently, it was suggested that this taxon consists of a complex of species. Sporotrichosis is caused by traumatic inoculation of the fungus, which is a ubiquitous environmental saprophyte that can be isolated from soil and plant debris. The infection is limited to cutaneous forms, but recently, more severe clinical forms of this mycosis have been described, especially among immunocompromised individuals. The immunological mechanisms involved in the prevention and control of sporotrichosis are not well understood. Some studies suggest that cell-mediated immunity plays an important role in protecting the host against S. schenckii. In contrast, the role of the humoral immune response in protection against this fungus has not been studied in detail. In a previous study, we showed that antigens secreted by S. schenckii induced a specific humoral response in infected animals, primarily against a 70-kDa molecule, indicating a possible role of specific antibodies against this molecule in infection control. In another study by our group, we produced a mAb against a 70-kDa glycoprotein of S. schenckii to better understand the effect of the passive immunization of mice infected with S. schenckii. The results showed a significant reduction in the number of CFUs in various mice organs when the mAb was injected before or during S. schenckii infection. Similar results were observed when T-cell-deficient mice were used. The drugs of choice in the treatment of sporotrichosis require long periods, and relapses are frequently observed, primarily in immunocompromised patients. The strong protection induced by the mAb against a 70-kDa glycoprotein makes it a strong candidate as a therapeutic vaccine against sporotrichosis. © 2012 Almeida.

This in vitro study aimed to analyze the effect of including xylitol into a fluoridated dentifrice to provide protection against enamel erosion with or without abrasion. Bovine enamel specimens were subjected to erosion or erosion plus abrasion (7 days) and the treatment with the following dentifrices: 10% xylitol; 10% xylitol plus 1,030 ppm F (NaF); 1,030 ppm F; and placebo. The erosive challenges were performed 4 times a day (2 min at a time). The specimens were exposed to the slurries of the dentifrices 2 times daily (15 s at a time). Half of the specimens per group were additionally abraded using an electrical toothbrush (F = 1.5 N). Between the challenges, the specimens were remineralized by artificial saliva. Enamel loss was measured profilometrically (μm). The data were statistically analyzed by two-way ANOVA and Bonferroni's post-hoc test (P < 0.05). Ten percent xylitol plus F and F dentifrices significantly reduced enamel erosion compared to placebo and xylitol dentifrices. On the other hand, all dentifrices presented a significant potential to protect against enamel erosion plus abrasion compared to placebo, with 10% xylitol plus F showing the best results. Based on this result, the inclusion of 10% xylitol increased the effect of the fluoridated dentifrice against enamel erosion plus abrasion in vitro. In situ or clinical studies are needed to confirm the data.

Mendoza V.,University of Sao Paulo
Nonlinearity | Year: 2013

The Pruning Front Conjecture is proved for an open set of Hénon parameters far from unimodal. More specifically, for an open subset of Hénon parameter space, consisting of two connected components one of which intersects the area-preserving locus, it is shown that the associated Hénon maps are prunings of the horseshoe. In particular, their dynamics is a subshift of the two-sided two-shift. © 2013 IOP Publishing Ltd & London Mathematical Society.

This is a cross sectional study conducted with 67 newborns admitted at the neonatal intensive care unit of a private hospital in São Paulo, between July and December 2010, who underwent 84 Peripherally Inserted Central Catheter (PICC line) placement procedures. The aim was to describe the prevalence and reasons of non-elective removal of the catheter. Data was collected from medical records and institutional forms related to PICC placement. The mean of corrected gestational age of the neonates was 32.8 weeks, weight 1671.6 g and postnatal age 9.4 days. The non-elective removal was observed in 33 (39.3%) catheters, 18.1% due to occlusion, 9.5% rupture, 7.1% extremity edema, 6.0% suspected infection, 1.2% accidental dislodgement 1.2% poor extremity perfusion and 1.2% due to extravasation. The prevalence and the reasons of non-elective removal indicated that strategies to prevent avoidable complications related to PICC are necessary.

Dvornikov M.,University of Sao Paulo
Proceedings of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences | Year: 2012

We consider the effective interaction between electrons owing to the exchange of virtual acoustic waves in a low-temperature plasma. Electrons are supposed to participate in rapid radial oscillations, forming a spherically symmetric plasma structure. We show that under certain conditions, this effective interaction can result in the attraction between oscillating electrons and can be important for the dynamics of a plasmoid. Some possible applications of the obtained results to the theory of natural long-lived plasma structures are also discussed. © 2011 The Royal Society.

Dvornikov M.,University of Sao Paulo | Semikoz V.B.,Pushkov Institute of Terrestrial Magnetism
Physical Review D - Particles, Fields, Gravitation and Cosmology | Year: 2013

We study lepton asymmetry evolution in plasma of the early Universe before the electroweak phase transition (EWPT) accounting for chirality flip processes via Higgs decays (inverse decays) entering equilibrium at temperatures below TRL≠10 TeV, TEW

Simoes-Moreira J.R.,University of Sao Paulo
International Journal of Refrigeration | Year: 2010

A Thermodynamic air-standard cycle was envisaged for Ranque-Hilsh (R-H) or Vortex Tubes to provide relevant Thermodynamic analysis and tools for setting operating limits according to the conservation laws of mass and energy, as well as the constraint of the Second Law of Thermodynamics. The study used an integral or control volume approach and resulted in establishing working equations for evaluating the performance of an R-H tube. The work proved that the coefficient of performance does not depend on the R-H tube operating mode, i.e., the same value is obtained independently if the R-H tube operates either as a heat pump or as a refrigeration device. It was also shown that the isentropic coefficient of performance displays optima values of cold and hot mass fractions for a given operating pressure ratio. Finally, the study was concluded by comparing the present analysis with some experimental data available in the literature for operating pressures ranging 2-11 atm. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd and IIR.

Brunello M.E.,University of Sao Paulo
The international journal of tuberculosis and lung disease : the official journal of the International Union against Tuberculosis and Lung Disease | Year: 2013

To analyse the pathway taken by tuberculosis (TB) patients from the first contact with the health services and the diagnosis of TB disease. In a survey conducted in a south-eastern municipality of Brazil prioritised for TB control, a structured questionnaire was applied to 100 TB patients under treatment; secondary data recorded in two information systems were also collected for analysis. Diagrams were constructed to represent the patient pathway through the health services up to diagnosis. The emergency services were the point of entry into care for the majority of the patients. Those who first attended primary health care (PHC) centres needed to visit other health services for diagnosis. Our study shows that multiple visits to multiple health services are required for the majority of patients to be diagnosed with TB. It is necessary to reinforce the referral path established for TB diagnosis and communication among providers, who should play a clear role in obtaining early diagnosis.

Ospina R.,Federal University of Pernambuco | Ferrari S.L.P.,University of Sao Paulo
Computational Statistics and Data Analysis | Year: 2012

This paper proposes a general class of regression models for continuous proportions when the data contain zeros or ones. The proposed class of models assumes that the response variable has a mixed continuousdiscrete distribution with probability mass at zero or one. The beta distribution is used to describe the continuous component of the model, since its density has a wide range of different shapes depending on the values of the two parameters that index the distribution. We use a suitable parameterization of the beta law in terms of its mean and a precision parameter. The parameters of the mixture distribution are modeled as functions of regression parameters. We provide inference, diagnostic, and model selection tools for this class of models. A practical application that employs real data is presented. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Teixeira M.Z.,University of Sao Paulo
International Journal of High Dilution Research | Year: 2012

The homeopathic model applies the secondary action or vital reaction of the organism as a therapeutic method and thus prescribes treatment by similitude, which consists in administering to ill individuals substances that cause similar symptoms in healthy individuals. The vital, homeostatic or paradoxical reaction of the organism might be explained scientifically by means of the rebound effect of modern drugs, which might cause fatal iatrogenic events after discontinuation of antipathic (a term used in alternative medicine for palliative treatment, also known as enantiopathic) treatment. Although the rebound effect is studied by modern pharmacology, it is poorly communicated to and discussed among healthcare professionals, who are thus deprived of information needed for the safe management of modern drugs. This article presents an up-to-date review on the rebound effect of modern drugs that grounds the homeopathic principle of healing and calls the attention of doctors to this type of adverse effect that is usually unnoticed. The rebound effect of modern palliative drugs, which was pointed out by Hahnemann more than two centuries ago, might cause fatal adverse events and is illustrated by the examples of acetylsalicylic acid, anti-inflammatory agents, bronchodilators, antidepressants, statins, proton-pump inhibitors, etc. Although the rebound effect is expressed by a small fraction of (susceptible) individuals and might be avoided by gradual tapering of antipathic drugs, it exhibits epidemiologic importance as a function of the massive use of such palliative drugs and the lack of knowledge in its regard.

Arroyo E.A.,University of Sao Paulo
Journal of High Energy Physics | Year: 2012

Using the elements of the so-called KB cγ subalgebra, we study a class of analytic solutions depending on a single function F(K) in the modified cubic superstring field theory. We compute the energy associated to these solutions and show that the result can be expressed in terms of a contour integral. For a particular choice of the function F(K), we show that the energy is given by integer multiples of a single D-brane tension. © 2012 SISSA.

Leal G.V.,University of Sao Paulo
Revista brasileira de epidemiologia = Brazilian journal of epidemiology | Year: 2010

To assess food intake and meal patterns in adolescents, a cross-sectional study was conducted with 228 adolescents from a public school, SP, Brazil. Total energy, macronutrients, calcium, iron, and vitamin A intakes were evaluated. The food pattern was compared with the eating patterns established by the Food Pyramid for adolescents. Meal frequency was assessed to identify meal skipping. Descriptive statistics and Chi Square were used. Mean energy intake was lower than estimated for 66% adolescents, carbohydrate intake was lower than estimated for 50% adolescents, fat intake was higher than estimated for 50% of adolescents, and protein intake was above the recommendation for 40% of adolescents. Among adolescents studied, 21% skipped breakfast and one third of them had snacks instead of lunch or dinner. The diet of adolescents had insufficient energy intake and deficient intake of fruits and vegetables. Meal patterns were satisfactory, but breakfast should be encouraged.

Zelanis A.,Federal University of Sao Paulo | Keiji Tashima A.,University of Sao Paulo
Toxicon | Year: 2014

The study of snake venom proteomes (venomics) has been experiencing a burst of reports, however the comprehensive knowledge of the dynamic range of proteins present within a single venom, the set of post-translational modifications (PTMs) as well as the lack of a comprehensive database related to venom proteins are among the main challenges in venomics research. The phenotypic plasticity in snake venom proteomes together with their inherent toxin proteoform diversity, points out to the use of integrative analysis in order to better understand their actual complexity. In this regard, such a systems venomics task should encompass the integration of data from transcriptomic and proteomic studies (specially the venom gland proteome), the identification of biological PTMs, and the estimation of artifactual proteomes and peptidomes generated by sample handling procedures. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Kim E.,Catholic University of Daegu | Coelho D.,University of Sao Paulo | Blachier F.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research
Nutrition Research | Year: 2013

The incidence of colorectal cancer (CRC) is rapidly increasing in developing countries, especially among populations that are adopting Western-style diets. Several, but not all, epidemiological and experimental studies suggest that a high intake of meat, especially red and processed meat, is associated with increased CRC risk. Potential reasons for the association between high red and processed meat intake and CRC risk include the content of the meat (e.g. protein, heme) and compounds generated by the cooking process (e.g. N-nitroso compounds, heterocyclic amines). These factors can affect the large intestine mucosa with genotoxicity and metabolic disturbances. Increased bacterial fermentation (putrefaction) of undigested protein and production of bacterial metabolites derived from amino acids may affect colon epithelial homeostasis and renewal. This correlates with the fact that most colonic cancers are detected in the distal colon and rectum where protein fermentation actively occurs. However, there are still large controversies on the relationship between red meat consumption and CRC risk. Therefore, the purpose of this review is to enhance the current understanding on the association between high red and processed meat intakes with CRC risk. A principal focus of this review will be to discuss the meat-related components, such as proteins in the meat, heme, N-nitroso compounds, and heterocyclic amines, and the effects they have upon the large intestine mucosa and the intestinal gut microbiota. © 2013 Elsevier Inc.

Zanetti M.,University of Sao Paulo | Harris S.S.,Tufts University | Dawson-Hughes B.,Tufts University
Nutrition Reviews | Year: 2014

In vitro studies and some clinical studies suggest that vitamin D plays an important role in reducing inflammation. The objective of this review was to examine recent evidence that vitamin D status influences the level of inflammation in adults without acute illness or injury. Five large cross-sectional studies and two randomized controlled trials are the focus of this review. Associations between 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) and inflammation markers are significant and inverse in study populations with low 25OHD levels (<21ng/mL). They are also inverse in adults with relatively high inflammation levels. These associations in the few available randomized controlled vitamin D intervention trials have been null; this may be because they were not examined in populations with sufficiently low levels of 25OHD or high levels of inflammation. © 2013 International Life Sciences Institute.

Silva-Rocha R.,CSIC - National Center for Biotechnology | Silva-Rocha R.,University of Sao Paulo | De Lorenzo V.,CSIC - National Center for Biotechnology
ACS Synthetic Biology | Year: 2014

Aromatic biodegradation pathways of environmental bacteria are vast sources of matching trios of enzymes, substrates and regulators that can be refactored to run logic operations through cell-to-cell communication. As a proof of concept, the connection between two Pseudomonas putida strains using benzoic acid as the wiring molecule is presented. In this system, a sender strain harboring the TOL pathway for biodegradation of aromatics processed toluene as input and generated benzoate as the output signal. Diffusion of such metabolic intermediate to the medium was then sensed by a second strain (the receiver) that used benzoate as input for a new logic gate producing a visual output (i.e., light emission). The setup was functional irrespective of whether sender and receiver cells were in direct contact or in liquid culture. These results highlight the potential of environmental metabolic pathways as sources of building blocks for the engineering of multicellular logic in prokaryotic systems. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

Piovesan C.,University of Sao Paulo
Oral health & preventive dentistry | Year: 2011

To assess the relationship of child oral health-related quality of life and socioeconomic backgrounds to traumatic dental injuries in schoolchildren. This study followed a cross-sectional design, with a multistage random sample of 792 12-year-old schoolchildren, representative of Santa Maria, a city in southern Brazil. The participants completed the Brazilian version of the Child Perceptions Questionnaire (CPQ11-14), their parents or guardians answered questions on socioeconomic status, and a dental examination provided information on the prevalence of dental trauma. The assessment of association used Poisson regression models. The prevalence of TDI was 9.7%. The maxillary central incisors were the most frequently traumatised, and the most commonly observed traumatic dental injury was enamel fracture. No association was observed among child oral health-related quality of life and socioeconomic factors with traumatic dental injuries after the adjustment. Socioeconomic indicators are not associated with dental trauma in schoolchildren and this oral health condition has no negative impacts on children's quality of life.

Samano M.N.,University of Sao Paulo
Transplantation proceedings | Year: 2012

Lung transplantation has become a standard procedure for some end-stage lung diseases, but primary graft dysfunction (PGD) is an inherent problem that impacts early and late outcomes. The aim of this study was to define the incidence, risk factors, and impact of mechanical ventilation time on mortality rates among a retrospective cohort of lung transplantations performed in a single institution. We performed a retrospective study of 118 lung transplantations performed between January 2003 and July 2010. The most severe form of PGD (grade III) as defined at 48 and 72 hours was examined for risk factors by multivariable logistic regression models using donor, recipient, and transplant variables. The overall incidence of PGD at 48 hours was 19.8%, and 15.4% at 72 hours. According multivariate analysis, risk factors associated with PGD were donor smoking history for 48 hours (adjusted odds ratio [OR], 4.83; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.236-18.896; P = .022) and older donors for 72 hours (adjusted OR, 1.046; 95% CI, 0.997-1.098; P = .022). The operative mortality was 52.9% among patients with PGD versus 20.3% at 48 hours (P = .012). At 72 hours, the mortality rate was 58.3% versus 21.2% (P = .013). The 90-days mortality was also higher among patients with PGD. The mechanical ventilation time was longer in patients with PGD III at 48 hours namely, a mean time of 72 versus 24 hours (P = .001). When PGD was defined at 72 hours, the mean ventilation time was even longer, namely 151 versus 24 hours (P < .001). The mean overall survival for patients who developed PGD at 48 hours was 490.9 versus 1665.5 days for subjects without PGD (P = .001). Considering PGD only at 72 hours, the mean survival was 177.7 days for the PGD group and 1628.9 days for the other patients (P < .001). PGD showed an important impacts on operative and 90-day mortality rates, mechanical ventilation time, and overall survival among lung transplant patients. PGD at 72 hours was a better predictor of lung transplant outcomes than at 48 hours. The use of donors with a smoking history or of advanced age were risk factors for the development of PGD. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Requiao-Moura L.R.,University of Sao Paulo
Transplantation proceedings | Year: 2012

T-lymphocyte depletion is a strategy to reverse the impact of ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) in progression to chronic allograft dysfunction, especially among patients at high risk for delayed graft function (DGF). The present work assessed the effect of thymoglobulin among a population with a high incidence of DGF. We analyzed 209 transplanted patients: 97 in the thymoglobulin and 112 in the control group. The main complication was DGF (59.3%), with a similar incidence in both groups (63.9% vs. 55.3%; P = .36). Acute rejection episodes (ARE) were decreased with thymoglobulin (8.2% vs. 28.5%; P < .001), but cytomegalovirus viremia was 3.4-fold more frequent (58.3% vs. 17.1%; P < .001). One-year graft function was significantly better in the thymoglobulin group (59.2 ± 17.2 vs. 51.8 ± 15.3 mL/min; P = .004), even when censored by ARE (59.7 ± 17.5 vs. 53.3 ± 14.4; P = .023). The same difference was observed at the 2-year follow-up (P = .024), even when censored for ARE (P = .045). A multivariate analysis showed thymoglobulin to be a factor strongly associated with protection of graft function (P = .039). Despite not reducing the incidence of DGF, thymoglobulin induction significantly reduced the incidence of ARE and showed a long-term profile of protection of renal graft function, independent of the reduction in ARE. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Clozapine is considered the gold standard for the treatment of patients with treatment-resistant schizophrenia (TRS); however, randomized controlled trials (RCT) of olanzapine showed efficacy similar to clozapine in patients with TRS. A systematic review was conducted comparing clozapine with olanzapine in patients with TRS. Meta-analyses were performed for single outcome measures. Response to treatment was measured by the percentage of responders, or mean change or endpoint values of psychotic symptoms scales. Effect sizes were shown as relative risks (RR), or standardized mean differences, with 95% confidence intervals. Seven RCT were included, comprising 648 patients. Five meta-analyses were performed. Olanzapine and clozapine had similar effects on dropout rates (RR = 0.93, CI95% = 0.77-1.12), PANSS total endpoints (SMD = 0.21, CI95% = -0.04-0.46), and PANSS total mean changes (SMD = 0.08, CI95% = -0.01-0.027). Clozapine was superior to olanzapine for PANSS positive (SMD = 0.51, CI95% = 0.17-0.86) and negative (SMD = 0.50, CI95% = 0.16-0.85) subscales. There was a trend toward high doses of olanzapine producing higher effect sizes for this drug. The results of this study suggest that clozapine is significantly more efficacious than olanzapine in improving positive and negative symptoms in TRS patients.

Cozman F.G.,University of Sao Paulo
International Journal of Approximate Reasoning | Year: 2013

This paper examines concepts of independence for full conditional probabilities; that is, for set-functions that encode conditional probabilities as primary objects, and that allow conditioning on events of probability zero. Full conditional probabilities have been used in economics, in philosophy, in statistics, in artificial intelligence. This paper characterizes the structure of full conditional probabilities under various concepts of independence; limitations of existing concepts are examined with respect to the theory of Bayesian networks. The concept of layer independence (factorization across layers) is introduced; this seems to be the first concept of independence for full conditional probabilities that satisfies the graphoid properties of Symmetry, Redundancy, Decomposition, Weak Union, and Contraction. A theory of Bayesian networks is proposed where full conditional probabilities are encoded using infinitesimals, with a brief discussion of hyperreal full conditional probabilities. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Ferreira L.A.,University of Sao Paulo | Zakrzewski W.J.,Durham University
Journal of High Energy Physics | Year: 2014

Following our attempts to define quasi-integrability in which we related this concept to a particular symmetry of the two-soliton function we check this condition in three classes of modified sine-Gordon models in (1 + 1) dimensions. We find that the numerical results seen in various scatterings of two solitons and in the time evolution of breather-like structures support our ideas about the symmetry of the field configurations and its effects on the anomalies of the conservation laws of the charges. © 2014 Author(s).

Paula G.A.,University of Sao Paulo
Computational Statistics and Data Analysis | Year: 2013

The aim of this paper is to propose some diagnostic methods in double generalized linear models (DGLMs) for large samples. A review of DGLMs is given, including the iterative process for the estimation of the mean and precision coefficients as well as some asymptotic results. Then, a variety of diagnostic tools, such as leverage measures and curvatures of local influence under some usual perturbation schemes, the standardized deviance component, and Pearson residuals, are proposed. The diagnostic plots are constructed for the mean and precision models, and an illustrative example, in which the texture of four different forms of light snacks is compared across time with the texture of a traditional one, is analyzed under appropriate double gamma models. Some of the diagnostic procedures proposed in the paper are applied to analyze the fitted selected model. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Ferner K.,Humboldt University of Berlin | Mess A.,University of Sao Paulo
Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology | Year: 2011

We review aspects of fetal membrane evolution and patterns of placentation within amniotes, the most successful land vertebrates. Special reference is given to embryonic gas supply. The evolution of fetal membranes is a prerequisite for reproduction independent from aquatic environments. Starting from a basically similar repertoire of fetal membranes - the amnion, chorion, allantois and yolk sac, which form the cleidoic egg - different structural solutions for embryonic development have evolved. In oviparous amniotes the chorioallantoic membrane is the major site for the exchange of respiratory gases between fetus and outer environment. The richly vascularised yolk sac and allantois in concert with the chorion play an important role in the evolution of placentation in various viviparous amniotes. Highly complex placentas have evolved independently among squamate sauropsids and in marsupial and placental mammals. In conclusion, there seems to be a natural force to improve gas exchange processes in intrauterine environments by reducing the barrier between the blood systems and optimising the exchange areas. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

Birgin E.G.,University of Sao Paulo | Martinez J.M.,University of Campinas | Raydan M.,Simon Bolivar University of Venezuela
Journal of Statistical Software | Year: 2014

Over the last two decades, it has been observed that using the gradient vector as a search direction in large-scale optimization may lead to efficient algorithms. The effectiveness relies on choosing the step lengths according to novel ideas that are related to the spectrum of the underlying local Hessian rather than related to the standard decrease in the objective function. A review of these so-called spectral projected gradient methods for convex constrained optimization is presented. To illustrate the performance of these low-cost schemes, an optimization problem on the set of positive definite matrices is described. © 2014, American Statistical Association. All rights reserved.

Purpose Legg-Calvé-Perthes (LCP) disease is currently managed by mechanical containment of the femoral head in the hip socket. As evidence suggests that hip distraction may offer a new treatment strategy, we used arthrodistraction as a primary treatment for active forms of LCP disease and prospectively compared the results with the Salter innominate osteotomy. Methods A total of 54 children, six years or older of both genders with severe forms of LCP disease in the stages of necrosis or revascularisation, were enrolled. Patients were submitted to either Salter innominate osteotomy (n028) or hip arthrodistraction (n026). Final radiographs were used to evaluate the Mose index, Wiberg angle, extrusion index and the Stulberg et al. classification. Results There were no significant differences in gender, age, lateral pillar classification and average follow-up time between the two groups. The osteotomy group progressed without major complications, but children in the joint distraction group experienced episodes of pin tract pain and infection, leading to the early removal of the external device in one case. Two patients developed joint stiffness, treated by physiotherapy or manipulation, and one child developed subluxation of the femoral head. The average time in distraction was 4.44 months (2.53-7.23 months). In the final evaluation the osteotomy group showed better containment of the femoral head. The Mose index and the Stulberg et al. classification were statistically similar between the two groups. Conclusions Despite similar final radiological results, arthrodistraction was associated with a higher morbidity. Consequently, we do not recommend hip distraction as a primary treatment for the early stages of LCP disease. © Springer-Verlag 2012.

Pittella J.E.H.,University of Sao Paulo
Handbook of Clinical Neurology | Year: 2013

Parasitic infections of the central nervous system (CNS) include two broad categories of infectious organisms: single-celled protozoa and multicellular metazoa. The protozoal infections include malaria, American trypanosomiasis, human African trypanosomiasis, toxoplasmosis, amebiasis, microsporidiasis, and leishmaniasis. The metazoal infections are grouped into flatworms, which include trematoda and cestoda, and roundworms or nematoda. Trematoda infections include schistosomiasis and paragonimiasis. Cestoda infections include cysticercosis, coenurosis, hydatidosis, and sparganosis. Nematoda infections include gnathostomiasis, angiostrongyliasis, toxocariasis, strongyloidiasis, filariasis, baylisascariasis, dracunculiasis, micronemiasis, and lagochilascariasis. The most common route of CNS invasion is through the blood. In some cases, the parasite invades the olfactory neuroepithelium in the nasal mucosa and penetrates the brain via the subarachnoid space or reaches the CNS through neural foramina of the skull base around the cranial nerves or vessels. The neuropathological changes vary greatly, depending on the type and size of the parasite, geographical strain variations in parasitic virulence, immune evasion by the parasite, and differences in host immune response. Congestion of the leptomeninges, cerebral edema, hemorrhage, thrombosis, vasculitis, necrosis, calcification, abscesses, meningeal and perivascular polymorphonuclear and mononuclear inflammatory infiltrate, microglial nodules, gliosis, granulomas, and fibrosis can be found affecting isolated or multiple regions of the CNS, or even diffusely spread. Some infections may be present as an expanding mass lesion. The parasites can be identified by conventional histology, immunohistochemistry, in situ hybridization, and PCR. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

McLaughlin V.V.,University of Michigan | Shah S.J.,Northwestern University | Souza R.,University of Sao Paulo | Humbert M.,University Paris - Sud | Humbert M.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research
Journal of the American College of Cardiology | Year: 2015

Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is common and may result from a number of disorders, including left heart disease, lung disease, and chronic thromboembolic disease. Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is an uncommon disease characterized by progressive remodeling of the distal pulmonary arteries, resulting in elevated pulmonary vascular resistance and, eventually, in right ventricular failure. Over the past decades, knowledge of the basic pathobiology of PAH and its natural history, prognostic indicators, and therapeutic options has exploded. A thorough evaluation of a patient is critical to correctly characterize the PH. Cardiac studies, including echocardiography and right heart catheterization, are key elements in the assessment. Given the multitude of treatment options currently available for PAH, assessment of risk and response to therapy is critical in long-term management. This review also underscores unique situations, including perioperative management, intensive care unit management, and pregnancy, and highlights the importance of collaborative care of the PAH patient through a multidisciplinary approach. © 2015 American College of Cardiology Foundation.

Kawano A.,University of Sao Paulo
Inverse Problems | Year: 2014

In this paper we analyze the problem of identification of the distribution of asynchronous vibration sources and rigidity perturbations in Euler-Bernoulli beams. Here it is proved that the displacement of a beam, even in an engineered continuous beam resting upon several supports, measured for an arbitrary small interval of time over an arbitrary small open set is enough for the unique determination of vibration sources. Using this result, we prove that perturbations in rigidity can be uniquely determined in a linearized problem. © 2014 IOP Publishing Ltd.

This quasi-experimental study aimed to evaluate the health-related quality of life in individuals with diabetes mellitus before and after their participation in a five-month educational program in a primary care service in Brazil in 2008. The sample consisted of 51 individuals, 56.9% female and 43.1% male, who had a mean age of 57.65 ± 11.44 years. Data were collected using the Portuguese version of the SF-36 questionnaire. The instrument had adequate reliability estimates for the study sample. Cronbach's alpha for the two components of the instrument, physical and mental, were 0.83 and 0.89, respectively. The findings suggested improvements in all the domain components; however, only the general health domain, before (63.96 ± 19.03) and after (70.59 ± 17.82) the educational program, presented statistically significant mean differences, t(50) = 2.16, p<0.05. Participation in the educational program also contributed to improvements in the perceptions of the individuals regarding their general health status.

Assis L.C.,University of Sao Paulo | Rieppel O.,The Field Museum
Cladistics | Year: 2011

Species are groups of organisms, marked out by reproductive (replicative) properties. Monophyletic taxa are groups of species, marked out by synapomorphies. In Nelson's analysis, monophyly and synapomorphy are identical relations. Monophyly and synapomorphy, however, are not equivalent relations. Monophyly is epistemically not accessible, whereas synapomorphy is epistemically accessible through character analysis. Monophyly originates with speciation, the two sister-species that come into being through the splitting of the ancestral species lineage forming a monophyletic taxon at the lowest level of inclusiveness. Synapomorphy provides the empirical evidence for monophyly, inferred from character analysis in the context of a three-taxon statement. If synapomorphy and monophyly were equivalent, phylogenetic systematists should find a single tree, instead of multiple equally parsimonious trees. Understanding synapomorphy as the relevant evidence for phylogenetic inference reveals a category mistake in contemporary phylogenetics: the treatment of morphological characters mapped onto molecular trees as synapomorphies and homoplasies. The mapping of morphological characters onto nodes of a molecular tree results in an empirically empty procedure for synapomorphy discovery. Morphological synapomorphies and homoplasies can only be discovered by morphological and combined analyses. The use of morphology in phylogenetic inference in general is defended by examples from Laurales and Squamata in particular. To make empirical evidence scientifically relevant in order to search for concordance, or dis-concordance, of phylogenetic signal, is certainly more fruitful for phylogenetics than the uncritical mapping of morphological traits on a molecular scaffold. © The Willi Hennig Society 2010.

Guimaraes P.R.,University of California at Santa Cruz | Guimaraes P.R.,University of Sao Paulo | Jordano P.,Integrative Ecology Group | Thompson J.N.,University of California at Santa Cruz
Ecology Letters | Year: 2011

A major current challenge in evolutionary biology is to understand how networks of interacting species shape the coevolutionary process. We combined a model for trait evolution with data for twenty plant-animal assemblages to explore coevolution in mutualistic networks. The results revealed three fundamental aspects of coevolution in species-rich mutualisms. First, coevolution shapes species traits throughout mutualistic networks by speeding up the overall rate of evolution. Second, coevolution results in higher trait complementarity in interacting partners and trait convergence in species in the same trophic level. Third, convergence is higher in the presence of super-generalists, which are species that interact with multiple groups of species. We predict that worldwide shifts in the occurrence of super-generalists will alter how coevolution shapes webs of interacting species. Introduced species such as honeybees will favour trait convergence in invaded communities, whereas the loss of large frugivores will lead to increased trait dissimilarity in tropical ecosystems. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd/CNRS.

This retrospective study seeks to check the prevalence of falls in older people from a long-term care institution for elderly people, in São Paulo, to describe the fallers and the events. We analyzed 121 medical records and 87 fall reports, between August 2006 and August 2007. There were 114 falls suffered by 45 ancians, a prevalence of 37,2%. The majority of fallers are women, average age 83,75 years. We found recurrent falls, various diagnoses and polipharmacy. The majority occurred in own height, in their bedroom, producing mainly hematomas. There is a need of implementation of fall preventive guidelines, due to the importance of this issue and its repercussions to the functional status of the institutionalized elderly.

De Sa D.C.,University of Sao Paulo | Tosti A.,University of Miami
American Journal of Clinical Dermatology | Year: 2014

Introduction: Onychomycosis is a very common fungal infection of the nail apparatus; however, it is very hard to treat, even when the causative agent is identified, and usually requires prolonged systemic antifungal therapy. Until the 1990s, oral treatment options included only griseofulvin and ketoconazole, and the cure rate was very low. New generations of antimycotics, such as fluconazole, itraconazole and terbinafine have improved treatment success. Methods: Literature was identified by performing a PubMed Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid EMBASE, EBSCO CINAHL, and Literatura Latino-Americana e do Caribe em Ciências da Saúde (LILACS) search. Prospective and randomized clinical trials were chosen to be included in this review. Forty-six trials were included. Results: Fluconazole, itraconazole and terbinafine are effective in the treatment of onychomycosis and have a good safety profile. When a dermatophyte is the pathogen, terbinafine produces the best results. For Candida and nondermatophyte infections, the azoles, mainly itraconazole, are the recommended therapy. Conclusion: In the majority of the studies, terbinafine treatment showed a higher cure ratio than the other drugs for dermatophyte onychomycosis. © 2013 Springer International Publishing Switzerland.

Martins-de-Souza D.,University of Campinas | Martins-de-Souza D.,Ludwig Maximilians University of Munich | Martins-de-Souza D.,University of Sao Paulo
Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience | Year: 2014

Omics technologies emerged as complementary strategies to genomics in the attempt to understand human illnesses. In general, proteomics technologies emerged earlier than those of metabolomics for major depressive disorder (MDD) research, but both are driven by the identification of proteins and/or metabolites that can delineate a comprehensive characterization of MDD's molecular mechanisms, as well as lead to the identification of biomarker candidates of all types-prognosis, diagnosis, treatment, and patient stratification. Also, one can explore protein and metabolite interactomes in order to pinpoint additional molecules associated with the disease that had not been picked up initially. Here, results and methodological aspects of MDD research using proteomics, metabolomics, and protein interactomics are reviewed, focusing on human samples. © 2014, AICH-Servier Research Group.

Peres J.F.P.,University of Sao Paulo
Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease | Year: 2012

There is increasing recognition of the need to take into account the cultural environment and belief systems of psychotherapy patients because these values reflect basic assumptions about man's nature and the cognitive references used to cope with psychological difficulties. Currently accepted psychotherapeutic approaches take no account of the belief in life after death held by most of the world's population. The World Values Survey (http://www.worldvaluessurvey.org) showed that there are large numbers of reincarnationists around the world, and whatever the reasons for believing in reincarnation, psychotherapeutic approaches should not ignore this significant group of people. Respect for patient opinions and subjective realities is a therapeutic need and an ethical duty, even though therapists may not share the same beliefs. Guidelines are suggested for professionals to develop collaborative models that help patients mobilize their intrinsic intelligence to find solutions to their complaints. Copyright © 2012 by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

Assi G.R.S.,University of Sao Paulo
Journal of Fluids and Structures | Year: 2014

The wake-induced vibration (WIV) of two staggered cylinder with two degrees of freedom (2-dof) has been investigated by experiments in a water channel for Reynolds number between 2000 and 25 000. The streamwise separation was fixed to 4 diameters and the lateral separation varied between 0 and 3 diameters for tandem and staggered configurations. Results are presented in the form of trajectories of motion and dynamic response curves of displacements, frequencies and force coefficients. Excitation caused by the WIV mechanism is found to get weaker as the initial position of the downstream cylinder is increased from the centreline of the wake (tandem arrangement) towards the sides. For a lateral separation of 3 diameters wake interference was already found to be negligible. Evidence of a type of wake-stiffness concept is also observed to occur for 2-dof WIV in tandem arrangement, especially for higher reduced velocities. A similar mechanism may also be occurring for staggered arrangements around the centreline. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Pivello V.R.,University of Sao Paulo
Fire Ecology | Year: 2011

Humans have been changing the natural fire regimes in most Brazilian vegetation types for over 4000 years. Natural lightning fires can easily happen in savannas and grasslands, but they are rare in the moist rainforests. Today, anthropogenic fires are frequent in both the fire-adapted cerrado (Brazilian savanna) and the fire-sensitive rainforest. In this paper, I compare two very different biomes concerning their susceptibilities and responses to fire: the Amazon rainforest and the cerrado. I present an overview of their fire history, especially regarding human-made fires for land management, and pull together information about the use of fire by indigenous peoples in the cerrado and the Amazon, as this information is very fragmented. Accordingly, I describe how fire regimes have changed in these biomes over time due to agricultural practices and the consequences of the current altered fire regimes. After European settlement, fire frequency greatly increased in the cerrado, especially related to cattle ranching, and more recently in the more seasonal landscapes in the Amazon. In cerrado natural preserves, however, managers try to keep fire away, but wildfires eventually come and develop into destructive events. Actions to reduce biodiversity loss and environmental deterioration due to inappropriate fire management are necessary and should be very distinct in both areas: in the Amazon they would include the development of policies to stimulate fire-free, small-scale agricultural projects, and in the cerrado, sustainable use of fire for cattle ranching is possible but the regimes must be fitted to local specific features in order to avoid land degradation. In cerrado conservation areas, proper fire management programs based on scientific knowledge and the incorporation of the traditional expertise of indigenous peoples are needed to maintain the biological diversity, to maintain the ecological processes, and to reduce wildfires.

Kemp A.H.,University of Sydney | Kemp A.H.,University of Sao Paulo | Quintana D.S.,University of Sydney
International Journal of Psychophysiology | Year: 2013

Here we review our recent body of work on the impact of mood and comorbid anxiety disorders, alcohol dependence, and their treatments on heart rate variability (HRV), a psychophysiological marker of mental and physical wellbeing. We have shown that otherwise healthy, unmedicated patients with these disorders display reduced resting-state HRV, and that pharmacological treatments do not ameliorate these reductions. Other studies highlight that tricyclic medications and the serotonin and noradrenaline reuptake inhibitors in particular may have adverse cardiovascular consequences. Reduced HRV has important functional significance for motivation to engage social situations, social approach behaviours, self-regulation and psychological flexibility in the face of stressors. Over the longer-term, reduced HRV leads to immune dysfunction and inflammation, cardiovascular disease and mortality, attributable to the downstream effects of a poorly functioning cholinergic anti-inflammatory reflex. We place our research in the context of the broader literature base and propose a working model for the effects of mood disorders, comorbid conditions, and their treatments to help guide future research activities. Further research is urgently needed on the long-term effects of autonomic dysregulation in otherwise healthy psychiatric patients, and appropriate interventions to halt the progression of a host of conditions associated with morbidity and mortality. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

Andrade E.L.,Federal University of Santa Catarina | Meotti F.C.,University of Sao Paulo | Calixto J.B.,Federal University of Santa Catarina
Pharmacology and Therapeutics | Year: 2012

The necessity of safe and effective treatments for chronic pain has intensified the search for new analgesic drugs. In the last few years, members of a closely-related family of ion channels, called transient receptor potential (TRP) have been identified in different cell types and their functions in physiological and pathological conditions have been characterized. The transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1), originally called ANKTM1 (ankyrin-like with transmembrane domains protein 1), is a molecule that has been conserved in different species during evolution; TRPA1 is a cation channel that functions as a cellular sensor, detecting mechanical, chemical and thermal stimuli, being a component of neuronal, epithelial, blood and smooth muscle tissues. In mammals, TRPA1 is largely expressed in primary sensory neurons that mediate somatosensory processes and nociceptive transmission. Recent studies have described the role of TRPA1 in inflammatory and neuropathic pain. However, its participation in cold sensation has not been agreed in different studies. In this review, we focus on data that support the relevance of the activation and blockade of TRPA1 in pain transmission, as well as the mechanisms underlying its activation and modulation by exogenous and endogenous stimuli. We also discuss recent advances in the search for new analgesic medicines targeting the TRPA1 channel. © 2011 Elsevier Inc. © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Deppman A.,University of Sao Paulo
Physical Review D - Particles, Fields, Gravitation and Cosmology | Year: 2016

A system presenting fractal structure in its thermodynamical functions is introduced, and it is shown that Tsallis statistics is the correct framework for describing the thermodynamical aspects of such a fractal. Its Haussdorf dimension and its Lipshitz-Hölder exponent are determined in terms of the entropic index q. The connections with the intermittency in experimental data are discussed. The thermodynamical aspects of the thermofractal is related to the microscopic interaction of its components through the S-matrix. © 2016 American Physical Society.

Rezende V.B.,University of Sao Paulo
Molecular biology reports | Year: 2012

Hypertension is the most common medical disorder in pregnancy, and a leading cause of maternal and neonatal morbidity and mortality. Vitamin D endocrine system has important influence on immune modulation and endothelial function, which play a role in preeclampsia (PE) and gestational hypertension (GH). Vitamin D receptor (VDR) is present in a large variety of cell types, including placental cells. We examined whether there is an association between VDR polymorphisms (FokI, ApaI and BsmI) with PE or with GH. Restriction fragment length polymorphism techniques were used to genotype 529 pregnant (154 with GH, 162 with PE, and 213 healthy pregnant-HP). VDR haplotype frequencies were inferred using the PHASE 2.1 program. We found similar genotype distributions for the three VDR polymorphisms in both PE and GH groups compared with the HP group (all P > 0.05). In parallel with these findings, the VDR haplotype frequency distribution was similar in both PE and GH groups compared with the HP group (all P > 0.05). Our results showing no significant association between VDR polymorphisms or haplotypes with PE or GH suggest that genetic variations in VDR do not predispose to hypertensive disorders of pregnancy.

Schilke A.,University of Tubingen | Zimmermann C.,University of Tubingen | Courteille P.W.,University of Sao Paulo | Guerin W.,University of Tubingen
Physical Review Letters | Year: 2011

We experimentally investigate the Bragg reflection of light at one-dimensionally ordered atomic structures by using cold atoms trapped in a laser standing wave. By a fine-tuning of the periodicity, we reach the regime of multiple reflection due to the refractive index contrast between layers, yielding an unprecedented high reflectance efficiency of 80%. This result is explained by the occurrence of a photonic band gap in such systems, in accordance with previous predictions. © 2011 American Physical Society.

Paula F.M.,University of Sao Paulo | Costa-Cruz J.M.,Federal University of Uberlandia
Parasitology | Year: 2011

The objective of this review was to outline an epidemiological profile of Strongyloides stercoralis by parasitological and serological diagnosis in inhabitants, and to associate this profile with different immunosupression situations, in Brazil, over 20 years (1990-2009). The occurrence of S. stercoralis using parasitological methods was 5A.5%, being 4A.8% in rural and 5A.0% in urban areas, characterizing the country as hyperendemic. There was a diversity of techniques used as a diagnostic tool and only 39A.1% of the studies presented results based on at least 1 specific method. The occurrence increased with age, being 12A.1%, for those over 60 that suggests an epidemiological condition of concern for the elderly population. Of the seroepidemiological studies in the general population the mean positivity in serum samples was 21A.7% and 29A.2%, using an immunofluorescence antibody test and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), respectively. The occurrence of strongyloidiasis in immunosuppressed individuals was 11A.8% by parasitological methods and 19A.5% using immunological methods. Considering that Brazil is a tropical country and that the character of chronicity and autoinfection of the parasite that can result in severe forms of hyperinfection or dissemination makes strongyloidiasis an important medically and socially neglected problem. © Copyright Cambridge University Press 2011.

Custodio A.C.,University of Sao Paulo
Genetics and molecular research : GMR | Year: 2012

The gene XRCC3 (X-ray cross complementing group 3) has the task of repairing damage that occurs when there is recombination between homologous chromosomes. Repair of recombination between homologous chromosomes plays an important role in maintaining genome integrity, although it is known that double-strand breaks are the main inducers of chromosomal aberrations. Changes in the XRCC3 protein lead to an increase in errors in chromosome segregation due to defects in centrosomes, resulting in aneuploidy and other chromosomal aberrations, such as small increases in telomeres. We examined XRCC3 Thr241Met polymorphism using PCR-RFLP in 80 astrocytoma and glioblastoma samples. The individuals of the control group (N = 100) were selected from the general population of the São Paulo State. Odds ratio and 95%CI were calculated using a logistic regression model. Patients who had the allele Met of the XRCC3 Thr241Met polymorphism had a significantly increased risk of tumor development (odds ratio = 3.13; 95% confidence interval = 1.50-6.50). There were no significant differences in overall survival of patients. We suggest that XRCC3 Thr241Met polymorphism is involved in susceptibility for developing astrocytomas and glioblastomas.

The Brazilian population is considered to be highly admixed. The main contributing ancestral populations were European and African, with Amerindians contributing to a lesser extent. The aims of this study were to provide a resource for determining and quantifying individual continental ancestry using the smallest number of SNPs possible, thus allowing for a cost- and time-efficient strategy for genomic ancestry determination. We identified and validated a minimum set of 192 ancestry informative markers (AIMs) for the genetic ancestry determination of Brazilian populations. These markers were selected on the basis of their distribution throughout the human genome, and their capacity of being genotyped on widely available commercial platforms. We analyzed genotyping data from 6487 individuals belonging to three Brazilian cohorts. Estimates of individual admixture using this 192 AIM panels were highly correlated with estimates using ~370 000 genome-wide SNPs: 91%, 92%, and 74% of, respectively, African, European, and Native American ancestry components. Besides that, 192 AIMs are well distributed among populations from these ancestral continents, allowing greater freedom in future studies with this panel regarding the choice of reference populations. We also observed that genetic ancestry inferred by AIMs provides similar association results to the one obtained using ancestry inferred by genomic data (370 K SNPs) in a simple regression model with rs1426654, related to skin pigmentation, genotypes as dependent variable. In conclusion, these markers can be used to identify and accurately quantify ancestry of Latin Americans or US Hispanics/Latino individuals, in particular in the context of fine-mapping strategies that require the quantification of continental ancestry in thousands of individuals.European Journal of Human Genetics advance online publication, 23 September 2015; doi:10.1038/ejhg.2015.187. © 2015 Macmillan Publishers Limited

Mummery C.L.,Leiden University | Davis R.P.,Leiden University | Krieger J.E.,University of Sao Paulo
Science Translational Medicine | Year: 2010

Of the many diseases discussed in the context of stem cell therapy, those concerning the heart account for almost one-third of the publications in the field. However, the long-term clinical outcomes have been disappointing, in part because of preclinical studies failing to optimize the timing, number, type, and method of cell delivery and to account for shape changes that the heart undergoes during failure. In situations in which cardiomyocytes have been used in cell therapy, their alignment and integration with host tissue have not been realized. Here we review the present status of direct delivery of stem cells or their derivative cardiomyocytes to the heart and the particular challenges each cell type brings, and consider where we should go from here.