The Pontifical and Royal University of Santo Tomas, The Catholic University of the Philippines is a private, Roman Catholic, teaching and research university run by the Order of Preachers in Manila. Founded on April 28, 1611 by Miguel de Benavides, Archbishop of Manila, it has the oldest extant university charter in the Philippines and in Asia and is one of the world's largest Catholic universities in terms of enrollment found on one campus. UST is also the largest university in the city of Manila. UST is the only university to have been visited by three popes four times: once by Pope Paul VI on Nov. 28, 1970, twice by Pope John Paul II on Feb. 18, 1981 and Jan. 13, 1995, and once by Pope Francis on Jan. 18, 2015.The University is composed of several autonomous faculties, colleges, schools and institutes, each conferring undergraduate, graduate and postgraduate degrees, and the basic education units. Several degrees have been accredited by the Commission on Higher Education as Centers of Excellence and Centers of Development. In August 2012, it was awarded Institutional Accreditation by the Federation of Accrediting Agencies of the Philippines.The Patron of the University is St. Thomas Aquinas, while St. Catherine of Alexandria is the Patroness.Prominent Thomasians include saints, Philippine presidents, heroes, artists, scientists, professionals and religious figures, who have figured prominently in the history of the Philippines. The athletic teams are the Growling Tigers, members of the University Athletic Association of the Philippines and are consistent winners of the Overall Championship. Wikipedia.
Dungca N.T.P.,University of Santo Tomas of Philippines |
Dungca N.T.P.,University of the Philippines at Manila
Journal of Ethnopharmacology | Year: 2016
Ethnopharmacological relevance Eclipta alba, also known as Eclipta prostrata, is a weed of the family Asteraceae found in tropical and subtropical regions widely used in herbal medicine, including treatment of renal diseases. Aim of the study This study aims to evaluate the protective effect of the methanolic leaf extract of Eclipta alba on gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity in rats. Materials and methods Nephrotoxicity was induced in rats by subcutaneous injection of gentamicin (80 mg/kg/day for seven days). Quercetin was used as a positive control. The nephroprotective activity was evaluated by determining blood urea nitrogen, serum creatinine, urinary microprotein, renal catalase and malondialdehyde levels. Results The extract protected the rat kidneys against gentamicin-induced renal tubular alterations and rises in blood urea nitrogen, serum creatinine, and microprotein levels. Lipid peroxidation and decrement in catalase levels were also ameliorated. Conclusion The study revealed the protective effect of the methanolic leaf extract of E. alba and suggests that the probable mechanism for the nephroprotection by the extract may be due to its good radical scavenging activity and Fe3+ ion-reducing ability. © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.
Dujua A.C.C.,University of Santo Tomas of Philippines
Journal of Pediatric Hematology/Oncology | Year: 2017
This retrospective cohort study is primarily aimed to evaluate the outcome of children ages 0 to 18 years old, with acute lymphoblastic leukemia and treated with a modified Berlin-Frankfurt-Muenster/Hong Kong Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (BFM95-HKALL97) protocol at University of Santo Tomas Hospital from January 2005 to December 2009. Seventy-eight patients were included. Majority were between 1 and 10 years old (87.2%), male (61.5%), with normal nutritional status, and classified as upper socioeconomic class (65.3%), mainly from National Capital Region (24.3%). Eighty percent had mild anemia and a white cell count <50,000/mm. No patient had an initial platelet count <20,000/mm. More than 90% were standard risk, with FAB L1 morphology and pre-B immunophenotype. Five-year overall survival (OS) and event-free survival (EFS) rates were 86.94% and 86.2%, respectively. Among the 69 patients in the efficacy subset analysis, the 5-year OS and EFS rates were 98.36% and 86.80%, respectively. Relapse rate was 14.5%. Only FAB morphology and risk classification were correlated with relapse. Most common complications were febrile neutropenia, sepsis, and oral mucositis during induction phase. No deaths occurred due to treatment complications. In conclusion, using higher doses of methotrexate during consolidation phase improved the 5-year OS and EFS rates of our patients, without an increase in complications or deaths. Other contributing factors include improved adherence to treatment and risk-based treatment classification. Copyright © 2017 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.
Kanovsky P.,Palacky University |
Rosales R.L.,University of Santo Tomas of Philippines
Parkinsonism and Related Disorders | Year: 2011
New neurophysiological insights into the natural behaviour of dystonia, obtained during the successful botulinum toxin A (BoNT) treatment of the disorder, have urged the inclusion of sensory (and particularly somatosensory) mechanisms into the pathophysiological background of dystonia. Muscle spindles play a pivotal role in the generation of dystonic movements. Abnormal behaviour in the muscle spindles that generates an irregular proprioceptive input via the group-IA afferents may result in abnormal cortical excitability and intracortical inhibition in dystonia. The aim of this article is to support our hypothesis that dystonic movement is at the end of an impaired function of somatosensory pathways and analysers, which, in turn, may be hinged on the abnormality of sensorimotor integration, that is, brain plasticity. BoNT treatment can potentially modulate this plasticity mechanism and is probably the seminal cause of the sustained effect of the subsequent BoNT-treatment sessions and the long-term alleviation of symptoms of dystonia. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.
Navarra S.V.,University of Santo Tomas of Philippines |
Leynes M.,University of Santo Tomas of Philippines
Lupus | Year: 2010
Infections are an important cause of morbidity and mortality in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Survival rates for SLE patients in developing countries are comparatively lower than those reported in industrialized countries, with early death from infection and active disease. In addition to the role of immunosuppressive agents in enhancing susceptibility to infection, infectious agents are also known to trigger lupus disease expression and activity. The endemicity of certain infections like tuberculosis further poses a special health issue in developing countries. © 2010 The Author(s).
Rosa Mendoza E.S.,University of Santo Tomas of Philippines |
Moreno E.,University of Santo Tomas of Philippines |
Caguioa P.B.,University of Santo Tomas of Philippines
Journal of Cancer Research and Clinical Oncology | Year: 2013
Background: Breast cancer is a clinically heterogeneous disease. Approximately 10-15 % of breast cancer patients develop distant metastases within 2 years of diagnosis with a poor 5-year survival rate of 21 %. Little data have been gathered about how some breast cancer metastasizes earlier than expected. The study aimed to identify predictors of distant metastases among breast cancer patients in relation to their clinical and tumour characteristics. The results of the study may have important implications in our understanding of the disease process allowing more aggressive treatment and monitoring of certain subgroups of patients. Methodology: Retrospective review of 215 patients (54 % early stage and 46 % locally advanced stage) who fulfilled the specified criteria was performed. Twelve variables were considered. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to identify independent predictors of developing distant metastasis within 24 months after surgery and adjuvant therapy. Results: Of the 215 patients, 27.9 and 17.7 % developed bone and visceral metastasis, respectively. Bone metastasis was significantly dependent on stage, tumour size, lymph node involvement, lymphovascular invasion, estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor and Her/2-neu pattern (p < 0.05). Visceral metastasis was significantly dependent on age, menopausal status, stage, tumour size, lymph node involvement, estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor and Her-2/neu pattern (p < 0.05). Among patients with bone and visceral metastases, 67 and 43 % have triple negative pattern, respectively. Logistic regression provided an accurate model for predicting bone but not visceral metastasis. Conclusion: A significant fraction of breast cancer patients experienced early metastasis. Our data suggest that tumour stage, size and lymph node involvement are major predictors of metastasis. Her-2/neu over-expression alone is not a strong predictor of early metastasis but triple negative breast cancers belong to an aggressive subgroup with early metastatic capacity. Young, premenopausal patients may benefit from aggressive surveillance and treatment since they tend to present with early visceral spread. © 2012 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.
Rosales R.L.,University of Santo Tomas of Philippines |
Dressler D.,Hannover Medical School
European Journal of Neurology | Year: 2010
Dystonia may produce co-contractions and constant strain in numerous muscle fibers, including those of the muscle spindles. As proprioceptors, muscle spindles detect dynamic or static changes in muscle length and their afferent projections to the spinal cord play a central role in control of antagonistic muscles. Their parallel arrangement with extrafusal muscle fibers and association with the earlier recruited oxidative motor units allow them to conveniently sample the activity of all motor units and effectively modulate movement. At the same time, fusimotor muscle spindle innervation contracts the striated polar portions of the intrafusal muscle fibers and prevents their slackening during extrafusal muscle contractions. Botulinum toxin remains the most efficient therapy of dystonia. Its muscular mechanism of action is hinged on cholinergic blockade not only of extrafusal, but also of intrafusal muscle fibers. Besides being a targeted muscular therapy, the alteration of the corresponding sensory input following an effect of botulinum toxin on the intrafusal muscle fibers is pivotal in modulating loss of pre-synaptic inhibition in dystonia, including suppression of the tonic vibration reflex. Whether or not trans-synaptic botulinum toxin migration occurs, a modification of the central motor programming is bound to happen in dystonia, with botulinum toxin acting either as another 'sensory trick' or as a form of 'short-term plasticity'. Knowledge of the muscle spindle anatomy and function is key to unify our understanding of abnormal movements and of effects of botulinum toxin therapy. Thus, in dystonia, overactivity of muscles and increased spindle sensitivity are germane to botulinum toxin targets of action. © 2010 The Author(s).
de Guia R.M.,University of Santo Tomas of Philippines |
Ramos J.D.A.,University of Santo Tomas of Philippines
International Journal of Molecular Epidemiology and Genetics | Year: 2010
Elevated IgE levels in individuals with asthma, allergic rhinitis, and atopic dermatitis represents a situation in that increased IL4 production seems to occur because of the genetic component of the disease. In this study, one-hundred two matched-pairs of allergic and non-allergic individuals were phenotyped for total serum IgE level using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Atopic status was defined by serum IgE concentration ≥100 IU/mL. The -590C/T IL4 (rs2243250) was screened by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragmentlength polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) analysis. An association between the IL4 -590 TT genotype and levels of IgE was confirmed in the study population (ANOVA p=0.017). Furthermore, the IL4 T allele was significantly increased in allergic (0.299) compared with non-allergic subjects (0.172) (OR=2.060, 95% CI=1.285-3.301, χ2 uncorrected p=0.002) at total serum IgE cut-off of 100 IU/mL. A significant relationship between IL4 -590 TT genotype and very high IgE levels (>1000 IU/mL) (OR=3.968, 95% CI=1.499-10.5, χ2 uncorrected p=0.01624) was also established. The -590C/T IL4 polymorphism is a potential risk factor to and correlates with atopic allergy.
Soldevilla H.F.,University of Santo Tomas of Philippines |
Briones S.,University of Santo Tomas of Philippines |
Navarra S.V.,University of Santo Tomas of Philippines
Lupus | Year: 2012
Background and purpose: The link between autoimmunity and infectious agents has been strongly suggested by reports of lupus or lupus-like syndromes following immunization. This report describes three patients with either newly diagnosed systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) or SLE flare, following vaccination for human papilloma virus (HPV). Case 1: A 17-year-old female completed two doses of HPV vaccine uneventfully. Two months later, she developed arthralgias with pruritic rashes on both lower extremities, later accompanied by livedo reticularis, bipedal edema with proteinuria, anemia, leucopenia, hypocomplementemia and high titers of anti-nuclear antibody (ANA) and anti-double-stranded DNA (anti-dsDNA). Kidney biopsy showed International Society of Nephrology/Renal Pathology Society Class III lupus nephritis. She was started on high dose steroids followed by pulse cyclophosphamide therapy protocol for lupus nephritis, and subsequently went into remission. Case 2: A 45-year-old housewife, previously managed for 11 years as having rheumatoid arthritis, had been in clinical remission for a year when she received two doses of HPV immunization. Four months later, she developed fever accompanied by arthritis, malar rash, oral ulcers, recurrent ascites with intestinal pseudo-obstruction, and behavioral changes. Cranial MRI showed vasculitic lesions on the frontal and parietal lobes. Laboratory tests showed anemia with leucopenia, hypocomplementemia, proteinuria, ANA positive at 1:320, and antibodies against dsDNA, Ro/SSA, La/SSB and histone. She improved following pulse methylprednisolone with subsequent oral prednisone combined with hydroxychloroquine. Case 3: A 58-year-old housewife diagnosed with SLE had been in clinical remission for 8 years when she received two doses of HPV immunization. Three months later, she was admitted to emergency because of a 1-week history of fever, malar rash, easy fatigability, cervical lymph nodes, gross hematuria and pallor. Laboratory exams showed severe anemia, thrombocytopenia, active urine sediments, and hypocomplementemia. Despite pulse steroid therapy, blood transfusions, intravenous immunoglobulin and aggressive resuscitative measures, she expired a day after hospital admission. Summary: These cases narrate instances of the onset or exacerbation of lupus following HPV immunization suggesting adjuvant-induced autoimmunity. On the other hand, there are reports of higher incidence of HPV infection in SLE, with the infection per se possibly contributing to disease activity. Thus, the benefit of HPV immunization may still outweigh the risk among these individuals. © The Author(s), 2012.
Papa R.D.S.,University of Santo Tomas of Philippines |
Holynska M.K.,Polish Academy of Sciences
Journal of Limnology | Year: 2013
Approximately 120 (sub)species of Cyclopidae have been reported from South and Southeast (SE) Asia, where the Philippine archipelago - with 16 (including two endemic) taxa - is one of the least explored parts of the region. Our study, part of current efforts to assess freshwater biodiversity, was undertaken to update the diversity and geographic distribution of the cyclopid copepods living in the limnetic zone of the freshwater lakes in the Philippines. Examination of the samples from 22 lakes in five islands (Luzon, Mindoro, Cebu, Leyte and Mindanao) revealed a novel species from lake Siloton (Mindanao), Mesocyclops augusti n. sp. The new species can be distinguished from the congeners by the surface ornamentation of the hindgut, among others. The same character state was found in a Mesocyclops from North Vietnam, which is provisionally identified as M. augusti n. sp., though the Vietnam and Mindanao specimens differ in a few (yet polymorphic in the close relatives) characters. Mesocyclops microlasius Kiefer, 1981 endemic to the Philippines is redescribed, based on females and males from lake Paoay (North Luzon). Sister relationships of M. augusti n. sp. and M. microlasius were tested in a phylogenetic analysis that included the closely related Old World representatives of the genus. The max. parsimony trees show M. dissimilis Defaye et Kawabata, 1993 (East Asia) as the closest relative of M. augusti n. sp. (Mindanao, Vietnam), and support sister relationship between M. geminus Holynska, 2000 (East Borneo) and M. microlasius (Luzon, Mindanao). A mainland clade (M. francisci, M. parentium, M. woutersi, M. dissimilis, M. augusti) appears in most reconstructions; all members of the clade occur in continental Asia though some species also live in islands that have never been connected to the SE Asian shelf. In most trees with the mainland clade the insular taxa (M. microlasius, M. geminus, M. friendorum) form either a paraphyletic (basal to mainland) or monophyletic sister group of the mainland clade. We also established the first records of Thermocyclops taihokuensis (Harada, 1931) in the Philippines (Luzon), so far known from East and Central Asia. In all, 11 taxa [Mesocyclops (4), Thermocyclops (4), Microcyclops (1), Tropocyclops (1) and Paracyclops (1)] including only one endemic species (M. microlasius) have so far been found in the limnetic waters. We expect significantly higher diversity and higher rate of endemism of the freshwater cyclopids in the littoral (paludal) and subterranean habitats in the Philippines.
Santiago L.A.,University of Santo Tomas of Philippines |
Mayor A.B.R.,University of Santo Tomas of Philippines
Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine | Year: 2014
Objective: To assess the antioxidant activity of Ficus pseudopalma Blanco (Moraceae) (F. pseudopalma) and characterize the active components present in it. Methods: Column chromatography of crude ethanol leaf extract of F. pseudopalma was performed and seven fractions were obtained, labeled as F1, F2, F3, F4, F5, F6, F7. DPPH, FRAP, Griess, Fenton and superoxide radical scavenging assays were performed to assess the antioxidant ability of the fractions. Thin layer chromatography (TLC), high performance liquid chromatography and Fourier transfer infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) were performed to identify and characterize the bioactive component present in each fractions of F. pseudopalma. Results: DPPH and FRAP assay showed that F5, F6 and F7 exhibited the good proton accepting ability and reducing power as compared to the other fractions. All fractions exhibited a good nitric oxide radical scavenging activity wherein F1, F2 and F3 showed the highest inhibition. However, all of the fractions exhibited a stimulatory activity on hydroxyl and superoxide radicals. Lupeol matched one of the spots on the thin layer chromatography chromatogram of the fractions. Linear gradient high performance liquid chromatography and spiking of lupeol with the fraction revealed the presence of 5.84 mg/L lupeol in F6. Infrared spectra of the fractions revealed the presence of C-C, OH, aromatic C=C and C=O groups. Conclusions: The identified lupeol in F. pseudopalma may be responsible for the exhibited antioxidant property of the plant. Furthermore, knowing the antioxidant capability of the plant, F. pseudopalma can be developed into products which can help prevent the occurrence of oxidative stress related diseases. © 2014 by the Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine.