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Manila, Philippines

The Pontifical and Royal University of Santo Tomas, The Catholic University of the Philippines is a private, Roman Catholic, teaching and research university run by the Order of Preachers in Manila. Founded on April 28, 1611 by Miguel de Benavides, Archbishop of Manila, it has the oldest extant university charter in the Philippines and in Asia and is one of the world's largest Catholic universities in terms of enrollment found on one campus. UST is also the largest university in the city of Manila. UST is the only university to have been visited by three popes four times: once by Pope Paul VI on Nov. 28, 1970, twice by Pope John Paul II on Feb. 18, 1981 and Jan. 13, 1995, and once by Pope Francis on Jan. 18, 2015.The University is composed of several autonomous faculties, colleges, schools and institutes, each conferring undergraduate, graduate and postgraduate degrees, and the basic education units. Several degrees have been accredited by the Commission on Higher Education as Centers of Excellence and Centers of Development. In August 2012, it was awarded Institutional Accreditation by the Federation of Accrediting Agencies of the Philippines.The Patron of the University is St. Thomas Aquinas, while St. Catherine of Alexandria is the Patroness.Prominent Thomasians include saints, Philippine presidents, heroes, artists, scientists, professionals and religious figures, who have figured prominently in the history of the Philippines. The athletic teams are the Growling Tigers, members of the University Athletic Association of the Philippines and are consistent winners of the Overall Championship. Wikipedia.


Kanovsky P.,Palacky University | Rosales R.L.,University of Santo Tomas of Philippines
Parkinsonism and Related Disorders | Year: 2011

New neurophysiological insights into the natural behaviour of dystonia, obtained during the successful botulinum toxin A (BoNT) treatment of the disorder, have urged the inclusion of sensory (and particularly somatosensory) mechanisms into the pathophysiological background of dystonia. Muscle spindles play a pivotal role in the generation of dystonic movements. Abnormal behaviour in the muscle spindles that generates an irregular proprioceptive input via the group-IA afferents may result in abnormal cortical excitability and intracortical inhibition in dystonia. The aim of this article is to support our hypothesis that dystonic movement is at the end of an impaired function of somatosensory pathways and analysers, which, in turn, may be hinged on the abnormality of sensorimotor integration, that is, brain plasticity. BoNT treatment can potentially modulate this plasticity mechanism and is probably the seminal cause of the sustained effect of the subsequent BoNT-treatment sessions and the long-term alleviation of symptoms of dystonia. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. Source


Vista E.S.,University of Santo Tomas of Philippines | Lau C.S.,University of Hong Kong
International Journal of Rheumatic Diseases | Year: 2011

Dietary supplements have inundated the commercial market in recent times. These so called "health" supplements are being marketed as beneficial in the prevention and regression of several common medical conditions that include osteoarthritis. This review provides an overview of osteoarthritis as a common disease and elucidates the disease process in relation to conventional therapeutic approaches. We also attempt to present perspectives about the dietary industry, focusing on the widely available dietary supplements for osteoarthritis; then we discuss the current available evidence regarding these common dietary supplements which are finally consolidated and enumerated as major key points. © 2011 The Authors. International Journal of Rheumatic Diseases © 2011 Asia Pacific League of Associations for Rheumatology and Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd. Source


Jakes R.W.,Glaxosmithkline | Bae S.-C.,Hanyang University | Louthrenoo W.,Chiang Mai University | Mok C.-C.,Tuen Mun Hospital | And 2 more authors.
Arthritis Care and Research | Year: 2012

Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), a chronic multisystem autoimmune disease with a wide spectrum of manifestations, shows considerable variation across the globe, although there is little evidence to indicate its relative prevalence in Asia. This review describes its prevalence, severity, and outcome across countries in the Asia-Pacific region. Methods. We conducted a systematic literature search using 3 groups of terms (SLE, epidemiology, and Asia-Pacific countries) of EMBase and PubMed databases and non-English language resources, including Chinese Wanfang, Korean KMbase, Korean College of Rheumatology, Japana Centra Revuo Medicina, Taiwan National Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations, and Taiwanese, Thai, and Vietnamese journals. Results. The review showed considerable variation in SLE burden and survival rates across Asia-Pacific countries. Overall crude incidence rates (per 100,000 per year) ranged from 0.9 -3.1, while crude prevalence rates ranged from 4.3-45.3 (per 100,000). Higher rates of renal involvement, one of the main systems involved at death, were observed for Asians (21-65% at diagnosis and 40-82% over time) than for whites. While infections and active SLE were leading causes of death, a substantial proportion (6-40%) of deaths was due to cardiovascular involvement. The correlation between the Human Development Index and 5-year survival was 0.83. Conclusion. This review highlights the need to closely monitor Asian SLE patients in Asian countries for renal and cardiovascular involvement, especially those who may not receive proper treatment and are therefore at greater risk of severe disease. We hope this will encourage further research specific to this region and lead to improved clinical management. © 2012, American College of Rheumatology.. Source


Rosales R.L.,University of Santo Tomas of Philippines | Dressler D.,Hannover Medical School
European Journal of Neurology | Year: 2010

Dystonia may produce co-contractions and constant strain in numerous muscle fibers, including those of the muscle spindles. As proprioceptors, muscle spindles detect dynamic or static changes in muscle length and their afferent projections to the spinal cord play a central role in control of antagonistic muscles. Their parallel arrangement with extrafusal muscle fibers and association with the earlier recruited oxidative motor units allow them to conveniently sample the activity of all motor units and effectively modulate movement. At the same time, fusimotor muscle spindle innervation contracts the striated polar portions of the intrafusal muscle fibers and prevents their slackening during extrafusal muscle contractions. Botulinum toxin remains the most efficient therapy of dystonia. Its muscular mechanism of action is hinged on cholinergic blockade not only of extrafusal, but also of intrafusal muscle fibers. Besides being a targeted muscular therapy, the alteration of the corresponding sensory input following an effect of botulinum toxin on the intrafusal muscle fibers is pivotal in modulating loss of pre-synaptic inhibition in dystonia, including suppression of the tonic vibration reflex. Whether or not trans-synaptic botulinum toxin migration occurs, a modification of the central motor programming is bound to happen in dystonia, with botulinum toxin acting either as another 'sensory trick' or as a form of 'short-term plasticity'. Knowledge of the muscle spindle anatomy and function is key to unify our understanding of abnormal movements and of effects of botulinum toxin therapy. Thus, in dystonia, overactivity of muscles and increased spindle sensitivity are germane to botulinum toxin targets of action. © 2010 The Author(s). Source


Navarra S.V.,University of Santo Tomas of Philippines | Leynes M.,University of Santo Tomas of Philippines
Lupus | Year: 2010

Infections are an important cause of morbidity and mortality in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Survival rates for SLE patients in developing countries are comparatively lower than those reported in industrialized countries, with early death from infection and active disease. In addition to the role of immunosuppressive agents in enhancing susceptibility to infection, infectious agents are also known to trigger lupus disease expression and activity. The endemicity of certain infections like tuberculosis further poses a special health issue in developing countries. © 2010 The Author(s). Source

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